Urinary screening tests for early detection of renal diseases in asymptomatic school children and adolescents are important in the detection of silent renal diseases.
The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of occult renal diseases by dipstick test (reagent strips) in asymptomatic Nepalese children.
Patients and Methods
A total of 2,243 school children, aged 5–15 years, were screened for urinary abnormalities using dipstick test screening. The children who tested positive in the first screening were re-tested after 2–4 weeks.
In the first screening, 123 children (5.5%) tested positive for isolated hematuria and proteinuria and for combined hematuria and proteinuria. Of these children, 16 (0.71%) cases tested positive in a second screening. Subsequently, 1 child from the secondary screening group was lost to follow up, 5 tested normal and 10 revealed abnormalities. Glomerulonephritis was the most commonly detected disorder (50%).
Urinary screening was found to be useful in identifying occult renal diseases in asymptomatic children. Urinary screening would therefore not only help in early detection but also in the prevention of the deterioration of renal function later in life.
Urinary Screening; School Children; Renal Diseases
It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) infections in sickle cell disease if left untreated. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ASB, in a cohort of patients with SCD.
This is a cross-sectional study of patients in the Jamaican Sickle Cell Cohort. Aseptically collected mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were obtained from 266 patients for urinalysis, culture and sensitivity analysis. Proteinuria was measured by urine dipsticks. Individuals with abnormal urine culture results had repeat urine culture. Serum creatinine was measured and steady state haematology and uric acid concentrations were obtained from clinical records. This was completed at a primary care health clinic dedicated to sickle cell diseases in Kingston, Jamaica. There were 133 males and 133 females in the sample studied. The mean age (mean ± sd) of participants was 26.6 ± 2.5 years. The main outcome measures were the culture of ≥ 105 colony forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter of urine from a MSU specimen on a single occasion (probable ASB) or on consecutive occasions (confirmed ASB).
Of the 266 urines collected, 234 were sterile and 29 had significant bacteriuria yielding a prevalence of probable ASB of 10.9% (29/266). Fourteen patients had confirmed ASB (prevalence 5.3%) of which 13 had pyuria. Controlling for genotype, females were 14.7 times more likely to have confirmed ASB compared to males (95%CI 1.8 to 121.0). The number of recorded visits for symptomatic UTI was increased by a factor of 2.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 4.5, p < 0.005) but serum creatinine, uric acid and haematology values were not different in patients with confirmed ASB compared with those with sterile urine. There was no association with history of gram negative sepsis.
ASB is a significant problem in individuals with SCD and may be the source of pathogens in UTI. However, further research is needed to determine the clinical significance of ASB in SCD.
There is no evidence surrounding the benefits, effects or clinical outcomes treating asymptomatic urinary tract colonisation. A series of 558 patients undergoing elective admission for orthopaedic surgery were recruited prior to surgery and were screened for urinary tract infection (UTI). Patients had their urine dipstick tested and positive samples were sent for culture and microscopy. Patients with a positive urine culture were treated with antibiotics prior to surgery; 85% of dipsticks tested were positive, while only 7% of the urine samples were culture positive. Over 36% of patients with a pre-operative UTI show some form of post-operative delayed wound healing or confirmed infection versus 16% in the other subgroup giving a relative risk of wound complications of 2:1 (p < 0.02). We have established that patients who present to pre-admission with urinary tract colonisation are a high risk subgroup for wound infection post-operatively.
The protein creatinine index in early morning and random urine specimens was compared with the 24 hour urinary excretion of protein in normal subjects and outpatients with abnormal proteinuria. A protein creatinine index (defined as (mg protein/1 divided by creatinine mmol/1) times 10) below 125 in a random specimen excluded abnormal proteinuria, whereas an index of more than 136 indicated the presence of pathological proteinuria. The index for random specimens provided a useful semiquantitative assessment of the 24 hour excretion of protein (mg protein/24 hours), but the index for early morning specimens was less reliable. Errors with Albustix were partly due to intra and inter observer variations in the interpretation of the colour formed when compared with the chart provided. It is proposed that the protein creatinine index on random urine samples should be used to supplement dipsticks in screening for proteinuria in cases where misclassification would be serious.
During the statutory medical examination on entrance to primary school 943 5-year-old girls were screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria. A prevalence of 2·1% was found. None of the 20 children with asymptomatic bacteriuria was recognized by the parents as having a urinary infection, though 14 of them had symptoms of lower urinary tract infection. In 16 of the children with bacteriuria either the intravenous pyelogram or the micturating cystogram was abnormal. In 12 the height and weight were below the 25th percentile, and in this group the most severe radiological changes were found.
Though the significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria is unknown, these results confirm that in this age group it is often associated with a urinary tract abnormality.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence and relevance of dipstick haematuria in a group of men in the community. DESIGN--Prospective study of elderly men invited to attend a health centre for urine screening as part of a health check. SETTING--An inner city health centre in Leeds. SUBJECTS--578 Of 855 men aged 60-85 responding to an invitation to participate. INTERVENTIONS--The subjects had their urine tested with a dipstick (Multistix) for the presence of blood and then tested their urine once a week for the next 10 weeks. Those with one or more positive test results were offered full urological investigation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--The prevalence of urological disease in those subjects with dipstick haematuria. RESULTS--78 Men (13%) had dipstick haematuria on a single test and a further 54 (9%) had evidence of dipstick haematuria when testing their urine once a week during a subsequent 10 week period. Investigation of 87 men disclosed urological disease in 45, including four with a bladder tumour and seven with epithelial dysplasia. CONCLUSION--Dipstick haematuria is a common incidental finding in men over 60 and is associated with appreciable urological disease. The introduction of less invasive methods of investigation, particularly flexible cystoscopy and ultrasonography, has made investigation of these patients simple and safe and makes screening for bladder cancer in the community more feasible.
1000 children between the ages of 3 months and 5 years were screened for urinary tract infection using a dipslide technique. Significant or doubtful cultures were obtained in 13%, the rate being highest (47%) in children below the age of one year. Higher rates were obtained in girls (16%) than in boys (11%). After serial dipslide and urine examinations, 9 children were considered to have a urinary tract infection. 2 had radiological abnormalities.
In view of the uncertainty regarding the effect of treatment on the long-term prognosis of children with asymptomatic bacteriuria, it is suggested that the results of controlled studies should be awaited before any recommendation is made concerning the urinary screening of this age group.
Midstream urine samples were examined by phase-contrast microscopy before and immediately after 48 subjects participated in a long-distance run. Minor abnormalities were found in six samples before exercise. Eighteen subjects developed proteinuria and five haematuria on dipstick testing after exercise. Forty-four subjects had increased urinary red-cell counts after exercise; of these, 33 had counts above the normal range (800/ml). In all subjects urinary red cells were dysmorphic both before and after exercise, indicating a glomerular source. Ten subjects developed red-cell casts and 42 showed an increase in hyaline and hyaline-granular casts after exercise. There were modest increases in urinary white-cell counts in 35 subjects but little change in urine pH or osmolality with exercise. This study confirms that urinary red-cell counts commonly increase appreciably after exercise. The dysmorphic appearance of the red cells together with the presence of red-cell casts indicates a glomerular source for this common form of exercise haematuria.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may result in long term renal dysfunction. The prevalence, potential risk factors, and clinical significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) were investigated in 196 Nigerian children with SCA in stable state. These children had clinical evaluation and assessment of their mid-stream urine (MSU) for pyuria, culture, and sensitivity tests; urinalysis for proteinuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hematocrit, serum creatinine and uric acid estimation. Children with confirmed ASB were compared with those without ASB. Those with confirmed ASB were monitored for 6 months for persistence of significant growth, development of symptomatic UTI, and evaluation of renal functions. The prevalence of probable and confirmed ASB in this cohort of SCA children were 12.2% and 6.6%, respectively. Confirmed ASB was more prevalent among older (P = 0.046) and female (P = 0.003) SCA children, particularly those with pyuria (odd Ratio, OR = 5.4, 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.7-11.0, P < 0.001) and proteinuria (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 3.9-8.7, P = 0.006). Previous symptomatic UTI was not associated with ASB. Also, the mean eGFR, serum creatinine, and uric acid were not different in the group with ASB and those without ASB (P > 0.05). At the end of 6 month follow-up, two (15.4%) of the 13 children with ASB had persistence of significant growth, but none develop symptomatic UTI. Also, none of the two with persistent ASB had hypertension or deranged renal function. ASB is a significant problem in older age female SCA children, although renal functions were not different among those with and without ASB. A large scale randomized placebo-controlled trial of conventional treatment for ASB in SCA is advocated to define its long-term clinical significance.
Asymptomatic; bacteriuria; children; nigerian; pyuria; sickle cell anaemia
Background: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, and it is vital to diagnosis the condition as early as possible. Proteinuria is an important symptom of preeclampsia, and repeated urine analysis to screen for the condition is part of the standard antenatal care. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between 4- and 24-hour urine total protein values to examine whether the 4-hour urine samples could be used for the diagnosis of proteinuria in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 110 pregnant (after gestational week 20 of pregnancy) patients who were hypertensive (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg) and had proteinuria as defined by positive urinary protein of at least 1+ in dipstick. Patients' urine samples were collected over 24 hours; the first 4 hours were collected separately from the next 20-hours. Patients, who did not collect the 24-hour urine, were excluded from the study. One hundred patients met the criteria, and were included in the study. The urine volume, total protein and creatinine levels of 4- and 24-hours samples were measured. The correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour samples was examined using Pearson correlation test.
Results: Of the 100 patients, 42 had no proteinuria, 44 had mild proteinuria, and 14 had severe proteinuria. The urine protein values of 4-hour samples correlated with those of the 24-hours samples for patients with mild and severe forms of the disease (P<0.001, r=0.86).
Conclusion: This study showed there was a correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour urine proteins. The finding indicates that a random 4-hour sample might be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria.
Preeclampsia; proteinuria; hypertension in pregnancy
Many serious and potentially treatable diseases of the urinary tract may have haematuria as their only manifestation. However, asymptomatic microscopic haematuria detected by dipstick testing may be seen in up to 16% of screening populations. The great majority of such cases will have no sinister underlying cause, particularly in those under 40 years of age, and so the schedule of further investigations, some of which may be invasive, time-consuming and expensive, needs to be rationalised. In addition, the increasing popularity of 'fast track' clinics for the investigation of haematuria enhances the need for a clear strategy of investigation. Analysis of the epidemiology of asymptomatic haematuria and its causes combined with a consideration of the risk-benefit profile of the available investigations, makes it possible to set out an algorithm for the initial management of this common finding. Careful clinical assessment and basic laboratory tests for renal function, analysis of the urinary sediment and cytological examination of the urine are followed by ultrasound and plain radiography of the urinary tract. Flexible cystoscopy under local anaesthetic is central to the algorithm in patients of all ages. The importance of a nephrological opinion and consideration of renal biopsy, especially in younger patients with other evidence of glomerular disease, is stressed. The role of intravenous urography in excluding pathology of the upper urinary tract, especially in patients over the age of 40, is also considered.
In the emergency department, hyperglycemic patients are screened for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) via a urine dipstick. In this prospective study, we compared the test characteristics of point-of-care β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) analysis with the urine dipstick.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Emergency-department patients with blood glucose ≥250 mg/dL had urine dipstick, chemistry panel, venous blood gas, and capillary β-OHB measurements. DKA was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association criteria.
Of 516 hyperglycemic subjects, 54 had DKA. The urine dipstick had a sensitivity of 98.1% (95% CI 90.1–100), a specificity of 35.1% (30.7–39.6), a positive predictive value of 15% (11.5–19.2), and a negative predictive value of 99.4% (96.6–100) for DKA. Using the manufacturer-suggested cutoff of >1.5 mmol/L, β-OHB had a sensitivity of 98.1% (90.1–100), a specificity of 78.6% (74.5–82.2), a positive predictive value of 34.9% (27.3–43), and a negative predictive value of 99.7% (98.5–100) for DKA.
Point-of-care β-OHB and the urine dipstick are equally sensitive for detecting DKA (98.1%). However, β-OHB is more specific (78.6 vs. 35.1%), offering the potential to significantly reduce unnecessary DKA work-ups among hyperglycemic patients in the emergency department.
Dipsticks are one of the most commonly used near-patient tests in primary care, but few clinical or dipstick algorithms have been rigorously developed.
To confirm whether previously documented clinical and dipstick variables and algorithms predict laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI).
Design of study
A total of 434 adult females with suspected lower UTI had bacteriuria assessed using the European Urinalysis Guidelines.
Sixty-six per cent of patients had confirmed UTI. The predictive values of nitrite, leucocyte esterase (+ or greater), and blood (haemolysed trace or greater) were confirmed (independent multivariate odds ratios = 5.6, 3.5, and 2.1 respectively). The previously developed dipstick rule — based on presence of nitrite, or both leucocytes and blood — was moderately sensitive (75%) but less specific (66%; positive predictive value [PPV] 81%, negative predictive value [NPV] 57%). Predictive values were improved by varying the cut-off point: NPV was 76% for all three dipstick results being negative; the PPV was 92% for having nitrite and either blood or leucocyte esterase. Urine offensive smell was not found to be predictive in this sample; for a clinical score using the remaining three predictive clinical features (urine cloudiness, dysuria, and nocturia), NPV was 67% for none of the features, and PPV was 82% for three features.
A clinical score is of limited value in increasing diagnostic precision. Dipstick results can modestly improve diagnostic precision but poorly rule out infection. Clinicians need strategies to take account of poor NPVs.
algorithms, clinical scoring; diagnosis, urinary tract infection; primary care; urinalysis
The dipstrip test for urinary nitrite is fairly unreliable in symptomatic urinary infections and only 104 (52%) of 200 symptomatic children with urinary infection attending an emergency department had a positive result. The test yielded positive results, however, in 83 of 100 outpatients with largely asymptomatic urinary infection attending a follow up clinic because of known predisposition to urinary infection. This difference was highly significant. The finding of urinary nitrite is highly specific for urinary infection and only 1% of 300 uninfected urine specimens gave a positive result. After addition of a broth culture of Escherichia coli to sterile urine incubation at 37 degrees C for four to six hours was required before the nitrite test yielded positive results. This suggests that frequency of micturition in urinary infection reduces the reliability of the nitrite test. On the other hand, the use of overnight, first morning urine specimens may further improve the sensitivity. If nitrite testing is used for screening for urinary infection at home, however, patients should be warned not to rely on a negative result in the presence of symptoms of urinary infection.
Little work has been done to assess the quality of health care and the use of evidence-based methods by occupational physicians in Belgium. Therefore, the main objective is to describe one aspect of occupational health assessments, namely the common use of dipstick urinalysis, and to compare the current practice with international guidelines.
A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 211 members of the Scientific Association of Occupational Medicine in the Dutch speaking part of Belgium.
A total of 120 occupational physicians responded, giving a response rate of 57%. Dipstick urinalysis was a routine investigation for the vast majority of physicians (69%). All test strips screened for protein and in 90% also for blood. Occupational health services offered clinical tests to satisfy customer wants as international guidelines do not recommend screening for haematuria and proteinuria in asymptomatic adults. A lack of knowledge concerning positive testing and referral criteria was demonstrated in almost half of the study participants.
Belgian occupational physicians still routinely perform dipstick testing although there is no evidence to support this screening in healthy workers. To practice evidence-based medicine, occupational physicians need more instruction and training. Development and implementation of more guidelines is not only of use for the individual practitioner, it may also enhance professionalization and efficiency of occupational health care.
Evidence-based practice; Occupational health; Guidelines; Health surveillance
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES--The leukocyte esterase (LE) strip is a useful tool for the screening of men with urethritis. In developing countries, where laboratory facilities are limited, and sexually transmitted diseases endemic, simple and inexpensive diagnostic tests which perform well, would be of great value. METHODS--Men presenting with urethritis to a referral clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi, Kenya participated in this cohort analytical study. First-void urine was collected for LE dipstick testing as part of the diagnostic work-up. The results of the dipstick measurement were compared with the laboratory detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. RESULTS--Of 200 men with symptoms of urethritis, 33 (17%) had a pathogen detected from the urethra or the urine. Chlamydia was detected in urine by PCR in 22 (11%), and gonorrhoea was cultured from the urethra in 11 (6%). Esterase activity (trace or greater) had a sensitivity of 76%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 42% and a negative predictive value of 94% for the presence of chlamydia or gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS--The use of the LE dipstick for the screening of men with symptomatic urethritis can improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the amount of empiric antimicrobial therapy. The low detection rate of chlamydia in these men with a clinical diagnosis of nongonococcal urethritis needs further study.
A positive dipstick urinalysis (i.e., leukocyte esterase test and/or nitrite test) did not reliably detect significant bacteriuria in 479 ambulatory women with suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection; 18.9% of the urine samples that demonstrated significant bacteriuria would have been rejected by the laboratory based on a negative urinalysis screen.
This study assesses the prevalence and determinants of postpartum depression (PPD). 396 women delivering in Beirut and a rural area (Beka’a Valley) were interviewed 24 hours and 3–5 months after delivery. During the latter visit, they were screened using the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. The overall prevalence of PPD was 21% but was significantly lower in Beirut than the Beka’a Valley (16% vs. 26%). Lack of social support and prenatal depression were significantly associated with PPD in both areas, whereas stressful life events, lifetime depression, vaginal delivery, little education, unemployment, and chronic health problems were significantly related to PPD in one of the areas. Prenatal depression and more than one chronic health problem increased significantly the risk of PPD. Caesarean section decreased the risk of PPD, particularly in Beirut but also in the Beka’a Valley. Caregivers should use pre- and postnatal assessments to identify and address women at risk of PPD.
Postpartum depression; psychosocial factors; obstetric factors; type of delivery
The most frequently used diagnostic methods were compared in a longitudinal survey with Leishmania infantum-infected asymptomatic dogs from an area of Italy where leishmaniasis is endemic. In February and March 2005, 845 asymptomatic dogs were tested by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), a dipstick assay (DS), and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for L. infantum and by IFAT for Ehrlichia canis. Dogs seronegative for L. infantum were further parasitologically evaluated by microscopic examination of lymph node tissues and PCR of skin samples. A total of 204 animals both serologically and parasitologically negative for L. infantum at the first sampling were enrolled in the trial and were further examined for canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in November 2005 (i.e., the end of the first sandfly season) and March 2006 and 2007 (1- and 2-year follow-ups, respectively). At the initial screening, the overall rates of L. infantum seroprevalence were 9.5% by IFAT, 17.1% by ELISA, and 9.8% by DS and the overall rate of E. canis seroprevalence was 15%. The rates of concordance between the results of IFAT and DS were almost equal, whereas the rate of concordance between the results of IFAT and DS and those of the ELISA was lower. The results of the annual incidence of Leishmania infection were variable, depending on the test employed, with the highest values registered for PCR (i.e., 5.7% and 11.4% at the 1- and 2-year follow-ups, respectively), followed by ELISA, IFAT, and DS. Over the 2 years of observation, 55 animals (i.e., 26.9%) became positive for L. infantum by one or more diagnostic tests at different follow-up times, with 12.7% showing clinical signs related to CanL, while the remaining 87.3% were asymptomatic. A diagnostic scheme for assessment of the L. infantum infection status in asymptomatic dogs is suggested.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may have compromised kidney function arising from repeated vaso-occlusive episodes and recurrent symptomatic or asymptomatic UTI.
This study aims at determining the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and sensitivity pattern in children with homozygous sickle haemoglobin compared to children with normal haemoglobin.
One hundred children with SCA in stable state and 100 children with normal haemoglobin aged 2-12 years were screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria using midstream urine samples. The samples were incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24 hours within one hour of collection. Children whose urine samples yielded significant bacteriuria (≥105cfu/ml) on two consecutive cultures were regarded as having asymptomatic bacteriuria.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria was noted in 6% of children with SCA and occurred more in females than males (F: M = 5:1) when compared to 2% in children with normal haemoglobin. Escherichia coli was the commonest organism isolated (33.3%). All the organisms were resistant to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin while most were sensitive to gentamicin, ceftriaxone and the quinolones.
The risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria is three times more common in children with sickle cell anemia than in children with normal haemoglobin. It is therefore important to screen SCA patients, especially the females for UTI and should be treated according to the sensitivity result of the cultured organisms.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria; Children; Sickle cell anemia
Few studies have shown that calculation of protein/creatinine ratio in a spot urine sample correlates well with the 24-hour urine collection. A study was conducted to compare the accuracy of a spot urinary protein/creatinine ratio (P/C ratio) and urinary dipstick (albustix) with the 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP). Fifty samples from 26 patients were collected. This included a 24-hour urine sample followed by the next voided spot sample. The protein/creatinine ratio was calculated and dipstick (albustix) was performed on the spot sample. This was compared with the 24-hour urine protein excretion. The correlation between the three samples was statistically highly significant (p=<0.001) for all levels of proteinuria. The normal value of protein/creatinine ratio in Indian children was also estimated on 100 normal children attending the OPD and was calculated to be 0.053 (S.E of mean±0.003).
Proteinuria; spot urine sampling; nephrotic syndrome; mean
Nigeria is highly endemic for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, which most commonly manifests itself with blood in urine. To monitor the impact of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel for S. haematobium in Delta State, Nigeria, cross-sectional hematuria surveys of school children were conducted in 8 sentinel villages (SVs) at baseline (n=240) and after two annual doses (n=402). We assessed the comparability of three assessments of hematuria (child’s reported history, nurse visual diagnosis (NVD) and dipstick) to determine the need for mass treatment. Dipstick was considered to be the gold standard. Prior to treatment, history and NVD each identified only the 3 most highly prevalent SVs, and overall this represented just 37.5% of the 8 SVs in need of treatment. Following treatment, after dipstick prevalence decreased by 88.5% (p<0.001), and history and NVD identified only one of two villages still needing treatment. The study suggests that dipsticks should be the recommended method for launching and monitoring mass treatment for S. haematobium.
Schistosomiasis; Praziquantel; Mass Treatment; hematuria; monitoring; Nigeria
Few studies have evaluated dipstick urinalysis for elderly and practically none present confidence intervals. Furthermore, most previous studies combine all bacteria species in a "positive culture". Thus, their evaluation may be inappropriate due to Yule-Simpson's paradox. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of dipstick urinalysis for the elderly in nursing homes.
In this cross-sectional study voided urine specimens were collected from 651 elderly individuals in nursing homes. Dipstick urinalysis for nitrite, leukocyte esterase and urine culture were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Visual readings were compared to readings with a urine chemistry analyzer.
207/651 (32%) of urine cultures showed growth of a potentially pathogenic bacterium. Combining the two dipsticks improved test characteristics slightly compared to using only one of the dipsticks. When both dipsticks are negative, presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria can be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 88 (84–92)%. Visual and analyzer readings had acceptable agreement.
When investigating for bacteriuria in elderly people at nursing homes we suggest nitrite and leukocyte esterase dipstick be combined. There are no clinically relevant differences between visual and analyzer dipstick readings. When dipstick urinalysis for nitrite and leukocyte esterase are both negative it is unlikely that the urine culture will show growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and in a patient with an uncomplicated illness further testing is unnecessary.
Belgium, and especially the northern region called Flanders, has been a center of expertise in cochlear implants and early hearing screening for many years. Some of their surgeons and engineers were pioneers in the development of cochlear implants and in 1998 Flanders was the first region in Europe to implement a universal hearing screening program for all neonates. The Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance has reimbursed cochlear implants in children and adults since 1994 and bilateral implantation in children under the age of 12 years since February 2010. These deaf children, screened and implanted early, achieve higher auditory, speech and language outcomes and increasing numbers are going to regular schools using fewer interpreters. In 2010, 93% of severe-to-profound deaf preschool children in Flanders had received cochlear implants and 25% had bilateral implants. Although on average twice as many adults as children are implanted a year in Belgium, we have less research data available from this adult population. Also very little is published about the growth curves and minimal rehabilitation requirements (intensity, duration etc.) after implantation for both children and adults. So, there still remain many challenges for the future.
Cochlear implantation; Accessibility; Reimbursement; Rehabilitation; Outcomes
AIM—To evaluate the reliability of
dipstick measurements of urine specific gravity (U-SG).
METHODS—Fresh urine specimens were
tested for urine pH and osmolality (U-pH, U-Osm) by a pH meter and an
osmometer, and for U-SG by three different methods (refractometry,
automatic readout of a dipstick (Clinitek-50), and (visual) change of
colour of the dipstick).
RESULTS—The correlations between
the visual U-SG dipstick measurements and U-SG determined by a
refractometer and the comparison of Clinitek®-50 dipstick
U-SG measurements with U-Osm were less than optimal, showing very wide
scatter of values. Only the U-SG refractometer values and U-Osm had a
good linear correlation. The tested dipstick was unreliable for the
bedside determination of U-SG, even after correction for U-pH, as
recommended by the manufacturer.
CONCLUSIONS—Among the bedside
determinations, only refractometry gives reliable U-SG results.
Dipstick U-SG measurements should be abandoned.