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1.  Teaching Evaluation Practices in Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective
To document teaching evaluation practices in colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods
A 51-item questionnaire was developed based on the instrument used in a previous study with modifications made to address changes in pharmacy education. An online survey service was used to distribute the electronic questionnaire to the deans of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States.
Results
Completed surveys were received from 89 colleges and schools of pharmacy. All colleges/schools administered student evaluations of classroom and experiential teaching. Faculty peer evaluation of classroom teaching was used by 66% of colleges/schools. Use of other evaluation methods had increased over the previous decade, including use of formalized self-appraisal of teaching, review of teaching portfolios, interviews with samples of students, and review by teaching experts. While the majority (55%) of colleges/schools administered classroom teaching evaluations at or near the conclusion of a course, 38% administered them at the midpoint and/or conclusion of a faculty member's teaching within a team-taught course. Completion of an online evaluation form was the most common method used for evaluation of classroom (54%) and experiential teaching (72%).
Conclusion
Teaching evaluation methods used in colleges and schools of pharmacy expanded from 1996 to 2007 to include more evaluation of experiential teaching, review by peers, formalized self-appraisal of teaching, review of teaching portfolios, interviews with samples of students, review by teaching experts, and evaluation by alumni. Procedures for conducting student evaluations of teaching have adapted to address changes in curriculum delivery and technology.
PMCID: PMC2769525  PMID: 19885072
teaching; evaluation; assessment; survey
2.  Development and Implementation of a Curricular-wide Electronic Portfolio System in a School of Pharmacy 
The Feik School of Pharmacy collaborated with a commercial software development company to create a Web-based e-portfolio system to document student achievement of curricular outcomes and performance in pharmacy practice experiences. The multi-functional system also could be used for experiential site selection and assignment and continuing pharmacy education. The pharmacy school trained students, faculty members, and pharmacist preceptors to use the e-portfolio system. All pharmacy students uploaded the required number of documents and assessments to the program as evidence of achievement of each of the school's curricular outcomes and completion of pharmacy practice experiences.
doi:10.5688/ajpe75589
PMCID: PMC3142988  PMID: 21829263
portfolio; assessment; documentation; curricular outcomes
3.  Student Evaluations of the Portfolio Process 
Objective. To evaluate pharmacy students’ perceived benefits of the portfolio process and to gather suggestions for improving the process.
Methods. A questionnaire was designed and administered to 250 first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy.
Results. Although the objectives of the portfolio process were for students to understand the expected outcomes, understand the impact of extracurricular activities on attaining competencies, identify what should be learned, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and modify their approach to learning, overall students perceived the portfolio process as having less than moderate benefit. First-year students wanted more examples of portfolios while second- and third-year students suggested that more time with their advisor would be beneficial.
Conclusions. The portfolio process will continue to be refined and efforts made to improve students’ perceptions of the process as it is intended to develop the self-assessments skills they will need to improve their knowledge and professional skills throughout their pharmacy careers.
doi:10.5688/ajpe757132
PMCID: PMC3175659  PMID: 21969718
survey; portfolio; questionnaire; expected outcomes; assessment
4.  Exploring students' perceptions on the use of significant event analysis, as part of a portfolio assessment process in general practice, as a tool for learning how to use reflection in learning 
Background
Portfolio learning enables students to collect evidence of their learning. Component tasks making up a portfolio can be devised that relate directly to intended learning outcomes. Reflective tasks can stimulate students to recognise their own learning needs.
Assessment of portfolios using a rating scale relating to intended learning outcomes offers high content validity.
This study evaluated a reflective portfolio used during a final-year attachment in general practice (family medicine). Students were asked to evaluate the portfolio (which used significant event analysis as a basis for reflection) as a learning tool. The validity and reliability of the portfolio as an assessment tool were also measured.
Methods
81 final-year medical students completed reflective significant event analyses as part of a portfolio created during a three-week attachment (clerkship) in general practice (family medicine). As well as two reflective significant event analyses each portfolio contained an audit and a health needs assessment.
Portfolios were marked three times; by the student's GP teacher, the course organiser and by another teacher in the university department of general practice. Inter-rater reliability between pairs of markers was calculated. A questionnaire enabled the students' experience of portfolio learning to be determined.
Results
Benefits to learning from reflective learning were limited. Students said that they thought more about the patients they wrote up in significant event analyses but information as to the nature and effect of this was not forthcoming.
Moderate inter-rater reliability (Spearman's Rho .65) was found between pairs of departmental raters dealing with larger numbers (20 – 60) of portfolios. Inter-rater reliability of marking involving GP tutors who only marked 1 – 3 portfolios was very low.
Students rated highly their mentoring relationship with their GP teacher but found the portfolio tasks time-consuming.
Conclusion
The inter-rater reliability observed in this study should be viewed alongside the high validity afforded by the authenticity of the learning tasks (compared with a sample of a student's learning taken by an exam question). Validity is enhanced by the rating scale which directly connects the grade given with intended learning outcomes.
The moderate inter-rater reliability may be increased if a portfolio is completed over a longer period of time and contains more component pieces of work.
The questionnaire used in this study only accessed limited information about the effect of reflection on students' learning. Qualitative methods of evaluation would determine the students experience in greater depth. It would be useful to evaluate the effects of reflective learning after students have had more time to get used to this unfamiliar method of learning and to overcome any problems in understanding the task.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-7-5
PMCID: PMC1852102  PMID: 17397544
5.  The national portfolio for postgraduate family medicine training in South Africa: a descriptive study of acceptability, educational impact, and usefulness for assessment 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:101.
Background
Since 2007 a portfolio of learning has become a requirement for assessment of postgraduate family medicine training by the Colleges of Medicine of South Africa. A uniform portfolio of learning has been developed and content validity established among the eight postgraduate programmes. The aim of this study was to investigate the portfolio’s acceptability, educational impact, and perceived usefulness for assessment of competence.
Methods
Two structured questionnaires of 35 closed and open-ended questions were delivered to 53 family physician supervisors and 48 registrars who had used the portfolio. Categorical and nominal/ordinal data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics. The open-ended questions were analysed with ATLAS.ti software.
Results
Half of registrars did not find the portfolio clear, practical or feasible. Workshops on portfolio use, learning, and supervision were supported, and brief dedicated time daily for reflection and writing. Most supervisors felt the portfolio reflected an accurate picture of learning, but just over half of registrars agreed. While the portfolio helped with reflection on learning, participants were less convinced about how it helped them plan further learning. Supervisors graded most rotations, suggesting understanding the summative aspect, while only 61% of registrars reflected on rotations, suggesting the formative aspects are not yet optimally utilised. Poor feedback, the need for protected academic time, and pressure of service delivery impacting negatively on learning.
Conclusion
This first introduction of a national portfolio for postgraduate training in family medicine in South Africa faces challenges similar to those in other countries. Acceptability of the portfolio relates to a clear purpose and guide, flexible format with tools available in the workplace, and appreciating the changing educational environment from university-based to national assessments. The role of the supervisor in direct observations of the registrar and dedicated educational meetings, giving feedback and support, cannot be overemphasized.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-101
PMCID: PMC3733709  PMID: 23885806
6.  Implementing Standards 2007 to Improve Students’ Preparation for Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences 
Objective
To examine the impact of implementation of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's (ACPE's) Standards 2007 on pharmacy students’ preparation for their first advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE).
Design
The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum was altered to include introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE), second-year therapeutics, classroom integration of practice experiences, more biomedical sciences, an electronic portfolio system, life-long learning exercises, and additional content based on Appendix B of Standards 2007. Curricular outcomes and the assessment plan also were revised based on Standards 2007.
Assessment
To evaluate the impact of these changes to the curriculum, faculty members rated 9 behaviors of students observed during the third week of their first APPE and compared their scores with those of students who were evaluated in 2004 before the curriculum had been revised. Students completing the revised curriculum performed all 9 behaviors more often and had a better average score than students evaluated in 2004.
Conclusion
Curricular revisions implemented to address ACPE Standards 2007 were associated with positive clinical behaviors in students beginning their experiential education.
PMCID: PMC3138340  PMID: 21769150
Standards 2007; accreditation; assessment; curriculum; Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education; advanced pharmacy practice experience
7.  Web-based Portfolios for Pharmaceutical Care Plans During Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences 
Objective
To implement and assess a Web-based patient care portfolio system for development of pharmaceutical care plans by students completing advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) throughout a statewide preceptor network.
Design
Using a Web database, students in APPEs documented 6 patient cases within 5 disease state categories. Through discussion of the disease states and inclusion of patient information such as problems, desired outcomes, and interventions, a complete pharmaceutical care plan was developed for each patient.
Assessment
Student interventions were compared by geographical regions to assess continuity of patient care activities by students. Additionally, students completed an evaluation of the portfolio course to provide feedback on the portfolio process. Students documented an average of 1.8 therapeutic interventions per patient case and documented interventions in all geographical regions. The majority of students indicated that the portfolio process improved their ability to develop a pharmaceutical care plan.
Conclusion
The Web-based patient care portfolio process assisted with documentation of compliance with Accreditation Council of Pharmacy Education (ACPE) standards and College of Pharmacy Competency Statements. Students indicated the portfolio process was beneficial in developing skills needed for creating pharmaceutical care plans.
PMCID: PMC2879110  PMID: 20585420
portfolio; pharmaceutical care; advanced pharmacy practice experience; Web; experiential education
8.  Electronic Reflective Student Portfolios to Demonstrate Achievement of Ability-based Outcomes During Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences 
Objectives
To demonstrate achievement of ability-based outcomes through a structured review of electronic student portfolios in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) program.
Design
One hundred thirty-eight students produced electronic portfolios containing select work products from APPEs, including a self-assessment reflective essay that demonstrated achievement of course manual-specified ability-based outcomes.
Assessment
Through portfolio submissions, all students demonstrated the achievement of ability-based outcomes for providing pharmaceutical care, evaluating the literature, and managing the medication use system with patient case reports most frequently submitted. The rubric review of self-reflective essays addressed student learning through APPEs and continuing professional development plans.
Conclusion
The electronic portfolio with reflective essay proved to be a useful vehicle to demonstrate achievement of ability-based outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2907844  PMID: 20798806
electronic reflective portfolio; APPE evaluation; assessment rubric; ability-based outcomes; standards 2007
9.  Making the Grade in a Portfolio-Based System: Student Performance and the Student Perspective 
Assessment is such an integral part of the educational system that we rarely reflect on its value and impact. Portfolios have gained in popularity, but much attention has emphasized the end-user and portfolio assessment. Here we focus on the portfolio creator (the student) and examine whether their educational needs are met with such an assessment method. This study aims to investigate how assessment practices influence classroom performance and the learning experience of the student in a graduate education setting. Studied were 33 medical students at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, a program utilizing a portfolio-based system. The students may elect to simultaneously enroll in a Masters program; however, these programs employ traditional letter grades. Thus creating a unique opportunity to assess 25 portfolio only (P) students and 8 portfolio and grade (PG) students concurrently taking a course that counts for both programs. Classroom performance was measured via a comprehensive evaluation where the PG students scored modestly better (median total scores, 72% P vs. 76% PG). Additionally, a survey was conducted to gain insight into student’s perspective on how assessment method impacts the learning experience. The students in the PG group (those receiving a grade) reported increased stress but greater affirmation and self-assurance regarding their knowledge and skill mastery. Incorporation of such affirmation remains a challenge for portfolio-based systems and an area for investigation and improvement.
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00155
PMCID: PMC3613592  PMID: 23565103
assessment; portfolio; grading; student performance; student perspective
10.  Capacity of Hospitals to Partner with Academia to Meet Experiential Education Requirements for Pharmacy Students 
Purpose
Current hospital and health-system participation in and the future capacity for experiential education for pharmacy students was investigated.
Methods
An online survey of ASHP members identified as U.S. pharmacy directors was conducted to assess their current and future involvement in partnering with colleges and schools to meet the experiential education requirements for doctor of pharmacy students and the current status of the student learning experiences. Questionnaire items examined the factors on which expanded involvement in experiential education would depend, the nature of support provided by colleges and schools, the types of experiences available for students, respondents' perceptions of factors influencing the quality of experiential education, the value of experiential education to the sites, respondents' challenges and concerns about experiential education, and respondents' current capacity and projections for introductory and advanced experiences through 2012.
Results
Data from 549 respondents were analyzed. Most respondents indicated that they had conducted advanced experiences for their 2007 graduates and anticipated that they would continue to do so. Among the top challenges identified regarding advanced experiences were concerns about time to serve and be trained as preceptors and a lack of standardization and coordination among colleges and schools. Hospitals forecasting their future capacity to accommodate students indicated that their projections were highly dependent on the number of pharmacists at their hospitals. Many respondents noted that their capacity projections were tied to their ability to expand clinical services at their hospitals.
Conclusion
A survey of pharmacy directors suggested an ability of U.S. hospitals to conduct advanced experiential education opportunities for pharmacy students through 2012 and to expand introductory experiences.
PMCID: PMC2630142  PMID: 19214271
curriculum; data collection; education; pharmaceutical; pharmacy; institutional; hospital; pharmacy
11.  A Student Orientation Program to Build a Community of Learners 
Objectives
To describe and evaluate a new student orientation program designed to lay the foundations for a community of learners.
Design
A weeklong orientation program structured as the first week of an 18-week fall semester was held for the first-professional year class. Each of the activities supported program objectives and developed elements of a community of learners.
Assessment
Students' reflective portfolios, daily evaluations and final program evaluations provided evidence of development of a community of learners. Positive student observations included the use of technology, a discussion of the curriculum and experiential education, the use of reflective portfolios, and presentations from pharmacy practitioners. Students also appreciated becoming acquainted with the faculty, staff, and their peers in a non-threatening atmosphere. Some of the aspects rated as least helpful were the learning styles exercise, library tour, history of pharmacy session, and the overall length of the orientation.
Summary
A model for a new student orientation program that builds the foundations for the development of a community of learning, which is vital to preparing students to provide pharmaceutical care in interdisciplinary teams and become critical thinkers, was successfully established. This model could be implemented at other schools of pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC1847557  PMID: 17429513
12.  A Model for Partnering First-Year Student Pharmacists With Community-Based Older Adults 
Objectives. To design, integrate, and assess the effectiveness of an introductory pharmacy practice experience intended to redefine first-year student pharmacists’ views on aging and medication use through their work with a healthy, community-based older-adult population.
Design. All students (N = 273) completed live skills training in an 8-hour boot camp provided during orientation week. Teams were assigned an independently living senior partner, completed 10 visits and reflections, and documented health-related information using an electronic portfolio (e-portfolio).
Assessment. As determined by pre- and post-experience survey instruments, students gained significant confidence in 7 skill areas related to communication, medication interviews, involving the partner in health care, and applying patient-care skills. Student reflections, in-class presentations, and e-portfolios documented that personal attitudes toward seniors changed over time. Senior partners enjoyed mentoring and interacting with students and many experienced health improvements as a result of the interaction.
Conclusions. The model for partnering first-year student pharmacists with community-based older adults improved students’ skills and fostered their connections to pharmacist roles and growth as person-centered providers.
doi:10.5688/ajpe76585
PMCID: PMC3386036  PMID: 22761526
geriatrics; senior partner; senior mentor; introductory pharmacy practice experience
13.  Evaluating Practice-Based Learning and Improvement: Efforts to Improve Acceptance of Portfolios 
Introduction
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) recommends resident portfolios as 1 method for assessing competence in practice-based learning and improvement. In July 2005, when anesthesiology residents in our department were required to start a portfolio, the residents and their faculty advisors did not readily accept this new requirement. Intensive education efforts addressing the goals and importance of portfolios were undertaken. We hypothesized that these educational efforts improved acceptance of the portfolio and retrospectively audited the portfolio evaluation forms completed by faculty advisors.
Methods
Intensive education about the goals and importance of portfolios began in January 2006, including presentations at departmental conferences and one-on-one education sessions. Faculty advisors were instructed to evaluate each resident's portfolio and complete a review form. We retrospectively collected data to determine the percentage of review forms completed by faculty. The portfolio reviews also assessed the percentage of 10 required portfolio components residents had completed.
Results
Portfolio review forms were completed by faculty advisors for 13% (5/38) of residents during the first advisor-advisee meeting in December 2005. Initiation of intensive education efforts significantly improved compliance, with review forms completed for 68% (26/38) of residents in May 2006 (P < .0001) and 95% (36/38) in December 2006 (P < .0001). Residents also significantly improved the completeness of portfolios between May and December of 2006.
Discussion
Portfolios are considered a best methods technique by the ACGME for evaluation of practice-based learning and improvment. We have found that intensive education about the goals and importance of portfolios can enhance acceptance of this evaluation tool, resulting in improved compliance in completion and evaluation of portfolios.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-10-00010.1
PMCID: PMC3010953  PMID: 22132291
14.  Continuing Education Course to Attain Collaborative Comprehensive Medication Review Competencies 
Objective
To implement a long-term continuing education course for pharmacy practitioners to acquire competency in and accreditation for conducting collaborative comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs).
Design
A 1½- year curriculum for practicing pharmacists that combined distance learning (using e-learning tools) and face-to-face learning was created. The training consisted of 5 modules: (1) Multidisciplinary Collaboration; (2) Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapy; (3) Rational Pharmacotherapy; (4) CMR Tools; and (5) Optional Studies.
Assessment
The curriculum and participants' learning were evaluated using essays and learning diaries. At the end of the course, students submitted portfolios and completed an Internet-based survey instrument. Almost all respondents (92%) indicated their educational needs had been met by the course and 68% indicated they would conduct CMRs in their practice. The most important factors facilitating learning were working with peers and in small groups. Factors preventing learning were mostly related to time constraints.
Conclusion
Comprehensive medication review competencies were established by a 1½- year continuing education curriculum that combined different teaching methods and experiential learning. Peer support was greatly appreciated as a facilitator of learning by course participants.
PMCID: PMC2769530  PMID: 19885077
medication review; continuing education; experiential learning; distance education
15.  Use of Reflective Portfolios in Health Sciences Education 
Reflective portfolios are a collection of evidence that through critical reflection on its contents demonstrate achievement as well as personal and professional development. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on the use of reflective portfolios and to develop a set of factors to guide schools and colleges of pharmacy as they implement reflective portfolios into their respective curricula as stated in Standards 2007.
PMCID: PMC1858617  PMID: 17533443
reflective portfolios; assessment; Standards 2007
16.  Portfolios: An Alternative Method of Student and Program Assessment 
Journal of Athletic Training  1995;30(4):338-341.
The use of performance-based evaluation and alternative assessment techniques has become essential for curriculum programs seeking Commission of Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) accreditation. In athletic training education, few assessment models exist to assess student performance over the entire course of their educational program. This article describes a model of assessment-a student athletic training portfolio of “best works.” The portfolio can serve as a method to assess student development and to assess program effectiveness. The goals of the program include purposes specific to the five NATA performance domains. In addition, four types of portfolio evidence are described: artifacts, attestations, productions, and reproductions. Quality assignments and projects completed by students as they progress through a six-semester program are identified relative to the type of evidence and the domain(s) they represent. The portfolio assists with student development, provides feedback for curriculum planning, allows for student/faculty collaboration and “coaching” of the student, and assists with job searching. This information will serve as a useful model for those athletic training programs looking for an alternative method of assessing student and program outcomes.
PMCID: PMC1318005  PMID: 16558359
17.  A Mentor-Based Portfolio Program to Evaluate Pharmacy Students’ Self-Assessment Skills 
Objective. To evaluate pharmacy students' self-assessment skills with an electronic portfolio program using mentor evaluators.
Design. First-year (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students used online portfolios that required self-assessments of specific graded class assignments. Using a rubric, faculty and alumni mentors evaluated students' self-assessments and provided feedback.
Assessment. Eighty-four P1 students, 74 P2 students, and 59 mentors participated in the portfolio program during 2010-2011. Both student groups performed well overall, with only a small number of resubmissions required. P1 students showed significant improvements across semesters for 2 of the self-assessment questions; P2 students' scores did not differ significantly. The P1 scores were significantly higher than P2 scores for 3 questions during spring 2011. Mentors and students had similar levels of agreement with the extent to which students put forth their best effort on the self-assessments.
Conclusion. An electronic portfolio using mentors based inside and outside the school provided students with many opportunities to practice their self-assessment skills. This system represents a useful method of incorporating self-assessments into the curriculum that allows for feedback to be provided to the students.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77481
PMCID: PMC3663635  PMID: 23716749
portfolio; assessment; self-assessment; professional development; mentor
18.  The Role of Curriculum Committees in Pharmacy Education 
Objective. To conduct a follow-up survey of curriculum committee chairs in US colleges and schools of pharmacy to describe current committee structures and functions and determine whether changes have occurred over time.
Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study design using a 30-item survey instrument regarding the structure, function, and charges of curriculum committees was sent to 100 curriculum committee chairs. Several new variables were added to the questionnaire to explore the use of systematic reviews, oversight of experiential education, and the impact of accreditation standards on work focus.
Results. Eighty-five chairs responded. Curriculum committees are on average 1 person larger, less likely to have a student vote, more likely to have formal charges, and more likely to be involved in implementing an outcomes-based curriculum compared with 1994. Committees have shifted their work focus from review of curricular content to curricular revision.
Conclusions. Curriculum committees continue to evolve as they respond to changes in pharmacy education and accreditation standards.
doi:10.5688/ajpe758154
PMCID: PMC3220335  PMID: 22102744
curriculum committee; curriculum; pharmacy education; survey
19.  Establishing a Portfolio of Quality-Improvement Projects in Pediatric Surgery through Advanced Improvement Leadership Systems 
The Permanente Journal  2013;17(4):41-46.
Formal quality-improvement (QI) projects require that participants are educated in QI methods to provide them with the capability to carry out successful, meaningful work. However, orchestrating a portfolio of projects that addresses the strategic mission of the institution requires an extension of basic QI training to provide the division or business unit with the capacity to successfully develop and manage the portfolio. Advanced Improvement Leadership Systems is a program to help units create a meaningful portfolio. This program, used by the Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, helped establish a portfolio of targeted QI projects designed to achieve outstanding outcomes at competitive costs in multiple clinical areas aligned with the institution’s strategic goals (improve disease-based outcomes, patient safety, flow, and patient and family experience). These objectives are addressed in an institutional strategic plan built around 5 core areas: Safety, Productivity, Care Coordination and Outcomes, Patient and Family Experience, and Value. By combining the portfolio of QI projects with improvements in the divisional infrastructure, effective improvement efforts were realized throughout the division. In the 9 months following the program, divisional capability resulted in a 16.5% increase (5.7% to 22.2%) of formally trained staff working on 10 QI teams. Concurrently, a leadership team, designed to coordinate projects, remove barriers, and provide technical support, provided the capacity to pursue this ongoing effort. The Advanced Improvement Leadership Systems program increased the Division’s efficiency and effectiveness in pursing the QI mission that is integral at our hospital.
doi:10.7812/TPP/13-035
PMCID: PMC3854808  PMID: 24361020
20.  The Structured Interview and Interviewer Training in the Admissions Process 
Objectives
To determine the extent to which the structured interview is used in the PharmD admissions process in US colleges and schools of pharmacy, and the prevalence and content of interviewer training.
Methods
A survey instrument consisting of 7 questions regarding interviews and interviewer training was sent to 92 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States that were accredited or seeking accreditation.
Results
Sixty survey instruments (65% response rate) were returned. The majority of the schools that responded (80%) used interviews as part of the PharmD admissions process. Of the schools that used an interview as part of the admissions process, 86% provided some type of interviewer training and 13% used a set of predefined questions in admissions interviews.
Conclusions
Most colleges and schools of pharmacy use some components of the structured interview in the PharmD admissions process; however, training for interviewers varies widely among colleges and schools of pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC2064881  PMID: 17998980
structured interview; interview; interviewer training; admissions
21.  My First Patient Program to Introduce First-Year Pharmacy Students to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 
Objectives
To implement and assess the effectiveness of a program to teach pharmacy students the importance of taking personal responsibility for their health.
Design
The My First Patient Program was created and lectures were incorporated into an existing first-year course to introduce the concepts of health beliefs, behavior modification, stress management, substance abuse, and nutrition. Each student received a comprehensive health screening and health risk assessment which they used to develop a personal health portfolio and identify strategies to attain and/or maintain their personal health goals.
Assessment
Student learning was assessed through written assignments and student reflections, follow-up surveys, and course evaluations. Students' attainment of health goals and their ability to identify their personal health status illustrated the positive impact of the program.
Conclusion
This program serves as a model for colleges and schools of pharmacy and for other health professions in the instruction of health promotion, disease prevention, and behavior modification.
PMCID: PMC2769541  PMID: 19885066
health promotion; disease prevention; behavior change
22.  Development of a portfolio of learning for postgraduate family medicine training in South Africa: a Delphi study 
BMC Family Practice  2012;13:11.
Background
Within the 52 health districts in South Africa, the family physician is seen as the clinical leader within a multi-professional district health team. Family physicians must be competent to meet 90% of the health needs of the communities in their districts. The eight university departments of Family Medicine have identified five unit standards, broken down into 85 training outcomes, for postgraduate training. The family medicine registrar must prove at the end of training that all the required training outcomes have been attained. District health managers must be assured that the family physician is competent to deliver the expected service. The Colleges of Medicine of South Africa (CMSA) require a portfolio to be submitted as part of the uniform assessment of all registrars applying to write the national fellowship examinations. This study aimed to achieve a consensus on the contents and principles of the first national portfolio for use in family medicine training in South Africa.
Methods
A workshop held at the WONCA Africa Regional Conference in 2009 explored the purpose and broad contents of the portfolio. The 85 training outcomes, ideas from the WONCA workshop, the literature, and existing portfolios in the various universities were used to develop a questionnaire that was tested for content validity by a panel of 31 experts in family medicine in South Africa, via the Delphi technique in four rounds. Eighty five content items (national learning outcomes) and 27 principles were tested. Consensus was defined as 70% agreement. For those items that the panel thought should be included, they were also asked how to provide evidence for the specific item in the portfolio, and how to assess that evidence.
Results
Consensus was reached on 61 of the 85 national learning outcomes. The panel recommended that 50 be assessed by the portfolio and 11 should not be. No consensus could be reached on the remaining 24 outcomes and these were also omitted from the portfolio. The panel recommended that various types of evidence be included in the portfolio. The panel supported 26 of the 27 principles, but could not reach consensus on whether the portfolio should reflect on the relationship between the supervisor and registrar.
Conclusion
A portfolio was developed and distributed to the eight departments of Family Medicine in South Africa, and the CMSA, to be further tested in implementation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-13-11
PMCID: PMC3317832  PMID: 22385468
23.  Science of Safety Topic Coverage in Experiential Education in US and Taiwan Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To compare the science of safety (SoS) topic coverage and associated student competencies in the experiential education curricula of colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Taiwan.
Methods. The experiential education director, assistant director, or coordinator at a random sample of 34 US colleges and schools of pharmacy and all 7 Taiwan schools of pharmacy were interviewed and then asked to complete an Internet-based survey instrument.
Results. Faculty members in both countries perceived that experiential curricula were focused on the postmarketing phase of the SoS, and that there is a need for the pharmacy experiential curricula to be standardized in order to fill SoS coverage gaps. Inter-country differences in experiential SoS coverage were noted in topics included for safety biomarkers that signal potential for drug-induced problems and pharmacogenomics.
Conclusions. Experiential SoS topic coverage and student ability gaps were perceived within and between US and Taiwan colleges and schools of pharmacy.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7510202
PMCID: PMC3279028  PMID: 22345721
science of safety; experiential education; survey research; international
24.  Survey of Colleges of Pharmacy to Assess Preparation for and Promotion of Residency Training 
Objective
To assess the prevalence of curricular programs or other structured activities designed to prepare students for and to promote residency training.
Methods
An electronic survey instrument containing 12 questions regarding institutional demographics and activities related to pharmacy student preparation for residency training was sent to administrators of all US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results
Ninety-one survey instruments were e-mailed to US colleges and schools of pharmacy administrators, and an overall response rate of 78% was attained. Twenty-two percent of respondents identified a structured curricular program to prepare students for postgraduate training. In addition, informal programs or informational sessions varying in scope and content were offered by many colleges and schools to prepare students for residency training.
Conclusion
Many of the US colleges and schools of pharmacy reported structured activities or programs that promote residency training to students. Ten programs had a designated clinical-track curriculum.
PMCID: PMC2865409  PMID: 20498736
students; curriculum; residency; survey
25.  New Paradigm in Training of Undergraduate Clinical Skills: the NEPTUNE-CS project at the Split University School of Medicine 
Croatian Medical Journal  2010;51(5):373-380.
Clinical skills’ training is arguably the weakest point in medical schools’ curriculum. This study briefly describes how we at the Split University School of Medicine cope with this problem. We consider that, over the last decades, a considerable advancement in teaching methodologies, tools, and assessment of students has been made. However, there are many unresolved issues, most notably: (i) the institutional value system, impeding the motivation of the teaching staff; (ii) lack of a strong mentoring system; (iii) organization, timing, and placement of training in the curriculum; (iv) lack of publications pertinent to training; and (v) unwillingness of patients to participate in student training. To improve the existing training models we suggest increased institutional awareness of obstacles, as well as willingness to develop mechanisms for increasing the motivation of faculty. It is necessary to introduce changes in the structure and timing of training and to complement it with a catalog, practicum, and portfolio of clinical skills. At Split University School of Medicine, we developed a new paradigm aimed to improve the teaching of clinical skills called “Neptune-CSS,” which stands for New Paradigm in Training of Undergraduate Clinical Skills in Split.
doi:10.3325/cmj.2010.51.373
PMCID: PMC2969132  PMID: 20960586

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