Trivanga Bhasma, a metallic preparation containing Bhasmas of Naga (lead), Vanga (tin) and Yashada (zinc), was studied for repeated dose toxicity in Swiss albino mice to estimate No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) or No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). A total of 80 Swiss albino mice of either sex with an average body weight of 28-30 g were equally divided into four groups (Group I, II, III, and IV). Group I served as control and was given vehicle (honey: water in 2:3 ratio) Group II, III, and IV received Trivanga Bhasma @ 7.8, 39.5,and 78 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. The effect of drug was assessed on body weight, feed and water consumption changes, hematological, and histopathological parameters. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed and examined for gross pathological changes. Histopathological evaluation was performed for control and high dose group. Trivanga Bhasma was found to be safe. No significant clinical signs were noted in all groups studied. No major alterations were observed during histopathological evaluation. Hence, dose rate of 78 mg/kg body weight was established as NOAEL. It is suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses and in a different species so as to establish target organ of toxicity.
Mice; Naga; toxicity study; Trivanga Bhasma; Vanga; Yashada
Gastritis leadind to G.I.ulcers is a very prevalent metabolic and life style disorder. Many a times it is condition which arise due to various medications like NSAID's. Drugs effective in Ulcer protection is the need of the hour. Medications such as sucralfate in conventional system do work but in higher dose and with limitations. Thus, present study has been carried out, to evaluate efficacy of Varatika bhasma in ulcer protective activity with standard control as Sucralfate in aspirin induced ulcer.
Varatika bhasma was prepared by shodhana with kanji, bhaavana with kumari swarasa and subjecting to gajaputa. Further it was analyzed and used for experimental study. Winstar strain albino rats of either sex was taken in 3 groups with 6 rats in each group. Control group with food and water, standard with sucralfate and test with varatika bhasma was given for 6 days. on 7th day ulcer was induced with aspirin. later rats were sacrificed to cut open the stomach and to study the ulcer index and histopathology.
When compared to Sucralfate for ulcer protective effect, Varatika Bhasma shows significant result in lower doses. (Sucralfate 1 gm 6 hourly and Varatika Bhasma 250 mg twice daily). In ulcer index and histopathology studies, there were less / no ulcers found in the group treated with Varatika Bhasma in comparison with Sucralfate and Control group.
For the ulcer protection, Varatika Bhasma provides better and promising result when compared to Sucralfate. This also cuts the cost of medication and time constrain for the administration of the medicine.
Mukta Shukti (Pearl oyster shell); a sudha varga dravya, attains better therapeutic properties with proper sodhana and marana processes. It is indicated in Amlapitta, Parinamashoola and Annadravashoola. Acharya Susruta mentioned; Amla is the property of Vidagdha Pitta. The term Amlapitta may be correlated with Acid reflux syndrome which comprises of various types of Gastro esophageal reflux diseases like Gastritis, Peptic ulcer etc. A peptic ulcer is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, the beginning of the small intestine. A bacterium called Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of peptic ulcers. An attempt was made in this regard to establish standards to assure quality and to assess antiulcer activity of Mukta Sukti Bhasma.
Mukta sukti Bhasma prepared as per Rasatarangini and subjected to Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X ray diffraction (XRD). Anti ulcer activity of Mukta sukti Bhasma in Albino rats by Aspirin induced gastric ulcer. Sucralfate as standard group and normal food water as control group used for the comparison.
Mukta sukti Bhasma showed highly significant Anti ulcer activity than control group. The alkaline pH and chemical components might have contributed by inhibiting secretions, neutralizing the acidity and reducing size of the ulcerative lesions. Presence of Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu), Sodium (Na) and Zinc (Zn) were detected in raw Mukta sukti and Mukta sukti Bhasma. X ray diffraction shown face centered Cubic, hexagonal, tetragonal and monoclinic crystal structures.
In aspirin induced model, the Mukta sukti Bhasma and standard group (Sucralfate) showed highly significant Anti ulcer activity than control group (food water). The Mukta sukti Bhasma showed highly significant Anti ulcer activity than standard group (Sucralfate) when compared. This experimental study has given scientific evidence for the claim in the ancient text regarding the Anti ulcer property of Mukta sukti Bhasma which gives scope for conducting clinical study.
Yashada bhasma (Calx of Yashada i.e. Zinc) which has its main indication in Prameha (Diabetes) and Netra vikaras (Eye disorders) was prepared according to the prescription in the Ayurvedic classics and subjected to various bhasma parikshas, including the Namburi Phased Spot Test (NPST), one of the qualitative tests described for various Ayurvedic preparations. NPST helps differentiate between, and thus identify, various bhasmas. It depends upon the pattern of the spot, which develops after a specific chemical reaction. Three market samples of Yashada bhasma, which were said to be Parada marita (incinerated using Mercury), were also subjected to the above tests and results compared. The various bhasmas exhibited marked differences in colour, and though NPST yielded desired results for all the samples, there were differences in their spot patterns and colour. The bhasma prepared in our department produced the most accurate results.
Namburi phased spot test; Yashada bhasma
The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P < .01), higher collagen content (P < .05) and better skin breaking strength (P < .01) as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations.
Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx) is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes). Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha.
The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic) drug.
Materials and Methods
Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data.
Result and Conclusion:
Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12th century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn), Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis), Guḍūci (Tinospora cordifolia) and Madhu (honey) enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property.
Antidiabetic formulations; efficacy; Nāga bhasma; safety
The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies.
Bhasma; Grahani; Rasa Shastra; safety; Somanathi Tamra; Tamra toxicity
The use of metals in traditional medicines is very often seen as matter of concern these days, especially the Bhasma preparations which are always under stringent observations for containing highly reactive inorganic elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic and others. One of the Bhasma extensively used in routine Ayurvedic practice is Tamra (copper) bhasma. If it is not prepared properly or Shodhana procedure is not done properly, it acts as a poison. To indicate its toxic potential, Ashtamahadoshas (eight major ill effects) have been quoted in classics and due emphasis have been given to its Shodhana procedure. In the present study, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita and Ashodhita Tamra was subjected to oral toxicity study to ascertain the role of Shodhana process on safety profile of Tamra bhasma on subchronic administration to albino rats. Both the samples were administered to rats for 45 consecutive days at the doses of 5.5, 27.5, and 55 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed on 46th day and parameters like hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathology of various organs were studied. Results showed that Tamra bhasma prepared from Ashodhita Tamra has pathological implications on different hematological, serum biochemical and cytoarchitecture of different organs even at therapeutic dose level (5.5 mg/kg). Whereas, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita Tamra is safe even at five-fold to therapeutic equivalent doses (27.5 mg/kg). These observations emphasize the role of Shodhana and importance of dose in expression of toxicity of the medicinal preparations.
Amrutikarana; copper; herbomineral formulation; LD50; Marana; Shodhana
This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Abhraka Bhasma on spermatogenesis in heat-damaged testis. A histological analysis over the sukravaha srotomula (testes) of male albino Wistar rat was carried out in order to examine the potency of the test drug in preventing the organ from heat damage. The current experiment was carried out on 32 healthy adult male albino Wistar rats divided into four groups. Sahastraputi Abhraka Bhasma, subjected to 1000 putas, was used as the test drug. On sacrificing the animals after 30 days, it was observed that control animals (G1) had normal spermatogenesis and drug-induced animals (G2) showed hyperactive tubules. Testicular hyperthermia occurred in few (G3) animals, who were subjected to 43°C for 1 h daily for four consecutive weeks, resulting in degeneration of tubules with inspissated spermatozoa (25%) leading to atrophy of the organ. 3% tubules showed disintegration, 23% were in the recovery stage while 71% tubules exhibited enhanced proliferation of germinal epithelium leading to hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The present study reveals that the test drug can correct heat-induced male infertility and provides us with the possibility of treatment of human heat-induced oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Hence, this ayurvedic maharasa (primary mineral) can be a promising formulation as an anti-impotency fecundity drug.
Sukravaha srotomula (testis); hyperthermia; hypertrophy; hyperplasia; fecundity
Metals and minerals are used profusely in practice of Ayurveda after proper incineration by the name of Bhasma. Some metals and minerals have the potency to produce toxic effects in human being. In this paper safety and toxicity profiles of Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper, Cu), Lauha Bhasma (incinerated iron, Fe), and Yashada Bhasma (incinerated Zinc, Zn) has been presented, which reveal no serious deleterious effects on body function as a whole.
Toxicity; Metal; Ayurveda; Tamra (Copper); Lauha (Iron); Yashada (Zinc)
Rasaka, which is one among the Maharasas, is an ore of zinc and has been used to extract Yashada in ancient times. It has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including in diseases like Prameha, Streeroga, and so on. The practice of Rasaka Bhasma preparation has declined with time due to various reasons. The present study aims to identify the genuine samples of Rasaka, prepare Rasaka Bhasma by subjecting it to Shodhana and Marana, and undertake a physiochemical analysis of the prepared Bhasma with an eye toward the standardization of Rasaka Bhasma.
Rasaka; identification; Shodhana; Marana; physicochemical analysis
Tamra Bhasma (TB) and its forms like Somnathi Tamra Bhasma (STB), etc., are in vogue since centuries in Ayurveda. The present study is carried out to evaluate the effect of TB and STB in different dose levels on ponderal and biochemical parameters in wistar strain albino rats to provide scientific basis for its safety profile.
Materials and Methods:
TB and STB were prepared as per the classical guidelines and administered to wistar strain albino rats for 45 consecutive days. Blood was collected and rats were sacrificed on the 46th day. Ponderal and biochemical parameters were studied.
Results showed significant decrease in serum cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, and serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Comparatively, all the differences in between the groups are insignificant and no pathological changes at ponderal and biochemical levels were observed.
Based on these observations, it can be said that these formulations can be safely used in cases of hyperlipidemia.
Bhasma; biochemical parameters; copper; ponderal parameters; Somnathi Tamra Bhasma; Tamra Bhasma
Swarna bhasma (gold bhasma) preparations are widely utilized as therapeutic agents. However, in vitro biological evaluations of bhasma preparations are needed along with the physicochemical characterization for present day standardization of metallic bhasma preparations to meet the criteria that supports its use. Therefore, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protein adsorption, blood compatibility and complement activation potential of two batches of Swarna bhasma preparation, along with its physicochemical characterization. The particle size, morphology, elemental analysis, and in vitro cytotoxicity were evaluated initially. Red blood cell hemolysis, aggregation studies with blood cells, protein adsorption, complement C3 adsorption, platelet activation and tight junction permeability in Caco-2 cell line were investigated. The Swarna bhasma preparations with a crystallite size of 28–35 nm did not induce any blood cell aggregation or protein adsorption. Activation potential of these preparations towards complement system or platelets was negligible. These particles were also non-cytotoxic. Swarna bhasma particles opened the tight junctions in Caco-2 cell experiments. The results suggest the application of Swarna bhasma preparations as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine from the biological safety point of view.
Blood compatibility; protein adsorption; Swarna bhasma
The objective of this study is to induce experimental diabetes mellitus by Streptozotocin in normal adult Wistar rats via comparison of changes in body weight, consumption of food and water, volume of urine and levels of glucose, insulin and C-peptide in serum, between normal and diabetic rats. Intra-venous injection of 60mg/kg dose of Streptozotocin in adult wistar rats, makes pancreas swell and at last causes degeneration in Langerhans islet beta cells and induces experimental diabetes mellitus in the 2–4 days. Induction of experimental diabetes mellitus is indeed the first step in the plan of purification of pancreatic Langerhans islet cells of normal rats for transplanting under the testis subcutaneous of experimentally induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin induces one type of diabetes which is similar to diabetes mellitus with non-ketosis hyperglycemia in some animal species. For induction of experimental diabetes in male adult rats weighted 250–300 grams (75–90 days), 60mg/kg of Streptozotocin was injected intravenously. Three days after degeneration of beta cells, diabetes was induced in all animals. The diabetic and normal animals were kept in the metabolic cages separately and their body weight, consumption of food and water, urine volume, the levels of serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide quantities in all animals were measured and then these quantities were compared. For a microscopic study of degeneration of Langerhans islet beta cells of diabetic rats, sampling from pancreas tissue of diabetic and normal rats, staining and comparison between them, were done. Induction of diabetes with Streptozotocin decreases Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in pancreas islet beta cells and causes histopathological effects in beta cells which probably intermediates induction of diabetes. In this study, we used Streptozotocin for our experiments in induction of experimental diabetes mellitus. After Induction of diabetes, consumption of food and water, volume of urine and glucose increased in the diabetic animals in comparison with normal animals, but the weight of body and the volume of insulin and C-peptide decreased in the diabetic animals. Sampling and staining of pancreas tissue of diabetic and normal rats showed that the Langerhans islet beta cells of diabetic rats have been clearly degenerated. In three days, Streptozotocin makes pancreas swell and at last causes degeneration in Langerhans islet beta cells and induces experimental diabetes. It also changes normal metabolism in diabetic rats in comparison with normal rats. Consumption of water and food, volume of urine, serum glucose increases in diabetic animals in comparison with normal rats but the levels of serum insulin, C-peptide and body weight decreases.
Diabetes Induction; Streptozotocin; Islet cells
Diabetes in humans induces chronic complications such as cardiovascular damage, cataracts and retinopathy, nephropathy and polyneuropathy. The most common animal model of human diabetes is streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in the rat. The present study investigated the effects of Nigella sativa hydroalcholic extract on glucose concentrations in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats.
In this study Twenty-five Wister-Albino rats (aged 8-9 weeks and weighing 200-250 g) were tested. Rats were divided into five experimental groups (control, untreated STZ-diabetic (60 mg/kg B.W., IP), treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of Nigella Sativa (NS) (5 mg/kg B.W, IP), treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of NS (10 mg/kg B.W., IP) and treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of NS (20 mg/kg B.W., IP and 32 days were evaluated to assess its effect on fasting blood glucose (FBG), and in different groups fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body weight (BW) were measured in the particular days (1, 16 and 32). At the end of the study, the animals were fasted overnight, anaesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg), and sacrificed for obtaining tissues samples (liver, pancreases). The number of islets and cells were counted and the islet diameters were determined by calibrated micrometer. The glycogen content in the liver was examined by Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining.
Treatment with NS (5 mg/kg b.w.) markedly increased BW gain and the FBG level was significantly (p<0.001) reduced when compared to the control. Histopathological examination showed that the NS (5 mg/kg b.w.) partially recovered hepatic glycogen content and protected the great deal of the pancreatic islet cells. The number of islets, cells and islets diameter were found statistically significant when compared to the control (p<0.01, p<0.05).
Higher doses of NS did not exhibit any therapeutic effect. These results showed that hydroalcholic extract of NS at low doses has hypoglycemic effect and ameliorative effect on regeneration of pancreatic islets and may be used as a therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic effect observed could be due to amelioration of β-cell, thus leading to increased insulin levels. Consequently, N. sativa may prove clinically useful in the treatment of diabetics and in the protection of β-cells against streptozotocin.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1845133011104231
Nigella Sativa; Streptozotocin; Hypoglycemic; Rat
The Vanga Bhasma is an important one amongst the metallic Bhasmas. Mainly Gaja Puta, Ardhagaja Puta and Laghu Puta have been described for Marana of Vanga. The medicines, which are prepared from Gaja Puta, are said to be the best ones (Mahagunavidhayaka). Gaja Puta is commonly used in the preparation of almost all the Bhasmas. There are a few references found in classics regarding Ardhagaja Puta, but not any reference regarding its detail description, therefore, the effort was made to standardize both the Putas with regard to Vanga Bhasma. In the present study, Vanga Bhasma was prepared by Gaja Puta and Ardhagaja Puta. For Marana of Vanga, it was found that the Ardhagaja Puta is more convenient than Gaja Puta with respect to color and particle size analysis of Bhasma after Jarana procedure of Vanga.
Gaja Puta; Ardhagaja Puta; Shodhana; Jarana; Marana
The aim of the present study is to prepare and characterize Naga bhasma on structural and elemental basis to address the role of the raw materials used during the preparation, compound form of the lead bhasma, nature (crystalline/amorphous) and crystallite/particle size of the drug. The study also covers the toxicological effect of the drug on albino rats. It was found that drug contains lead in nano-crystalline (~60 nm) lead sulfide form (Pb2+) associated with the organic contents and different nutrient elements coming from the herbs used during the preparation. Naga bhasma prepared was found to be totally safe in histopathology study on rats at a dose of 6 mg/100 g/day. The different characterization techniques used present a role model for the quality control and standardization of such kinds of herbo-metallic medicines.
Ayurvedic drug; Naga bhasma; nano particles; traditional medicines
Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.
Hypoglycaemic activity of shilajeet and Yashada Bhasma was determined in normoglycaemic and alloxanized rats. Significant activity was observed in the treated groups. However, the activity was found to be comparatively milder in shilajatu treated rats compared to Yashada bhasma treated rats.
Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda. The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it withit with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS2, and SM bhasma contains Fe2O3, FeS2, CuS and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.
Scanning electron microscope; Swarna makshika bhasma; X-ray diffraction
Vaikrānta has very important place in Rasa śāstra and is placed under Mahārasa and Upratna group. It has been mentioned that vaikrānta can be used in the place of diamond, which is a very precious stone and whose use is beyond the limit of the common man. Vaikrānta possesses pharmacological and therapeutic properties similar to diamond, but still very few researchers have worked on it.
Aims and Objectives:
The main aim of the present study is to analyze vaikrānta bhasma by employing various organoleptic methods mentioned in Ayurvedic science along with analysis as per tools available today.
Settings and Design:
In the present study, vaikrānta bhasma was prepared according to method mentioned in Rasa Ratna Samuccaya. Final product is prepared according to classical parameters described in Ayurvedic science.
Materials and Methods:
Ayurvedic scholars have described various parameters for the qualitative evaluation of vaikrānta bhasma, but all those are subjective in nature and cannot be evaluated numerically for reproducibility of the result. With this in mind, in the present study, tests as per Ayurvedic science and analytical parameters such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry were adopted to analyze the final product.
Results and Conclusions:
Data suggests that vaikrānta bhasma is a multi-mineral compound, which contains iron and silica as major constituents and others are present as trace elements. The data obtained in this study suggest that quality specifications for vaikrānta bhasma can be developed using tests described in Ayurvedic science along with analytical tools available today.
Analysis; physico-chemical; Vaikranta bhasma
Rasa Shastra is a branch of Ayurveda which deals with the processing of minerals and metals having therapeutic importance. Rajata comes under the group of metals having high therapeutic value. Minerals and metals are mostly used in the form of Bhasma. During the medieval period Rasacharyas extensively worked and developed a number of processing methods for a single drug. They all are standard manufacturing procedures (SMP) which ensure the quality, safety, efficacy and reproducibility of the product. Earlier Ayurvedic physicians were producing medicines by themselves according to their need. Now a day, due to commercialization of Ayurvedic medicines and ignorance of classical methods, quality of drugs has deteriorated. Presently, the demand of Ayurvedic drugs in the global market is increasing day by day. Hence it is the need of time to develop SMP for Ayurvedic products for global acceptability. This paper aims at providing SMP for the manufacture of Rajata Bhasma and also attempts to study the effect of Shodhana process on Rajata. Rajata was obtained from the local market of Varanasi. Rajata Bhasma was prepared and it was observed that during the preparation of Rajata Bhasma, use of Muffle Furnace instead of conventional Puta is more advantageous due to better temperature control. Use of mercury and sulphur together acts as best medium in the preparation of Rajata Bhasma.
Bhavana; Marana; Rajata; Rajata sindura; Shodhana
Sheetaprabha tablets, Ayurvedic proprietary medicine, contain Sweta Parpati & Hajrul hahood bhasma as active ingredients. Sweta parpati is mainly indicated in mootravaha srotovikara & hajrul hahood bhasma is having mootrala and ashmari bhedana actions. A survey of the literature showed that no pharmacology study was made on the sweta parpati and sheetaprabha tablets. In the present study we investigated the effect of Sheetaprabha tablets in ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.
Urolithiasis was induced in male wistar rats by adding ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water. Protective (130mg/kg & 260mg/kg) and curative effect (130mg/kg & 260mg/kg) of Sheetaprabha was studied in experimental animal models.
Ethylene glycol induced urolithiatic rats showed significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (P<0.001), creatinine & phosphorus (P<0.05) and also significant increase in SGOT, SGPT & ALP levels in serum, which were prevented by Sheetaprabha treated rats in protective groups and decreased in curative groups. Histopathologies of kidneys were prevented calcium oxalate formation and tubular degeneration, and increase in tubular regeneration was observed in protective (130mg/kg, 260mg/kg) group.
The present study findings indicate that treatment with Sheetaprabha tablets, which decreases and also prevents the growth of the calcium oxalate crystals in urinary tract. It also seems that the preventive effect is more effective than its curative effect. Hence, this study confirms the traditional use of Sheetaprabha tablets in urolithiasis.
Experimentally-induced diabetes can modify the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems, possibly through insulin-related regulation of dopamine transporter activity. In this study, several behavioral procedures were used to examine possible changes in sensitivity to amphetamine and other drugs in rats rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin. Conditioned place preference developed to food (Froot Loops®) in both control and diabetic rats, demonstrating that conditioned place preference with tactile stimuli can occur in streptozotocin-treated rats. Baseline locomotion was lower in streptozotocin-treated as compared to control rats, although amphetamine significantly increased locomotion in all rats. Conditioned place preference developed to amphetamine regardless of whether rats had received streptozotocin or saline. A second study compared the potency of drugs to decrease lever pressing maintained by food, before and after streptozotocin treatment. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and amphetamine were less potent after streptozotocin while the potency of raclopride, quinpirole, ketamine, haloperidol and cocaine was not significantly changed by streptozotocin. While markedly affecting locomotion, body weight and blood glucose, streptozotocin only modestly affected sensitivity to the behavioral effects of amphetamine and other drugs; these results fail to confirm previous reports of decreased behavioral actions of stimulants in diabetic rats.
streptozotocin; amphetamine; conditioned place preference; locomotion; dopamine transporter
The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters.
The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations.
Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic activity due to its possible systematic effect involving in the pancreatic and extra pancreatic mechanism. Forever, the antihyperlipidemic activity was exerted possible by lowering the higher level of lipid profile and decreasing the intercalated disc space in the heart. The antioxidant activity of extract was due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increasing the SOD, GPx and CAT. It was corroborate that the extract shown the Paederia foetida Linn leaves potential to be act as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties.
Paederia foetida; Antihyperlipedemic; Hexokinase; Antioxidative