Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.
Bio-chemical parameters; makshika bhasma; marana; puta; shodhana
Extremely diminutive published information is available on the mutagenic activity of Ayurvedic Bhasmas. Genotoxicity of few Bhasmas were reported on single maximum dose, but no reference is available on the sub-chronic level. Hence the present study was carried to generate and evaluate genotoxic potentials of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (mineral preparation) administered at therapeutic dose for 14 days. Chromosomal aberrations and abnormal sperm assay parameters were taken in this study. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was taken as positive group and results were compared. The results revealed a lack of generation of structural deformity in above parameters by tested drugs compared to CP treated group. Observed data indicate that the Bhasmas tested were non-genotoxic under the experimental conditions.
Abnormal sperm assay; chromosomal aberrations; cyclophosphamide; genotoxicity; Swarna Makshika Bhasma
The use of metals in traditional medicines is very often seen as matter of concern these days, especially the Bhasma preparations which are always under stringent observations for containing highly reactive inorganic elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic and others. One of the Bhasma extensively used in routine Ayurvedic practice is Tamra (copper) bhasma. If it is not prepared properly or Shodhana procedure is not done properly, it acts as a poison. To indicate its toxic potential, Ashtamahadoshas (eight major ill effects) have been quoted in classics and due emphasis have been given to its Shodhana procedure. In the present study, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita and Ashodhita Tamra was subjected to oral toxicity study to ascertain the role of Shodhana process on safety profile of Tamra bhasma on subchronic administration to albino rats. Both the samples were administered to rats for 45 consecutive days at the doses of 5.5, 27.5, and 55 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed on 46th day and parameters like hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathology of various organs were studied. Results showed that Tamra bhasma prepared from Ashodhita Tamra has pathological implications on different hematological, serum biochemical and cytoarchitecture of different organs even at therapeutic dose level (5.5 mg/kg). Whereas, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita Tamra is safe even at five-fold to therapeutic equivalent doses (27.5 mg/kg). These observations emphasize the role of Shodhana and importance of dose in expression of toxicity of the medicinal preparations.
Amrutikarana; copper; herbomineral formulation; LD50; Marana; Shodhana
Yashada bhasma (Calx of Yashada i.e. Zinc) which has its main indication in Prameha (Diabetes) and Netra vikaras (Eye disorders) was prepared according to the prescription in the Ayurvedic classics and subjected to various bhasma parikshas, including the Namburi Phased Spot Test (NPST), one of the qualitative tests described for various Ayurvedic preparations. NPST helps differentiate between, and thus identify, various bhasmas. It depends upon the pattern of the spot, which develops after a specific chemical reaction. Three market samples of Yashada bhasma, which were said to be Parada marita (incinerated using Mercury), were also subjected to the above tests and results compared. The various bhasmas exhibited marked differences in colour, and though NPST yielded desired results for all the samples, there were differences in their spot patterns and colour. The bhasma prepared in our department produced the most accurate results.
Namburi phased spot test; Yashada bhasma
Mayur Puccha bhasma (Calx of peacock feather), an Ayurvedic animal product prepared from peacock feather with different methods mentioned in Siddhayogasangraha, Bhaishajya Samhita. It is mainly indicated in Chardhi, Hikka, and Swasa. Till today no research work has been done on Mayur Puccha bhasma prepared by two different methods and exact pharmacopeial standards are also not available. The present study was aimed to assess the Physico chemical components of Mayur Puccha bhasma prepared by Ghee flame and Gajaputa method & to lay down the Pharmacopeial standards for the assessment of its standard qualities.
Mayur Puccha bhasma was prepared by two classical procedures, one by burning on ghee flame (Sample A) second by giving four Gajaputas (Sample B) and finished products were subjected to various Physico chemical studies to find out Ash value, PH value, Sp gravity, Moisture content, Preliminary organic analysis and Gravimetric analysis.
Both the bhasmas exhibited marked difference in colour, moisture content and % of inorganic compounds. The bhasma prepared by Gajaputa method contains essential and beneficial inorganic elements, electrolytes in more quantity with less moisture content, neutral pH.
Sample B is having less moisture (1%) content which may contribute for increasing its stability and having high ash value as it consists of inorganic elements in more quantity and indicates that bhasma prepared properly. The neutral pH of Sample A and B indicates no significance difference in their pH value. Sample B contains Copper, Iron, Zinc, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Aluminium, in more quantity than Sample A but in a permissible amount. As Mayur Puccha bhasma prepared by Gajaputa method contains essential and beneficial elements, having natural pH and free from steroids may contribute as one of the usefully and safe alternative medicine in Chardhi, Hikka, Swasa.
Tarakeshwara Rasa (TR) is an Ayurvedic herbomineral compound formulation used in the intervention of Prameha vis-à-vis diabetes mellitus. The present study was executed to establish a fingerprint for this unique formulation, which can be adopted by the Ayurvedic pharmacies for drug standardization. TR is a formulation prepared by the trituration of four ingredients Abhraka Bhasma (AB), Loha Bhasma (LB), Vanga Bhasma (VB) and Rasa Sindhura (RS) in equal quantities with honey for one day. Each of the ingredients were prepared according to the norms of Ayurvedic classical texts and by employing Electric Muffle Furnace as heating device for incineration. To ensure the proper preparation of Bhasmas, standard tests (Bhasma Pariksha) were employed. After Bhasma complies these tests, TR was prepared and subjected for qualitative analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies. LB, AB, VB, RS and TR were also studied for free metal presence by employing phosphomolybdic acid. Chemical analysis of TR reveals that it contains Fe, Sn, Hg, Al, Mn, Ca and Mg. XRD study indicates that TR contains Fe2O3 (maghamite) in major phase and SnO2 (cassiterite), HgS, SiO2, HgO in minor phases. SEM study revealed that the compound is an agglomeration of particles. The particle size was in between 0.5 and 2 μ. Free metal detection by phosphomolybdic acid revealed the absence of free metals in the final Bhasmas. This is the first study establishing the characterization of Tarakeshwara Rasa.
Bhasma; characterization; rasaushadhi; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction
Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather) is an Ayurvedic animal product prepared from peacock feathers by employing two different methods as mentioned in Siddhayogasaṅgraha and Bhaiṣajya saṁhitā. It is mainly indicated in vomiting, hiccough, and respiratory disorder.
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, Mayūrapuccha Bhasma was prepared by two classical procedures, one by burning on ghee flame and the other by giving Gajapuṭa (burning the peacock feathers at about 1000°C by using a thousand cow dung cakes). The products so obtained were subjected to various physico-chemical studies to find out ash value, pH value, specific gravity, moisture content, preliminary organic analysis, gravimetric analysis, chemical components, and to lay-down the pharmacopeial standards for standardization of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma.
Results and Conclusion:
Both the Bhasmas exhibited marked difference in color, moisture content, and percentage of inorganic compounds. The Bhasma prepared by Gajapuṭa method contains essential and beneficial inorganic elements, electrolytes in larger quantity, and lower moisture content.
Gajapuṭa method; ghee flame method; Mayūrapuccha Bhasma; physico - chemical analysis
Metallic Bhasmas are highly valued and have their own importance in Ayurvedic formulations. To testify the Bhasmas various parameters have been told in Rasashastra classics. Tamra Bhasma (TB) with its different properties is used in the treatment of various diseases is quiet famous among the Ayurvedic physicians (Vaidyas).
The present study was carried out to set up the quality control parameters for the TB by making the use of classical tests along with advanced analytical tools.
Settings and Design:
Copper wire taken for the preparation of Bhasma was first analyzed for its copper content and then subjected to Shodhana, Marana and Amrutikarana procedures as per the classical references. Final product complied with all the classical parameters like Rekhapurnatwa, Varitaratwa etc.
Materials and Methods:
After complying with these tests TB was analyzed by advanced analytical techniques like particle size distribution (PSD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and inductive coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP).
PSD analysis of TB showed volumetric mean diameter of 28.70 μm, 50% of the material was below 18.40 μm size. Particle size less than 2μm were seen in SEM. 56.24 wt % of copper and 23.06 wt % of sulphur was found in ICP-AES. Heavy metals like cadmium, selenium were not detected while others like arsenic, lead and mercury were present in traces.
These observations could be specified as the quality control parameters conforming to all the classical tests under the Bhasma Pariksha.
Bhasma Pariksha; copper; Rasaushadhi; Tamra; quality control
Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda. The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it withit with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS2, and SM bhasma contains Fe2O3, FeS2, CuS and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.
Scanning electron microscope; Swarna makshika bhasma; X-ray diffraction
Ayurveda is a unique system of medicine which uses metals and minerals in the form of bhasma (fine powder obtained through calcinations). Mandura is one of such mineral having various therapeutic uses. An effort has been made in the present study to characterize raw and processed Mandura using sophisticated analytical tools as a step forward to standardization. Mandura bhasma was prepared following references of Ayurvedic classics. To assure the quality of the prepared bhasma, Rasa Shastra quality control tests like rekhapurnatvam (particles enter into furrows of human hand), varitara (floating of product particles on water), irreversible etc., were used. Bhasma fulfilling these tests was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. This revealed that raw Mandura contained Fe2Si04, and Mandura bhasma contained Fe2O3 and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the grains in Mandura bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of sizes 200-300 nm as compared to the raw Mandura, which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of sizes 10-2 microns. It may be concluded that this conversion of raw Mandura, a complex compound, into a mixture of simple compounds having nano-sized particles is due to the particular process of calcination employed.
Mandura bhasma; X-ray diffraction; Scanning electron microscopy
An estimated 15% couples are infertile. In this male factor is 30%, female factor is 30%, both factors are 30% and idiopathic causes are 10%. Among them shukra kshaya [oligospermia] is the major cause. Infertility severely affects the couple in their Psychological harmony, Sexual life and social activity. So the qualitative and quantitative increase in sukra is the main purpose of this study.
The study was conducted with an open trial with randomised selection. Guduchyadi pippali yoga consists of Guduchi satva, pippali churna, Ela churna, Abraka bhasma, Loha bhasma and sita and it was given in 500mg tab form mixed with honey and ksheera as anupana. This drug has been given for 45 days and patient was asked to review in every 15 days with the help of subjective parameters from the patient and objective parameters from a laboratory the results were assessed.
The results are encouraging in both subjective and objective parameters. Among 30 patients 5 patients reported that their partner got conceived.
The sperm count and sperm motility are markedly improved. No side effects have been reported. Thus it finally noticed that Ayurveda has proper answer to male infertility which is caused by oligospermia. So the purpose of this study is fulfilled.
Ayurveda, the Indian System of Medicine deals with a number of metals and minerals. Swarna Makshika (SM), a chalcopyrite one such minerals has iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and sulphur (S) as major ingredients along with other trace elements of therapeutic importance. Studies related with characterization of SM are very few. In the current study SM and SM Bhasma were analysed through Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). Analysis reveals the presence of iron, copper, and sulphur in SM. In addition to these elements, SM Bhasma found to contain Potassium, Magnesium, Aluminum, and Silicon in trace amount. TEM study reveals that, grain size of the SM (5-10 microns) is significantly reduced in SM Bhasma to 50-200 nm.
Bhasma; chalcopyrite; energy dispersive X-ray analysis; standardization; Swarna Makshika; transmission electron microscope
Bhasmas are unique Ayurvedic metallic preparations with herbal juices/fruits widely used for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. The bhasmas are products of classical alchemy, organo-metallic compounds of certain metals and gems in a very fine powdered form, mostly oxides, made in elaborate calcination processes perfected several centuries ago. Recent articles pertaining the alarming level of heavy metals, especially Pb, Hg, and As in Ayurvedic formulations have created a lot of controversy regarding the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic formulations. It has been reported that lead, mercury, and arsenic have been detected in a substantial proportion of Indian-manufactured traditional Ayurvedic medicines. An attempt was made to study heavy metal poisoning with special reference to current research on toxicity of Naga bhasma. This study clearly shows that Naga bhasma is not just lead, it's a compound form predominantly crystalline i.e. mixture of PbO Pb3O4. XRD data revealed OH and (CO3) 2 group which contain some other essential elements in minute quantity and didn’t have any toxic effect at LD50 which was 160 times higher to that of Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) (12.5 mg/kg) in acute toxicity study.
Lauha Bhasma, an ayurvedic drug, is widely used in iron deficiency anaemia, this ancient drug is claimed to be better absorbed gastrointestinally, and is also claimed to be devoid of the usual side effects associated with administration of the allopathic iron preparations, Physical and chemical methods of standardization required for any quality preparation, is not found in the ayurvedic and the modern literatures for Lauha Bhasma. Thus an approach has been made to standardize Lauha Bhasma. For the purpose of analysis, samples of all the three commonly available variants of Lauha Bhasma were considered. Qualitative analysis indicates the presence of iron both in the ferric and the ferrous forms, A simple spectrophotometric method has been used for simultaneous determination of ferric ferrous and the total iron content in a single aliquot.
Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper) is one of the main weapons in the archery of Ayurvedic practitioners. Though several methods of preparation of Tamra Bhasma (TB) are found in Rasashastra classics, several difficulties occur during the preparation of a good-quality Bhasma. In this study, TB was prepared and analyzed to develop the standard manufacturing procedure. Each unit operative procedure was considered as an independent processing and an attempt was made to validate each procedure. Wire used for the purpose of electrical earthing was taken for the preparation of Bhasma. Procedures of Shodhana, Marana, and Amritikarana were followed as per the classical references. Specific temperature pattern was adopted for Puta in the electrical muffle furnace. From 500 g of Tamra, 483.4 g of black colored TB was obtained after subjecting to three Putas. Final product was detected to be cupric sulfide in X-ray diffraction. In particle size distribution analysis 10% of the material was below the size of 2 μm, while in inductive coupled plasma - atomic absorption spectrometry 58.56 wt% copper and 22.48 wt% of sulfur were found present in the final product along with the elements such as arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and manganese in traces.
Bhasma; Puta; standard manufacturing procedure; Tamra; X-ray diffraction
Sheetaprabha tablets, Ayurvedic proprietary medicine, contain Sweta Parpati & Hajrul hahood bhasma as active ingredients. Sweta parpati is mainly indicated in mootravaha srotovikara & hajrul hahood bhasma is having mootrala and ashmari bhedana actions. A survey of the literature showed that no pharmacology study was made on the sweta parpati and sheetaprabha tablets. In the present study we investigated the effect of Sheetaprabha tablets in ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.
Urolithiasis was induced in male wistar rats by adding ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water. Protective (130mg/kg & 260mg/kg) and curative effect (130mg/kg & 260mg/kg) of Sheetaprabha was studied in experimental animal models.
Ethylene glycol induced urolithiatic rats showed significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (P<0.001), creatinine & phosphorus (P<0.05) and also significant increase in SGOT, SGPT & ALP levels in serum, which were prevented by Sheetaprabha treated rats in protective groups and decreased in curative groups. Histopathologies of kidneys were prevented calcium oxalate formation and tubular degeneration, and increase in tubular regeneration was observed in protective (130mg/kg, 260mg/kg) group.
The present study findings indicate that treatment with Sheetaprabha tablets, which decreases and also prevents the growth of the calcium oxalate crystals in urinary tract. It also seems that the preventive effect is more effective than its curative effect. Hence, this study confirms the traditional use of Sheetaprabha tablets in urolithiasis.
Swarna bhasma (gold bhasma) preparations are widely utilized as therapeutic agents. However, in vitro biological evaluations of bhasma preparations are needed along with the physicochemical characterization for present day standardization of metallic bhasma preparations to meet the criteria that supports its use. Therefore, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protein adsorption, blood compatibility and complement activation potential of two batches of Swarna bhasma preparation, along with its physicochemical characterization. The particle size, morphology, elemental analysis, and in vitro cytotoxicity were evaluated initially. Red blood cell hemolysis, aggregation studies with blood cells, protein adsorption, complement C3 adsorption, platelet activation and tight junction permeability in Caco-2 cell line were investigated. The Swarna bhasma preparations with a crystallite size of 28–35 nm did not induce any blood cell aggregation or protein adsorption. Activation potential of these preparations towards complement system or platelets was negligible. These particles were also non-cytotoxic. Swarna bhasma particles opened the tight junctions in Caco-2 cell experiments. The results suggest the application of Swarna bhasma preparations as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine from the biological safety point of view.
Blood compatibility; protein adsorption; Swarna bhasma
Shukti is an important component of Sudha Varga, which is considered as the latest class in the field of Rasa Shastra. Two types of Shukti have been mentioned in Rasa Shastra texts i.e. Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukti according to the availability. In present study, an attempt has been made to develop a standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma. Five batches of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma were prepared and standardization was attempted by maintaining batch manufacturing records of individual batches. During pharmaceutical procedures like Shodhana, Bhavana, Marana, etc. due care of temperature, its duration, percentage of weight gain or loss and the cost factor of the end product, etc. were considered. The average weight loss observed was 12.08 g i.e. 2.42% and 14.62 g i.e. 2.92% during Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukiti Shodhana respectively. Average weight loss found was 38.94 g i.e. 7.79% in Jala Shukti Bhasma while in Mukta Shukti Bhasma, it was 35.24 g i.e. 7.05%. At the end of the pharmaceutical procedure, it was found that Mukta Shukti Bhasma is 2.8 times costlier than Jala Shukti Bhasma.
Bhasma; Jala Shukti; Marana; Mukta Shukti; Shodhana
Bhasmas are potent Ayurvedic medicaments, biologically active and powerful healing preparations in all aspects. Properly prepared Bhasmas have not reported any serious untoward effects in clinical practice. Vanga Bhasma is an effective Ayurvedic medicine among various Bhasmas which are classically explained and advised specially in genitourinary disorders. XRD peaks of Vanga Bhasma are identified to be as Tindioxide (SnO2)
Vanga; Shodhana; Dhalana; Jarana; Marana; Vanga Bhasma; XRD of Vanga Bhasma
After analyzing the Lauha Bhasma samples qualitatively and quantitatively, in-vivo studies on healthy adult male rabbits were carried out. Randomly selected anaemic rabbits were divided into different groups and three variants of Lauha Bhasma and ferrous sulphate sample were administered to each group. The effect of each formulation was monitored by measuring the haemoglobin (Hb) content spectrophotometrically (cyanomethaemoglobin method). Increase in the haemoglobin content was found to be significant in case of the ayurvedic formulations as compared to the ferrous sulphate sample.
Bhasma means ash but according to Ayurveda, Bhasma means conversion of a metal into a form which is irreversible in the sense that one cannot derive the metal back from it again (Apunarbhava). It should be so light so that it must float on the surface of water after sprinkling, called Varitara. Its particle should be so small that it can enter in to the creases of fingers called Rekha-purnatva. The preparative procedure of Bhasma is a bit complicated. Many texts are available regarding the identification, acceptable qualities of metals and minerals, their purification, uses and method of preparation of their Bhasma. But in many texts, the method of Bhasma preparation of some metals and minerals is mentioned very briefly, i.e. their references are available in Sutrarupa. This leads to many practical difficulties in the preparation of Bhasma. Kasisa Bhasma is one of them. The present work was aimed to study the basic concept of Bhasma Kalpana by means preparing Kasisa Bhasma. This study suggests some modifications and ways for standardization of Bhasma procedure.
Bhasma; Kasisa Bhasma; Marana; stardard operative procedure
Ayurveda represents the traditional medicine system of India. Since mechanistic details of therapy in terms of current biology are not available in Ayurvedic literature, modern scientific studies are necessary to understand its major concepts and procedures. It is necessary to examine effects of the whole Ayurvedic formulations rather than their “active” components as is done in most current studies.
We tested two different categories of formulations, a Rasayana (Amalaki Rasayana or AR, an herbal derivative) and a Bhasma (Rasa-Sindoor or RS, an organo-metallic derivative of mercury), for effects on longevity, development, fecundity, stress-tolerance, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) levels of Drosophila melanogaster using at least 200 larvae or flies for each assay.
A 0.5% (weight/volume) supplement of AR or RS affected life-history and other physiological traits in distinct ways. While the size of salivary glands, hnRNP levels in larval tissues, and thermotolerance of larvae/adult flies improved significantly following feeding either of the two formulations, the median life span and starvation resistance improved only with AR. Feeding on AR or RS supplemented food improved fecundity differently. Feeding of larvae and adults with AR increased the fecundity while the same with RS had opposite effect. On the contrary, feeding larvae on normal food and adults on AR supplement had no effect on fecundity but a comparable regime of feeding on RS-supplemented food improved fecundity. RS feeding did not cause heavy metal toxicity.
The present study with two Ayurvedic formulations reveals formulation-specific effects on several parameters of the fly's life, which seem to generally agree with their recommended human usages in Ayurvedic practices. Thus, Drosophila, with its very rich genetic tools and well-worked-out developmental pathways promises to be a very good model for examining the cellular and molecular bases of the effects of different Ayurvedic formulations.
The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies.
Bhasma; Grahani; Rasa Shastra; safety; Somanathi Tamra; Tamra toxicity
Guduchi Satva (GS), the starchy material extracted from the Guduchi stem is well-known Ayurvedic single drug formulation having a wide range of therapeutic utility. Species of the plant, stem size, collection time, season and maturity of the plant may affect the yield and physico-chemical profile of GS. However, published data on such variations is lacking. Considering this, present study is planned to screen seasonal variations in physico-chemical profile of GS. 18 batches of GS were prepared in six different seasons (3 batches in each season) and findings were systematically recorded. The obtained Satva was further subjected to relevant physico-chemical parameters. Principal component analysis method was adopted to analyze variations. Maximum yield of Satva was obtained in Shishira Ritu(January-February) while the minimum in Grishma (May-June). Variation in taste and color was found in Satva prepared in Varsha Ritu. All functional groups were found to be same in each season. Total alkaloidal contents found bit higher in Varsha and Vasanta. More residual x-variance in alcohol soluble extract and more leverage were observed in water soluble extract due to impact of seasonal spells.
Guduchi; Ritu; Satva; season; Tinospora cordifolia
In the present research paper, the work done on pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of Lauha Bhasma was performed by following samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana and marana of Lauha. Under the process of marana, three specific pharmaceutical techniques were followed, viz. bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka. During the putapaka process, an electric muffle furnace (EMF) was used. The temperature of puta was studied in two batches, viz. in Batch I, a temperature of 800°C was maintained whereas in Batch II, a temperature of 600°C was maintained. The purpose behind selecting two temperatures was to validate the process of marana of Lauha and to determine an ideal temperature for the preparation of Lauha Bhasma in EMF. It is found that after 20 puta at a temperature of 600°C, the Lauha Bhasma was prepared properly. The entire characteristic of Lauha Bhasma, like “pakwa jambu phala varna,” varitar, etc. was attained at 600°. At a temperature of 800°C, the process could not be carried out smoothly. The pellets turned very hard and brassy yellow in color. The desired color was attained only after decreasing the temperature in further puta.
Ayurveda; electric muffle furnace; Lauha; marana; puta; shodhana