Yashada bhasma (Calx of Yashada i.e. Zinc) which has its main indication in Prameha (Diabetes) and Netra vikaras (Eye disorders) was prepared according to the prescription in the Ayurvedic classics and subjected to various bhasma parikshas, including the Namburi Phased Spot Test (NPST), one of the qualitative tests described for various Ayurvedic preparations. NPST helps differentiate between, and thus identify, various bhasmas. It depends upon the pattern of the spot, which develops after a specific chemical reaction. Three market samples of Yashada bhasma, which were said to be Parada marita (incinerated using Mercury), were also subjected to the above tests and results compared. The various bhasmas exhibited marked differences in colour, and though NPST yielded desired results for all the samples, there were differences in their spot patterns and colour. The bhasma prepared in our department produced the most accurate results.
Namburi phased spot test; Yashada bhasma
The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P < .01), higher collagen content (P < .05) and better skin breaking strength (P < .01) as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations.
Metals and minerals are used profusely in practice of Ayurveda after proper incineration by the name of Bhasma. Some metals and minerals have the potency to produce toxic effects in human being. In this paper safety and toxicity profiles of Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper, Cu), Lauha Bhasma (incinerated iron, Fe), and Yashada Bhasma (incinerated Zinc, Zn) has been presented, which reveal no serious deleterious effects on body function as a whole.
Toxicity; Metal; Ayurveda; Tamra (Copper); Lauha (Iron); Yashada (Zinc)
Rasaka, which is one among the Maharasas, is an ore of zinc and has been used to extract Yashada in ancient times. It has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including in diseases like Prameha, Streeroga, and so on. The practice of Rasaka Bhasma preparation has declined with time due to various reasons. The present study aims to identify the genuine samples of Rasaka, prepare Rasaka Bhasma by subjecting it to Shodhana and Marana, and undertake a physiochemical analysis of the prepared Bhasma with an eye toward the standardization of Rasaka Bhasma.
Rasaka; identification; Shodhana; Marana; physicochemical analysis
The Vanga Bhasma is an important one amongst the metallic Bhasmas. Mainly Gaja Puta, Ardhagaja Puta and Laghu Puta have been described for Marana of Vanga. The medicines, which are prepared from Gaja Puta, are said to be the best ones (Mahagunavidhayaka). Gaja Puta is commonly used in the preparation of almost all the Bhasmas. There are a few references found in classics regarding Ardhagaja Puta, but not any reference regarding its detail description, therefore, the effort was made to standardize both the Putas with regard to Vanga Bhasma. In the present study, Vanga Bhasma was prepared by Gaja Puta and Ardhagaja Puta. For Marana of Vanga, it was found that the Ardhagaja Puta is more convenient than Gaja Puta with respect to color and particle size analysis of Bhasma after Jarana procedure of Vanga.
Gaja Puta; Ardhagaja Puta; Shodhana; Jarana; Marana
Swarna bhasma (gold bhasma) preparations are widely utilized as therapeutic agents. However, in vitro biological evaluations of bhasma preparations are needed along with the physicochemical characterization for present day standardization of metallic bhasma preparations to meet the criteria that supports its use. Therefore, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protein adsorption, blood compatibility and complement activation potential of two batches of Swarna bhasma preparation, along with its physicochemical characterization. The particle size, morphology, elemental analysis, and in vitro cytotoxicity were evaluated initially. Red blood cell hemolysis, aggregation studies with blood cells, protein adsorption, complement C3 adsorption, platelet activation and tight junction permeability in Caco-2 cell line were investigated. The Swarna bhasma preparations with a crystallite size of 28–35 nm did not induce any blood cell aggregation or protein adsorption. Activation potential of these preparations towards complement system or platelets was negligible. These particles were also non-cytotoxic. Swarna bhasma particles opened the tight junctions in Caco-2 cell experiments. The results suggest the application of Swarna bhasma preparations as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine from the biological safety point of view.
Blood compatibility; protein adsorption; Swarna bhasma
Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.
The aim of the present study is to prepare and characterize Naga bhasma on structural and elemental basis to address the role of the raw materials used during the preparation, compound form of the lead bhasma, nature (crystalline/amorphous) and crystallite/particle size of the drug. The study also covers the toxicological effect of the drug on albino rats. It was found that drug contains lead in nano-crystalline (~60 nm) lead sulfide form (Pb2+) associated with the organic contents and different nutrient elements coming from the herbs used during the preparation. Naga bhasma prepared was found to be totally safe in histopathology study on rats at a dose of 6 mg/100 g/day. The different characterization techniques used present a role model for the quality control and standardization of such kinds of herbo-metallic medicines.
Ayurvedic drug; Naga bhasma; nano particles; traditional medicines
Hypoglycaemic activity of shilajeet and Yashada Bhasma was determined in normoglycaemic and alloxanized rats. Significant activity was observed in the treated groups. However, the activity was found to be comparatively milder in shilajatu treated rats compared to Yashada bhasma treated rats.
Diabetic patients with foot ulcers usually manifest with high amputation and mortality rates. Preliminary evidence supports the effectiveness of stem cell (St) therapy on diabetic foot ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of stem cells in the healing of wounds among streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats.
Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups each of 10 rats: control group, diabetic control (DC) group and St group. Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin. A full thickness circular wound of ∼10 mm in diameter was performed on the front of right legs of all rats. In the diabetic St group, the wounds were treated by injection of umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cells into the wound bed. Half of each group rats were sacrificed after 1 week and the rest after 2 weeks. The wound areas were used for histopathology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscope studies. Assessment of wound surface area, epidermal thickness, blood vessel proliferation and collagen deposition were performed.
There was a significant decrease in mean wound surface area, increase in mean epidermal thickness, blood vessel proliferation and collagen deposition in the St group compared with the DC group.
Treatment with CD34+-enriched cells decreased wound size, accelerated epidermal healing and dramatically accelerated revascularization of the wounds compared with the DC group.
CD34+ stem cells; Diabetic foot ulcers; Angiogenesis
Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.
Bio-chemical parameters; makshika bhasma; marana; puta; shodhana
Vanga bhasma, a popular Ayurvedic Medicine is prepared from Tin metal. This drug is claimed to have ‘Sukrala’ (Semenaugmentator), ‘vrsya’ (good for testis) properties in the literature and is widely in vogue for genito – urinary disorders in Ayurvedic practice. An experimental evaluation of the claim has been undertaken and the results have been presented in this paper. The drug in reference is found to have testicular regenerative potential on cadmium induced testicular degeneration in albino tats, when administered orally. This effect on ‘Sukravaha Srotomula’ (testis) appears to corroborate “Sukrala” and “Vrsya” properties attributed to the drug in Ayuredic literature.
Vanga bhasma; Sukrala; Vrsyam Sukravaha Srotas; Cadmium induced partial testicular degeneration; zinc sulphate
Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda. The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it withit with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS2, and SM bhasma contains Fe2O3, FeS2, CuS and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.
Scanning electron microscope; Swarna makshika bhasma; X-ray diffraction
Experimentally-induced diabetes can modify the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems, possibly through insulin-related regulation of dopamine transporter activity. In this study, several behavioral procedures were used to examine possible changes in sensitivity to amphetamine and other drugs in rats rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin. Conditioned place preference developed to food (Froot Loops®) in both control and diabetic rats, demonstrating that conditioned place preference with tactile stimuli can occur in streptozotocin-treated rats. Baseline locomotion was lower in streptozotocin-treated as compared to control rats, although amphetamine significantly increased locomotion in all rats. Conditioned place preference developed to amphetamine regardless of whether rats had received streptozotocin or saline. A second study compared the potency of drugs to decrease lever pressing maintained by food, before and after streptozotocin treatment. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and amphetamine were less potent after streptozotocin while the potency of raclopride, quinpirole, ketamine, haloperidol and cocaine was not significantly changed by streptozotocin. While markedly affecting locomotion, body weight and blood glucose, streptozotocin only modestly affected sensitivity to the behavioral effects of amphetamine and other drugs; these results fail to confirm previous reports of decreased behavioral actions of stimulants in diabetic rats.
streptozotocin; amphetamine; conditioned place preference; locomotion; dopamine transporter
Bhasma means ash but according to Ayurveda, Bhasma means conversion of a metal into a form which is irreversible in the sense that one cannot derive the metal back from it again (Apunarbhava). It should be so light so that it must float on the surface of water after sprinkling, called Varitara. Its particle should be so small that it can enter in to the creases of fingers called Rekha-purnatva. The preparative procedure of Bhasma is a bit complicated. Many texts are available regarding the identification, acceptable qualities of metals and minerals, their purification, uses and method of preparation of their Bhasma. But in many texts, the method of Bhasma preparation of some metals and minerals is mentioned very briefly, i.e. their references are available in Sutrarupa. This leads to many practical difficulties in the preparation of Bhasma. Kasisa Bhasma is one of them. The present work was aimed to study the basic concept of Bhasma Kalpana by means preparing Kasisa Bhasma. This study suggests some modifications and ways for standardization of Bhasma procedure.
Bhasma; Kasisa Bhasma; Marana; stardard operative procedure
Traditional medicines have maintained their popularity in all regions of the developing world and are being adopted increasingly by people worldwide. Indian traditional system of medicine Ayurveda make use of unique metallic-herbal preparations (called Bhasma) which involves different processing steps including repeated steps of calcination of metal in the presence of natural precursor (herbal juices, decoctions, and powders, etc). It has been recently established that Bhasma contains nano/sub-micron size particles and different nutrient elements. However, the role and the end product of the raw materials, especially the herbal parts, used during the synthesis of the drug (Bhasma) is one of the important but unanswered problems in such medicinal preparations. Present work on Naga Bhasma is an attempt to understand the role of natural precursors in detail. Our results on infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy along with thermal measurements identify the presence of carbonaceous material (hydrogenated amorphous carbon) in the drug along with other compounds. In addition, this work also suggests the science and mechanism behind such complex preparations which could help in standardization of such medicines.
Bhasma; carbonaceous material; nanostructure; traditional medicines
Oxidative stress is currently hypothesized to be a mechanism underlying diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of umbelliferone (UMB), a derivative of coumarin, on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and lipid profile in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing 180 to 200 g, by the administration of STZ (40 mg/kg/b-wt) intraperitonially. The normal and diabetic rats were treated with UMB in 10 percent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dissolved in water for 45 days. The diabetic rats had elevated levels of blood glucose and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD), and lipid hydroperoxide (HP) and decreased levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C and reduced glutathione [GSH]), elevated levels of vitamin E, and elevated levels of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]), elevated glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and altered lipid profile (cholesterol and phospholipids) in erythrocytes. These changes were reversed by treatment with UMB. Thus, our results indicate that the administration of UMB shows promising potential for the restoration of normal blood glucose levels, erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and lipid profile in STZ-diabetic.
In the present research paper, the work done on pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of Lauha Bhasma was performed by following samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana and marana of Lauha. Under the process of marana, three specific pharmaceutical techniques were followed, viz. bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka. During the putapaka process, an electric muffle furnace (EMF) was used. The temperature of puta was studied in two batches, viz. in Batch I, a temperature of 800°C was maintained whereas in Batch II, a temperature of 600°C was maintained. The purpose behind selecting two temperatures was to validate the process of marana of Lauha and to determine an ideal temperature for the preparation of Lauha Bhasma in EMF. It is found that after 20 puta at a temperature of 600°C, the Lauha Bhasma was prepared properly. The entire characteristic of Lauha Bhasma, like “pakwa jambu phala varna,” varitar, etc. was attained at 600°. At a temperature of 800°C, the process could not be carried out smoothly. The pellets turned very hard and brassy yellow in color. The desired color was attained only after decreasing the temperature in further puta.
Ayurveda; electric muffle furnace; Lauha; marana; puta; shodhana
This study was carried out to see the effect of the aqueous extract ofOcitum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with Vitamin E on biochemical parameters and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino male rats. Adult albino male rats weighing 150–200 gm were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in the dose 60 mg/kg in citrate buffer (pH 6.3). The diabetic animals were left for one month to develop retinopathy. Biochemical parameters like plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c, were measured along with lipid profile, and enzymes like glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lipid peroxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in normal, untreated diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated withOcimum sanctum L extracts and vitamin E. Fluorescein angiography test was done for assessing retinopathy. Results on biochemical parameters were analyzed statistically by using ANOVA followed by Dunnet's ‘t’-test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Evaluation of biochemical profile in treated groups showed statistically significant reduction in plasma levels of glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile and LPO, and elevation of GPX, SOD, CAT and GST. Treatment of the diabetic animals withOcimum sanctum and Vitamin E, alone and in combination for 16 weeks showed reversal of most of the parameters studied including plasma glucose levels. Angiography showed improvement in retinal changes following combined antidiabetic treatment.
Ocimum sanctum; Vitamin E; Diabetes mellitus; Diabetic retinopathy; Lipid peroxidation; Antioxidants
The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.
Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA) followed by DMRT.
During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property.
From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the potential sources for the isolation of new oral anti hypoglycemic agent(s).
Antihypeglycemic; Antihyperlipidemic; Diabetes mellitus; Piper longum; Streptozotocin
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of ethanolic seed extract ofTephrosia purpurea (TpEt) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose 6 phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of “TpEt” at a dose of 300mg/kg bw showed significant antihyperglcemic and antilipidperoxidative effects as well as increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of non enzymatic antioxidants. We also noticed that the antihyperglycemic effect of plant drug (TpEt) was comparable to that of the reference drug glibenclamide. Our results clearly indicate that “TpEt” has potent antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive antidiabetic principles from “TpEt”.
Streptozotocin; Tephrosia purpurea; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation
Diabetes is a major threat to global public health, and the number of diabetic patients is rapidly increasing worldwide. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications and alcoholic diseases. The aim of this study is to find out the impact of alcohol on lipid metabolic profiles in kidney tissue under streptozotocin induced diabetic condition. No study has been reported so far on the effect of alcohol on diabetic condition and also with reference to lipid metabolic profiles. Hence, the present study has been designed to elucidate the impact of alcoholism on diabetic condition. Male wistar strain albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: control (saline treated) NC, alcohol-treated (At), diabetic control (DC), and alcohol-treated diabetic rats (D+At). In alcohol-treated diabetic rats, we observed high levels of MDA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and also high levels of blood glucose than other groups. Moreover, degenerative changes of renal cells in alcohol-treated diabetic group were maximized by administration of alcohol as evinced by histopathological examination. This study suggests that alcohol consumption could be an aggravation factor which contributes for the formation of free radicals in diabetic condition. Therefore, consumption of alcohol during diabetic condition is harmful.
Alcohol; diabetes; lipid metabolic profiles; rats
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TpASet) on blood glucose and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and non enzymatic [Glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E] antioxidant status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of “TpASet” at a dose of 600mg/kg body weight showed significant improvement in above mentioned parameters. Our results clearly indicate that “TpASet” has potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principles from “TpASet”.
Streptozotocin; Tephrosia purpurea; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation
Diabetic encephalopathy is a recently recognised complication of early-onset type 1 diabetes in children. The abnormalities underlying diabetic encephalopathy are complex and poorly understood, and the impact of disease duration on behavioural and cognitive parameters also remains unclear. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the effects of different durations of hyperglycaemia on behavioural and cognitive parameters in young streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Diabetes was induced in young, weaned, age-matched rat pups by streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Diabetic status was confirmed on post-natal day 30. The rats were tested in the elevated plus maze 10 and 2o days after diabetes induction.
Diabetic rats had significantly impaired behavioural and cognitive functions compared with age-matched controls. Increased anxiety levels and cognitive deficits were observed in rats that had been diabetic for 20 days compared with their 10-day counterparts.
It is essential to diagnose and treat early-onset type 1 diabetes in young children to prevent irreversible cognitive dysfunction.
anxiety; cognition; juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus; learning; maze learning; memory; rats
To evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (EAG) in experimental animals.
Materials and Methods:
The hypoglycemic activity of the EGA was evaluated in normoglycemic rats by single dose at three graded dose levels, viz. 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight. Antihyperglycemic activity of the extract was also evaluated at the same dose levels in streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced diabetic rats during a 30-day treatment period. Metformin (500 mg/kg) was used as the reference drug. Fasting blood glucose and lipid parameters, viz. triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels were measured. Acute oral toxicity of the EGA extract was carried out in Swiss albino mice.
In normoglycemic rats, EGA showed a significant (P < 0.01) hypoglycemic effect at 2 h. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, the EGA treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner during the 30 days of treatment period. EGA modulated lipid profile changes in STZ-diabetic rats in a dose-dependant manner. In the acute oral toxicity study, EGA showed no mortality till the 5 g/kg dose in mice.
The present investigation shows that EAG seeds has potential antidiabetic effects.
Antihyperglycemic; diabetes; Elaeocarpus ganitrus; streptozotocin