Osteosarcomas are the most common primary malignant tumors of bone and show multiple and complex genomic aberrations. miRNAs are non-coding RNAs capable of regulating gene expression at the post transcriptional level, and miRNAs and their target genes may represent novel therapeutic targets or biomarkers for osteosarcoma. In order to investigate the involvement of miRNAs in osteosarcoma development, global microarray analyses of a panel of 19 human osteosarcoma cell lines was performed.
We identified 177 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in osteosarcoma cell lines relative to normal bone. Among these, miR-126/miR-126*, miR-142-3p, miR-150, miR-223, miR-486-5p and members of the miR-1/miR-133a, miR-144/miR-451, miR-195/miR-497 and miR-206/miR-133b clusters were found to be downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines. All miRNAs in the paralogous clusters miR-17-92, miR-106b-25 and miR-106a-92 were overexpressed. Furthermore, the upregulated miRNAs included miR-9/miR-9*, miR-21*, miR-31/miR-31*, miR-196a/miR-196b, miR-374a and members of the miR-29 and miR-130/301 families. The most interesting inversely correlated miRNA/mRNA pairs in osteosarcoma cell lines included miR-9/TGFBR2 and miR-29/p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K. PTEN mRNA correlated inversely with miR-92a and members of the miR-17 and miR-130/301 families. Expression profiles of selected miRNAs were confirmed in clinical samples. A set of miRNAs, miR-1, miR-18a, miR-18b, miR-19b, miR-31, miR-126, miR-142-3p, miR-133b, miR-144, miR-195, miR-223, miR-451 and miR-497 was identified with an intermediate expression level in osteosarcoma clinical samples compared to osteoblasts and bone, which may reflect the differentiation level of osteosarcoma relative to the undifferentiated osteoblast and fully differentiated normal bone. Significance: This study provides an integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA in osteosarcoma, and gives new insight into the complex genetic mechanisms of osteosarcoma development and progression.
Although lymph node negative (LN-) breast cancer patients have a good 10-years survival (∼85%), most of them still receive adjuvant therapy, while only some benefit from this. More accurate prognostication of LN- breast cancer patient may reduce over- and under-treatment. Until now proliferation is the strongest prognostic factor for LN- breast cancer patients. The small molecule microRNA (miRNA) has opened a new window for prognostic markers, therapeutic targets and/or therapeutic components. Previously it has been shown that miR-18a/b, miR-25, miR-29c and miR-106b correlate to high proliferation.
The current study validates nine miRNAs (miR-18a/b miR-25, miR-29c, miR-106b, miR375, miR-424, miR-505 and let-7b) significantly correlated with established prognostic breast cancer biomarkers. Total RNA was isolated from 204 formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) LN- breast cancers and analyzed with quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Independent T-test was used to detect significant correlation between miRNA expression level and the different clinicopathological features for breast cancer.
Strong and significant associations were observed for high expression of miR-18a/b, miR-106b, miR-25 and miR-505 to high proliferation, oestrogen receptor negativity and cytokeratin 5/6 positivity. High expression of let-7b, miR-29c and miR-375 was detected in more differentiated tumours. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with high miR-106b expression had an 81% survival rate vs. 95% (P = 0.004) for patients with low expression.
High expression of miR-18a/b are strongly associated with basal-like breast cancer features, while miR-106b can identify a group with higher risk for developing distant metastases in the subgroup of Her2 negatives. Furthermore miR-106b can identify a group of patients with 100% survival within the otherwise considered high risk group of patients with high proliferation. Using miR-106b as a biomarker in conjunction to mitotic activity index could thereby possibly save 18% of the patients with high proliferation from overtreatment.
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurologic disorder that affects movement and balance. Recent studies have revealed the importance of microRNA (miR) in PD. However, the detailed role of miR and its regulation by Transcription Factor (TF) remain unexplored. In this work for the first time we have studied TF-miR-mRNA regulatory network as well as miR co-expression network in PD.
We compared the 204 differentially expressed miRs from microarray data with 73 PD related miRs obtained from literature, Human MicroRNA Disease Database and found a significant overlap of 47 PD related miRs (p-value<0.05). Functional enrichment analyses of these 47 common (Group1) miRs and the remaining 157 (Group2) miRs revealed similar kinds of over-representative GO Biological Processes and KEGG pathways. This strengthens the possibility that some of the Group 2 miRs can have functional roles in PD progression, hitherto unidentified in any study. In order to explore the cross talk between TF, miR and target mRNA, regulatory networks were constructed. Study of these networks resulted in 14 Inter-Regulatory hub miRs whereas miR co-expression network revealed 18 co-expressed hub miRs. Of these 32 hub miRs, 23 miRs were previously unidentified with respect to their association with PD. Hierarchical clustering analysis further strengthens the roles of these novel miRs in different PD pathways. Furthermore hsa-miR-92a appeared as novel hub miR in both regulatory and co-expression network indicating its strong functional role in PD. High conservation patterns were observed for most of these 23 novel hub miRs across different species including human. Thus these 23 novel hub miRs can be considered as potential biomarkers for PD.
Our study identified 23 novel miR markers which can open up new avenues for future studies and shed lights on potential therapeutic targets for PD.
Obesity is a major health concern worldwide which is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in adipogenesis and obesogenesis is of essential importance as it could lead to the identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the development of anti-obesity drugs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play regulatory roles in several biological processes. They have become a growing research field and consist of promising pharmaceutical targets in various fields such as cancer, metabolism, etc. The present study investigated the possible implication of miRNAs in adipose tissue during the development of obesity using as a model the C57BLJ6 mice fed a high-fat diet.
C57BLJ6 wild type male mice were fed either a standard (SD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 months. Total RNA was prepared from white adipose tissue and was used for microRNA profiling and qPCR.
Twenty-two of the most differentially expressed miRNAs, as identified by the microRNA profiling were validated using qPCR. The results of the present study confirmed previous results. The up-regulation of mmu-miR-222 and the down-regulation of mmu-miR-200b, mmu-miR-200c, mmu-miR-204, mmu-miR-30a*, mmu-miR-193, mmu-miR-378 and mmu-miR-30e* after HFD feeding has also been previously reported. On the other hand, we show for the first time the up-regulation of mmu-miR-342-3p, mmu-miR-142-3p, mmu-miR-142-5p, mmu-miR-21, mmu-miR-146a, mmu-miR-146b, mmu-miR-379 and the down-regulation of mmu-miR-122, mmu-miR-133b, mmu-miR-1, mmu-miR-30a*, mmu-miR-192 and mmu-miR-203 during the development of obesity. However, future studies are warranted in order to understand the exact role that miRNAs play in adipogenesis and obesity.
Circulating proangiogenic cells (PACs) support postischemic neovascularization. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus impair PAC regenerative capacities via molecular mechanisms that are not fully known. We hypothesize a role for microRNAs (miRs). Circulating miRs are currently investigated as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.
The objectives were the following: (1) to profile miR expression in PACs from critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients; (2) to demonstrate that miR-15a and miR-16 regulate PAC functions; and (3) to characterize circulating miR-15a and miR-16 and to investigate their potential biomarker value.
Methods and Results
Twenty-eight miRs potentially able to modulate angiogenesis were measured in PACs from CLI patients with and without diabetes mellitus and controls. miR-15a and miR-16 were further analyzed. CLI-PACs expressed higher level of mature miR-15a and miR-16 and of the primary transcript pri–miR-15a/16-1. miR-15a/16 overexpression impaired healthy PAC survival and migration. Conversely, miR-15a/16 inhibition improved CLI-PAC–defective migration. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A and AKT-3 were validated as direct targets of the 2 miRs, and their protein levels were reduced in miR-15a/16–overexpressing healthy PACs and in CLI-PACs. Transplantation of healthy PACs ex vivo–engineered with anti–miR-15a/16 improved postischemic blood flow recovery and muscular arteriole density in immunodeficient mice. miR-15a and miR-16 were present in human blood, including conjugated to argonaute-2 and in exosomes. Both miRs were increased in the serum of CLI patients and positively correlated with amputation after restenosis at 12 months postrevascularization of CLI type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Serum miR-15a additionally correlated with restenosis at follow-up.
Ex vivo miR-15a/16 inhibition enhances PAC therapeutic potential, and circulating miR-15a and miR-16 deserves further investigation as a prognostic biomarker in CLI patients undergoing revascularization.
angiogenesis; diabetes mellitus; ischemia; microRNAs; microRNA-15a; microRNA-16; proangiogenic cells
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes via regulation of cell proliferation and/or apoptosis. MiR-221 and miR-222 were discovered to induce cell growth and cell cycle progression via direct targeting of p27 and p57 in various human malignancies. However, the roles of miR-221 and miR-222 have not been reported in human gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the impact of miR-221 and miR-222 on human gastric cancer cells, and identified target genes for miR-221 and miR-222 that might mediate their biology.
The human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 was transfected with AS-miR-221/222 or transduced with pMSCV-miR-221/222 to knockdown or restore expression of miR-221 and miR-222, respectively. The effects of miR-221 and miR-222 were then assessed by cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, transwell, and clonogenic assay. Potential target genes were identified by Western blot and luciferase reporter assay.
Upregulation of miR-221 and miR-222 induced the malignant phenotype of SGC7901 cells, whereas knockdown of miR-221 and miR-222 reversed this phenotype via induction of PTEN expression. In addition, knockdonwn of miR-221 and miR-222 inhibited cell growth and invasion and increased the radiosensitivity of SGC7901 cells. Notably, the seed sequence of miR-221 and miR-222 matched the 3'UTR of PTEN, and introducing a PTEN cDNA without the 3'UTR into SGC7901 cells abrogated the miR-221 and miR-222-induced malignant phenotype. PTEN-3'UTR luciferase reporter assay confirmed PTEN as a direct target of miR-221 and miR-222.
These results demonstrate that miR-221 and miR-222 regulate radiosensitivity, and cell growth and invasion of SGC7901 cells, possibly via direct modulation of PTEN expression. Our study suggests that inhibition of miR-221 and miR-222 might form a novel therapeutic strategy for human gastric cancer.
The deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) is frequently associated with a variety of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we identified 10 upregulated miRNAs (miR-217, miR-518b, miR-517c, miR-520g, miR-519a, miR-522, miR-518e, miR-525-3p, miR-512-3p and miR-518a-3p) and 10 downregulated miRNAs (miR-138, miR-214, miR-214#, miR-27a#, miR-199a-5p, miR-433, miR-511, miR-592, miR-483-5p and miR-483-3p) by Taqman miRNAs array and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT–PCR) confirmation. Additionally, we investigated the expression and possible role of miR-138 in HCC. qRT–PCR results showed that miR-138 was downregulated in 77.8%(14/18) of HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Overexpression of miR-138 reduced cell viability and colony formation by induction of cell arrest in HCC cell lines and inhibited tumor cell growth in xenograft nude mice. The use of miR-138 inhibitor increased cell viability and colony formation in HCC cell lines and tumor cell growth in xenograft nude mice. Using TargetScan predictions, CCND3 was defined as a potential direct target of miR-138. Furthermore, CCND3 protein expression was observed to be negatively correlated with miR-138 expression in HCC tissues. The dual-luciferase reporter gene assay results showed that CCND3 was a direct target of miR-138. The use of miR-138 mimic or inhibitor could decrease or increase CCND3 protein levels in HCC cell lines. We conclude that the frequently downregulated miR-138 can regulate CCND3 and function as a tumor suppressor in HCC. Therefore, miR-138 may serve as a useful therapeutic agent for miRNA-based HCC therapy.
MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that regulate the stability and/or translation of complementary mRNA targets. MiRs have emerged not only as critical modulators of normal physiologic processes, but their deregulation may significantly impact prostate and other cancers. The expression of miR-23b and miR-27b, which are encoded by the same miR cluster (miR-23b/-27b), are downregulated in metastatic, castration-resistant tumors compared to primary prostate cancer and benign tissue; however, their possible role in prostate cancer progression is unknown. We found that ectopic expression of miR-23b/-27b in two independent castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines resulted in suppression of invasion and migration, as well as reduced survival in soft agar (a measure of anoikis). However, there was no effect of miR-23b/-27b on cell proliferation suggesting that these miRs function as metastasis (but not growth) suppressors in prostate cancer. Conversely, inhibition of miR-23b/-27b in the less aggressive androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cell line resulted in enhanced invasion and migration also without affecting proliferation. Mechanistically, we found that introduction of miR-23b/-27b in metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines resulted in a significant attenuation of Rac1 activity without affecting total Rac1 levels and caused increased levels of the tumor suppressor E-cadherin. Inhibition of these miRs had the opposite effect in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. These results suggest that miR-23b/-27b are metastasis suppressors that might serve as novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for castration-resistant disease.
Recent studies have demonstrated the possible function of miR-139-5p in tumorigenesis. However, the exact mechanism of miR-139-5p in cancer remains unclear. In this study, the association of miR-139-5p expression with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was evaluated in 106 pairs of esophageal cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissue from ESCC patients. The tumor suppressive features of miR-139-5p were measured by evaluating cell proliferation and cell cycle state, migratory activity and invasion capability, as well as apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the target gene regulated by miR-139-5p. The mRNA level of NR5A2, the target gene of miR-139-5p, was determined in ESCC patients. Results showed that reduced miR-139-5p level was associated with lymph node metastases of ESCC. MiR-139-5p was investigated to induce cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and to suppress the invasive capability of esophageal carcinoma cells by targeting the 3′UTR of oncogenic NR5A2. Cyclin E1 and MMP9 were confirmed to participate in cell cycle arrest and invasive suppression induced by NR5A2, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis further confirmed the significantly negative correlation between miR-139-5p and NR5A2 expression. The results suggest that miR-139-5p exerts a growth- and invasiveness-suppressing function in human ESCCs, which demonstrates that miR-139-5p is a potential biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis and is a therapeutic target for ESCC.
In the present study, we aimed to investigate the changes in plasma miRNA in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration.
The expression profiles of 384 miRNAs in plasma from 33 patients (22 male, 11 female) who were diagnosed with wet age-related macular degeneration with fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography and 31 controls (17 male, 14 female) were evaluated using high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR.
Our results demonstrated that the expression level of five miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-106a-5p, and miR-223-3p) was significantly upregulated in patients with age-related macular degeneration when compared to the control group (p<0.05). The expression level of 11 miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-25-3p, miR-140-3p, miR-146b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-335-5p, miR-342-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-410, miR-574-3p, and miR-660-5p) was significantly downregulated in patients (p<0.05). In addition, ten miRNAs (miR-26b-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-139-3p, miR-212–3p, miR-324-3p, miR-324-5p, miR-532-3p, miR-744-5p, and miR-Let-7c) were expressed only in the patient group.
Our results suggest that plasma miRNA levels may change in wet age-related macular degeneration. These molecules may have an important therapeutic target in patients who are unresponsive to antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. However, further studies must be conducted for possible effects of miRNAs in vascular disorders of eye such as age-related macular degeneration.
While the treatment of HER2 over-expressing breast cancer with recent HER-targeted drugs has been highly effective for some patients, primary (also known as innate) or acquired resistance limits the success of these drugs. microRNAs have potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers, as well as replacement therapies. Here we investigated the role of microRNA-630 (miR-630) in breast cancer progression and as a predictive biomarker for response to HER-targeting drugs, ultimately yielding potential as a therapeutic approach to add value to these drugs.
We investigated the levels of intra- and extracellular miR-630 in cells and conditioned media from breast cancer cell lines with either innate- or acquired- resistance to HER-targeting lapatinib and neratinib, compared to their corresponding drug sensitive cell lines, using qPCR. To support the role of miR-630 in breast cancer, we examined the clinical relevance of this miRNA in breast cancer tumours versus matched peritumours. Transfection of miR-630 mimics and inhibitors was used to manipulate the expression of miR-630 to assess effects on response to HER-targeting drugs (lapatinib, neratinib and afatinib). Other phenotypic changes associated with cellular aggressiveness were evaluated by motility, invasion and anoikis assays. TargetScan prediction software, qPCR, immunoblotting and ELISAs, were used to assess miR-630’s regulation of mRNA, proteins and their phosphorylated forms.
We established that introducing miR-630 into cells with innate- or acquired- resistance to HER-drugs significantly restored the efficacy of lapatinib, neratinib and afatinib; through a mechanism which we have determined to, at least partly, involve miR-630’s regulation of IGF1R. Conversely, we demonstrated that blocking miR-630 induced resistance/insensitivity to these drugs. Cellular motility, invasion, and anoikis were also observed as significantly altered by miR-630 manipulation, whereby introducing miR-630 into cells reduced cellular aggression while inhibition of miR-630 induced a more aggressive cellular phenotype.
Taken together, our findings suggest miR-630 as a key regulator of cancer cell progression in HER2 over-expressing breast cancer, through targeting of IGF1R. This study supports miR-630 as a diagnostic and a predictive biomarker for response to HER-targeted drugs and indicates that the therapeutic addition of miR-630 may enhance and improve patients’ response to HER-targeting drugs.
MicroRNA-630; IGF1R; Biomarker; Breast cancer; Drug resistance; Cancer cell aggression
Osteosarcoma remains a leading cause of cancer death in adolescents. Treatment paradigms and survival rates have not improved in two decades. Driving the lack of therapeutic inroads, the molecular etiology of osteosarcoma remains elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have demonstrated far-reaching effects on the cellular biology of development and cancer. Their role in osteosarcomagenesis remains largely unexplored. Here we identify for the first time an miRNA signature reflecting the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma from surgically procured samples from human patients. The signature includes high expression of miR-181a, miR-181b, and miR-181c as well as reduced expression of miR-16, miR-29b, and miR-142-5p. We also demonstrate that miR-181b and miR-29b exhibit restricted expression to distinct cell populations in the tumor tissue. Further, higher expression of miR-27a and miR-181c* in pre-treatment biopsy samples characterized patients who developed clinical metastatic disease. In addition, higher expression of miR-451 and miR-15b in pre-treatment samples correlated with subsequent positive response to chemotherapy. In vitro and in vivo functional validation in osteosarcoma cell lines confirmed the tumor suppressive role of miR-16 and the pro-metastatic role of miR-27a. Furthermore, predicted target genes for miR-16 and miR-27a were confirmed as down-regulated by real-time PCR. Affymetrix array profiling of cDNAs from the osteosarcoma specimens and controls were interrogated according to predicted targets of miR-16, miR142-5p, miR-29b, miR-181a/b, and miR-27a. This analysis revealed positive and negative correlations highlighting pathways of known importance to osteosarcoma, as well as novel genes. Thus, our findings establish a miRNA signature associated with pathogenesis of osteosarcoma as well as critical pre-treatment biomarkers of metastasis and responsiveness to therapy.
osteosarcoma; microRNA; chemotherapy; metastasis-related miRs; gene array
MicroRNAs (miRs) are expanding our understanding of cardiac disease and have the potential to transform cardiovascular therapeutics. One miR can target hundreds of individual mRNAs, but existing methodologies are not sufficient to accurately and comprehensively identify these mRNA targets in vivo.
To develop methods permitting identification of in vivo miR targets in an unbiased manner, using massively parallel sequencing of mouse cardiac transcriptomes in combination with sequencing of mRNA associated with mouse cardiac RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs).
Methods and Results
We optimized techniques for expression profiling small amounts of RNA without introducing amplification bias, and applied this to anti-Argonaute 2 immunoprecipitated RISCs (RISC-Seq) from mouse hearts. By comparing RNA-sequencing results of cardiac RISC and transcriptome from the same individual hearts, we defined 1,645 mRNAs consistently targeted to mouse cardiac RISCs. We employed this approach in hearts overexpressing miRs from Myh6 promoter-driven precursors (programmed RISC-Seq) to identify 209 in vivo targets of miR-133a and 81 in vivo targets of miR-499. Consistent with the fact that miR-133a and miR-499 have widely differing ‘seed’ sequences and belong to different miR families, only 6 targets were common to miR-133a- and miR-499-programmed hearts.
RISC-sequencing is a highly sensitive method for general RISC profiling and individual miR target identification in biological context, and is applicable to any tissue and any disease state.
MicroRNAs (miRs) are key regulators of mRNA translation in health and disease. While bioinformatic predictions suggest that a single miR may target hundreds of mRNAs, the number of experimentally verified targets of miRs is low. To enable comprehensive, unbiased examination of miR targets, we have performed deep RNA sequencing of cardiac transcriptomes in parallel with cardiac RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-associated RNAs (the RISCome), called RISC sequencing. We developed methods that did not require cross-linking of RNAs to RISCs or amplification of mRNA prior to sequencing, making it possible to rapidly perform RISC sequencing from intact tissue while avoiding amplification bias. Comparison of RISCome with transcriptome expression defined the degree of RISC enrichment for each mRNA. The majority of the mRNAs enriched in wild-type cardiac RISComes compared to transcriptomes were bioinformatically predicted to be targets of at least 1 of 139 cardiac-expressed miRs. Programming cardiomyocyte RISCs via transgenic overexpression in adult hearts of miR-133a or miR-499, two miRs that contain entirely different ‘seed’ sequences, elicited differing profiles of RISC-targeted mRNAs. Thus, RISC sequencing represents a highly sensitive method for general RISC profiling and individual miR target identification in biological context.
RNA-induced silencing complex; RNA-sequencing; mRNA; miRNA; miR-133a; miR-499
Background and Aims
Little is known about functions of microRNA (miR) passenger strands (miR*), or their roles in tumor development or progression. We screened for miRs and miR* whose levels were altered in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and human tumor samples, and investigated their targets and effects on cell function and tumor progression in mice.
We performed array-based profile analysis to identify miRs whose levels were increased more than 2-fold in metastatic (SW620) CRC cells, compared with non-metastatic (SW480) cells. Quantitative PCR, immunoblot, and in situ hybridization analyses were used to measure miRNA levels in CRC cell lines and human tumor samples. We used miRNA duplex mimics or inhibitors to increase and decrease levels of miRNA in CRC cells, and assessed their activities and ability to form metastatic xenograft tumors in nude mice.
Levels of miR-221* and miR-224 were reduced in metastatic, compared with non-metastatic, CRC cells; levels in human tumor samples correlated inversely with tumor stage and metastasis to lymph nodes, as well as patient survival times. SW480 cells transfected with miR-221* or miR-224 inhibitors had increased motility in vitro, compared with SW480 control cells, and formed larger, more metastatic tumors following into mice. SW620 cells transfected with miR-221* or miR-224 mimics had reduced migration and motility in vitro and formed smaller tumors with fewer metastases in mice, compared with control SW620 cells. We identified the 3'UTR of MBD2 mRNA as a target of miR-221* and 281 miR-224. MBD2 silences the gene encoding Maspin, a suppressor of metastasis. In CRC cells, we found that miR-221* and miR-224 increase the expression of Maspin through MBD2 downregulation.
In metastatic CRC cells, reduced levels of miR-221* and miR-224 increase levels of MBD2, thereby decreasing expression of the metastasis suppressor Maspin. Increased activities of miR-221* and miR-224 reduce growth and metastasis of CRC xenograft tumors in mice; these miRs might be developed as therapeutic reagents or biomarkers of CRC progression.
colon cancer progression; mouse model; metastases; prognostic factor
MicroRNA (miRNA) is an emerging subclass of small non-coding RNAs that regulates gene expression and has a pivotal role for many physiological processes including cancer development. Recent reports revealed the role of miRNAs as ideal biomarkers and therapeutic targets due to their tissue- or disease-specific nature. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity, and laryngeal cancer has the highest incidence in it. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in laryngeal cancer development remain to be known and highly sensitive biomarkers and novel promising therapy is necessary.
To explore laryngeal cancer-specific miRNAs, RNA from 5 laryngeal surgical specimens including cancer and non-cancer tissues were hybridized to microarray carrying 723 human miRNAs. The resultant differentially expressed miRNAs were further tested by using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) on 43 laryngeal tissue samples including cancers, noncancerous counterparts, benign diseases and precancerous dysplasias. Significant expressional differences between matched pairs were reproduced in miR-133b, miR-455-5p, and miR-196a, among which miR-196a being the most promising cancer biomarker as validated by qRT-PCR analyses on additional 84 tissue samples. Deep sequencing analysis revealed both quantitative and qualitative deviation of miR-196a isomiR expression in laryngeal cancer. In situ hybridization confirmed laryngeal cancer-specific expression of miR-196a in both cancer and cancer stroma cells. Finally, inhibition of miR-196a counteracted cancer cell proliferation in both laryngeal cancer-derived cells and mouse xenograft model.
Our study provided the possibilities that miR-196a might be very useful in diagnosing and treating laryngeal cancer.
The purpose of this study was to identify prostate cancer (PC) oncogenic microRNAs (miRs) based on miR microarray and to investigate whether these oncogenic miRs may be useful as PC biomarkers.
Initially, we carried out miR microarray and real-time PCR using RWPE-1, PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP cells. To investigate the function of miR-183, we used a miR-183 knockdown inhibitor in cell growth and wound-healing assays. We used several algorithms and confirmed that they are directly regulated by miR-183.
We identified three potential oncogenic miRs (miR-146a, miR-183 and miR-767-5P). The expression of miR-183 in PC cells (PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP) was upregulated compared with RWPE-1 cells. MiR-183 expression was also significantly higher in PC tissues compared with that in matched normal prostate tissues. Additionally, miR-183 expression was correlated with higher prostate-specific antigen, higher pT and shorter overall survival. MiR-183 knockdown decreased cell growth and motility in PC cells and significantly decreased prostate tumour growth in in vivo nude mice experiments. We identified Dkk-3 and SMAD4 as potential target genes of miR-183.
Our data suggest that oncogenic miR-183 may be useful as a new PC biomarker and that inhibition of miR-183 expression may be therapeutically beneficial as a PC treatment.
prostate cancer; miRNA-183; Dkk-3; SMAD4
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases worldwide. Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with tumor development and progression. Our previous studies have revealed that H. pylori infection was able to induce the altered expression of miR-30b in gastric epithelial cells. However, little is known about the potential role of miR-30b in gastric cancer.
We analyzed the expression of miR-30b in gastric cancer cell lines and human gastric cancer tissues. We examined the effect of miR-30b mimics on the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro by flow cytometry (FCM) and caspase-3/7 activity assays. Nude mouse xenograft model was used to determine whether miR-30b is involved in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. The target of miR-30b was identified by bioinformatics analysis, luciferase assay and Western blot. Finally, we performed the correlation analysis between miR-30b and its target expression in gastric cancer.
miR-30b was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer cells and human gastric cancer tissues. Enforced expression of miR-30b promoted the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, and miR-30b could significantly inhibit tumorigenicity of gastric cancer by increasing the apoptosis proportion of cancer cells in vivo. Moreover, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was identified as the potential target of miR-30b, and miR-30b level was inversely correlated with PAI-1 expression in gastric cancer. In addition, silencing of PAI-1 was able to phenocopy the effect of miR-30b overexpression on apoptosis regulation of cancer cells, and overexpression of PAI-1 could suppressed the effect of promoting cell apoptosis by miR-30b, indicating PAI-1 is potentially involved in miR-30b-induced apoptosis on cancer cells.
miR-30b may function as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer by targeting PAI-1 and regulating the apoptosis of cancer cells. miR-30b could serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target against gastric cancer.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents 15 to 20% of all types of breast cancer; however, it accounts for a large number of metastatic cases and deaths, and there is still no effective treatment. The deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in breast cancer has been widely reported. We previously identified that miR-638 was one of the most deregulated miRNAs in breast cancer progression. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that miR-638 directly targets BRCA1. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-638 in breast cancer prognosis and treatment.
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer samples were microdissected into normal epithelial and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells, and total RNA was isolated. Several breast cancer cell lines were used for the functional analysis. miR-638 target genes were identified by TARGETSCAN-VERT 6.2 and miRanda. The expression of miR-638 and its target genes was analyzed by real-time qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was employed to confirm the specificity of miR-638 target genes. The biological function of miR-638 was analyzed by MTT chemosensitivity, matrigel invasion and host cell reactivation assays.
The expression of miR-638 was decreased in IDC tissue samples compared to their adjacent normal controls. The decreased miR-638 expression was more prevalent in non-TNBC compared with TNBC cases. miR-638 expression was significantly downregulated in breast cancer cell lines compared to the immortalized MCF-10A epithelial cells. BRCA1 was predicted as one of the direct targets of miR-638, which was subsequently confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Forced expression of miR-638 resulted in a significantly reduced proliferation rate as well as decreased invasive ability in TNBC cells. Furthermore, miR-638 overexpression increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, ultraviolet (UV) and cisplatin, but not to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and epirubicin exposure in TNBC cells. Host cell reactivation assays showed that miR-638 reduced DNA repair capability in post UV/cisplatin-exposed TNBC cells. The reduced proliferation, invasive ability, and DNA repair capabilities are associated with downregulated BRCA1 expression.
Our findings suggest that miR-638 plays an important role in TNBC progression via BRCA1 deregulation. Therefore, miR-638 might serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for breast cancer.
The Abelson (c-Abl) proto-oncogene encodes a highly conserved nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that plays a role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell adhesion. c-Abl represents a specific anti-cancer target in prostate cancer as aberrant activity of this kinase has been implicated in the stimulation of prostate cancer growth and progression. However, the mechanism of regulation of c-Abl is not known. Here we report that Abl kinases are regulated by a novel microRNA, miR-4723, in prostate cancer. Expression profiling of miR-4723 expression in a cohort of prostate cancer clinical specimens showed that miR-4723 expression is widely attenuated in prostate cancer. Low miR-4723 expression was significantly correlated with poor survival outcome and our analyses suggest that miR-4723 has significant potential as a disease biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in prostate cancer. To evaluate the functional significance of decreased miR-4723 expression in prostate cancer, miR-4723 was overexpressed in prostate cancer cell lines followed by functional assays. miR-4723 overexpression led to significant decreases in cell growth, clonability, invasion and migration. Importantly, miR-4723 expression led to dramatic induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines suggesting that miR-4723 is a pro-apoptotic miRNA regulating prostate carcinogenesis. Analysis of putative miR-4723 targets showed that miR-4723 targets integrin alpha 3 and Methyl CpG binding protein in addition to Abl1 and Abl2 kinases. Further, we found that the expression of Abl kinase is inversely correlated with miR-4723 expression in prostate cancer clinical specimens. Also, Abl1 knockdown partially phenocopies miR-4723 reexpression in prostate cancer cells suggesting that Abl is a functionally relevant target of miR-4723 in prostate cancer. In conclusion, we have identified a novel microRNA that mediates regulation of Abl kinases in prostate cancer. This study suggests that miR-4723 may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in prostate cancer.
The purpose of this study was to detect the serum microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially expressed in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients and negative controls, with a focus on the miRNA profiles of the patients before and after surgery. The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential of these miRNAs as novel markers for the post-therapeutic monitoring of cervical SCC patients.
A total of 765 serum miRNAs from 10 cervical SCC patients before surgery, 10 cervical SCC patients after surgery, and 10 negative controls were profiled using a TaqMan MicroRNA Array. A set of selected differentially expressed miRNAs were further analyzed in the patients at different perioperative periods, including preoperative, 1 week postoperative, and one month postoperative. The results showed that several serum miRNAs were differentially expressed in the cervical SCC patients compared with the negative controls, including miR-646, miR-141* and miR-542-3p. More importantly, we found that levels of specific serum miRNAs were deregulated in the pre- and postoperative stages, and these miRNAs could be useful for post-therapeutic monitoring of disease progression. Finally, we depicted a regulatory network of differentially expressed serum miRNAs, and many possible target genes were predicted in the estrogen-mediated signal pathways, supporting the hypothesis that cervical SCC is a hormone-associated gynecological disease.
Our study demonstrated that the circulating miRNAs miR-646, miR-141* and miR-542-3p could potentially serve as non-invasive biomarkers for cervical SCC. The levels of these specific miRNAs might be useful for the post-therapeutic monitoring of disease progression. This is the first report showing that circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers for the therapeutic intervention of cervical SCC.
Circulating microRNA; Cervical SCC; Serum; Tumor biomarkers; Post-therapeutic monitoring
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in cancer development and progression, acting as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Our previous studies have revealed that miR-148a and miR-152 are significantly down-regulated in gastrointestinal cancers. Interestingly, miR-148b has the same "seed sequences" as miR-148a and miR-152. Although aberrant expression of miR-148b has been observed in several types of cancer, its pathophysiologic role and relevance to tumorigenesis are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which miR-148b acts as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer.
We showed significant down-regulation of miR-148b in 106 gastric cancer tissues and four gastric cancer cell lines, compared with their non-tumor counterparts by real-time RT-PCR. In situ hybridization of ten cases confirmed an overt decrease in the level of miR-148b in gastric cancer tissues. Moreover, the expression of miR-148b was demonstrated to be associated with tumor size (P = 0.027) by a Mann-Whitney U test. We also found that miR-148b could inhibit cell proliferation in vitro by MTT assay, growth curves and an anchorage-independent growth assay in MGC-803, SGC-7901, BGC-823 and AGS cells. An experiment in nude mice revealed that miR-148b could suppress tumorigenicity in vivo. Using a luciferase activity assay and western blot, CCKBR was identified as a target of miR-148b in cells. Moreover, an obvious inverse correlation was observed between the expression of CCKBR protein and miR-148b in 49 pairs of tissues (P = 0.002, Spearman's correlation).
These findings provide important evidence that miR-148b targets CCKBR and is significant in suppressing gastric cancer cell growth. Maybe miR-148b would become a potential biomarker and therapeutic target against gastric cancer.
To investigate the expression profile of microRNAs in inoperable advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving chemotherapy and the potential relevance of microRNAs to clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis.
Serum samples were taken from 260 inoperable advanced NSCLC patients and 260 healthy individuals. All the patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy, including NP/NC regimens, GP/GC regimens, and TP/TC regimens. The serum levels of microRNAs (miR-125b, miR-10b, miR-34a and miR-155) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR.
Serum levels of the 4 microRNAs examined in NSCLC patients were significantly increased as compared with healthy individuals. The levels of miR-125b and miR-155 were changed in a similar pattern: the patients with stage IV disease had the highest one, while the patients with stage III A and stage III B disease showed similar increased levels. The levels of miR-10b and miR-34a in the patients with different stages were increased to similar extent. The level of miR-125b in poorly differentiated cancer was significantly higher than those in well and moderately differentiated cancers, while the levels of miR-10b, miR-34a, and miR-155 did not significantly differ with cancer differentiation. Among the 4 microRNAs examined, only miR-125b was significantly associated with therapeutic response, exhibiting higher expression levels in non-responsive patients. Furthermore, the high level of miR-125b was significantly correlated with poor patient survival. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the expression level of miR-125b was an independent prognostic marker in NSCLC patients.
Our results suggest that miR-125b is a potential diagnostic or prognostic biomarker for NSCLC. This finding has important implications for development of targeted therapeutics to overcome chemotherapeutic resistance in NSCLC.
microRNA 125b; biomarker; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); cisplatin-based chemotherapy; prognosis
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive grade IV astrocytoma with a 1-year median survival rate despite current treatment modalities. A thorough understanding of the vast genetic aberrations and signaling pathways involved in gliomagenesis as well as heterogeneous clinicopathological presentation remains elusive. The recent discovery of microRNAs (miRs) and their capability of simultaneously regulating multiple downstream genes may play a key role in explaining the complex mechanisms underlying GBM formation. miRs are 19 to 25 nucleotide non–protein-coding small RNA molecules involved in the suppression of mRNA translation. This review will summarize and discuss the most recent findings regarding miRs in GBM including downstream targets, functional effects, and therapeutic potentials. Specifically discussed miRs include miR-7, miR-9/miR-9*, miR-10a/miR-10a*/miR-10b, miR-15b, miR-17-92, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-34a, miR-93, miR-101, miR-124, miR-125a, miR-125b, miR-128, miR-137, miR-146b-5p, miR-153, miR-181a/miR-181b, miR-196a/miR-196b, miR-218, miR-221/miR-222, miR-296, miR-302-367, miR-326, miR-381, miR-451, and let-7a. In addition to gene regulatory roles, miRs have demonstrated significant diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential. These small molecules may both help in the understanding of GBM and in developing new therapeutic options.
miR; GBM; glioma; microarray; review
Increasing evidence has suggested that dysregulation of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to human disease including carcinogenesis and tumor metastasis in human. miR-124-3p is down-regulated in various cancers, and modulates proliferation and aggressiveness of cancer cells. However, the roles of miR-124-3p in human bladder cancer are elusive. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the biological functions and its molecular mechanisms of miR-124-3p in human bladder cancer cell lines, discussing whether it has a potential to be a therapeutic biomarker of bladder cancer.
Three human bladder cancer cell lines and samples from ten patients with bladder cancer were analyzed for the expression of miR-124-3p by quantitative RT--PCR. Exogenetic overexpression of miR-124-3p was established by transfecting mimics into T24, UM-UC-3 and J82 cells, after that cell proliferation and cell cycle were assessed by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Colony-forming assay. Cell motility and invasion ability were evaluated by wound healing assay and transwell assay. Tissue microarray, and immunohistochemistry with antibodies against ROCK1, MMP2 and MMP9 was performed using the peroxidase and DAB methods. The target gene of miR-124-3p was determined by luciferase assays, quantitative RT--PCR and western blot. The regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by miR-124-3p was analyzed by western blot.
miR-124-3p is frequently down-regulated in bladder cancer both in three bladder cancer cell lines, T24, UM-UC-3, J82 and clinical samples. Overexpression of miR-124-3p induced G1-phase arrest in T24, UM-UC-3 and J82 cell lines and suppressed cell growth in colony-forming assay. miR-124-3p significantly repressed the capability of migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells. In addition, ROCK1 was identified as a new target of miR-124-3p. ROCK1, MMP2, MMP9 were up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrated miR-124-3p could inhibit bladder cancer cell epithelial mesenchymal transfer, and regulated the expression of c-Met, MMP2, MMP9.
miR-124-3p can repress the migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells via regulating ROCK1. Our data indicate that miR-124-3p could be a tumor suppressor and may have a potential to be a diagnostics or predictive biomarker in bladder cancer.
miR-124-3p; ROCK1; Bladder cancer; Migration; Invasion
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have great potential as biomarkers and therapeutic agents owing to their ability to control multiple genes and potential to influence cellular behavior. Here we identified that miR-23b is a methylation-silenced tumor suppressor in prostate cancer (PCa). We demonstrated that miR-23b expression is controlled by promoter methylation and has great promise as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in PCa. High levels of miR-23b expression are positively correlated with higher overall and recurrence-free survival in PCa patients. Further we elucidated the tumor suppressor role of miR-23b using in vitro and in vivo models. We demonstrated that proto-oncogene Src kinase and Akt are direct targets of miR-23b. Increased expression of miR-23b inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration/invasion and triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PCa. Over-expression of miR-23b inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) causing a decline in mesenchymal markers Vimentin and Snail and increasing the epithelial marker, E-cadherin. Depletion of Src by RNA interference conferred similar functional effects as that of miR-23b reconstitution. miR-23b expression caused a dramatic decrease in tumor growth in nude mice and attenuated Src expression in excised tumors compared to a control miR. These findings suggest that miR-23b is a methylation-silenced tumor suppressor that may be useful biomarker in PCa. Loss of miR-23b may confer proliferative advantage and promote PCa migration and invasion and re-expression of miR-23b may contribute to the epigenetic therapy for PCa.
MicroRNA-23b; Src kinase; prostate cancer