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1.  Epidemiological urinalysis of children from kindergartens of Can Gio, Ho Chi Minh City - Vietnam 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:183.
Background
Recent studies on Vietnamese children have shown that kidney diseases are not detected early enough to prevent chronic renal failure. The dipstick test is a simple and useful tool for detecting urinary abnormalities, especially in isolated or remote areas of Vietnam, where children have limited access to health care.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 at seven kindergartens in Can Gio district, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Two thousand and twelve children, aged 3 to 5, were enrolled. Morning mid-stream urine samples were examined by dipstick. Children with abnormal findings were re-examined with a second dipstick and underwent further investigations.
Results
Urinalysis was available for 1,032 boys and 980 girls. Mean age was 4.4 ± 0.8 years. Urinary abnormalities were detected in 108 (5.5%) of the subjects. Among them, nitrituria and leucocyturia accounted for more than 50%. Positive fractions of proteinuria, hematuria, nitrituria, leucocyturia, and combined nitrituria and leucocyturia after two dipsticks were 0.1%, 0.1%, 2%, 1% and 0.3%, respectively. Abnormal findings were more common in girls than boys (p < 0.001), and higher in communes with very low (< 50 persons/km2) population density (14.3% vs 4.1%, p < 0.001). A renal ultrasound detected four cases of hydronephrosis and one case of duplication of ureter.
Conclusions
The prevalence of urinary abnormalities in asymptomatic children in South Vietnam demonstrates the need for hygiene education among parents. Training for dipstick usage for all medical staff at health stations, especially in remote areas and in places with very low population density, is also clearly necessary. Routine urinalysis can be set up if a close control is conducted at locations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-183
PMCID: PMC3829665  PMID: 24206763
Chronic kidney disease; Dipstick; Urinary screening; Can Gio; Vietnam
2.  Urinary Screening for Detection of Renal Abnormalities in Asymptomatic School Children 
Nephro-urology monthly  2012;4(3):551-555.
Background
Urinary screening tests for early detection of renal diseases in asymptomatic school children and adolescents are important in the detection of silent renal diseases.
Objectives
The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of occult renal diseases by dipstick test (reagent strips) in asymptomatic Nepalese children.
Patients and Methods
A total of 2,243 school children, aged 5–15 years, were screened for urinary abnormalities using dipstick test screening. The children who tested positive in the first screening were re-tested after 2–4 weeks.
Results
In the first screening, 123 children (5.5%) tested positive for isolated hematuria and proteinuria and for combined hematuria and proteinuria. Of these children, 16 (0.71%) cases tested positive in a second screening. Subsequently, 1 child from the secondary screening group was lost to follow up, 5 tested normal and 10 revealed abnormalities. Glomerulonephritis was the most commonly detected disorder (50%).
Conclusions
Urinary screening was found to be useful in identifying occult renal diseases in asymptomatic children. Urinary screening would therefore not only help in early detection but also in the prevention of the deterioration of renal function later in life.
doi:10.5812/numonthly.3528
PMCID: PMC3614293  PMID: 23573484
Urinary Screening; School Children; Renal Diseases
3.  Meta-analysis of Urine Heme Dipstick Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium Infection, Including Low-Prevalence and Previously-Treated Populations 
Background
Urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly endemic in Africa. Current control is based on drug administration, targeted either to school-age children or to high-risk communities at-large. Urine dipsticks for detection of microhematuria offer an inexpensive means for estimating infection prevalence. However, their diagnostic performance has not been systematically evaluated after community treatment, or in areas with continuing low prevalence. The objective of the present study was to perform meta-analysis of dipstick accuracy for S. haematobium infection in endemic regions, with special attention to performance where infection intensity or prevalence was low.
Methodology/Principal Findings
This review was registered at inception with PROSPERO (CRD42012002165). Included studies were identified by computerized search of online databases and hand search of bibliographies and existing study archives. Eligible studies included published or unpublished population surveys irrespective of date, location, or language that compared dipstick diagnosis of S. haematobium infection to standard egg-count parasitology. For 95 included surveys, variation in dipstick sensitivity and specificity were evaluated according to study size, age- and sex-specific participation, region, local prevalence, treatment status, and other factors potentially affecting test performance. Independent of prevalence, accuracy was greater in surveys of school-age children (vs. adults), whereas performance was less good in North Africa, as compared to other regions. By hierarchical ROC analysis, overall dipstick sensitivity and specificity for detection of egg-positive urine were estimated at 81% and 89%, respectively. Sensitivity was lower among treated populations (72%) and in population subgroups having lower intensity infection (65%). When the insensitivity of egg count testing was considered (and diagnosis inferred instead from combined hematuria and egg-count findings), overall dipstick sensitivity/specificity were 82%/97%, with significantly better sensitivity (92%) in high prevalence settings.
Conclusions/Significance
This analysis suggests that dipsticks will continue to serve as very useful adjuncts for monitoring community prevalence following implementation of population-based control of urogenital schistosomiasis.
Author Summary
Schistosomiasis is a chronic human disease caused by infection with multicellular trematode parasites of Schistosoma species. In particular, Schistosoma haematobium colonizes the veins in the pelvis, in and around the urinary tract, and causes inflammation that leads to ulceration and bleeding into the urine. One low-tech, inexpensive means of quickly identifying blood in the urine (hematuria) is to use a chemical reagent strip (dipstick) to test a patient's urine. While many studies have confirmed the usefulness of dipstick-detected hematuria as a proxy for infection in diagnosing infected people before treatment is given, their diagnostic performance after treatment has been uncertain. The current study systematically reviewed 95 available reports of dipstick performance in S. haematobium-endemic areas of Africa and determined, based on a meta-analysis of the primary data, that dipsticks appear to retain their diagnostic accuracy in low prevalence areas and after one or more rounds of treatment. This suggests that dipsticks will continue to be very useful tools in tracking and targeting regional requirements for treatment and prevention of S. haematobium infection as current school- and community-based programs go forward.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002431
PMCID: PMC3772022  PMID: 24069486
4.  Restructuring the Ikeda City school urinary screening system: report of a screening survey 
Background
Annual urinary screening is conducted at municipal kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Ikeda City, Osaka, Japan (Ikeda City School System), and the results are reviewed by a general physician, but standards for when to recommend specialist referral have not been clear.
Methods
In all children attending the Ikeda City School System in 2012, dipstick urinalysis of a first-morning urine specimen was recommended once or twice, and if a second urinalysis showed proteinuria (≥1+), the urinary protein/creatinine ratio was measured. If this showed ≥0.2 g/g of creatinine (g/gCr), it was recommended that the child be evaluated by a specialist at Ikeda City Hospital.
Results
Urinary screening was performed in about 20% (388) of kindergarten, about 90% (5363) of elementary school, and about 86% (2523) of junior high school children living in Ikeda City. Urine samples were obtained from 387, 5349, and 2476 children, respectively. The urinary protein/creatinine ratio was ≥0.2 g/gCr in 13 children, including 1 elementary and 12 junior high children. In these 13 children, chronic nephritic syndrome (CNS) was suspected in 6 junior high school children, and of these, this was a new finding in 5, and renal biopsy was indicated in 3. In Ikeda City, the prevalence of CNS in elementary school children was <0.03%, the prevalence of CNS in junior high school children was 0.29%, and a renal biopsy was indicated in 0.14%. By eliminating the costs associated with assessment of the results by the Ikeda Medical Association, and by directly contracting with the testing company, the expenses paid by Ikeda City for the system itself decreased from 2,508,619 yen to 966,157 yen.
Conclusions
Incorporating the urinary protein/creatinine ratio into the school urinary screening system in the Ikeda City School System and clarifying standards for specialist referral has enabled restructuring of the system so that is efficient and its effectiveness can be assessed.
doi:10.1186/1447-056X-12-6
PMCID: PMC4028752  PMID: 24330222
Chronic glomerulonephritis; Chronic nephritic syndrome; Prevalence; Renal biopsy; School urinary screening; Urinary protein/creatinine ratio
5.  Renal Status of Children With Sickle Cell Disease in Accra, Ghana 
Ghana Medical Journal  2011;45(4):155-160.
Summary
Introduction
In West Africa, the prevalence of sickle cell disease (SCD) is 2%. The disease adversely affects growth, development and organ function including the kidneys. There is however a dearth of information about the renal status of SCD children in Ghana.
Objectives
To assess the renal status of children with SCD in steady state.
Design
A cross-sectional case-control study.
Setting
Paediatric Sickle Cell Clinic, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra.
Participants
Cases-357 SCD cases and 70 of their HbAA siblings as controls.
Methods
Documentation of their socio-demographic data, clinical data and dipstick urinalysis findings, and renal ultrasonography on selected participants.
Results
The mean [SD] age was 7.18 [3.15]yrs for cases and 5.16[3.28]yrs for controls. The genotypes were Hb SS (76.7%), Hb SC (21.8 %), and Hb Sβthal (1.4%). Urinalysis showed leucocyturia in 12.6% versus 5.7% (χ2=62.5 and the p=0.000)), isolated proteinuria in 2.8% versus 1.43% (χ2=10.01 and p=0.001) haematuria in 2.6% versus 0% (χ2=9.233, p=0.002) and nitrites in 2.2% versus 1.4% (χ2 =16.3,p=0.02) of cases and controls respectively. The youngest SCD case with proteinuria was 2yrs. old. Proteinuria prevalence increased with age, , occurring in 5.7% of cases aged 9–11yrs. and 20.6% of cases aged 12yrs. Two-thirds of the proteinuria cases were aged 9–12yrs., of whom 50% were aged 12yrs. Renal ultrasound findings were normal in all those examined.
Conclusion
Urinary abnormalities suggesting nephropathy occur early in SCD patients in Ghana. Routine dipstick screening at clinic visits countrywide would help early detection and prompt intervention to limit renal impairment.
PMCID: PMC3283093  PMID: 22359421
Kidney; Sickle Cell Disease; Children; Ghana
6.  Association between health examination items and body mass index among school children in Hualien, Taiwan 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:975.
Background
To assess the prevalence of obesity and major physical examination items including dental caries, myopia, pinworm, hematuria, and proteinuria among school children in Hualien, Taiwan. In addition, the health status differences between gender, grader, levels of residence urbanization, and body mass index (BMI) were examined.
Methods
Cross-sectional studies with a total of 11,080 students (age, 7–14 years) in grades 1, 4, and 7 were evaluated for weight, height, routine physical examination, and urine analysis during the 2010 Student Health Examination in Hualien. Frequencies, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were conducted using SPSS.
Results
Of the 11,080 students evaluated, 1357 (12.2%) were overweight, and 1421 (12.8%) were obese. There were significant differences in overweight/obese prevalence by gender, by grader, and by levels of residence urbanization. Dental caries, myopia, and obesity were the most prevalent health problems among these students (75.6%, 33.0%, and 12.8%, respectively). In crude and adjusted analyses, research results showed that there were significant differences in the prevalence of major physical examination items between different gender, grader, levels of residence urbanization, and BMI groups. Girls had a higher prevalence of dental caries, myopia, and hematuria than boys (all p < 0.01), whereas boys had a higher prevalence of pinworm than girls (p = 0.02). Students in higher grades had significantly higher prevalence of myopia, hematuria, and proteinuria (all p < 0.01), whereas students in lower grades had higher prevalence of dental caries and pinworm (p < 0.01). Students with abnormal BMI had lower prevalence of pinworm (p < 0.01). Students residing in suburban and rural areas had higher prevalence of dental caries, pinworm, and hematuria (all p < 0.01), and lower prevalence of myopia than students residing in urban areas (all p < 0.01).
Conclusion
Routine health examination provides an important way to detect students’ health problems. Our study elucidated major health problems among school children in Hualien, Taiwan. In addition, the results also indicated that the prevalence of health problems had a significant relationship with gender, grader, levels of residence urbanization, and BMI. It is suggested that school health interventions should consider students’ health profiles along with their risk factors status in planning.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-975
PMCID: PMC3854517  PMID: 24138825
Body mass index; School children; Health examination
7.  Nephrology for the people: Presidential Address at the 42nd Regional Meeting of the Japanese Society of Nephrology in Okinawa 2012 
The social and economic burdens of dialysis are growing worldwide as the number of patients increases. Dialysis is becoming a heavy burden even in developed countries. Thus, preventing end-stage kidney disease is of the utmost importance. Early detection and treatment is recommended because late referral is common, with most chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients remaining asymptomatic until a late stage. Three-quarters of dialysis patients initiated dialysis therapy within 1 year after referral to the facility. Since its introduction in 2002, the definition of CKD has been widely accepted not only by nephrologists but also by other medical specialties, such as cardiologists and general practitioners. Japan has a long history of general screening for school children, university students, and employees of companies and government offices, with everybody asked to participate. The urine test for proteinuria and hematuria is popular among Japanese people; however, the outcomes have not been well studied. We examined the effects of clinical and laboratory data from several sources on survival of dialysis patients and also predictors of developing dialysis from community-based screening (Okinawa Dialysis Study, OKIDS). At an early CKD stage, patients are usually asymptomatic; therefore, regular health checks using a urine dipstick and serum creatinine are recommended. The intervals for follow-up, however, are debatable due to the cost. CKD is a strong risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease and death and also plays an important role in infection and malignancies, particularly in elderly people. People can live longer with healthy kidneys.
doi:10.1007/s10157-013-0776-x
PMCID: PMC3751387  PMID: 23392566
Survival; Predictor; Chronic kidney disease (CKD); End-stage kidney disease (ESKD); Proteinuria
8.  Renal abnormalities among HIV-infected, antiretroviral naive children, Harare, Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:75.
Background
Data on the prevalence of renal and urine abnormalities among HIV-infected children in Sub-Saharan Africa are limited. We set out to determine the prevalence of proteinuria; low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary tract infection and associated factors among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive children, aged 2–12 years, attending the paediatric HIV clinic at a tertiary hospital in Harare.
Methods
Consecutive ART naive children attending the clinic between June and October 2009 were recruited. Detailed medical history was obtained and a complete physical examination was performed. Children were screened for urinary tract infection and for significant persistent proteinuria. Serum creatinine was used to estimate GFR using the modified Counahan-Barratt formula. The Student’s t-test was used to analyse continuous variables and the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used to analyse categorical data. Logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between study factors and urine abnormalities, persistent proteinuria and the eGFR.
Results
Two hundred and twenty children were enrolled into the study. The median age was 90 months (Q1=65.5; Q3=116.5). The prevalence of urinary tract infection was 9.5%. Escherichia coli was the predominant organism. There was uniform resistance to cotrimoxazole. Persistent proteinuria (urine protein to creatinine ratio greater than 0.2, a week apart) was found in 5% of the children. Seventy-five children (34.6%) had mild to moderate renal impairment shown by a low eGFR (30 to <90ml/min/1.73m2). Persistent proteinuria was more likely to be found in children who were wasted, weight-for-height (WHZ) z-score <−2 (p=0.0005). Children with WHO clinical stage 4 were more likely to have a low eGFR than children with less advanced stages (OR 2.68; CI 1.24-5.80). Urine abnormalities were more likely to be observed in children with WHO clinical stages 3 and 4 (OR 2.20; CI 1.06-4.60).
Conclusion
There is significant renal impairment among HIV-infected, ART naive children aged 2–12 years attending the outpatient paediatric HIV clinic at Harare Central Hospital. The abnormalities are more likely to occur in children with advanced HIV/AIDS. Screening for renal impairment and urinary tract infections in HIV-infected children before initiation of ART and regularly thereafter would be helpful in their management. Keywords: HIV, renal disease, persistent proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, urinary tract infection
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-75
PMCID: PMC3654941  PMID: 23663553
9.  Correlation between dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy in detecting haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state in Ilorin, Nigeria 
Introduction
Haematuria is one of the clinical manifestations of sickle cell nephropathy. Although dipstick urinalysis detects haemoglobin and by extension haematuria; it does not confirm haematuria. Urine sediment microscopy confirms haematuria and constitutes a non-invasive “renal biopsy”. The need to correlate dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy findings becomes important because of the cheapness, quickness and simplicity of the former procedure.
Methods
Dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy were carried (both on first contact and a month after) among consecutive steady state sickle cell anaemia children attending sickle cell clinic at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital between October 2004 and July 2005.
Results
A total of 75 sickle cell anemia children aged between 1-17 years met the inclusion criteria. Haematuria was found in 12 children (16.0%) and persistent haematuria in 10 children 13.3%. Age and gender did not have significant relationship with haematuria both at first contact (p values 0.087 and 0.654 respectively) and at follow-up (p values 0.075 and 0.630 respectively). Eumorphic haematuria was confirmed in all the children with persistent haematuria with Pearson correlation +0.623 and significant p value of 0.000.
Conclusion
The study has revealed a direct significant correlation for haematuria detected on dipstick urinalysis and at urine sediment microscopy. It may therefore be inferred that dipstick urinalysis is an easy and readily available tool for the screening of haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia and should therefore be done routinely at the sickle cell clinics.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.15.135.1854
PMCID: PMC3852513  PMID: 24319525
Sickle cell nephropathy; children; haematuria; dipstick urinalysis; urine sediment microscopy
10.  Impact of obesity on childhood kidney 
Pediatric Reports  2011;3(4):e27.
Obese patients are known to have greater risks to develop hypertension, coronary vascular disease, and insulin resistance, and more attention has been recently paid to the impact of obesity on kidney. This study was conducted to investigate whether obese children have higher risk of renal injury as well as adults. Eighteen hundred and thirty school children aged 6–14 years with abnormal urinary findings on thrice occasions detected by the screening program for renal disease in Japan were enrolled. Of them, 27 children with nephritis or suspected nephritis diagnosed by persistent proteinuria with hematuria were compared to 588 without urinary abnormalities regarding their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), and serum level of total cholesterol. BMI and systolic BP (mmHg) were significantly higher in the former than in the latter. As a result, obesity may be associated with the development of renal injury even in childhood.
doi:10.4081/pr.2011.e27
PMCID: PMC3283195  PMID: 22355512
obesity-related glomerulopathy; obesity index; urinary screening; overweight child.
11.  City-wide screening for urinary abnormalities in schoolboys 
Screening for urinary tract infection was carried out in 27,722 schoolboys aged 5 to 14 using Uricult to perform urine cultures and Hema-combistix to detect hematuria, proteinuria and glycosuria. Cultures of 105 colonies per ml or more on two occasions were found in 40 cases (0.14%), but no case was confirmed by the family physician using standard culture techniques.
Proteinuria was found in 136 cases (0.49%) and confirmed in 47 (37%) of the 126 children who were seen by their family physician. In this group 8.8% had evidence of pyelonephritic scarring on intravenous pyelograms without a positive urine culture.
Hematuria was found in 19 children and confirmed in 10 (59%) of the 17 children who were seen by their family physician. No abnormalities were detected on intravenous pyelography in any case.
Glycosuria was found in 12 cases and confirmed in five. Three of these children had renal glycosuria and two had previously undetected diabetes.
PMCID: PMC1947780  PMID: 4606340
12.  Asymptomatic bacteriuria in sickle cell disease: a cross-sectional study 
Background
It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) infections in sickle cell disease if left untreated. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ASB, in a cohort of patients with SCD.
Methods
This is a cross-sectional study of patients in the Jamaican Sickle Cell Cohort. Aseptically collected mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were obtained from 266 patients for urinalysis, culture and sensitivity analysis. Proteinuria was measured by urine dipsticks. Individuals with abnormal urine culture results had repeat urine culture. Serum creatinine was measured and steady state haematology and uric acid concentrations were obtained from clinical records. This was completed at a primary care health clinic dedicated to sickle cell diseases in Kingston, Jamaica. There were 133 males and 133 females in the sample studied. The mean age (mean ± sd) of participants was 26.6 ± 2.5 years. The main outcome measures were the culture of ≥ 105 colony forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter of urine from a MSU specimen on a single occasion (probable ASB) or on consecutive occasions (confirmed ASB).
Results
Of the 266 urines collected, 234 were sterile and 29 had significant bacteriuria yielding a prevalence of probable ASB of 10.9% (29/266). Fourteen patients had confirmed ASB (prevalence 5.3%) of which 13 had pyuria. Controlling for genotype, females were 14.7 times more likely to have confirmed ASB compared to males (95%CI 1.8 to 121.0). The number of recorded visits for symptomatic UTI was increased by a factor of 2.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 4.5, p < 0.005) but serum creatinine, uric acid and haematology values were not different in patients with confirmed ASB compared with those with sterile urine. There was no association with history of gram negative sepsis.
Conclusion
ASB is a significant problem in individuals with SCD and may be the source of pathogens in UTI. However, further research is needed to determine the clinical significance of ASB in SCD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-46
PMCID: PMC1434754  PMID: 16539735
13.  Urinary ATP and visualization of intracellular bacteria: a superior diagnostic marker for recurrent UTI in renal transplant recipients? 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:200.
Renal transplant recipients (RTR) are highly susceptible to urinary tract infections (UTIs) with over 50% of patients having at least one UTI within the first year. Yet it is generally acknowledged that there is considerable insensitivity and inaccuracy in routine urinalysis when screening for UTIs. Thus a large number of transplant patients with genuine urine infections may go undiagnosed and develop chronic recalcitrant infections, which can be associated with graft loss and morbidity. Given a recent study demonstrating ATP is released by urothelial cells in response to bacteria exposure, possibly acting at metabotropic P2Y receptors mediating a proinflammatory response, we have investigated alternative, and possibly more appropriate, urinalysis techniques in a cohort of RTRs.
Mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were collected from 53 outpatient RTRs. Conventional leukocyte esterase and nitrite dipstick tests, and microscopic pyuria counts (in 1 μl), ATP concentration measurements, and identification of intracellular bacteria in shed urothelial cells, were performed on fresh unspun samples and compared to ‘gold-standard’ bacterial culture results.
Of the 53 RTRs, 22% were deemed to have a UTI by ‘gold-standard’ conventional bacteria culture, whereas 87%, 8% and 4% showed evidence of UTIs according to leukocyte esterase dipstick, nitrite dipstick, and a combination of both dipsticks, respectively. Intracellular bacteria were visualized in shed urothelial cells of 44% of RTRs, however only 1 of the 23 RTRs (44%) was deemed to have a UTI by conventional bacteria culture. A significant association of the ‘gold-standard’ test with urinary ATP concentration combined with visualization of intracellular bacteria in shed urothelial cells was determined using the Fisher’s exact test.
It is apparent that standard bedside tests for UTIs give variable results and that seemingly quiescent bacteria in urothelial cells are very common in RTRs and may represent a focus of subclinical infection. Furthermore, our results suggest urinary ATP concentration combined with detection of intracellular bacteria in shed urinary epithelial cells may be a sensitive means by which to detect ‘occult’ infection in RTRs.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-200
PMCID: PMC4022969  PMID: 24839587
Intracellular bacteria; IBC; Pyuria; Urinary ATP; Bladder; Acridine orange stain
14.  Childhood-onset dense deposit disease: a rare cause of proteinuria 
Irish Journal of Medical Science  2013;183(3):455-459.
Introduction
Dense deposit disease (DDD) is a rare renal disease related to the dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade, caused by several factors including the presence of an autoantibody to C3 nephritic factor, mutations in factor H and autoantibodies to this protein. DDD is characterized by C3 accumulation with absent or scanty immunoglobulin deposition.
Case Presentation
Herein we report the case of a child with benign course of DDD, who presented with moderate proteinuria and lack of clinical symptoms without immunosuppressive treatment. Laboratory testing revealed moderate proteinuria, normal serum creatinine, total protein, and albumin levels, but significantly decreased serum C3 level. The results of renal biopsy were consistent with DDD. Genetic analysis revealed that the patient carried one copy of the H402 risk allele of factor H. The level of proteinuria did not change during the follow-up period and no nephrotic syndrome signs occurred. Renal function was stable.
Conclusion
In conclusion, a program of urine screening for asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria to detect children with kidney disease before they experience loss of kidney functions should be considered. Children diagnosed with DDD should have the opportunity to get treatment early on and to be followed very closely.
doi:10.1007/s11845-013-1041-8
PMCID: PMC4099529  PMID: 24338037
Dense deposit disease; Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis; Child
15.  Danish general practitioners' estimation of urinary albumin concentration in the detection of proteinuria and microalbuminuria. 
BACKGROUND. Microalbuminuria may predict proteinuria and increased mortality in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Early detection of microalbuminuria may therefore be essential. AIM. The primary objective of this study was to describe the association between the presence of albuminuria in diabetic patients as detected by general practitioners using conventional reagent strip dipstick tests for albumin, and the urinary albumin concentration as measured in a hospital laboratory. METHOD. A total of 675 newly diagnosed diabetic patients aged 40 years or over were included in the Danish study, diabetes care in general practice. Data for urinary albumin concentration from a morning urine sample and the results of three consecutive dipstick tests for albumin were collected for 417 patients. RESULTS. When defining elevated urinary albumin concentration as 200 mg l-1 or more (proteinuria) the finding of at least one positive test out of the three dipstick tests for albumin had a diagnostic sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 89%. When the microalbuminuric range (15.0 to 199.9 mg l-1) was added to the definition of renal involvement, the sensitivity of the dipstick test became as low as 28% with a specificity of 96%. CONCLUSION. It is essential for general practitioners to be able to identify proteinuric patients. To achieve this by means of the conventional dipstick test, general practice procedures need to be improved. As it is becoming increasingly well-documented that microalbuminuric non-insulin dependent diabetic patients may benefit from pharmacological treatment of even slight arterial hypertension and heart failure, it seems reasonable to suggest that the use of dipsticks for albumin in general practice be replaced by laboratory quantitative determination of urinary albumin concentration in a morning urine sample.
PMCID: PMC1239138  PMID: 7702885
16.  Thin glomerular basement membrane disease: light microscopic and electron microscopic studies. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1997;12(3):234-239.
Benign recurrent hematuria usually indicates a good prognosis. This condition is associated with abnormally thin glomerular basement membranes. Of 680 renal biopsy cases in which lower urinary tract disease had been excluded by careful study, 25 cases from seven children and eighteen adults met the criteria for thin glomerular basement membrane disease, placing the incidence of the disease at 3.7%. The mean patient age was 32.4 years and the male to female ratio was 1 to 5.3. The primary finding was microscopic hematuria in eighteen patients and gross hematuria in five patients. Among eighteen patients who had microscopic hematuria, one patient also exhibited proteinuria and one patient suffered from acute renal failure due to acute drug-induced interstitial nephritis. Proteinuria was only found in one patient. All of the patients had normal renal function, with the exception of one who suffered from acute renal failure. The duration of hematuria from the time of detection to the date of biopsy ranged from 3 months to 30 years with a mean interval of 56.6 months. No apparent evidence of familial hematuria in any patient was noted. Under light microscopy most glomeruli were normal. However, five cases showed focal global sclerosis. Under immunofluorescence microscopy seventeen cases were negative for all immunoglobulins, for complement, and for fibrinogen. Eight cases showed nonspecific mesangial deposition of fibrinogen and/or IgM. Ultrastructurally, extensive diffuse thinning of the GBM was a constant finding. The mean thickness of the GBM was 203.2 +/- 28.3 nm (n = 25); the thickness in adult (201.4 +/- 27.5 nm; n = 18) did not differ from that in children (208.1 +/- 32.0 nm; n = 7).
PMCID: PMC3054286  PMID: 9250920
17.  City-wide screening for urinary abnormalities in schoolgirls 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1973;109(10):981-985.
Screening for urinary tract infection was carried out in 23,427 schoolgirls, aged 5 to 14 years, using Uricult and, for hematuria, glycosuria and proteinuria using Hema-combistix. Cultures of 105 colonies per ml. or more on two occasions were obtained in 2.3% and a positive culture was confirmed by the family physician using standard culture techniques in 82.7% of cases, giving an overall incidence of infection of 1.9%. Fifty-eight percent of these children had no previous history of any urinary tract symptoms. Of the infected group 9.5% had pyelonephritic scarring, 58.7% chronic cystitis and 58.7% urethral stenosis. Two additional cases had unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction with hydronephrosis. Reflux occurred in 26.6% of those investigated by voiding cystogram. In 58% of cases the urinary tract infection was not accompanied by significant proteinuria, hematuria or pyuria.
Proteinuria was detected on two occasions in 1.6% of the children and confirmed by the family physician in 33% of cases, giving an overall incidence of 0.5%. In this group 9.2% had evidence of pyelonephritic scarring without a positive urine culture.
Hematuria was detected on two occasions in 0.6% of the children and was confirmed by the family physician in 53%, giving an overall incidence of 0.3%. Only one case with pyelonephritic scarring was seen in this group.
Of the 25 cases with pyelonephritic changes only six had been previously diagnosed radiologically.
Four previously unrecognized diabetics were also detected.
PMCID: PMC1947008  PMID: 4758869
18.  Incidence of Sickle Cell Disease and Other Hemoglobin Variants in 10,095 Lebanese Neonates 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e105109.
Hemoglobinopathies are highly prevalent diseases and impose a public health burden. Early diagnosis and treatment can ameliorate the course of these diseases and improve survival. Despite purported high incidence of hemoglobinopathies in Lebanon, there are no nationwide screening programs. In this study, newborn screening utilizing high pressure liquid chromatography was executed in all public hospitals across Lebanon between 2010 and 2013. All newborns with an abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) were offered genetic counseling and all those with disease were enrolled in comprehensive hemoglobinopathy clinics. Among newborns, 2.1% were found to have an abnormal Hb variant with sickle Hb being the most common while 0.1% were found to have sickle cell disease (SCD). The majority of those with SCD had non-Lebanese origins. The most common causes of hospitalizations in infants with SCD were acute splenic sequestration and pain crises. No bacteremia or other life threatening infections were noted. At a median follow up 14 months (follow up range 7 to 34 months), all children with disease are alive and compliant with treatment. Systematic screening for SCD and other Hb variants was shown to be feasible, cost effective, and of accurate predictive value. This program was also clinically effective because it led to the identification of babies with disease and to providing them with free early multidisciplinary care. Conclusively, a newborn screening program should be implemented across Lebanon to detect hemoglobinopathies and initiate early therapeutic and preventive strategies and genetic counseling.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105109
PMCID: PMC4152148  PMID: 25180595
19.  Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among people living with HIV/AIDS in Burundi: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Nephrology  2011;12:40.
Background
Since little is known about chronic kidney disease (CKD) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence and nature of CKD were assessed in Burundi through a multicenter cross-sectional study.
Methods
Patients underwent assessments at baseline and 3 months later. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) was estimated using abbreviated 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Diseases (MDRD) and Cockroft-Gault estimation methods. Patients were classified at month 3 into various CKD stages using the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) definition, which combines GFR and urinary abnormalities. Risk factors for presence of proteinuria (PRO) and aseptic leukocyturia (LEU) were further analyzed using multiple logistic regression.
Results
Median age of the patients in the study (N = 300) was 40 years, 70.3% were female and 71.7% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Using the MDRD method, CKD prevalence in patients was 45.7%, 30.2% of whom being classified as stage 1 according to the NKF classification, 13.5% as stage 2 and 2% as stage 3. No patient was classified as stage 4 or 5. Among CKD patients with urinary abnormality, PRO accounted for 6.1% and LEU for 18.4%. Significant associations were found between LEU and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, previous history of tuberculosis, low body mass index and female gender and between PRO and high viral load.
Conclusion
Our study, using a very sensitive definition for CKD evaluation, suggests a potentially high prevalence of CKD among PLWHA in Burundi. Patients should be regularly monitored and preventative measures implemented, such as monitoring NSAID use and adjustment of drug dosages according to body weight. Urine dipsticks could be used as a screening tool to detect patients at risk of renal impairment.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-12-40
PMCID: PMC3175155  PMID: 21864389
chronic kidney disease; kidney damage; aseptic leukocyturia; proteinuria; risk factors; prevalence
20.  Promoting healthy eating and physical activity among school children: findings from Health-E-PALS, the first pilot intervention from Lebanon 
BMC Public Health  2014;14(1):940.
Background
In Lebanon, childhood obesity doubled during the past decade. Preventive measures should start early in life and Schools are considered an important environment to promote energy balance health behaviours. School-based programmes promoting healthy lifestyles are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a multicomponent school-based intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity (and prevent obesity) with school children aged 9–11 years in Lebanon.
Methods
The intervention was developed based on the constructs of the Social Cognitive Theory and adapted to the culture of Lebanese and Arab populations. It consisted of three components: class curriculum, family involvement and food service. Eight schools were purposively selected from two communities of different socioeconomic status (SES) in Beirut and, within each school type, were matched on SES, religious sect profile, and then randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. Anthropometric measurements and questionnaires on determinants of behavioural change, eating and physical activity habits were completed by the students in both groups at baseline and post intervention. Focus group interviews were conducted in intervention schools at the end of the study. Challenges encountered during the programme implementation were also identified, since Lebanon is considered a country with political unrest and no similar research projects were conducted in the area.
Results
Students in the intervention group reported purchasing and consuming less chips and sweetened drinks post-intervention compared with controls (86% & 88% less respectively p < 0.001). Knowledge and self-efficacy scores increased for the intervention (+2.8 & +1.7 points respectively p < 0.001) but not for the control group. There was no difference in physical activity and screen time habits and no changes in BMI between groups at post intervention. Interview data from focus groups showed that the programme was generally well accepted. Limitations for better outcomes include the length of the programme and the school environment.
Conclusion
“Health-E-PALS” intervention is a promising innovative, theory-based, culturally sensitive intervention to promote healthy eating habits and physical activity in Lebanese school children with a potential to be scaled up, replicated and sustained.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-940) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-940
PMCID: PMC4167260  PMID: 25208853
Childhood obesity; School-based interventions; Eastern Mediterranean region; Pilot trial
21.  Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: A prospective follow up study 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:354.
Background
In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009.
Methods
In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system.
Results
The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects). The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol). Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%). We invited 47 (9%) subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months). None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years) had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol).
Conclusions
Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-354
PMCID: PMC3112139  PMID: 21599964
22.  Diagnostic accuracy of rapid urine dipstick test to predict urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:481.
Background
Untreated bacteriuria during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low birth-weight and premature delivery. Therefore, routine screening for bacteriuria is advocated. The decision about how to screen pregnant women for bacteriuria has always been a balance between the cost of screening versus the sensitivity and specificity. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid dipstick test to predict urinary tract infection in pregnancy against the gold standard urine culture.
Method
A total of 367 mid stream urine samples were collected, inoculated on MacConkey, Manitol salt agar (MSA) and blood agar and incubated aerobically at 37°C for overnight. Specimens were classified as “positive” for urinary tract infection (UTI) if the growth of the pathogen(s) was at a count ≥ 105 colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL) of urine and classified as “negative” with growth of <105 cfu/mL. Urine samples were tested for the presence of nitrite and leukocyte esterase using dipstick rapid test in accordance to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Results
From the total study participants, 37 pregnant women were symptomatic and the remaining 330 pregnant women were asymptomatic. The sensitivity and specificity of dipstick tests of leukocyte esterase was 50% and 89.1% for pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI(ABU) and 71.4% and 86.7% for symptomatic UTI respectively and for nitrite 35.7% and 98.0% for ABU and 57.1% and 96.7% symptomatic UTI.
Conclusion
This study revealed that the use of dipstick leukocyte esterase and nitrite for screening UTI particularly asymptomatic bacteriuria was associated with many false positive and negative results when it was compared against the gold standard culture method. The low sensitivity and positive predictive value of urine dipstick test proved that culture should be used for the diagnosis of UTI.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-481
PMCID: PMC4118157  PMID: 25073620
Dipstick test; Pregnant women; UTI; Asymptomatic bacteriuria
23.  Patients with microscopic and gross hematuria: practice and referral patterns among primary care physicians in a universal health care system 
Background:
Hematuria is one of the most common findings on urinalysis in patients encountered by primary care physicians. In many instances it can also be the first presentation of a serious urological problem. As such, we sought to evaluate current practices adopted by primary care physicians in the workup and screening of hematuria.
Methods:
Questionnaires were mailed to all registered primary care physicians across Quebec. Questions covered each physician’s personal approach to men and postmenopausal women with painless gross hematuria or with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, as well as screening techniques, general knowledge with regards to urine collection and sampling, and referral patterns.
Results:
Of the surveys mailed, 599 were returned. Annual routine screening urinalysis on all adult male and female patients was performed by 47% of respondents, regardless of age or risk factors. Of all the respondents, 95% stated microscopic hematuria was associated with bladder cancer. However, in an older male with painless gross hematuria, only 64% of respondents recommended further evaluation by urology. On the other hand, in a postmenopausal woman with 2 consecutive events of significant microscopic hematuria, only 48.6% recommended referral to urology. Findings were not associated with the gender of the respondent, experience or geographic location of practice (urban vs. rural).
Interpretation:
There seems to be reluctance amongst primary care physicians to refer patients with gross or significant microscopic hematuria to urology for further investigation. A higher level of suspicion and further education should be implemented to detect serious conditions and to offer earlier intervention when possible.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.10059
PMCID: PMC3104421  PMID: 21470533
24.  Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs 
BMC Family Practice  2010;11:78.
Background
Acute urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common bacterial infections among women presenting to primary care. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal reference standard threshold for diagnosing UTI. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in women presenting with suspected UTI, across three different reference standards (102 or 103 or 105 CFU/ml). We also examine the diagnostic value of individual symptoms and signs combined with dipstick test results in terms of clinical decision making.
Methods
Searches were performed through PubMed (1966 to April 2010), EMBASE (1973 to April 2010), Cochrane library (1973 to April 2010), Google scholar and reference checking.
Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs of an uncomplicated UTI using a urine culture from a clean-catch or catherised urine specimen as the reference standard, with a reference standard of at least ≥ 102 CFU/ml were included. Synthesised data from a high quality systematic review were used regarding dipstick results. Studies were combined using a bivariate random effects model.
Results
Sixteen studies incorporating 3,711 patients are included. The weighted prior probability of UTI varies across diagnostic threshold, 65.1% at ≥ 102 CFU/ml; 55.4% at ≥ 103 CFU/ml and 44.8% at ≥ 102 CFU/ml ≥ 105 CFU/ml. Six symptoms are identified as useful diagnostic symptoms when a threshold of ≥ 102 CFU/ml is the reference standard. Presence of dysuria (+LR 1.30 95% CI 1.20-1.41), frequency (+LR 1.10 95% CI 1.04-1.16), hematuria (+LR 1.72 95%CI 1.30-2.27), nocturia (+LR 1.30 95% CI 1.08-1.56) and urgency (+LR 1.22 95% CI 1.11-1.34) all increase the probability of UTI. The presence of vaginal discharge (+LR 0.65 95% CI 0.51-0.83) decreases the probability of UTI. Presence of hematuria has the highest diagnostic utility, raising the post-test probability of UTI to 75.8% at ≥ 102 CFU/ml and 67.4% at ≥ 103 CFU/ml. Probability of UTI increases to 93.3% and 90.1% at ≥ 102 CFU/ml and ≥ 103 CFU/ml respectively when presence of hematuria is combined with a positive dipstick result for nitrites. Subgroup analysis shows improved diagnostic accuracy using lower reference standards ≥ 102 CFU/ml and ≥ 103 CFU/ml.
Conclusions
Individual symptoms and signs have a modest ability to raise the pretest-risk of UTI. Diagnostic accuracy improves considerably when combined with dipstick tests particularly tests for nitrites.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-11-78
PMCID: PMC2987910  PMID: 20969801
25.  Prevalence Distribution and Risk Factors for Schistosoma hematobium Infection among School Children in Blantyre, Malawi 
Background
Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Malawi but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. There is need for updated information on the extent of disease burden, communities at risk and factors associated with infection at the district and sub-district level to facilitate effective prioritization and monitoring while ensuring ownership and sustainability of prevention and control programs at the local level.
Methods and Findings
We conducted a cross-sectional study between May and July 2006 among pupils in Blantyre district from a stratified random sample of 23 primary schools. Information on socio-demographic factors, schistosomiasis symptoms and other risk factors was obtained using questionnaires. Urine samples were examined for Schistosoma hematobium ova using filtration method. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions with robust estimates were used to assess risk factors for S. hematobium. One thousand one hundred and fifty (1,150) pupils were enrolled with a mean age of 10.5 years and 51.5% of them were boys. One thousand one hundred and thirty-nine (1,139) pupils submitted urine and S. hematobium ova were detected in 10.4% (95%CI 5.43–15.41%). Male gender (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.06–3.07), child's knowledge of an existing open water source (includes river, dam, springs, lake, etc.) in the area (OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.14–3.46), history of urinary schistosomiasis in the past month (OR 3.65; 95% CI 2.22–6.00), distance of less than 1 km from school to the nearest open water source (OR 5.39; 95% CI 1.67–17.42) and age 8–10 years (OR 4.55; 95% CI 1.53–13.50) compared to those 14 years or older were associated with infection. Using urine microscopy as a gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported hematuria was 68.3% and 73.6%, respectively. However, the positive predictive value was low at 23.9% and was associated with age.
Conclusion
The study provides an important update on the status of infection in this part of sub-Saharan Africa and exemplifies the success of deliberate national efforts to advance active participation in schistosomiasis prevention and control activities at the sub-national or sub-district levels. In this population, children who attend schools close to open water sources are at an increased risk of infection and self-reported hematuria may still be useful in older children in this region.
Author Summary
Schistosoma hematobium infection is a parasitic infection endemic in Malawi. Schistosomiasis usually shows a focal distribution of infection and it is important to identify communities at high risk of infection and assess effectiveness of control programs. We conducted a survey in one district in Malawi to determine prevalence and factors associated with S. hematobium infection among primary school pupils. Using a questionnaire, information on history of passing bloody urine and known risk factors associated with infection was collected. Urine samples were collected and examined for S. hematobium eggs. One thousand one hundred and fifty (1,150) pupils were interviewed, and out of 1,139 pupils who submitted urine samples, 10.4% were infected. Our data showed that male gender, child's knowledge of an existing open water source (includes river, dam, springs, lake, etc.) in the area, history of urinary schistosomiasis in the past month, distance of less than 1 km from school to nearest open water source and age 8–10 years compared to those 14 years and older were independently associated with infection. These findings suggest that children attending schools in close proximity to open water sources are at increased risk of infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000361
PMCID: PMC2614474  PMID: 19156193

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