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1.  Variations of the hepatobiliary vasculature including coexistence of accessory right hepatic artery with unusually arising double cystic arteries: case report and literature review 
Familiarity with the different anatomical variations of the arterial supply of the gallbladder and liver is of great importance in all hepatobiliary surgical procedures. A complex anomaly of the hepatobiliary arterial system, which has never been reported before, was found during anatomical dissection of a 73-year-old male Caucasian cadaver. The accessory right hepatic artery (aRHA) took its origin from the gastroduodenal artery. Two cystic arteries were present, the first arising from the gastroduodenal artery (more distal than the aRHA) and the second directly from the aRHA. Potential clinical implications of this anomaly and embryology are discussed. Knowledge of the different anatomical variations of the arterial supply of the gallbladder and liver is of great importance in hepatobiliary surgical procedures.
doi:10.1007/s12565-013-0219-5
PMCID: PMC4015057  PMID: 24310410
Hepatobiliary arterial anatomy; Double cystic arteries; Accessory right hepatic artery; Anatomical variation
2.  Pancreaticoduodenectomy for biliary tract carcinoma with situs inversus totalis: difficulties and technical notes based on two cases 
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) denotes complete right-left inversion of the thoracic and abdominal viscera. Diagnosis and surgical procedures for abdominal pathology in patients with SIT are technically more complicated because of mirror-image transposition of the visceral organs. Moreover, SIT is commonly associated with cardiovascular and hepatobiliary malformations, which make hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgery difficult. Two cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy for biliary tract carcinoma in patients with SIT are presented. Both patients had an anomaly of the hepatic artery. Advanced diagnostic imaging techniques were very important for careful preoperative planning and to prevent misunderstanding of the arrangement of the abdominal viscera. This facilitated the surgical team’s adaptation to the mirror image of the standard procedure and helped avoid intraoperative complications due to cardiovascular and hepatobiliary malformations associated with SIT. Pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with SIT can be performed successfully with detailed preoperative assessment, use of effective techniques by the surgeon, and appropriate support by assistants.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-11-312
PMCID: PMC3878620  PMID: 24341840
Biliary tract carcinoma; Cardiovascular malformation; Hepatobiliary malformation; Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Situs inversus totalis
3.  Rare Hepatic Arterial Anatomic Variants in Patients Requiring Pancreatoduodenectomy and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:953195.
Normal hepatic arterial anatomy occurs in approximately 50–80% of cases; for the remaining cases, multiple variations have been described. Knowledge of these anomalies is especially important in hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery in order to avoid unnecessary complications. We describe two cases of patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for abnormalities in the head of the pancreas. Preoperative contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging demonstrated relevant, rare hepatic arterial variants: (1) a completely replaced hepatic arterial system with a gastroduodenal artery (GDA) arising directly from the celiac axis and (2) a replaced right hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery and traveling anterior to the pancreatic uncinate process and head. These findings were confirmed during pancreatoduodenectomy. Both of these variants have been rarely described with an incidence of <1.0%. In the present paper, we describe the hepatic arterial anomalies commonly encountered and clarify the important details associated with these variants as they pertain to pancreatoduodenectomy.
doi:10.1155/2012/953195
PMCID: PMC3413978  PMID: 22900221
4.  Anatomic Variations of the Right Hepatic Duct: Results and Surgical Implications from a Cadaveric Study 
Anatomy Research International  2012;2012:838179.
Purpose. Thorough understanding of biliary anatomy is required when performing surgical interventions in the hepatobiliary system. This study describes the anatomical variations of right bile ducts in terms of branching and drainage patterns, and determines their frequency. Methods. We studied 73 samples of cadaveric material, focusing on the relationship of the right anterior and posterior segmental branches, the way they form the right hepatic duct, and the main variations of their drainage pattern. Results. The anatomy of the right hepatic duct was typical in 65.75% of samples. Ectopic drainage of the right anterior duct into the common hepatic duct was found in 15.07% and triple confluence in 9.59%. Ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the common hepatic duct was discovered in 2.74% and ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the left hepatic duct in 4.11%. Ectopic drainage of the right anterior duct into the left hepatic ductal system and ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the cystic duct was found in 1.37%. Conclusion. The branching pattern of the right hepatic duct was atypical in 34.25% of cases. Thus, knowledge of the anatomical variations of the extrahepatic bile ducts is important in many surgical cases.
doi:10.1155/2012/838179
PMCID: PMC3465866  PMID: 23056946
5.  Resection of metastatic liver cancer in a patient with a left-sided gallbladder and intrahepatic portal vein and bile duct anomalies: A case report 
INTRODUCTION
The presence of left-sided gallbladder is closely associated with multiple combined anomalies of the portal vein, hepatic vein, hepatic artery, and bile duct. This requires special attention for preoperative evaluation for the purpose of preventing postoperative complications.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 70-year-old woman with metastatic liver cancer and intrahepatic portal vein, biliary system and hepatic artery anomalies with left-sided gallbladder is reported. On computed tomography (CT), a solitary low density mass occupied from the right anterior to the posterior segment of the liver. The gallbladder bed was on the left of the hepatic fissure. On drip-infusion-cholangiography (DIC) CT three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, the left medial bile duct arose from the right umbilical portion after arising from the left lateral bile duct. Following a right hepatectomy and lymph node dissection of the hepatoduodenal ligament, hepaticojejunostomy was conducted separately to the left medial and left lateral bile duct.
DISCUSSION
The left-sided gallbladder accompanies with several anomalies of hepatic vascular and bile duct anomalies in a frequent manner. A safe hepatectomy needs accurate operative plans to ascertain the range of hepatectomy, because it often has the diversity of a combined anomaly.
CONCLUSION
Preoperative DIC-CT 3D reconstruction was extremely useful because it provided an important information that could not be obtained with 2D-DIC-CT. 3D imaging has the ability to demonstrate complex anatomical relationships, this devise is a effective new tool for making appropriate preoperative strategy.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.01.003
PMCID: PMC3312050  PMID: 22365920
Intrahepatic portal and biliary system anomalies; Right round ligament; Left-sided gallbladder
6.  Resource and manpower calculations for the provision of hepatobiliary surgical services in the UK. 
BACKGROUND: The provision of specialist non-transplant hepatobiliary services in the UK is fragmented and there is little consensus on the manpower and resource requirements to meet the needs of defined populations. METHODS: We report our experience with a hepatobiliary service established 5 years ago in Sheffield to provide a tertiary referral service to the population of the North Trent health area and attempt to provide estimates of resource requirements based on patterns of current use. RESULTS: A total of 615 patients with hepatobiliary conditions requiring specialist treatment were referred to the service during 1997-2002. The majority of patients (69%) were referred for consideration of liver resection for colorectal liver metastases. In all, 251 resections were performed in 240 (39% of all referred) patients. The current operation rates for colorectal metastases are about 4 per 100,000 population per year and for other complex hepatobiliary procedures are also 4 per 100,000 population per year giving a total "need" of 8 procedures per 100,000 population per year. For the current population in England and Wales, this would mean 25 specialist hepatobiliary centres performing in total approximately 2000 hepatic resections for colorectal cancer metastases and 2000 other tertiary hepatobiliary procedures each year. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience supports the model of centralisation of non-transplant hepatobiliary surgical services and indicates the extent of hitherto unmet demand in our geographical area. We estimate that a minimum of two full-time specialist hepatobiliary surgeons with appropriate ancillary support are required for a typical population of 2 million people in the UK.
doi:10.1308/003588404322827455
PMCID: PMC1964153  PMID: 15005925
7.  Patient Readmission and Mortality after Surgery for Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Malignancies 
BACKGROUND
The incidence and associated risk factors for readmission after hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery are poorly characterized. The objective of the current study was to compare readmission after pancreatic vs hepatobiliary surgical procedures, as well as to identify potential factors associated with higher readmission within 30 days of discharge.
STUDY DESIGN
Using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results–Medicare linked data from 1986–2005, we identified 9,957 individuals aged 66 years and older who underwent complex hepatic, biliary, or pancreatic procedures for cancer treatment and were eligible for analysis. In-hospital morbidity, mortality, and 30-day readmission were examined.
RESULTS
Primary surgical treatment consisted of a pancreatic(46.7%), hepatic (50.0%), or biliary (3.4%) procedure. Mean patient age was 72.6 years and most patients were male (53.2%). The number of patients with multiple preoperative comorbidities increased over time (patients with Elixhauser’s comorbidity score >13: 1986–1990, 47.0% vs 2001–2005, 62.9%; p < 0.001). Pancreatic operations had higher inpatient mortality vs hepatobiliary procedures (9.2% vs 7.3%; p < 0.001). Mean length of stay after pancreatic procedures was longer compared with hepatobiliary procedures (19.7 vs 10.3 days; p < 0.001). The proportion of patients readmitted after a pancreatic (1986–1990, 17.7%; 1991–1995,16.1%; 1996–2000, 18.6%; 2001–2005, 19.6%; p = 0.15) or hepatobiliary (1986–1990, 14.3%; 1991–1995, 14.1%; 1996–2000, 15.2%; 2001–2005, 15.5%; p = 0.69) procedure did not change over time. Factors associated with increased risk of readmission included preoperative Elixhauser comorbidities > 13 (odds ratio = 1.90) and prolonged index hospital stay ≥10 days (odds ratio = 1.54; both p < 0.05). During the readmission, additional morbidity and mortality were 46.5% and 8.0%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Although the incidence of readmission did not change across the time periods examined, readmission was higher among patients undergoing a pancreatic procedure vs a hepatobiliary procedure. Other factors associated with risk of readmission included number of patient comorbidities and prolonged hospital stay. Readmission was associated with additional short-term morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2012.07.007
PMCID: PMC4051393  PMID: 22921328
8.  Left hepatic trisectionectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma presenting with an aberrant biliary duct of segment 5: a case report 
Introduction
Management of the biliary ducts during liver resection is one of the most important challenges for hepatobiliary surgeons. Here, we report the case of a left hepatic trisectionectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma with a rare aberrant biliary duct of segment 5, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in previous literature.
Case presentation
A 56-year-old Asian female initially presented with intrahepatic bile duct dilatation in the left lateral sector, left paramedian sector, and right paramedian sector. Simultaneous cholangiography from a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube in biliary duct of segment 8 and endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube in biliary duct of segment 3 revealed drainage of the right lateral sectoral branch into the common hepatic duct and the aberrant drainage of segment 5 into the right lateral sectoral branch. The left hepatic duct, right paramedian sectoral duct, and the confluence of the right lateral sectoral duct were narrowed. Left hepatic trisectionectomy was successfully performed with careful dissection and division of the aberrant biliary duct of segment 5.
Conclusion
For safe liver resection, it is important to perform a detailed anatomic evaluation of the intrahepatic ducts, both preoperatively and intraoperatively.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-250
PMCID: PMC2923175  PMID: 20687961
9.  Managing injuries of hepatic duct confluence variants after major hepatobiliary surgery: An algorithmic approach 
AIM:To investigate injuries of anatomy variants of hepatic duct confluence during hepatobiliary surgery and their impact on morbidity and mortality of these procedures. An algorithmic approach for the management of these injuries is proposed.
METHODS: During a 6-year period 234 patients who had undergone major hepatobiliary surgery were retrospectively reviewed in order to study postoperative bile leakage. Diagnostic workup included endoscopic and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (E/MRCP), scintigraphy and fistulography.
RESULTS: Thirty (12.8%) patients who developed postoperative bile leaks were identified. Endoscopic stenting and percutaneous drainage were successful in 23 patients with bile leaks from the liver cut surface. In the rest seven patients with injuries of hepatic duct confluence, biliary variations were recognized and a stepwise therapeutic approach was considered. Conservative management was successful only in 2 patients. Volume of the liver remnant and functional liver reserve as well as local sepsis were used as criteria for either resection of the corresponding liver segment or construction of a biliary-enteric anastomosis. Two deaths occurred in this group of patients with hepatic duct confluence variants (mortality rate 28.5%).
CONCLUSION: Management of major biliary fistulae that are disconnected from the mainstream of the biliary tree and related to injury of variants of the hepatic duct confluence is extremely challenging. These patients have a grave prognosis and an early surgical procedure has to be considered.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.3049
PMCID: PMC2712173  PMID: 18494057
Biliary aberrations; Bile duct injury; Postoperative bile leakage; Hepatic duct confluence; Hepatectomy
10.  Levator Glandulae Thyroideae, a Fibromusculoglandular Band with Absence of Pyramidal Lobe and Its Innervation: A Case Report 
Amongst the endocrine glands, thyroid gland is well known for its developmental anomalies, which range from common to rare ones. The presence of levator glandulae thyroideae and its anatomical variations gain importance in the pathologies which are related to thyroid gland and their treatment modalities. Levator glandulae thyroideae is a fibromuscular band. If it is present, it is usually seen on the left side, to connect the pyramidal lobe of thyroid gland and the hyoid bone. But levator glandulae thyroideae which stretches from isthmus to the body of hyoid bone is rare and only very few cases have been reported in the medical literature. During a routine dissection of the thyroid gland in a 55 years old male cadaver, a Levator Glandulae Thyroideae (which was fibromusculoglandular in nature) was seen, with the absence of pyramidal lobe on the left side. It directly came from upper border of isthmus and went upto hyoid bone. It also had innervation from branches of external laryngeal nerve. This was also associated with absence of superior thyroid artery on the same side. The knowledge on various developmental anomalies of the gland and variations in neurovascular relations will help the surgeons in plan thyroid surgeries in a better and safe way.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/6144.3186
PMCID: PMC3749650  PMID: 23998080
Levator glandulae thyroideae; Thyroid; Fibromusculoglandular; External laryngeal nerve
11.  A Mini Accessory Liver Lobe in the Fissure for Ligamentum Teres and Its Clinical Significance: A Case Report 
The liver can present a number of congenital anomalies. More common among them are the irregularities of the shape and the number of lobules. The less common variations include the presence of accessory lobes or accessory livers. The accessory lobes may be attached to the liver through a mesentery or a bridge of the hepatic tissue and they are usually asymptomatic. An accessory liver lobe is a very rare occurrence and when it exists, it becomes clinically important because of its rarity. We are reporting here the presence of a very small accessory liver lobe and have discussed its clinical relevance. We observed a mini liver lobe which was situated in the posterior part of the fissure for ligamentum teres. It was triangular in shape and about one inch in width. It was attached to the left anatomical lobe of the liver through a vascular pedicle which contained the branches of hepatic artery and portal vein and hepatic duct. Histological sectioning revealed the normal liver architecture in the accessory lobe. The knowledge of this accessory lobe could be of use to surgeons and radiologists.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/6114.3615
PMCID: PMC3879830  PMID: 24392404
Liver; Accessory lobe; Variation; Hepatic
12.  Hemobilia caused by a ruptured hepatic cyst: a case report 
Introduction
Hemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. More than 50% of hemobilia cases are related to iatrogenic trauma from hepatobiliary procedures, and needle biopsy of the liver represents the most common cause. A minority of hemobilia cases are due to hepatobiliary disorders such as cholangitis, hepatobiliary cancers, choledocholithiasis, and vascular abnormalities in the liver. The classic presentation of hemobilia is the triad of right upper quadrant (biliary) pain, obstructive jaundice, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a rare case of hemobilia caused by a spontaneous hepatic cyst rupture, where our patient presented without the classical symptoms, in the absence of therapeutic or pathological coagulopathy, and in the absence of spontaneous or iatrogenic trauma.
Case presentation
A 91-year-old African-American woman was referred to our out-patient gastroenterology clinic for evaluation of mild epigastric pain and intermittent melena. An abdominal computed tomography scan was remarkable for multiple hepatic cysts. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple blood clots at the ampulla of Vater. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a single 18 mm-sized filling defect in the common hepatic duct wall at the junction of the right and left hepatic duct, adjacent to one of the hepatic cysts. The ruptured hepatic cyst communicated to the bile ducts and was the cause of hemobilia with an atypical clinical presentation.
Conclusion
Hemobilia is an infrequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and rarely occurs due to hepatic cyst rupture. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case report in the literature that describes hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture. However, it is the first case in the literature of hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture in the absence of iatrogenic or spontaneous trauma, and in the absence of a spontaneous or pathological coagulopathy.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-26
PMCID: PMC3038954  PMID: 21251320
13.  Agenesis of the Right Hepatic Lobe 
Case Reports in Medicine  2012;2012:415742.
Introduction. Agenesis of the right lobe of the liver is a rare finding and was defined as the absence of liver tissue on the right side, with preservation of the middle hepatic vein, without previous disease or surgery. It is usually an incident finding reveled by imaging exams or during abdominal surgery. Case Report. A 32-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for abdominal discomfort and loss of appetite. Imaging studies revealed the absence of the right hepatic lobe and hypertrophied left hepatic segments. Discussion. Anomalies of hepatic morphology are rare and correspond to developmental defects during embryogenesis, are a rare diagnosis, and are generally diagnosed incidentally based on imaging. Agenesis or hypoplasia of the right lobe may predispose the patient to the development of portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Surgical knowledge of such anatomical agenesis is necessary for surgical planning, for the appropriate identification of intraoperative surgical findings, and for the design of the postoperative approach to therapy. Conclusion. Agenesis of the right hepatic lobe is a rare condition. We want to highlight the importance of understanding the condition. Surgeons must recognize the entity in order to deal appropriately with the findings.
doi:10.1155/2012/415742
PMCID: PMC3328917  PMID: 22550497
14.  Donor Selection for Adult- to- Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Well Begun is Half Done 
Transplantation  2013;95(3):501-506.
Background
Donor selection criteria for adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation vary with the medical center of evaluation. Living donor evaluation utilizes considerable resources and the non-maturation of potential into actual donors may sometimes prove fatal for patients with end stage liver disease. On the contrary, a thorough donor evaluation process is mandatory to ensure safe outcomes in otherwise healthy donors. We aimed to study the reasons for non-maturation of potential right lobe liver donors at our transplant center.
Methods
A retrospective data analysis of all potential living liver donors evaluated at our center from 1998 to 2010 was done.
Results
Overall 324 donors were evaluated for 219 potential recipients and 171 (52.7%) donors were disqualified. Common reasons for donor non-maturation included: (1) Donor reluctance, 21% (2) >10% macro-vesicular steatosis, 16% (3) assisted donor withdrawal, 14% (4) inadequate remnant liver volume, 13% (5) psychosocial issues, 7% and thrombophilia, 7%. Ten donors (6%) were turned down due to anatomical variations (8 biliary and 2 arterial anomalies). Donors older than 50 years and those with BMI over 25 were less likely to be accepted for donation.
Conclusions
We conclude that donor reluctance, hepatic steatosis and assisted donor withdrawal are major reasons for non-maturation of potential into actual donors. Anatomical variations and underlying medical conditions were not a major cause of donor rejection. A system in practice to recognize these factors early in the course of donor evaluation to improve the efficiency of the selection process and ensure donor safety is proposed.
doi:10.1097/TP.0b013e318274aba1
PMCID: PMC3566291  PMID: 23128999
living donor transplantation; liver transplantation; donor selection; right lobe liver donation; donor evaluation
15.  A Comprehensive Study of the Anatomical Variations of the Circle of Willis in Adult Human Brains 
Background: Cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke, aneurysms and arterio-venous malformations are very much prevalent in our country. Circle of Willis, as an anastomotic polygon at the base of the brain forms an important collateral network to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion. Changes in the normal morphology of the circle may condition the appearance and severity of symptoms of cerebrovascular disorders, such as aneurysms, infarctions and other vascular anomalies. A possible link between abnormalities of the circle of Willis and the mentally ill patients has been observed.
Aim and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to have an intimate knowledge of the variations in the cerebral arterial circle and to clarify the clinical importance of these variations in certain forms of cerebrovascular diseases. So an attempt was made to analyse the anatomical variations of the circle in a random population.
Material and Methods: The work was based on fifty adult brains from persons died of diverse causes. The materials were obtained during routine autopsy studies. The base of the brain including the brain stem with intact arterial circle was preserved in 10% formalin for 10 days. The circle of Willis and its major branches were carefully dissected under water using a magnifying lens. The variations were recorded and photographed.
Results: Majority of the circles (52%) showed anomalies. Hypoplasia was the most frequent anomaly and was found in 24% of the brains. Accessory vessels in the form of duplications/triplications of anterior communicating artery were seen in 12% of the circles. The embryonic origin of the posterior cerebral artery from the internal carotid persisted in 10% of the circles. An incomplete circle due to the absence of one or other posterior communicating artery was found in 6% of the specimens.Variations are more frequent in posterior half of the circle.
Conclusion: The anatomical variations of the circle of Willis were probably genetically determined, develop in early embryonic stage and persist in post natal life. The amplitude of neck movements, racial, environmental and hemodynamic factors may also modify these variations. These anomalies may alter the occurrence, severity of symptoms, treatment options and recovery from certain cerebrovascular disorders viz., stroke and aneurysms. A detailed knowledge of the vascular variants is useful to surgeons in planning their shunt operations, choice of the patients and also keeps away inadvertent vascular traumas during surgeries.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/6580.3563
PMCID: PMC3879841  PMID: 24392362
Circle of Willis; Anastomosis; Hypoplasia; Aneurysms; Cerebrovascular disorders
16.  Bilateral Duplicated Internal Carotid Arteries Presenting as Middle Ear Masses: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Objectives
To describe an individual with bilateral duplicated internal carotid arteries (ICA) presenting as middle ear masses, to discuss the anatomy and characteristic imaging findings associated with this condition, and to familiarize clinicians with effective methods to prevent and manage complications related to this entity.
Methods
The clinical presentation of an individual with this unusual vascular anomaly was reviewed. A literature search was then performed to identify previously reported studies describing aberrant ICA in order to characterize the presentation, anatomy, imaging findings, and management of this condition.
Results
An aberrant ICA presenting as a middle ear mass is uncommon, as there are only approximately 45 reported cases to date. The majority of these cases presented as a unilateral anomaly without a duplication, were associated with pulsatile tinnitus and hearing loss, and were diagnosed during middle ear procedures. Bilateral aberrant ICAs are exceedingly rare, with only 14 existing reports. Only one of these cases presented with duplicated ICAs. Our report demonstrates an unusual presentation of aberrant ICA as pulsatile tinnitus was absent and previous middle ear surgery had been performed without establishing this diagnosis and without any resulting complications. Furthermore, this case represents the first known instance of a bilateral duplicated ICA system without persistent stapedial arteries. Although vascular middle ear anomalies are unusual, complications of surgical manipulation have been documented.
Conclusions
The clinician must have a high index of suspicion for vascular lesions in patients presenting with a retrotympanic mass. Appropriate diagnostic imaging studies should be performed to exclude this diagnosis prior to middle ear exploration. Should injury to the carotid artery occur, surgeons should follow specific guidelines to avoid potentially serious complications.
PMCID: PMC3618951  PMID: 22953658
Carotid Artery; Vascular Anomaly; Duplication; Congenital Anomaly; Middle Ear
17.  Using a depth-sensing infrared camera system to access and manipulate medical imaging from within the sterile operating field 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2013;56(3):E1-E6.
Background
As surgical procedures become increasingly dependent on equipment and imaging, the need for sterile members of the surgical team to have unimpeded access to the nonsterile technology in their operating room (OR) is of growing importance. To our knowledge, our team is the first to use an inexpensive infrared depth-sensing camera (a component of the Microsoft Kinect) and software developed in-house to give surgeons a touchless, gestural interface with which to navigate their picture archiving and communication systems intraoperatively.
Methods
The system was designed and developed with feedback from surgeons and OR personnel and with consideration of the principles of aseptic technique and gestural controls in mind. Simulation was used for basic validation before trialing in a pilot series of 6 hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgeries.
Results
The interface was used extensively in 2 laparoscopic and 4 open procedures. Surgeons primarily used the system for anatomic correlation, real-time comparison of intraoperative ultrasound with preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans and for teaching residents and fellows.
Conclusion
The system worked well in a wide range of lighting conditions and procedures. It led to a perceived increase in the use of intraoperative image consultation. Further research should be focused on investigating the usefulness of touchless gestural interfaces in different types of surgical procedures and its effects on operative time.
doi:10.1503/cjs.035311
PMCID: PMC3672422  PMID: 23706851
18.  Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome 
Clinical Epidemiology  2014;6:99-109.
Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%–95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier stage. The last decade has witnessed improved outcomes as aggressive surgical management and preoperative adjuvant therapy has helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. Meanwhile, clarification of the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy should provide an opportunity for secondary prevention. Primary prevention will arrive once the predictive biomarkers and environmental risk factors are more clearly identified.
doi:10.2147/CLEP.S37357
PMCID: PMC3952897  PMID: 24634588
gallstones; cholelithiasis; incidence; cholecystectomy; gallbladder polyp; anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct; primary sclerosing cholangitis
19.  Prophylactic antibiotics used in patients of hepatobiliary surgery 
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences  2013;29(5):1199-1202.
Objective:To clarify the use of antibiotics in our hospital and to guide the prophylactic use in future hepatobiliary surgical procedures.
Methodology: A retrospective review of patients who underwent hepatobiliary surgery from January 2011 to June 2011 was included. Data were collected, and surgical site infection (SSI) was defined by the criteria of Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Patients were prescribed antibiotics for the clinical diagnosis of hepatobiliary system diseases.
Results: 1564 patients were identified, in which 784 patients (50.13%) did not receive preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Of these 355 patients with 784 surgical sites received either preoperative or both preoperative and postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. The SSI rate of the patients who received prophylaxis alone (2.56%, 20 of 780 sites) was not statistically higher than that of the patients who have not received prophylaxis (2.68%, 21 of 784 sites), and the two groups were not statistically correlated (P=0.77).
Conclusion: The number of the patients who developed SSI was relatively low, and no reduction in the SSI rate was observed among the patients who have received antibiotic prophylaxis.
PMCID: PMC3858909  PMID: 24353719
Prophylactic; Antibiotics; Hepatobiliary; Surgical site infection
20.  Double superior vena cava on fistulogram: A case report and discussion 
Patient: Female, 50
Final Diagnosis: Double superior vena cava
Symptoms: —
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: —
Specialty: Nephrology
Objective:
Anatomical anomaly/variation
Background:
Superior vena cava anomalies are caused by variations in the development of the embryonic thoracic venous system. Duplication of the superior vena cava is a rare anomaly with an incidence in the general population of 0.3%. The majority of cases are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally by imaging done for another reason.
Case Report:
A fifty year old female patient presented to our care with a history of end stage renal disease that has been recently started on dialysis. Procedures performed included a fistulogram, PermaCath placement and angiogram of internal jugular vein. Angiogram was done and showed that the patient has a good sized cephalic vein which is wide open and mild to moderate stenosis at the subclavian area which proved to be a dual superior vena cava.
Conclusions:
Double SVC is a rare congenital anomaly. The literature available on this congenital anomaly is sparse. The majority of cases are diagnosed incidentally on imaging for other reasons, which can alert the physician of other congenital abnormalities that will need further work up. However, these venous anomalies should be recognized, as they can have significant clinical implications, especially during central venous catheter placement, radiofrequency ablation, pacemaker insertion or coronary artery bypass graft.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.889589
PMCID: PMC3795019  PMID: 24130918
dialysis catheter; dual superior vena cava; fistulogram
21.  Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in the Diagnosis and Management of Choledochal Cysts 
HPB Surgery  1997;10(4):211-219.
Choledochal cysts are an uncommon anomaly of the biliary system manifested by cystic dilatation of the extra or intrahepatic biliary tree or both. It is most frequently found in Orientals and in females. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a valuable imaging technique in the diagnosis of choledochal cysts in adults. Additionaly, in selected cases, a choledochocele may be effectively managed by endoscopic sphincterotomy. We present clinical and endoscopic findings of six adult patients with choledochal cysts. Clinical symptoms were characterized by abdominal pain, jaundice and cholangitis. Associated hepatobiliary pathologic findings included cholelithiasis, recurrent acute pancreatitis, gallbladder carcinoma, Cystolithiasis, choledocholithiasis, biliary stricture and hepatic abscess.
doi:10.1155/1997/38416
PMCID: PMC2423877  PMID: 9184874
22.  Right Double Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) with Preaortic Iliac Confluence – Case Report and Review of Literature 
Anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are uncommon and most of them remain asymptomatic. Though rare, anomalies of IVC can lead to severe hemorrhagic complications especially during aortoiliac surgery. Prior knowledge of these variations facilitates proper interpretation of radiological images and safe performance of interventional procedures and surgeries. During routine anatomical dissection of abdomen in a female cadaver we observed the presence of right sided duplication of IVC. Both IVCs were present on the right side of abdominal aorta, one ventral and the other more dorsal in position and named ventral right IVC and dorsal right IVC. The ventrally and medially placed IVC, which appeared to be the main IVC was formed by the union of two common iliac veins in front of the right common iliac artery (Preaortic iliac confluence-“Marsupial Cava”). The right external iliac vein continued as the more dorsally and laterally placed dorsal right IVC. The right internal iliac vein after receiving a transverse anastomotic vein from the external iliac continued as the right common iliac vein. This transverse anastomosis was present behind the right common iliac artery. The narrower dorsal right IVC joined the wider ventral right IVC just below the level of renal veins to form a single IVC. The abdominal aorta presented a convexity to the left.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/6785.4028
PMCID: PMC3972529  PMID: 24701503
Double inferior vena cava; Marsupial cava; Inferior vena caval anomalies
23.  Preoperative biliary drainage for biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas 
We posed six clinical questions (CQ) on preoperative biliary drainage and organized all pertinent evidence regarding these questions. CQ 1. Is preoperative biliary drainage necessary for patients with jaundice? The indications for preoperative drainage for jaundiced patients are changing greatly. Many reports state that, excluding conditions such as cholangitis and liver dysfunction, biliary drainage is not necessary before pancreatoduodenectomy or less invasive surgery. However, the morbidity and mortality of extended hepatectomy for biliary cancer is still high, and the most common cause of death is hepatic failure; therefore, preoperative biliary drainage is desirable in patients who are to undergo extended hepatectomy. CQ 2. What procedures are appropriate for preoperative biliary drainage? There are three methods of biliary drainage: percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD), and surgical drainage. ERBD is an internal drainage method, and PTBD and ENBD are external methods. However, there are no reports of comparisons of preoperative biliary drainage methods using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, at this point, a method should be used that can be safely performed with the equipment and techniques available at each facility. CQ 3. Which is better, unilateral or bilateral biliary drainage, in malignant hilar obstruction? Unilateral biliary drainage of the future remnant hepatic lobe is usually enough even when intrahepatic bile ducts are separated into multiple units due to hilar malignancy. Bilateral biliary drainage should be considered in the following cases: those in which the operative procedure is difficult to determine before biliary drainage; those in which cholangitis has developed after unilateral drainage; and those in which the decrease in serum bilirubin after unilateral drainage is very slow. CQ 4. What is the best treatment for postdrainage fever? The most likely cause of high fever in patients with biliary drainage is cholangitis due to problems with the existing drainage catheter or segmental cholangitis if an undrained segment is left. In the latter case, urgent drainage is required. CQ 5. Is bile culture necessary in patients with biliary drainage who are to undergo surgery? Monitoring of bile cultures is necessary for patients with biliary drainage to determine the appropriate use of antibiotics during the perioperative period. CQ 6. Is bile replacement useful for patients with external biliary drainage? Maintenance of the enterohepatic bile circulation is vitally important. Thus, preoperative bile replacement in patients with external biliary drainage is very likely to be effective when highly invasive surgery (e.g., extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma) is planned.
doi:10.1007/s00534-007-1277-7
PMCID: PMC2794354  PMID: 18274841
Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Bile replacement; Guidelines
24.  A retrospective study of angiographic ally determined anomalous coronary arteries in 12,844 subjects in Thrace region of Turkey 
Hippokratia  2012;16(3):246-249.
Background: Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are rarely encountered in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. In patients undergoing coronary angioplasty or cardiac surgery, angiographic recognition of coronary anomalies is important for the proper management of these patients.
Method: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 12,844 patients who had previously undergone coronary angiography in the catheterization laboratory of Trakya University Cardiology Department over the past 14 years. We tried to investigate the presence of a variety of coronary anomalies in these patients to determine the prevalence of various types of anomalies and their anatomic variation in a selected population of the European part of Turkey. The potential association between coronary atherosclerosis and congenital coronary anomalies was also investigated.
Results: Among these patients, 95 patients were found to have major coronary anomalies that predominantly comprised anomalous aortic origin of coronary arteries. Among the major anomalies, anomalous aortic origin of the left circumflex (LCX) artery from the right sinus of Valsalva or right coronary artery (RCA) was found to be the the most prevalent (46 out of 95 patients) outnumbering the second most common anomaly that was anomalous aortic origin of the RCA (32 out of 95 patients). In the present study, the incidence of major coronary arterial anomaly was found to be 0.74 %. However, only about one third of the patients (31 out of 95, 32.6%) with major anomaly had significant coronary atherosclerotic lesions among whom nine were found to involve the LCX artery with a posterior course.
Conclusion: The incidence of congenital coronary anomalies in a selected population of the European part of Turkey is similar to those of other populations. Congenital coronary anomalies generally present as isolated anomalies and are not associated with an increased risk of coronary atherosclerosis in this series. Cardiologists and surgeons should be familiar with these entities for the proper management of patients undergoing cardiac surgery or coronary angioplasty.
PMCID: PMC3738732  PMID: 23935292
Congenital coronary anomaly; coronary atherosclerosis; incidental finding
25.  Accessory Right Hepatic Artery and Its Implications for a Surgeon 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2013;75(Suppl 1):492-494.
Introduction
Accessory hepatic artery is an incidental finding during hepatobiliary, pancreatic surgery and may be found during hepatic transplantation surgery on angiogram. This artery should be carefully identified & preserved during these surgeries.
Case report
A case of accessory right hepatic artery found incidentally during pancreatico duodenectomy [whippels procedure] identified, dissected carefully & preserved.
Discussion
Anomalous hepatic vasculature is a rare incidental finding during hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgery. These anomalies or accessory hepatic arteries should be identified, carefully preserved to prevent inadvertent injury, torrential bleeding & hepatic necrosis .preservation of these anomalous vasculature will not compromise oncological margin.
doi:10.1007/s12262-013-0893-5
PMCID: PMC3693355  PMID: 24426657
Accessory right hepatic artery; Hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery; Hepatic necrosis; Oncological margin

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