Trivanga Bhasma, a metallic preparation containing Bhasmas of Naga (lead), Vanga (tin) and Yashada (zinc), was studied for repeated dose toxicity in Swiss albino mice to estimate No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) or No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). A total of 80 Swiss albino mice of either sex with an average body weight of 28-30 g were equally divided into four groups (Group I, II, III, and IV). Group I served as control and was given vehicle (honey: water in 2:3 ratio) Group II, III, and IV received Trivanga Bhasma @ 7.8, 39.5,and 78 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. The effect of drug was assessed on body weight, feed and water consumption changes, hematological, and histopathological parameters. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed and examined for gross pathological changes. Histopathological evaluation was performed for control and high dose group. Trivanga Bhasma was found to be safe. No significant clinical signs were noted in all groups studied. No major alterations were observed during histopathological evaluation. Hence, dose rate of 78 mg/kg body weight was established as NOAEL. It is suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses and in a different species so as to establish target organ of toxicity.
Mice; Naga; toxicity study; Trivanga Bhasma; Vanga; Yashada
Yashada bhasma (Calx of Yashada i.e. Zinc) which has its main indication in Prameha (Diabetes) and Netra vikaras (Eye disorders) was prepared according to the prescription in the Ayurvedic classics and subjected to various bhasma parikshas, including the Namburi Phased Spot Test (NPST), one of the qualitative tests described for various Ayurvedic preparations. NPST helps differentiate between, and thus identify, various bhasmas. It depends upon the pattern of the spot, which develops after a specific chemical reaction. Three market samples of Yashada bhasma, which were said to be Parada marita (incinerated using Mercury), were also subjected to the above tests and results compared. The various bhasmas exhibited marked differences in colour, and though NPST yielded desired results for all the samples, there were differences in their spot patterns and colour. The bhasma prepared in our department produced the most accurate results.
Namburi phased spot test; Yashada bhasma
The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P < .01), higher collagen content (P < .05) and better skin breaking strength (P < .01) as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations.
The use of metals in traditional medicines is very often seen as matter of concern these days, especially the Bhasma preparations which are always under stringent observations for containing highly reactive inorganic elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic and others. One of the Bhasma extensively used in routine Ayurvedic practice is Tamra (copper) bhasma. If it is not prepared properly or Shodhana procedure is not done properly, it acts as a poison. To indicate its toxic potential, Ashtamahadoshas (eight major ill effects) have been quoted in classics and due emphasis have been given to its Shodhana procedure. In the present study, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita and Ashodhita Tamra was subjected to oral toxicity study to ascertain the role of Shodhana process on safety profile of Tamra bhasma on subchronic administration to albino rats. Both the samples were administered to rats for 45 consecutive days at the doses of 5.5, 27.5, and 55 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed on 46th day and parameters like hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathology of various organs were studied. Results showed that Tamra bhasma prepared from Ashodhita Tamra has pathological implications on different hematological, serum biochemical and cytoarchitecture of different organs even at therapeutic dose level (5.5 mg/kg). Whereas, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita Tamra is safe even at five-fold to therapeutic equivalent doses (27.5 mg/kg). These observations emphasize the role of Shodhana and importance of dose in expression of toxicity of the medicinal preparations.
Amrutikarana; copper; herbomineral formulation; LD50; Marana; Shodhana
Metals and minerals are used profusely in practice of Ayurveda after proper incineration by the name of Bhasma. Some metals and minerals have the potency to produce toxic effects in human being. In this paper safety and toxicity profiles of Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper, Cu), Lauha Bhasma (incinerated iron, Fe), and Yashada Bhasma (incinerated Zinc, Zn) has been presented, which reveal no serious deleterious effects on body function as a whole.
Toxicity; Metal; Ayurveda; Tamra (Copper); Lauha (Iron); Yashada (Zinc)
Rasaka, which is one among the Maharasas, is an ore of zinc and has been used to extract Yashada in ancient times. It has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including in diseases like Prameha, Streeroga, and so on. The practice of Rasaka Bhasma preparation has declined with time due to various reasons. The present study aims to identify the genuine samples of Rasaka, prepare Rasaka Bhasma by subjecting it to Shodhana and Marana, and undertake a physiochemical analysis of the prepared Bhasma with an eye toward the standardization of Rasaka Bhasma.
Rasaka; identification; Shodhana; Marana; physicochemical analysis
This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Abhraka Bhasma on spermatogenesis in heat-damaged testis. A histological analysis over the sukravaha srotomula (testes) of male albino Wistar rat was carried out in order to examine the potency of the test drug in preventing the organ from heat damage. The current experiment was carried out on 32 healthy adult male albino Wistar rats divided into four groups. Sahastraputi Abhraka Bhasma, subjected to 1000 putas, was used as the test drug. On sacrificing the animals after 30 days, it was observed that control animals (G1) had normal spermatogenesis and drug-induced animals (G2) showed hyperactive tubules. Testicular hyperthermia occurred in few (G3) animals, who were subjected to 43°C for 1 h daily for four consecutive weeks, resulting in degeneration of tubules with inspissated spermatozoa (25%) leading to atrophy of the organ. 3% tubules showed disintegration, 23% were in the recovery stage while 71% tubules exhibited enhanced proliferation of germinal epithelium leading to hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The present study reveals that the test drug can correct heat-induced male infertility and provides us with the possibility of treatment of human heat-induced oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Hence, this ayurvedic maharasa (primary mineral) can be a promising formulation as an anti-impotency fecundity drug.
Sukravaha srotomula (testis); hyperthermia; hypertrophy; hyperplasia; fecundity
The Vanga Bhasma is an important one amongst the metallic Bhasmas. Mainly Gaja Puta, Ardhagaja Puta and Laghu Puta have been described for Marana of Vanga. The medicines, which are prepared from Gaja Puta, are said to be the best ones (Mahagunavidhayaka). Gaja Puta is commonly used in the preparation of almost all the Bhasmas. There are a few references found in classics regarding Ardhagaja Puta, but not any reference regarding its detail description, therefore, the effort was made to standardize both the Putas with regard to Vanga Bhasma. In the present study, Vanga Bhasma was prepared by Gaja Puta and Ardhagaja Puta. For Marana of Vanga, it was found that the Ardhagaja Puta is more convenient than Gaja Puta with respect to color and particle size analysis of Bhasma after Jarana procedure of Vanga.
Gaja Puta; Ardhagaja Puta; Shodhana; Jarana; Marana
Swarna bhasma (gold bhasma) preparations are widely utilized as therapeutic agents. However, in vitro biological evaluations of bhasma preparations are needed along with the physicochemical characterization for present day standardization of metallic bhasma preparations to meet the criteria that supports its use. Therefore, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protein adsorption, blood compatibility and complement activation potential of two batches of Swarna bhasma preparation, along with its physicochemical characterization. The particle size, morphology, elemental analysis, and in vitro cytotoxicity were evaluated initially. Red blood cell hemolysis, aggregation studies with blood cells, protein adsorption, complement C3 adsorption, platelet activation and tight junction permeability in Caco-2 cell line were investigated. The Swarna bhasma preparations with a crystallite size of 28–35 nm did not induce any blood cell aggregation or protein adsorption. Activation potential of these preparations towards complement system or platelets was negligible. These particles were also non-cytotoxic. Swarna bhasma particles opened the tight junctions in Caco-2 cell experiments. The results suggest the application of Swarna bhasma preparations as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine from the biological safety point of view.
Blood compatibility; protein adsorption; Swarna bhasma
Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.
The aim of the present study is to prepare and characterize Naga bhasma on structural and elemental basis to address the role of the raw materials used during the preparation, compound form of the lead bhasma, nature (crystalline/amorphous) and crystallite/particle size of the drug. The study also covers the toxicological effect of the drug on albino rats. It was found that drug contains lead in nano-crystalline (~60 nm) lead sulfide form (Pb2+) associated with the organic contents and different nutrient elements coming from the herbs used during the preparation. Naga bhasma prepared was found to be totally safe in histopathology study on rats at a dose of 6 mg/100 g/day. The different characterization techniques used present a role model for the quality control and standardization of such kinds of herbo-metallic medicines.
Ayurvedic drug; Naga bhasma; nano particles; traditional medicines
Hypoglycaemic activity of shilajeet and Yashada Bhasma was determined in normoglycaemic and alloxanized rats. Significant activity was observed in the treated groups. However, the activity was found to be comparatively milder in shilajatu treated rats compared to Yashada bhasma treated rats.
Sheetaprabha tablets, Ayurvedic proprietary medicine, contain Sweta Parpati & Hajrul hahood bhasma as active ingredients. Sweta parpati is mainly indicated in mootravaha srotovikara & hajrul hahood bhasma is having mootrala and ashmari bhedana actions. A survey of the literature showed that no pharmacology study was made on the sweta parpati and sheetaprabha tablets. In the present study we investigated the effect of Sheetaprabha tablets in ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.
Urolithiasis was induced in male wistar rats by adding ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water. Protective (130mg/kg & 260mg/kg) and curative effect (130mg/kg & 260mg/kg) of Sheetaprabha was studied in experimental animal models.
Ethylene glycol induced urolithiatic rats showed significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (P<0.001), creatinine & phosphorus (P<0.05) and also significant increase in SGOT, SGPT & ALP levels in serum, which were prevented by Sheetaprabha treated rats in protective groups and decreased in curative groups. Histopathologies of kidneys were prevented calcium oxalate formation and tubular degeneration, and increase in tubular regeneration was observed in protective (130mg/kg, 260mg/kg) group.
The present study findings indicate that treatment with Sheetaprabha tablets, which decreases and also prevents the growth of the calcium oxalate crystals in urinary tract. It also seems that the preventive effect is more effective than its curative effect. Hence, this study confirms the traditional use of Sheetaprabha tablets in urolithiasis.
Diabetic patients with foot ulcers usually manifest with high amputation and mortality rates. Preliminary evidence supports the effectiveness of stem cell (St) therapy on diabetic foot ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of stem cells in the healing of wounds among streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats.
Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups each of 10 rats: control group, diabetic control (DC) group and St group. Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin. A full thickness circular wound of ∼10 mm in diameter was performed on the front of right legs of all rats. In the diabetic St group, the wounds were treated by injection of umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cells into the wound bed. Half of each group rats were sacrificed after 1 week and the rest after 2 weeks. The wound areas were used for histopathology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscope studies. Assessment of wound surface area, epidermal thickness, blood vessel proliferation and collagen deposition were performed.
There was a significant decrease in mean wound surface area, increase in mean epidermal thickness, blood vessel proliferation and collagen deposition in the St group compared with the DC group.
Treatment with CD34+-enriched cells decreased wound size, accelerated epidermal healing and dramatically accelerated revascularization of the wounds compared with the DC group.
CD34+ stem cells; Diabetic foot ulcers; Angiogenesis
Diabetes in humans induces chronic complications such as cardiovascular damage, cataracts and retinopathy, nephropathy and polyneuropathy. The most common animal model of human diabetes is streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in the rat. The present study investigated the effects of Nigella sativa hydroalcholic extract on glucose concentrations in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats.
In this study Twenty-five Wister-Albino rats (aged 8-9 weeks and weighing 200-250 g) were tested. Rats were divided into five experimental groups (control, untreated STZ-diabetic (60 mg/kg B.W., IP), treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of Nigella Sativa (NS) (5 mg/kg B.W, IP), treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of NS (10 mg/kg B.W., IP) and treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of NS (20 mg/kg B.W., IP and 32 days were evaluated to assess its effect on fasting blood glucose (FBG), and in different groups fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body weight (BW) were measured in the particular days (1, 16 and 32). At the end of the study, the animals were fasted overnight, anaesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg), and sacrificed for obtaining tissues samples (liver, pancreases). The number of islets and cells were counted and the islet diameters were determined by calibrated micrometer. The glycogen content in the liver was examined by Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining.
Treatment with NS (5 mg/kg b.w.) markedly increased BW gain and the FBG level was significantly (p<0.001) reduced when compared to the control. Histopathological examination showed that the NS (5 mg/kg b.w.) partially recovered hepatic glycogen content and protected the great deal of the pancreatic islet cells. The number of islets, cells and islets diameter were found statistically significant when compared to the control (p<0.01, p<0.05).
Higher doses of NS did not exhibit any therapeutic effect. These results showed that hydroalcholic extract of NS at low doses has hypoglycemic effect and ameliorative effect on regeneration of pancreatic islets and may be used as a therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic effect observed could be due to amelioration of β-cell, thus leading to increased insulin levels. Consequently, N. sativa may prove clinically useful in the treatment of diabetics and in the protection of β-cells against streptozotocin.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1845133011104231
Nigella Sativa; Streptozotocin; Hypoglycemic; Rat
Extremely diminutive published information is available on the mutagenic activity of Ayurvedic Bhasmas. Genotoxicity of few Bhasmas were reported on single maximum dose, but no reference is available on the sub-chronic level. Hence the present study was carried to generate and evaluate genotoxic potentials of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (mineral preparation) administered at therapeutic dose for 14 days. Chromosomal aberrations and abnormal sperm assay parameters were taken in this study. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was taken as positive group and results were compared. The results revealed a lack of generation of structural deformity in above parameters by tested drugs compared to CP treated group. Observed data indicate that the Bhasmas tested were non-genotoxic under the experimental conditions.
Abnormal sperm assay; chromosomal aberrations; cyclophosphamide; genotoxicity; Swarna Makshika Bhasma
Tarakeshwara Rasa (TR) is an Ayurvedic herbomineral compound formulation used in the intervention of Prameha vis-à-vis diabetes mellitus. The present study was executed to establish a fingerprint for this unique formulation, which can be adopted by the Ayurvedic pharmacies for drug standardization. TR is a formulation prepared by the trituration of four ingredients Abhraka Bhasma (AB), Loha Bhasma (LB), Vanga Bhasma (VB) and Rasa Sindhura (RS) in equal quantities with honey for one day. Each of the ingredients were prepared according to the norms of Ayurvedic classical texts and by employing Electric Muffle Furnace as heating device for incineration. To ensure the proper preparation of Bhasmas, standard tests (Bhasma Pariksha) were employed. After Bhasma complies these tests, TR was prepared and subjected for qualitative analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies. LB, AB, VB, RS and TR were also studied for free metal presence by employing phosphomolybdic acid. Chemical analysis of TR reveals that it contains Fe, Sn, Hg, Al, Mn, Ca and Mg. XRD study indicates that TR contains Fe2O3 (maghamite) in major phase and SnO2 (cassiterite), HgS, SiO2, HgO in minor phases. SEM study revealed that the compound is an agglomeration of particles. The particle size was in between 0.5 and 2 μ. Free metal detection by phosphomolybdic acid revealed the absence of free metals in the final Bhasmas. This is the first study establishing the characterization of Tarakeshwara Rasa.
Bhasma; characterization; rasaushadhi; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction
Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been proven to exhibit antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties. However, its effect on diabetic nephropathy was unexplored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the renoprotective effect of AGE in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Albino Wistar rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of streptozotocin. Commercially available AGE was supplemented orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Aminoguanidine, which has been proven to be an anti-glycation agent was used as positive control and was supplemented at a dose of 1 g/L in drinking water. The serum and urinary biochemical parameters were analyzed in all the groups and at the end of 12 weeks follow up, the renal histological examination were performed using H & E and PAS staining.
The diabetic rats showed a significant change in the urine (P < 0.001) and serum (P < 0.01) constituents such as albumin, creatinine, urea nitrogen and glycated hemoglobin. In addition, the serum lipid profile of the diabetic rats were altered significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of the control rats. However, the diabetic rats supplemented with aged garlic extract restored all these biochemical changes. The efficacy of the extract was substantiated by the histopathological changes in the kidney.
From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities.
Aged garlic extract; anti-glycation; diabetes; diabetic nephropathy; hypolipidemic; renoprotective
To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats.
Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated.
The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups.
The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.
Hypoglycemic; Diabetes mellitus; Ayurveda; Anti-diabetic; Insulin
Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.
Bio-chemical parameters; makshika bhasma; marana; puta; shodhana
Vanga bhasma, a popular Ayurvedic Medicine is prepared from Tin metal. This drug is claimed to have ‘Sukrala’ (Semenaugmentator), ‘vrsya’ (good for testis) properties in the literature and is widely in vogue for genito – urinary disorders in Ayurvedic practice. An experimental evaluation of the claim has been undertaken and the results have been presented in this paper. The drug in reference is found to have testicular regenerative potential on cadmium induced testicular degeneration in albino tats, when administered orally. This effect on ‘Sukravaha Srotomula’ (testis) appears to corroborate “Sukrala” and “Vrsya” properties attributed to the drug in Ayuredic literature.
Vanga bhasma; Sukrala; Vrsyam Sukravaha Srotas; Cadmium induced partial testicular degeneration; zinc sulphate
It is a known fact that Iron is nephrotoxic, causing various urinary diseases which when untreated results in fatal condition like renal failure. But Ayurveda, after subjecting to various Samskaras (processing's), has used Loha (Iron) in bhasma (calx) form in numerous formulations to treat urinary diseases. These diagonally opposite perceptions form the very base of the present work where in Varunadi loha, a formulation containing Loha bhasma, described in Bhaishjyaratnavali was studied for its pharmacological action using Sprague Dawley rats as an experimental model. The study was carried out at National Toxicology Center (NTC), Pune (IAEC Clearance no.RP 128-181211).
The acute toxicity study showed Varunadi loha to be safe at the maximum dose of 2000mg/kg. Gentamycin induced nephrotoxicity model was used for the study. In the pilot study of 15 days, it was noted that rats in the prophylactic group died at the end of 8th day. So in the main study, prophylactic group was omitted. The main study was carried out with 24 rats which were equally divided in 4 groups as normal control, disease control, curative and safety.
In control group the results were not significant as the rats were non diseased and kept on normal diet. In disease control group, results were highly significant in serum creatinine and serum urea levels as the levels were raised. In curative group results were significant in serum levels as there was moderate decrease in serum creatinine and serum urea levels after the treatment with Varunadi loha. In the safety group the results were non-significant indicating the drug showed no adverse reactions at therapeutic dose. achieved by analysing SGOT (Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) and Histopathology profile.
Significant decrease in serum creatinine and serum urea in curative group was suggestive that the drug Varunadi loha was delivering its best to improve the lost kidney function.
Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda. The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it withit with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS2, and SM bhasma contains Fe2O3, FeS2, CuS and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.
Scanning electron microscope; Swarna makshika bhasma; X-ray diffraction
The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies.
Bhasma; Grahani; Rasa Shastra; safety; Somanathi Tamra; Tamra toxicity
Experimentally-induced diabetes can modify the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems, possibly through insulin-related regulation of dopamine transporter activity. In this study, several behavioral procedures were used to examine possible changes in sensitivity to amphetamine and other drugs in rats rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin. Conditioned place preference developed to food (Froot Loops®) in both control and diabetic rats, demonstrating that conditioned place preference with tactile stimuli can occur in streptozotocin-treated rats. Baseline locomotion was lower in streptozotocin-treated as compared to control rats, although amphetamine significantly increased locomotion in all rats. Conditioned place preference developed to amphetamine regardless of whether rats had received streptozotocin or saline. A second study compared the potency of drugs to decrease lever pressing maintained by food, before and after streptozotocin treatment. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and amphetamine were less potent after streptozotocin while the potency of raclopride, quinpirole, ketamine, haloperidol and cocaine was not significantly changed by streptozotocin. While markedly affecting locomotion, body weight and blood glucose, streptozotocin only modestly affected sensitivity to the behavioral effects of amphetamine and other drugs; these results fail to confirm previous reports of decreased behavioral actions of stimulants in diabetic rats.
streptozotocin; amphetamine; conditioned place preference; locomotion; dopamine transporter