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1.  Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals 
Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.90773
PMCID: PMC3255449  PMID: 22253508
Bio-chemical parameters; makshika bhasma; marana; puta; shodhana
2.  Evaluation of subchronic genotoxic potential of Swarna Makshika Bhasma 
Ayu  2012;33(3):418-422.
Extremely diminutive published information is available on the mutagenic activity of Ayurvedic Bhasmas. Genotoxicity of few Bhasmas were reported on single maximum dose, but no reference is available on the sub-chronic level. Hence the present study was carried to generate and evaluate genotoxic potentials of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (mineral preparation) administered at therapeutic dose for 14 days. Chromosomal aberrations and abnormal sperm assay parameters were taken in this study. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was taken as positive group and results were compared. The results revealed a lack of generation of structural deformity in above parameters by tested drugs compared to CP treated group. Observed data indicate that the Bhasmas tested were non-genotoxic under the experimental conditions.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108858
PMCID: PMC3665102  PMID: 23723652
Abnormal sperm assay; chromosomal aberrations; cyclophosphamide; genotoxicity; Swarna Makshika Bhasma
3.  Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Tamra Bhasma (Incinerated Copper) prepared from Ashodhita (Unpurified) and Shodhita (Purified) Tamra in Rats 
The use of metals in traditional medicines is very often seen as matter of concern these days, especially the Bhasma preparations which are always under stringent observations for containing highly reactive inorganic elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic and others. One of the Bhasma extensively used in routine Ayurvedic practice is Tamra (copper) bhasma. If it is not prepared properly or Shodhana procedure is not done properly, it acts as a poison. To indicate its toxic potential, Ashtamahadoshas (eight major ill effects) have been quoted in classics and due emphasis have been given to its Shodhana procedure. In the present study, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita and Ashodhita Tamra was subjected to oral toxicity study to ascertain the role of Shodhana process on safety profile of Tamra bhasma on subchronic administration to albino rats. Both the samples were administered to rats for 45 consecutive days at the doses of 5.5, 27.5, and 55 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed on 46th day and parameters like hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathology of various organs were studied. Results showed that Tamra bhasma prepared from Ashodhita Tamra has pathological implications on different hematological, serum biochemical and cytoarchitecture of different organs even at therapeutic dose level (5.5 mg/kg). Whereas, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita Tamra is safe even at five-fold to therapeutic equivalent doses (27.5 mg/kg). These observations emphasize the role of Shodhana and importance of dose in expression of toxicity of the medicinal preparations.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.117433
PMCID: PMC3783753  PMID: 24082351
Amrutikarana; copper; herbomineral formulation; LD50; Marana; Shodhana
4.  Anti-diabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma (lead calx): A brief review 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):52-59.
Introduction:
Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx) is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes). Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha.
Aim:
The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic) drug.
Materials and Methods
Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data.
Result and Conclusion:
Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12th century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn), Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis), Guḍūci (Tinospora cordifolia) and Madhu (honey) enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134609
PMCID: PMC4140024  PMID: 25161332
Antidiabetic formulations; efficacy; Nāga bhasma; safety
5.  PA01.41. Pharmaceutico-analytical study of mayur puccha bhasma prepared by two methods 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S91.
Purpose:
Mayur Puccha bhasma (Calx of peacock feather), an Ayurvedic animal product prepared from peacock feather with different methods mentioned in Siddhayogasangraha, Bhaishajya Samhita. It is mainly indicated in Chardhi, Hikka, and Swasa. Till today no research work has been done on Mayur Puccha bhasma prepared by two different methods and exact pharmacopeial standards are also not available. The present study was aimed to assess the Physico chemical components of Mayur Puccha bhasma prepared by Ghee flame and Gajaputa method & to lay down the Pharmacopeial standards for the assessment of its standard qualities.
Method:
Mayur Puccha bhasma was prepared by two classical procedures, one by burning on ghee flame (Sample A) second by giving four Gajaputas (Sample B) and finished products were subjected to various Physico chemical studies to find out Ash value, PH value, Sp gravity, Moisture content, Preliminary organic analysis and Gravimetric analysis.
Result:
Both the bhasmas exhibited marked difference in colour, moisture content and % of inorganic compounds. The bhasma prepared by Gajaputa method contains essential and beneficial inorganic elements, electrolytes in more quantity with less moisture content, neutral pH.
Conclusion:
Sample B is having less moisture (1%) content which may contribute for increasing its stability and having high ash value as it consists of inorganic elements in more quantity and indicates that bhasma prepared properly. The neutral pH of Sample A and B indicates no significance difference in their pH value. Sample B contains Copper, Iron, Zinc, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Aluminium, in more quantity than Sample A but in a permissible amount. As Mayur Puccha bhasma prepared by Gajaputa method contains essential and beneficial elements, having natural pH and free from steroids may contribute as one of the usefully and safe alternative medicine in Chardhi, Hikka, Swasa.
PMCID: PMC3800974
6.  Characterization of Tarakeshwara Rasa: An Ayurvedic herbomineral formulation 
Ayu  2012;33(3):406-411.
Tarakeshwara Rasa (TR) is an Ayurvedic herbomineral compound formulation used in the intervention of Prameha vis-à-vis diabetes mellitus. The present study was executed to establish a fingerprint for this unique formulation, which can be adopted by the Ayurvedic pharmacies for drug standardization. TR is a formulation prepared by the trituration of four ingredients Abhraka Bhasma (AB), Loha Bhasma (LB), Vanga Bhasma (VB) and Rasa Sindhura (RS) in equal quantities with honey for one day. Each of the ingredients were prepared according to the norms of Ayurvedic classical texts and by employing Electric Muffle Furnace as heating device for incineration. To ensure the proper preparation of Bhasmas, standard tests (Bhasma Pariksha) were employed. After Bhasma complies these tests, TR was prepared and subjected for qualitative analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies. LB, AB, VB, RS and TR were also studied for free metal presence by employing phosphomolybdic acid. Chemical analysis of TR reveals that it contains Fe, Sn, Hg, Al, Mn, Ca and Mg. XRD study indicates that TR contains Fe2O3 (maghamite) in major phase and SnO2 (cassiterite), HgS, SiO2, HgO in minor phases. SEM study revealed that the compound is an agglomeration of particles. The particle size was in between 0.5 and 2 μ. Free metal detection by phosphomolybdic acid revealed the absence of free metals in the final Bhasmas. This is the first study establishing the characterization of Tarakeshwara Rasa.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108854
PMCID: PMC3665084  PMID: 23723650
Bhasma; characterization; rasaushadhi; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction
7.  Physicochemical characterization of Ayurvedic bhasma (Swarna makshika bhasma): An approach to standardization 
Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda. The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it withit with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS2, and SM bhasma contains Fe2O3, FeS2, CuS and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.64409
PMCID: PMC2924988  PMID: 20814520
Scanning electron microscope; Swarna makshika bhasma; X-ray diffraction
8.  Review of research works done on Tamra Bhasma [Incinerated Copper] at Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar 
Ayu  2013;34(1):21-25.
The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115440
PMCID: PMC3764875  PMID: 24049401
Bhasma; Grahani; Rasa Shastra; safety; Somanathi Tamra; Tamra toxicity
9.  Physico-chemical analysis of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma prepared by two methods 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(1):45-48.
Background:
Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather) is an Ayurvedic animal product prepared from peacock feathers by employing two different methods as mentioned in Siddhayogasaṅgraha and Bhaiṣajya saṁhitā. It is mainly indicated in vomiting, hiccough, and respiratory disorder.
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, Mayūrapuccha Bhasma was prepared by two classical procedures, one by burning on ghee flame and the other by giving Gajapuṭa (burning the peacock feathers at about 1000°C by using a thousand cow dung cakes). The products so obtained were subjected to various physico-chemical studies to find out ash value, pH value, specific gravity, moisture content, preliminary organic analysis, gravimetric analysis, chemical components, and to lay-down the pharmacopeial standards for standardization of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma.
Results and Conclusion:
Both the Bhasmas exhibited marked difference in color, moisture content, and percentage of inorganic compounds. The Bhasma prepared by Gajapuṭa method contains essential and beneficial inorganic elements, electrolytes in larger quantity, and lower moisture content.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.113801
PMCID: PMC3733207  PMID: 23929994
Gajapuṭa method; ghee flame method; Mayūrapuccha Bhasma; physico - chemical analysis
10.  Evaluation of market samples of ‘Yashada bhasma’ using ‘Namburi Phased Spot Test′ 
Yashada bhasma (Calx of Yashada i.e. Zinc) which has its main indication in Prameha (Diabetes) and Netra vikaras (Eye disorders) was prepared according to the prescription in the Ayurvedic classics and subjected to various bhasma parikshas, including the Namburi Phased Spot Test (NPST), one of the qualitative tests described for various Ayurvedic preparations. NPST helps differentiate between, and thus identify, various bhasmas. It depends upon the pattern of the spot, which develops after a specific chemical reaction. Three market samples of Yashada bhasma, which were said to be Parada marita (incinerated using Mercury), were also subjected to the above tests and results compared. The various bhasmas exhibited marked differences in colour, and though NPST yielded desired results for all the samples, there were differences in their spot patterns and colour. The bhasma prepared in our department produced the most accurate results.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.82524
PMCID: PMC3131774  PMID: 21760691
Namburi phased spot test; Yashada bhasma
11.  Physico-chemical study of Vaikrānta bhasma 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):199-204.
Background:
Vaikrānta has very important place in Rasa śāstra and is placed under Mahārasa and Upratna group. It has been mentioned that vaikrānta can be used in the place of diamond, which is a very precious stone and whose use is beyond the limit of the common man. Vaikrānta possesses pharmacological and therapeutic properties similar to diamond, but still very few researchers have worked on it.
Aims and Objectives:
The main aim of the present study is to analyze vaikrānta bhasma by employing various organoleptic methods mentioned in Ayurvedic science along with analysis as per tools available today.
Settings and Design:
In the present study, vaikrānta bhasma was prepared according to method mentioned in Rasa Ratna Samuccaya. Final product is prepared according to classical parameters described in Ayurvedic science.
Materials and Methods:
Ayurvedic scholars have described various parameters for the qualitative evaluation of vaikrānta bhasma, but all those are subjective in nature and cannot be evaluated numerically for reproducibility of the result. With this in mind, in the present study, tests as per Ayurvedic science and analytical parameters such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry were adopted to analyze the final product.
Results and Conclusions:
Data suggests that vaikrānta bhasma is a multi-mineral compound, which contains iron and silica as major constituents and others are present as trace elements. The data obtained in this study suggest that quality specifications for vaikrānta bhasma can be developed using tests described in Ayurvedic science along with analytical tools available today.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131971
PMCID: PMC4078469  PMID: 24991067
Analysis; physico-chemical; Vaikranta bhasma
12.  Standard manufacturing procedure of Rajata Bhasma 
Ayu  2011;32(4):566-571.
Rasa Shastra is a branch of Ayurveda which deals with the processing of minerals and metals having therapeutic importance. Rajata comes under the group of metals having high therapeutic value. Minerals and metals are mostly used in the form of Bhasma. During the medieval period Rasacharyas extensively worked and developed a number of processing methods for a single drug. They all are standard manufacturing procedures (SMP) which ensure the quality, safety, efficacy and reproducibility of the product. Earlier Ayurvedic physicians were producing medicines by themselves according to their need. Now a day, due to commercialization of Ayurvedic medicines and ignorance of classical methods, quality of drugs has deteriorated. Presently, the demand of Ayurvedic drugs in the global market is increasing day by day. Hence it is the need of time to develop SMP for Ayurvedic products for global acceptability. This paper aims at providing SMP for the manufacture of Rajata Bhasma and also attempts to study the effect of Shodhana process on Rajata. Rajata was obtained from the local market of Varanasi. Rajata Bhasma was prepared and it was observed that during the preparation of Rajata Bhasma, use of Muffle Furnace instead of conventional Puta is more advantageous due to better temperature control. Use of mercury and sulphur together acts as best medium in the preparation of Rajata Bhasma.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96135
PMCID: PMC3361937  PMID: 22661856
Bhavana; Marana; Rajata; Rajata sindura; Shodhana
13.  PA01.62. Mukta-sukti bhasma; nectar for acid peptic disorders, w.s.r to its anti-ulcer activity - an experimental study 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S112.
Purpose:
Mukta Shukti (Pearl oyster shell); a sudha varga dravya, attains better therapeutic properties with proper sodhana and marana processes. It is indicated in Amlapitta, Parinamashoola and Annadravashoola. Acharya Susruta mentioned; Amla is the property of Vidagdha Pitta. The term Amlapitta may be correlated with Acid reflux syndrome which comprises of various types of Gastro esophageal reflux diseases like Gastritis, Peptic ulcer etc. A peptic ulcer is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, the beginning of the small intestine. A bacterium called Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of peptic ulcers. An attempt was made in this regard to establish standards to assure quality and to assess antiulcer activity of Mukta Sukti Bhasma.
Method:
Mukta sukti Bhasma prepared as per Rasatarangini and subjected to Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X ray diffraction (XRD). Anti ulcer activity of Mukta sukti Bhasma in Albino rats by Aspirin induced gastric ulcer. Sucralfate as standard group and normal food water as control group used for the comparison.
Result:
Mukta sukti Bhasma showed highly significant Anti ulcer activity than control group. The alkaline pH and chemical components might have contributed by inhibiting secretions, neutralizing the acidity and reducing size of the ulcerative lesions. Presence of Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu), Sodium (Na) and Zinc (Zn) were detected in raw Mukta sukti and Mukta sukti Bhasma. X ray diffraction shown face centered Cubic, hexagonal, tetragonal and monoclinic crystal structures.
Conclusion:
In aspirin induced model, the Mukta sukti Bhasma and standard group (Sucralfate) showed highly significant Anti ulcer activity than control group (food water). The Mukta sukti Bhasma showed highly significant Anti ulcer activity than standard group (Sucralfate) when compared. This experimental study has given scientific evidence for the claim in the ancient text regarding the Anti ulcer property of Mukta sukti Bhasma which gives scope for conducting clinical study.
PMCID: PMC3800866
14.  Quality control parameters for Tamra (copper) Bhasma 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;31(4):164-170.
Background:
Metallic Bhasmas are highly valued and have their own importance in Ayurvedic formulations. To testify the Bhasmas various parameters have been told in Rasashastra classics. Tamra Bhasma (TB) with its different properties is used in the treatment of various diseases is quiet famous among the Ayurvedic physicians (Vaidyas).
Objectives:
The present study was carried out to set up the quality control parameters for the TB by making the use of classical tests along with advanced analytical tools.
Settings and Design:
Copper wire taken for the preparation of Bhasma was first analyzed for its copper content and then subjected to Shodhana, Marana and Amrutikarana procedures as per the classical references. Final product complied with all the classical parameters like Rekhapurnatwa, Varitaratwa etc.
Materials and Methods:
After complying with these tests TB was analyzed by advanced analytical techniques like particle size distribution (PSD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and inductive coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP).
Results:
PSD analysis of TB showed volumetric mean diameter of 28.70 μm, 50% of the material was below 18.40 μm size. Particle size less than 2μm were seen in SEM. 56.24 wt % of copper and 23.06 wt % of sulphur was found in ICP-AES. Heavy metals like cadmium, selenium were not detected while others like arsenic, lead and mercury were present in traces.
Conclusions:
These observations could be specified as the quality control parameters conforming to all the classical tests under the Bhasma Pariksha.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.107348
PMCID: PMC3644753  PMID: 23661863
Bhasma Pariksha; copper; Rasaushadhi; Tamra; quality control
15.  PA02.04. A comparative study of loha rasayana prepared by ayaskriti and modified method w.s.r. disintegration of Iron. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S49.
Purpose:
Loha Rasayana one of the important Rasayana referred in Charaka Samhita is known for its Rasayana effect. This approach to the formulations was so rational and perfect that it fulfils the expectation of the scientific masses even also in terms of today's Nanoparticle theory. This technique got improvised with time and experience and is now used to make the Bhasmas. Purpose of present study was to scrutinize the validation of the process referred in Charaka Samhita to render the metal therapeutically suitable to the body and procedure by which the Bhasmas are prepared and to analyse them on ancient and modern parameters.
Method:
•Loha Rasayana was prepared as per Cha.Chi. 13/1523 by using Ayaskriti. •Samples were collected and subjected to analysis at different interval of time to trace the ongoing changes in the medicine. •Loha Rasayana was analytically compared with the Bhasma and also with a sample of Loha Rasayana prepared by using Bhasma on ancient and modern parameters. •The samples were subjected to XRD, ICPAES, SEM, Organoleptic tests, Physico chemical, Assay of Iron Content, Particle size, TLC and Alcohol Content.
Result:
Analytical Tests: LRA LRB Particle Size(200) 68.0% 88%, Particle Size (325) 4% 7%, TLC (Rf) 0.25 0.024, Alcohol content %2.12% 4.28%, ICP AES (Fe) % 66.45% 51.32%, Total Iron Content %36.40 43.50, Ferrous Content %7.23 7.09, Ferric Content % 29.49 37.91, XRD Hematite & Magnetite Hematite
Conclusion:
Submersion of Iron in Acidic media for 12 months reduced Iron to 68% and 88% of the Ayaskriti and Bhasma to pass through 200 mess size. Alcohol content of the samples was well within the limit (2.12% and 4.28) and Ferrous content were found to increase in both samples to 7.23% & 7.09%.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123865
PMCID: PMC4147520
16.  OA02.09. Evaluation of varatika bhasma for its ulcer protective effect on albino rats. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S15.
Purpose:
Gastritis leadind to G.I.ulcers is a very prevalent metabolic and life style disorder. Many a times it is condition which arise due to various medications like NSAID's. Drugs effective in Ulcer protection is the need of the hour. Medications such as sucralfate in conventional system do work but in higher dose and with limitations. Thus, present study has been carried out, to evaluate efficacy of Varatika bhasma in ulcer protective activity with standard control as Sucralfate in aspirin induced ulcer.
Method:
Varatika bhasma was prepared by shodhana with kanji, bhaavana with kumari swarasa and subjecting to gajaputa. Further it was analyzed and used for experimental study. Winstar strain albino rats of either sex was taken in 3 groups with 6 rats in each group. Control group with food and water, standard with sucralfate and test with varatika bhasma was given for 6 days. on 7th day ulcer was induced with aspirin. later rats were sacrificed to cut open the stomach and to study the ulcer index and histopathology.
Result:
When compared to Sucralfate for ulcer protective effect, Varatika Bhasma shows significant result in lower doses. (Sucralfate 1 gm 6 hourly and Varatika Bhasma 250 mg twice daily). In ulcer index and histopathology studies, there were less / no ulcers found in the group treated with Varatika Bhasma in comparison with Sucralfate and Control group.
Conclusion:
For the ulcer protection, Varatika Bhasma provides better and promising result when compared to Sucralfate. This also cuts the cost of medication and time constrain for the administration of the medicine.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123829
PMCID: PMC4147483
17.  Blood compatibility studies of Swarna bhasma (gold bhasma), an Ayurvedic drug 
Swarna bhasma (gold bhasma) preparations are widely utilized as therapeutic agents. However, in vitro biological evaluations of bhasma preparations are needed along with the physicochemical characterization for present day standardization of metallic bhasma preparations to meet the criteria that supports its use. Therefore, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protein adsorption, blood compatibility and complement activation potential of two batches of Swarna bhasma preparation, along with its physicochemical characterization. The particle size, morphology, elemental analysis, and in vitro cytotoxicity were evaluated initially. Red blood cell hemolysis, aggregation studies with blood cells, protein adsorption, complement C3 adsorption, platelet activation and tight junction permeability in Caco-2 cell line were investigated. The Swarna bhasma preparations with a crystallite size of 28–35 nm did not induce any blood cell aggregation or protein adsorption. Activation potential of these preparations towards complement system or platelets was negligible. These particles were also non-cytotoxic. Swarna bhasma particles opened the tight junctions in Caco-2 cell experiments. The results suggest the application of Swarna bhasma preparations as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine from the biological safety point of view.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.83183
PMCID: PMC3157103  PMID: 21897638
Blood compatibility; protein adsorption; Swarna bhasma
18.  Pharmaceutical standardization of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma 
Ayu  2012;33(1):136-142.
Shukti is an important component of Sudha Varga, which is considered as the latest class in the field of Rasa Shastra. Two types of Shukti have been mentioned in Rasa Shastra texts i.e. Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukti according to the availability. In present study, an attempt has been made to develop a standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma. Five batches of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma were prepared and standardization was attempted by maintaining batch manufacturing records of individual batches. During pharmaceutical procedures like Shodhana, Bhavana, Marana, etc. due care of temperature, its duration, percentage of weight gain or loss and the cost factor of the end product, etc. were considered. The average weight loss observed was 12.08 g i.e. 2.42% and 14.62 g i.e. 2.92% during Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukiti Shodhana respectively. Average weight loss found was 38.94 g i.e. 7.79% in Jala Shukti Bhasma while in Mukta Shukti Bhasma, it was 35.24 g i.e. 7.05%. At the end of the pharmaceutical procedure, it was found that Mukta Shukti Bhasma is 2.8 times costlier than Jala Shukti Bhasma.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.100331
PMCID: PMC3456852  PMID: 23049199
Bhasma; Jala Shukti; Marana; Mukta Shukti; Shodhana
19.  OA01.02. Literary Study on Heavy Metal Poisoning and Ayurveda with Special Reference to Naga Bhasma (Calcined Lead) 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S2.
Bhasmas are unique Ayurvedic metallic preparations with herbal juices/fruits widely used for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. The bhasmas are products of classical alchemy, organo-metallic compounds of certain metals and gems in a very fine powdered form, mostly oxides, made in elaborate calcination processes perfected several centuries ago. Recent articles pertaining the alarming level of heavy metals, especially Pb, Hg, and As in Ayurvedic formulations have created a lot of controversy regarding the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic formulations. It has been reported that lead, mercury, and arsenic have been detected in a substantial proportion of Indian-manufactured traditional Ayurvedic medicines. An attempt was made to study heavy metal poisoning with special reference to current research on toxicity of Naga bhasma. This study clearly shows that Naga bhasma is not just lead, it's a compound form predominantly crystalline i.e. mixture of PbO Pb3O4. XRD data revealed OH and (CO3) 2 group which contain some other essential elements in minute quantity and didn’t have any toxic effect at LD50 which was 160 times higher to that of Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) (12.5 mg/kg) in acute toxicity study.
PMCID: PMC3800896
20.  PA01.16.Effect of sheetaprabha tablets on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S65.
Purpose:
Sheetaprabha tablets, Ayurvedic proprietary medicine, contain Sweta Parpati & Hajrul hahood bhasma as active ingredients. Sweta parpati is mainly indicated in mootravaha srotovikara & hajrul hahood bhasma is having mootrala and ashmari bhedana actions. A survey of the literature showed that no pharmacology study was made on the sweta parpati and sheetaprabha tablets. In the present study we investigated the effect of Sheetaprabha tablets in ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.
Method:
Urolithiasis was induced in male wistar rats by adding ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water. Protective (130mg/kg & 260mg/kg) and curative effect (130mg/kg & 260mg/kg) of Sheetaprabha was studied in experimental animal models.
Result:
Ethylene glycol induced urolithiatic rats showed significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (P<0.001), creatinine & phosphorus (P<0.05) and also significant increase in SGOT, SGPT & ALP levels in serum, which were prevented by Sheetaprabha treated rats in protective groups and decreased in curative groups. Histopathologies of kidneys were prevented calcium oxalate formation and tubular degeneration, and increase in tubular regeneration was observed in protective (130mg/kg, 260mg/kg) group.
Conclusion:
The present study findings indicate that treatment with Sheetaprabha tablets, which decreases and also prevents the growth of the calcium oxalate crystals in urinary tract. It also seems that the preventive effect is more effective than its curative effect. Hence, this study confirms the traditional use of Sheetaprabha tablets in urolithiasis.
PMCID: PMC3800946
21.  Physicochemical characterization of an Iron based Indian traditional medicine: Mandura Bhasma 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):52-57.
Ayurveda is a unique system of medicine which uses metals and minerals in the form of bhasma (fine powder obtained through calcinations). Mandura is one of such mineral having various therapeutic uses. An effort has been made in the present study to characterize raw and processed Mandura using sophisticated analytical tools as a step forward to standardization. Mandura bhasma was prepared following references of Ayurvedic classics. To assure the quality of the prepared bhasma, Rasa Shastra quality control tests like rekhapurnatvam (particles enter into furrows of human hand), varitara (floating of product particles on water), irreversible etc., were used. Bhasma fulfilling these tests was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. This revealed that raw Mandura contained Fe2Si04, and Mandura bhasma contained Fe2O3 and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the grains in Mandura bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of sizes 200-300 nm as compared to the raw Mandura, which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of sizes 10-2 microns. It may be concluded that this conversion of raw Mandura, a complex compound, into a mixture of simple compounds having nano-sized particles is due to the particular process of calcination employed.
PMCID: PMC3530268  PMID: 23284206
Mandura bhasma; X-ray diffraction; Scanning electron microscopy
22.  PA01.67. Clinical study on role of Guduchyadi pippali yoga in sukra kshaya w.s.r. Oligospermia 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S117.
Purpose:
An estimated 15% couples are infertile. In this male factor is 30%, female factor is 30%, both factors are 30% and idiopathic causes are 10%. Among them shukra kshaya [oligospermia] is the major cause. Infertility severely affects the couple in their Psychological harmony, Sexual life and social activity. So the qualitative and quantitative increase in sukra is the main purpose of this study.
Method:
The study was conducted with an open trial with randomised selection. Guduchyadi pippali yoga consists of Guduchi satva, pippali churna, Ela churna, Abraka bhasma, Loha bhasma and sita and it was given in 500mg tab form mixed with honey and ksheera as anupana. This drug has been given for 45 days and patient was asked to review in every 15 days with the help of subjective parameters from the patient and objective parameters from a laboratory the results were assessed.
Result:
The results are encouraging in both subjective and objective parameters. Among 30 patients 5 patients reported that their partner got conceived.
Conclusion:
The sperm count and sperm motility are markedly improved. No side effects have been reported. Thus it finally noticed that Ayurveda has proper answer to male infertility which is caused by oligospermia. So the purpose of this study is fulfilled.
PMCID: PMC3800871
23.  Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine 
Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique ayurvedic metallic/minerals preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7th century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal's derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; the starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification and this process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other minerals and/or herbal extract. There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don’t produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora, etc., Bhasma which contain Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product(s). Particle size (1-2 μ) reduced significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters.
doi:10.4103/2231-4040.126980
PMCID: PMC3960793  PMID: 24696811
Ayurveda; bhasma; marna; nano-particle; shodhna; standardization
24.  PA02.15. Validation of ayurvedic concept of anthropometry and clinical evaluation of efficacy of “Suktyadi Yog” as a calcium supplementation in children 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S60.
Purpose:
The present study aims to validate the ayurvedic anthropometical parameter for assessment of proper growth & devlopment and also to identify any disease linkage. For proper bony growth adequate calcium supplement is necessary. Evaluation of role of an ayurvedic compound containing calcium preparation needed therefore included in the second phase of the study. In calcium deficiency Ayurvedic Managment “Suktyadi Yog” may be useful. It is a rich source of calcium and have deepaniya drugs. Deepaniya drugs is useful for absorption of calcium.
Method:
Validations of Ayurvedic Sharir pramana on the basis of modern concept (Parameters) in children and Peer review journals were searched to list content of “Suktyadi yog” with calcium supplementation activities, particularly acting in calcium deficient and healthy children.
Result:
Result of the study show Sharir praman of children found almost equal to as explained in ayurvedic texts. Out of all research Sukti bhasma, Godanti bhasma, yasad bhasma and Trikatu was found potent to reduce Calcium deficiency. It is very cost effective, easily available with highest calcium supplementation properties.
Conclusion:
Calcium deficiency is a major problem in children and “Suktyadi yog” is a best option to reduce it.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123879
PMCID: PMC4147533
25.  Analytical study of raw Swarna Makshika (Chalcopyrite) and its Bhasma through TEM and EDAX 
Ayu  2013;34(2):204-208.
Ayurveda, the Indian System of Medicine deals with a number of metals and minerals. Swarna Makshika (SM), a chalcopyrite one such minerals has iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and sulphur (S) as major ingredients along with other trace elements of therapeutic importance. Studies related with characterization of SM are very few. In the current study SM and SM Bhasma were analysed through Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). Analysis reveals the presence of iron, copper, and sulphur in SM. In addition to these elements, SM Bhasma found to contain Potassium, Magnesium, Aluminum, and Silicon in trace amount. TEM study reveals that, grain size of the SM (5-10 microns) is significantly reduced in SM Bhasma to 50-200 nm.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119682
PMCID: PMC3821252  PMID: 24250132
Bhasma; chalcopyrite; energy dispersive X-ray analysis; standardization; Swarna Makshika; transmission electron microscope

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