H. pylori colonizes half of the world's population leading to gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori strains resistant to antibiotics are increasing which raises the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to decrease H. pylori growth and its associated-inflammation through mechanisms poorly characterized. We aimed to explore DHA action on H. pylori-mediated inflammation and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells (AGS) and also to identify bacterial structures affected by DHA. H. pylori growth and metabolism was assessed in liquid cultures. Bacterial adhesion to AGS cells was visualized by transmission electron microscopy and quantified by an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Inflammatory proteins were assessed by immunoblotting in infected AGS cells, previously treated with DHA. Bacterial total and outer membrane protein composition was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Concentrations of 100 µM of DHA decreased H. pylori growth, whereas concentrations higher than 250 µM irreversibly inhibited bacteria survival. DHA reduced ATP production and adhesion to AGS cells. AGS cells infected with DHA pre-treated H. pylori showed a 3-fold reduction in Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and a decrease of COX2 and iNOS. 2D electrophoresis analysis revealed that DHA changed the expression of H. pylori outer membrane proteins associated with stress response and metabolism and modified bacterial lipopolysaccharide phenotype. As conclusions our results show that DHA anti-H. pylori effects are associated with changes of bacteria morphology and metabolism, and with alteration of outer membrane proteins composition, that ultimately reduce the adhesion of bacteria and the burden of H. pylori-related inflammation.
Unsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, EPA), and a series of n-6 PUFAs were investigated for their anti-tumour and antimetastatic effects in a subcutaneous (s.c.) implanted highly metastatic colon carcinoma 26 (Co 26Lu) model. EPA and DHA exerted significant inhibitory effects on tumour growth at the implantation site and significantly decreased the numbers of lung metastatic nodules. Oleic acid also significantly inhibited lung metastatic nodules. Treatment with arachidonic acid showed a tendency for reduction in colonization. However, treatment with high doses of fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, increased the numbers of lung metastatic nodules. DHA and EPA only inhibited lung colonizations when administered together with the tumour cells, suggesting that their incorporation is necessary for an influence to be exerted. Chromatography confirmed that contents of fatty acids in both tumour tissues and plasma were indeed affected by the treatments. Tumour cells pretreated with fatty acids in vivo, in particular DHA, also showed a low potential for lung colony formation when transferred to new hosts. Thus, DHA treatment exerted marked antimetastatic activity associated with pronounced change in the fatty acid component of tumour cells. The results indicate that uptake of DHA into tumour cells results in altered tumour cell membrane characteristics and a decreased ability to metastasize.
In a recent study, we showed that the combination of aspirin plus the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) synergistically inhibited platelet function. As aspirin, EPA, and DHA have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, we hypothesized that the ingestion of EPA and DHA, with and without aspirin, would reduce plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis factors more than aspirin alone and before aspirin was ingested.
Using multiplex technology, we investigated the effects of aspirin (single-dose 650 mg on day 1), EPA+DHA (3.4 g/d for days 2-29), and aspirin with EPA+DHA (day 30) on plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis factors in healthy adults.
Aspirin alone had no effect on any factor versus baseline, but EPA+DHA, with and without aspirin, significantly reduced concentrations of 8 of 9 factors. Although EPA+DHA plus aspirin reduced concentrations of a subset of the factors compared to baseline, neither aspirin alone nor the combination significantly reduced the level of any analyte more robustly than EPA+DHA alone.
These data suggest that EPA+DHA has more pronounced down-regulatory effects on inflammation and angiogenesis than aspirin. The implications of these findings for the use of combined therapy for cardiovascular disease remain to be clarified.
eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; lipid mediators; fatty acids; angiogenesis; hemostasis; platelet function; cytokines; aspirin
Pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines are produced in gastric mucosa from inflammatory cells activated by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Of the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α have a potent inhibitive effect on gastric acid production. Polymorphisms in these genes are associated with individual differences in cytokine messenger RNA levels, which result in different gastric mucosal inflammation, different acid inhibition and different gastroduodenal disease risks in response to H. pylori infection. The sustained higher intragastric pH during an eradication therapy is known to be one of the therapeutic determinants of the H. pylori eradication as well as antibiotics resistance and poor compliance. The IL-1B-511 polymorphism is related to eradication rate, and, in combined analysis of previous reports, the eradication rate in patients with the IL-1B-511 C/C genotype (77.4%, 209/270), low IL-1β producer genotype, is lower than that of the IL-1B-511 C/T and T/T genotypes (87.2%, 631/724) (Odds ratio for eradication failure: 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.38–2.84, P = 0.0002). Moreover, the odds ratio of combined CYP2C19 rapid metabolizer-IL-1B-511 C/C type for eradication failure is 11.15 (5.23–23.78) times that of the CYP2C19 poor metabolizer-IL-1B-511 non-C/C type. However, there is no positive data indicating the role of other inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms (e.g. IL-1RN, TNF-A or IL-10) in eradication therapy. Nevertheless, the studies show that inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms, especially the IL-1B-511 T/T genotype, are the determinants of eradication by affecting gastric acid secretion and mucosal inflammation. Therefore, the tailored eradication therapy, considering inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms, may be effective for the higher eradication rates.
eradication therapy; Helicobacter pylori; IL-1β; inflammatory cytokine; polymorphism; TNF-α
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is an essential component of membrane phosphatides and has been implicated in cognitive functions. Low levels of circulating or brain DHA are associated with various neurocognitive disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while laboratory animals, including animal models of AD, can exhibit improved cognitive ability with a diet enriched in DHA. Various cellular mechanisms have been proposed for DHA’s behavioral effects, including increases in cellular membrane fluidity, promotion of neurite extension, and inhibition of apoptosis. However, there is little direct evidence that DHA affects synaptic structure in living animals. Here we show that oral supplementation with DHA substantially increases the number of dendritic spines in adult gerbil hippocampus, particularly when animals are co-supplemented with a uridine source, uridine-5’-monophosphate (UMP), which increases brain levels of the rate-limiting phosphatide precursor CTP. The increase in dendritic spines (> 30%) is accompanied by parallel increases in membrane phosphatides, and in pre- and post-synaptic proteins within the hippocampus. Hence oral DHA may promote neuronal membrane synthesis to increase the number of synapses, particularly when co-administered with UMP. Our findings provide a possible explanation for the effects of DHA on behavior and also suggest a strategy to treat cognitive disorders resulting from synapse loss.
docosahexaenoic acid; uridine; membrane synthesis; spine formation; synaptogenesis; phosphatides
Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with two dietary regimes; peptamen (pep+DHA) and low fat diet (low fat+DHA). Peptamen base liquid diet is a standard sole-source nutrition for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here we demonstrate that a robust AD transgenic mouse model shows an increased tendency to produce beta-amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques when fed a pep+DHA diet. The increase in beta-amyloid peptides was due to an elevated trend in the levels of beta-secretase amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE), the proteolytic C-terminal fragment beta of APP and reduced levels of insulin degrading enzyme that endoproteolyse beta-amyloid. On the contrary, TgCRND8 mice on low fat+DHA diet (based on an approximately 18% reduction of fat intake) ameliorate the production of abeta peptides and consequently amyloid plaques. Our work not only demonstrates that DHA when taken with peptamen may have a tendency to confer a detrimental affect on the amyloid plaque build up but also reinforces the importance of studying composite lipids or nutrients rather than single lipids or nutrients for their effects on pathways important to plaque development.
We investigated the effects of low-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the incidence and growth of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinoma in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. We also examined the effects of these treatments on the fatty acid composition of tumour and serum. Tumour incidence was significantly decreased by the administration of low-dose EPA and DHA, whereas their inhibitory effects on tumour growth did not reach significance. Serum arachidonic acid (AA) level was decreased by the administration of low-dose EPA and tended to be decreased by the administration of low-dose DHA, whereas tumour AA levels were not changed. The administration of low-dose EPA and DHA may be useful for inhibiting the incidence of breast cancer.
AIM: To investigate the impact of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and their combination on colon cancer cell growth.
METHODS: The LS-174T colon cancer cell line was used to study the role of the prostaglandin precursor AA and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA on cell growth. Cell viability was assessed in XTT assays. For analysis of cell cycle and cell death, flow cytometry and DAPI staining were applied. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p21 and bcl-2 in cells incubated with AA or DHA was examined by real-time RT-PCR. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation in the presence of AA and DHA was measured using a PGE2-ELISA.
RESULTS: AA increased cell growth, whereas DHA reduced viability of LS 174T cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, DHA down- regulated mRNA of bcl-2 and up-regulated p21. Interestingly, DHA was able to suppress AA-induced cell proliferation and significantly lowered AA-derived PGE2 formation. DHA also down-regulated COX-2 expression. In addition to the effect on PGE2 formation, DHA directly reduced PGE2-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that DHA can inhibit the pro-proliferative effect of abundant AA or PGE2.
Colorectal carcinoma; Colon cancer; Omega-3; Omega-6; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Arachidonic acid; Docosahexaenoic acid; Prostaglandin E2; Cyclooxygenase-2; Apoptosis
The present study sought to further investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of a representative omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with a focus on assessing the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis as an important mechanism for its anticancer actions.
In vitro studies showed that DHA strongly reduces the viability and DNA synthesis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture, and also promotes cell death via apoptosis. Mechanistically, accumulation of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspase 8 contribute critically to the induction of apoptotic cell death. Co-presence of antioxidants or selective inhibition or knockdown of caspase 8 each effectively abrogates the cytotoxic effect of DHA. Using athymic nude mice as an in vivo model, we found that feeding animals the 5% fish oil-supplemented diet for 6 weeks significantly reduces the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vivo through inhibition of cancer cell proliferation as well as promotion of cell death. Using 3-nitrotyrosine as a parameter, we confirmed that the fish oil-supplemented diet significantly increases oxidative stress in tumor cells in vivo. Analysis of fatty acid content in plasma and tissues showed that feeding animals a 5% fish oil diet increases the levels of DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid in both normal and tumorous mammary tissues by 329% and 300%, respectively.
DHA can strongly induce apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The induction of apoptosis in these cells is selectively mediated via caspase 8 activation. These observations call for further studies to assess the effectiveness of fish oil as a dietary supplement in the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.
Enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n–3), in the brain is known to be critical for optimal brain development and function. Mechanisms for DHA’s beneficial effects in the nervous system are not clearly understood at present. DHA is incorporated into the phospholipids in neuronal membranes, which in turn can influence not only the membrane chemical and physical properties but also the cell signaling involved in neuronal survival, proliferation and differentiation. Our studies have indicated that DHA supplementation promotes phosphatidylserine (PS) accumulation and inhibits neuronal cell death under challenged conditions, supporting a notion that DHA is an important neuroprotective agent. This article summarizes our findings on the DHA-mediated membrane-related signaling mechanisms that might explain some of the beneficial effects of DHA, particularly on neuronal survival.
Several studies have shown that dietary lipid exerts an effect on carcinogenesis. We report here that progression to malignancy in vitro is associated with changes in the response to fatty acids (FAs). Tumorigenic (THKE) cells were more sensitive to the n-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than immortalised (IHKE) cells. The growth of THKE cells was inhibited 25% more than the growth of IHKE cells at 80 microM EPA (P < 0.01) and 35% more at 40 microM DHA (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results indicate that there is a wide cell type variation in the response to FAs. We found that the in vitro inhibition by FAs correlated with the reduction in the growth rate of the tumour in nude mice fed K85 (55% EPA and 30% DHA). A significant difference in tumour latency was observed for the A427 cell tumour groups (10 days, P < 0.05). Tumours in the animals fed n-3 FA exhibited significantly higher levels of EPA and DHA; the level of arachidonic acid (ARA) was significantly lower in THKE tumours and the level of linoleic acid (LA) was significantly lower in A427 tumours than in controls fed corn oil. The higher sensitivity of the A427 cell line was not explained by higher uptake of EPA/DHA.
Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), have a variety of biological activities including anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. We hypothesized that their peroxidized products contributed in part to anti-inflammatory effects. In the liver, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been implicated as one of the factors in hepatic inflammation and injury. We examined whether the peroxidation of EPA/DHA influences the induction of iNOS and NO production in proinflammatory cytokine-stimulated cultured hepatocytes, which is in vitro liver inflammation model. Peroxidized EPA/DHA inhibited the induction of iNOS and NO production in parallel with the increased levels of their peroxidation, whereas unoxidized EPA/DHA had no effects at all. Peroxidized EPA/DHA reduced the activation of transcription factor, NF-κB, and the expression of the iNOS antisense transcript, which are involved in iNOS promoter transactivation (mRNA synthesis) and its mRNA stabilization, respectively. These findings demonstrated that peroxidized products of EPA/DHA suppressed the induction of iNOS gene expression through both of the transcriptional and posttranscriptional steps, leading to the prevention of hepatic inflammation.
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the mucus niche of the gastric mucosa and is a risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and cancer. The main components of the mucus layer are heavily glycosylated mucins, to which H. pylori can adhere. Mucin glycosylation differs between individuals and changes during disease. Here we have examined the H. pylori response to purified mucins from a range of tumor and normal human gastric tissue samples. Our results demonstrate that mucins from different individuals differ in how they modulate both proliferation and gene expression of H. pylori. The mucin effect on proliferation varied significantly between samples, and ranged from stimulatory to inhibitory, depending on the type of mucins and the ability of the mucins to bind to H. pylori. Tumor-derived mucins and mucins from the surface mucosa had potential to stimulate proliferation, while gland-derived mucins tended to inhibit proliferation and mucins from healthy uninfected individuals showed little effect. Artificial glycoconjugates containing H. pylori ligands also modulated H. pylori proliferation, albeit to a lesser degree than human mucins. Expression of genes important for the pathogenicity of H. pylori (babA, sabA, cagA, flaA and ureA) appeared co-regulated in response to mucins. The addition of mucins to co-cultures of H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells protected the viability of the cells and modulated the cytokine production in a manner that differed between individuals, was partially dependent of adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric cells, but also revealed that other mucin factors in addition to adhesion are important for H. pylori-induced host signaling. The combined data reveal host-specific effects on proliferation, gene expression and virulence of H. pylori due to the gastric mucin environment, demonstrating a dynamic interplay between the bacterium and its host.
Previous investigations demonstrated that a standardized extract of ginger rhizome inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori in vitro with a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 0.78 to 12.5 μg/mL. In the present work, the extract was tested in a rodent model of H. pylori-induced disease, the Mongolian gerbil, to examine the effects of the extract on both prevention and eradication of infection. The extract was administered to Mongolian gerbils at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in rations either 3 weeks prior to infection or 6 weeks post-infection. Treatment with the standardized ginger extract reduced H. pylori load as compared with controls and significantly (P<0.05) reduced both acute and chronic muscosal and submucosal inflammation, cryptitis, as well as epithelial cell degeneration and erosion induced by H. pylori. Importantly, the extract did not increase morbidity or mortality. Further investigations of the mechanism demonstrated that the ginger extract inhibited the activity of cyclooxygenase-2, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8.5 μg/mL in vitro, inhibited the nuclear factor-κB transcriptional response in kBZ Jurkat cells (human T lymphocytes) with an IC50 of 24.6 μg/mL, and significantly inhibited the release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IC50 values of 3.89, 7.7, 8.5, and 8.37 μg/mL, respectively. These results suggest ginger extracts may be useful for development as agents to reduce H. pylori-induced inflammation and as for gastric cancer chemoprevention.
Antibacterial; chemoprevention; gastric cancer; ginger; gingerol; Helicobacter pylori; Mongolian gerbil; peptic ulcer disease; Zingiber officinale
Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG), ethyl ester (EE), free fatty acid (FFA) and phospholipid (PL) forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet.
Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA), DHA bound triglyceride (DHA-TG), DHA bound ethyl ester (DHA-EE) and DHA bound phospholipid (DHA-PL) for 1 week, with dietary fat levels at 5% and 22.5%. Serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were analyzed, as well as the fatty acid composition of liver and brain.
At low fat level, serum total cholesterol (TC) level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Hepatic TG level decreased significantly in mice fed diets with DHA-TG (P < 0.05), DHA-EE (P < 0.05) and DHA-PL (P < 0.05), while TC level in liver was significantly lower in mice fed diets with TG and EE compared with the control group (P < 0.05). At high fat level, mice fed diets with DHA-EE and DHA-PL had significantly lower hepatic TC level compared with the control diet (P < 0.05). Hepatic PL concentration experienced a significant increase in mice fed the diet with PL at high fat level (P < 0.05). Furthermore, both at low and high fat levels, hepatic DHA level significantly increased and AA level significantly decreased in all forms of DHA groups (P < 0.05), compared to control groups at two different fat levels, respectively. Additionally, cerebral DHA level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL significantly increased compared with the control at high fat level (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed among dietary treatments for mice fed diets with low fat level.
The present study suggested that not only total dietary fat content but also the molecular forms of omega-3 fatty acids contributed to lipid metabolism in mice. DHA-PL showed effective bioactivity in decreasing hepatic and serum TC, TG levels and increasing omega-3 concentration in liver and brain.
Omega-3 fatty acid; DHA; EPA; Lipid metabolism; Triglycerides; Ethyl ester; Phospholipids
Helicobacter pylori infection persists for the life of the host due to the failure of the immune response to eradicate the bacterium. Determining how H. pylori escapes the immune response in its gastric niche is clinically important. We have demonstrated in vitro that macrophage NO production can kill H. pylori, but induction of macrophage arginase II (Arg2) inhibits inducible NO synthase (iNOS) translation, causes apoptosis, and restricts bacterial killing. We now determined if Arg2 impairs host defense in vivo, using a chronic H. pylori infection model. In C57BL/6 mice, expression of Arg2, but not arginase I (Arg1), was abundant and localized to gastric macrophages. Arg2−/− mice had increased histologic gastritis and decreased bacterial colonization compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Increased gastritis scores correlated with decreased colonization in individual Arg2−/− mice, but not WT mice. When mice infected with H. pylori were compared, Arg2−/− mice had more gastric macrophages, more of these cells were iNOS+, and these cells expressed higher levels of iNOS protein, as determined by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. There was enhanced nitrotyrosine staining in infected Arg2−/− versus WT mice, indicating increased NO generation. Infected Arg2−/− mice exhibited decreased macrophage apoptosis, as well as enhanced IFN-γ, IL-17a, and IL-12p40 expression, and reduced IL-10 levels consistent with a more vigorous Th1/Th17 response. These studies demonstrate that Arg2 contributes to the immune evasion of H. pylori by limiting macrophage iNOS protein expression and NO production, mediating macrophage apoptosis, and restraining pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa causing gastritis and peptic ulcer and increasing the risk of gastric cancer. The efficacy of current antibiotic-based therapies can be limited by problems of patient compliance and increasing antibiotic resistance; the vaccine approach can overcome these limits. The present study describes the therapeutic vaccination of experimentally H. pylori-infected beagle dogs, an animal model that reproduces several aspects of the human infection with H. pylori. The vaccine consisted of three recombinant H. pylori antigens, CagA, VacA, and NAP, formulated at different doses (10, 25, or 50 μg each) with alum and administered intramuscularly either weekly or monthly. No adverse effects were observed after vaccination and a good immunoglobulin G response was generated against each of the three antigens. Bacterial colonization and gastritis were decreased after the completion of the vaccination cycle, especially in the case of the monthly immunization schedule. In conclusion, therapeutic vaccination in the beagle dog model was safe and immunogenic and was able to limit H. pylori colonization and the related gastric pathology.
The nucleoside analogue arabinosylcytosine (araC) has been used for many years in the treatment of acute leukemia. Evidence in the literature suggests that araC may inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma cell lines as well. Because araC action interferes with normal nucleoside metabolism, it is highly toxic to a number of normal cell types including bone marrow and intestinal mucosa cells. Here we investigate whether the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could selectively target araC toxicity toward colonic tumor cells while protecting the normal cells in vitro.
Cultures of normal rat colonic epithelial cells (4D/WT) and those transformed by v-src (D/v-src) were supplemented with graded concentrations of DHA or arachidonic acid (AA) alone or in combination with araC. AraC was only 1.6 fold more toxic to D/v-src than 4D/WT in cultures without added fatty acids. Supplementing with as little as 3 μM of either AA or DHA increased araC toxicity by more than 30-fold in the tumorigenic cells. The toxic effect of araC on the normal cells was also increased by the fatty acid supplementation. IC50 values were decreased 1.7 fold by DHA in the 4D/WT cells but a more than 7-fold decrease was observed during AA supplementation. As a result, the therapeutic index of araC (IC50 normal/IC50 tumor) was more than 3-fold higher in the DHA than the AA supplemented cells. The expression of protein kinase C isoform epsilon was decreased in AA alone supplemented D/v-src cultures but in combination with araC decreased only in DHA supplemented 4D/WT cells.
Low dose DHA supplementation may enhance araC chemotherapy in colon cancer while protecting normal tissues, possibly through control of PKC signalling pathways.
It has been suggested that cognitive decline in aging is the consequence of a growing vulnerability to an asymptomatic state of neuroinflammation. Moreover, it is becoming more evident that inflammation occurs in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and that the classical mediators of inflammation, eicosanoids and cytokines, may contribute to the neurodegeneration. In agreement with this observation, aspirin (ASA) - a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug - may protect against AD and/or vascular dementia. However, both the time of prescription and the dose of ASA may be critical. A major indication for low-dose ASA is in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA plays an essential role in neural function and its anti-inflammatory properties are associated with the well-known ability of this fatty acid to inhibit the production of various pro-inflammatory mediators, including eicosanoids and cytokines. Higher DHA intake is inversely correlated with relative risk of AD and DHA+ASA supplement may further decrease cognitive decline in healthy elderly adults. Although low-dose ASA may be insufficient for any anti-inflammatory action the concomitant presence of DHA favours a neuroprotective role for ASA. This depends on the allosteric effects of ASA on cyclooxygenase-2 and following production - from DHA - of specific lipid mediators (resolvins, protectins, and electrophilic oxo-derivatives). ASA and DHA might protect against AD, although controlled trials are warranted.
Cytokines; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); aspirin (ASA); resolvins; neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); primary prevention
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), upon incorporation into tumor tissue, has the potential to sensitize tumors to the effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Although DHA has usually been supplied to tumor tissue in the diet, appropriate dietary conditions required to obtain optimal tumor levels have not been established. Hence, we studied mammary tumor tissue responses in rats fed various durations and doses of DHA. Rats fed a palm-oil enriched diet (diet 0) were switched to diets providing either 0.8 g DHA/d (diet 1) or 1.5 g DHA/d (diet 2). Tumor tissue fatty acid composition was analysed at baseline (diet 0), at weeks 1, 4 and 9 during diet 1 and at week 4 during diet 2. Dietary DHA supplementation differentially increased DHA within phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) fractions in tumors. DHA level equilibrated between 2 and 4 weeks in PL while DHA increase was more progressive in TAG and did not reach a steady state. A higher dose of DHA further increased DHA content in tumor PL and TAG (P = 0.018 and P < 0.001 respectively). DHA concentration in plasma PL was positively correlated with DHA in tumor PL (r = 0.72; P = 0.0003) and TAG (r = 0.64; P = 0.003). We conclude that dietary DHA supplementation enhances tumor content of DHA in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and that DHA level in plasma PL could be used as a proxy for tumor DHA. These findings have implications for dietary DHA supplementations in cancer patients.
Animals; Carcinoma; chemically induced; metabolism; Dietary Fats; metabolism; Dietary Supplements; Docosahexaenoic Acids; blood; metabolism; Fatty Acids; metabolism; Female; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental; chemically induced; metabolism; Methylnitrosourea; Phospholipids; metabolism; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Tissue Distribution; Triglycerides; metabolism; DHA incorporation; dietary DHA supplementation; mammary tumors; tumor phospholipids; tumor triacylglycerol; plasma phospholipids
Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a representative ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of DHA on UVB-induced inflammation in mouse skin. Our study revealed that topical application of DHA prior to UVB irradiation attenuated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NAD(P)H:oxidase-4 (NOX-4) in hairless mouse skin. DHA pretreatment also attenuated UVB-induced DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) through the inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB kinase-α/β, phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. In addition, UVB-induced phosphorylation of p65 at the serine 276 residue was significantly inhibited by topical application of DHA. Irradiation with UVB induced phosphorylation of mitogen and stress-activated kinase-1 (MSK1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and all these events were attenuated by pretreatment with DHA. Blocking ERK and p38 MAP kinase signaling by U0126 and SB203580, respectively, diminished MSK1 phosphorylation in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. Pretreatment with H-89, a pharmacological inhibitor of MSK1, abrogated UVB-induced activation of NF-κB and the expression of COX-2 and NOX-4 in mouse skin. In conclusion, topically applied DHA inhibits the UVB-induced activation of NF-κB and the expression of COX-2 and NOX-4 by blocking the phosphorylation of MSK1, a kinase downstream of ERK and p38 MAP kinase, in hairless mouse skin.
Background: Gastric juice vitamin C may be protective against gastric carcinogenesis but concentrations are significantly reduced by Helicobacter pylori infection. We investigated the in vitro effects of vitamin C at concentrations comparable with those found in gastric juice on gastric cancer cells and H pylori.
Methods: Gastric cancer cell lines and various H pylori strains were treated with l-ascorbic acid for up to 72 hours. Cell viability, and protein and DNA synthesis were determined. Flow cytometry was used for assessment of H pylori adherence, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis. H pylori growth and its haemagglutination activity were determined using viability count and microtitration assay.
Results: Vitamin C induced a significant dose dependent growth inhibition of gastric AGS and MKN45 cells but this effect was significantly reduced at levels similar to those in gastric juice of H pylori infected patients (<50 μM). Although vitamin C had no obvious effect on H pylori growth, haemagglutination activity, or adherence ability to gastric AGS cells compared with untreated controls, it significantly enhanced H pylori associated apoptosis and induced cell cycle arrest in these cells.
Conclusion: Vitamin C may inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and alter H pylori induced cell cycle events at concentrations comparable with those in gastric juice, but has no effect on H pylori growth or pathogenicity. However, the inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cells was lost at vitamin C concentrations found in patients with H pylori infection.
Helicobacter pylori; vitamin C; gastric cancer
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium which causes gastric inflammatory diseases. Oral inoculation of H pylori usually results in only a temporary colonisation without a successful infection in the stomach of conventional mice in which lactobacilli are the predominant indigenous bacteria. AIM: To determine whether lactobacilli exert an inhibitory effect on colonisation by H pylori in the stomach. METHODS: The effects of H pylori on attachment to murine and human gastric epithelial cells and the H pylori mediated release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by these cells were examined in vitro. Lactobacillus salivarius infected gnotobiotic BALB/c mice and control germ free mice were inoculated orally with H pylori to examine whether L salivarius can inhibit colonisation by H pylori. RESULTS: L salivarius inhibited both the attachment and IL-8 release in vitro. H pylori could not colonise the stomach of L salivarius infected gnotobiotic BALB/c mice, but colonised in large numbers and subsequently caused active gastritis in germ free mice. In addition, L salivarius given after H pylori implantation could eliminate colonisation by H pylori. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the possibility of lactobacilli being used as probiotic agents against H pylori.
Colonization of the ferret stomach by Helicobacter mustelae has been suggested as a possible animal model for Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal disease of humans. Our study was designed to determine whether antimicrobial chemotherapy could eradicate H. mustelae from ferrets. Triple antimicrobial therapy combining amoxicillin, metronidazole, and bismuth subsalicylate was successful in eradicating the organism from 5 of 7 (71%) adult ferrets. Despite apparent in vitro susceptibility, neither chloramphenicol monotherapy nor a polytherapeutic regimen combining tetracycline, metronidazole, and bismuth subsalicylate proved effective in the eradication of H. mustelae. Several strains isolated after unsuccessful polytherapy showed markedly increased resistance to metronidazole. These preliminary findings are similar to results of H. pylori treatment trials with humans and suggest that the ferret may be a useful model for evaluating and comparing potential antimicrobial modalities for the eradication of H. pylori.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulated in the brain during development, has been implicated in learning and memory, but underlying cellular mechanisms are not clearly understood. Here, we demonstrate that DHA significantly affects hippocampal neuronal development and synaptic function in developing hippocampi. In embryonic neuronal cultures, DHA supplementation uniquely promoted neurite growth, synapsin puncta formation and synaptic protein expression, particularly synapsins and glutamate receptors. In DHA-supplemented neurons, spontaneous synaptic activity was significantly increased, mostly because of enhanced glutamatergic synaptic activity. Conversely, hippocampal neurons from DHA-depleted fetuses showed inhibited neurite growth and synaptogenesis. Furthermore, n-3 fatty acid deprivation during development resulted in marked decreases of synapsins and glutamate receptor subunits in the hippocampi of 18-day-old pups with concomitant impairment of long-term potentiation, a cellular mechanism underlying learning and memory. While levels of synapsins and NMDA receptor subunit NR2A were decreased in most hippocampal regions, NR2A expression was particularly reduced in CA3, suggesting possible role of DHA in CA3-NMDA receptor-dependent learning and memory processes. The DHA-induced neurite growth, synaptogenesis, synapsin, and glutamate receptor expression, and glutamatergic synaptic function may represent important cellular aspects supporting the hippocampus-related cognitive function improved by DHA.
docosahexaenoic acid; hippocampal development; long-term potentiation; neurite growth; synaptic function; synaptogenesis