PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (514715)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  PA02.06. Tracking the transitions in Guggulu Kalpana : An extensive review through Brihat Trayi and Laghu Trayi 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S51.
Purpose:
Guggulu Kalpana enjoys a coveted position in the arena of Ayurvedic therapeutics. Guggulu Kalpana is widely used in Charak Samhita & Sushruta Samhita and its notable collection is described in Ashtanga Sangraha. Out of laghu trayi, Sharangadhara Samhita has described Guggulu kalpas at length. Though its present form is closely related to Guti Vati Kalpana, it has not been the case always. Present study was attempted to track these transitions in Guggulu Kalpana during period of Brihat Trayi and Laghu Trayi and propose the importance of this journey in the view of current Ayurvedic pharmaceutics and therapeutics.
Method:
A comprehensive review of Brihat Trayi and Laghu Trayi was done. Opinions of their critics as well as contemporaries were also taken into consideration. These views were collated on the basis of current trends and researches in Guggulu Kalpana.
Result:
Amongst other categories, main usage of Guggulu Kalpana was seen in form of Kwatha and Guti Vati Kalpana. Though used in great deal, Brihat Trayi doesn’t describe Guggulu in every respect. Different point of view regarding preparation of Guggulu Kalpana was observed in all these treatises. Various functional limitations and constant improvisations seemed to have shaped the Guggulu Kalpana in its today's form.
Conclusion:
Current status of Ayurvedic pharmaceutics in general and Guggulu Kalpana in particular, is greatly influenced by Sharangadhara Samhita. It mainly shows use of Guggulu in GutiVati form. The Brihat Trayi treatises, however display its use in Conjunction of Kwatha Kalpana chiefly. This paradigm shift in the pharmaceutics of Guggulu Kalpana highlights the buoyant and pliant nature of Ayurveda. The difference in choice of kalpana is explained on the basis of soluble alkaloid content and insoluble resinous gum content of Guggulu. Thus, this study is helpful to understand the progression of Ayurvedic therapeutics and prospective avenues for its advancement.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123867
PMCID: PMC4147523
2.  A clinical review of different formulations of Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) on Tamaka Shwasa (asthma) 
Ayu  2010;31(4):520-524.
Vasa (Adhatoda vasica Linn.) is a well known and easily available drug in almost all the seasons. Easy availability of any drug gains popularity among physicians as well as pharmaceuticals and this is the reason why almost every Kalpana of Vasa is found described in the Ayurvedika text. The different dosage forms of Vasa like Kvatha, Avaleha, Sneha, and Sandhana have been used for the treatment of Shwasa Roga. A number of research studies have been performed on different formulations of Vasa and its effect on Shwasa Roga. Therefore, a review study has been carried out on the Vasa extract, Vasa Avaleha (prepared from Svarasa and Kvatha), Vasa Ghrita, Vasarishta, and Vasakasava on Shwasa Roga, to know which formulation is better. It was found in the review that Vasa Ghana, Vasa Ghrita (1), and Vasa Avaleha have shown good results on Tamaka Shwasa.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.82032
PMCID: PMC3202261  PMID: 22048552
Ghana (extract); Avaleha; Shwasa; Asava; Arishta; Tamaka Shwasa; Adhatoda vasica
3.  COMPARATIVE AND FERMENTATION STANARDISATIOND STUDIES ON DASAMULARISHTA 
Ancient Science of Life  1988;8(1):68-70.
Asavas and arishtas are produced by fermentation in an earthen pot according to textual procedure. The size and shape of the pot and the quantity of the drug. That can be taken in a pot for fermentation is not mentioned in the literature. The present Study was taken up to determine the quantity of drug that can be fermented in an earthen Pot to obtain best results.
Dasamularishta was fermented in different volumes in earthen pots of identical size, shape and capacity, as well as in stainless steel vessel and porcelain jar.
The drug filled up to 3/4th of the volume of the earthen pot had shown better results than the earthen pots containing various volumes of drug. The stainless steel container and porcelain jar also showed comparable results to the earthen pot fermented drug. Thin layer chromatography of different preparation showed five spots.
PMCID: PMC3331353  PMID: 22557633
4.  PA01.47. Making ayurveda affordable and acceptable to all 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S97.
Purpose:
Ayurveda is eternal science of life because of its evolution is prior to human being itself. Ayurveda is part of our day to day life as a food & day routine. The study was performed as a survey in Delhi NCR (India) among the common men who use ayurveda or want ayurveda to be their system of medicine. The Aim of this study was to know their opinion that what are the ground realities and how ayurveda can be made more affordable and acceptable to them.
Method:
Sixty individuals were selected randomly comprising equally males and females. Age group was 18 to 70 yrs. All of them have undergone Ayurvedic treatment or have taken ayurvedic medicines as a part of their treatment. They were asked 31 questions about ayurveda under four categories as general questions, questions related to ayurvedic physicians, questions related to ayurvedic retailers and questions related to ayurvedic manufacturers. Their answers were taken on a printed questionnaire as a tick Yes, No and can’t say. Some questions were subjective to get suggestions of patients.
Result:
Result of the survey indicated some valuable points like 90% under study doesn’t know that BAMS are Ayurvedic Physicians. Pure Ayurvedic Retailers are rare; condition of ayurvedic medicines were not good at mixed ones. There was absolute majority for the expiry date on ayurvedic medicines & more research work on Ayurvedic preparations to make them tastier, easily differentiable & patient friendly.
Conclusion:
The results of the study should be addressed by the Ayurvedic Physicians, Ayurvedic manufacturers and retailers community on priority basis. The study also revealed the need of a broad based survey to get further insight of the present ayurvedic scenario in India & abroad and suggestions to make ayurveda more patients friendly and acceptable to all.
PMCID: PMC3800980
5.  Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education: A survey 
In the present day scenario, Ayurveda is globally being perceived in several contradictory ways. Poor quality of Ayurveda graduates produced as a result of poorly structured and poorly regulated education system is at least one of the important factors responsible for this scenario. The present study was carried out to evaluate the ‘Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education’ and is based on the responses of Ayurvedic students and Ayurvedic teachers from various educational institutions of India to a methodically validated questionnaire. As the study indicates, the poor standard of Ayurvedic education in India is definitely a cause of concern. The curriculum of Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) course of studies is required to be reviewed and restructured. The syllabi are required to be updated with certain relevant topics like laws governing the intellectual property rights, basic procedures of standardization of medicinal products, fundamental methods of evaluating the toxicity of the medicinal products, essentials of healthcare management and the basics of cultivation and marketing of medicinal plants. Furthermore, the study suggests that the Ayurvedic academicians are required to be trained in standard methods of research and documentation skills, and the educational institutions are required to be encouraged to contribute their share in building up the evidence base for Ayurveda in the form of quality education and research.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.59945
PMCID: PMC2876920  PMID: 20532099
Ayurveda education; global challenges; India; mailed survey
6.  Contribution of world health organization in the global acceptance of Ayurveda 
Amongst the mandates of United Nations, health of mankind is the thrust area of UN through World Health Organization (WHO). Planning and execution of policies for mainstreaming of traditional medicines (TRM) of respective countries along with conventional system of medicine (allopathy), first in the country of origin followed by the international arena, is the priority agenda of operations of WHO. Within Indian context, WHO accorded prime focus to Ayurveda in its activities related to TRM.Sponsorship and encouragement of studies substantiating parameters of standardization, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines of Ayurveda are under chief consideration of WHO. In this review, several guidelines of WHO are summarized. Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Central Council of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha and numerous other collaborative centers of WHO in India are assigned with several Appraisal Project Work (APW) and Direct Financial Cooperation (DFC) projects that will strengthen Ayurveda as evidence-based medicine for its global acceptance. Implementation of pharmacovigilance program in Ayurveda, publication of documents for rational use and initiatives to prepare consumer guidelines for appropriate use of Ayurvedic medicines are some other contributions of WHO toward advancement of Ayurveda at national as well as global level. Here, we suggest further exploration, interaction and interpretation of traditional knowledge in the light of contemporary core sciences and biomedical sciences that can pave the way for accreditation of Ayurveda worldwide as an established system of medicine.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.90769
PMCID: PMC3255448  PMID: 22253507
Ayurveda; efficacy; standardization; safety; traditional medicine
7.  Neutraceuticals in Ayurveda with special reference to Avaleha Kalpana 
Ancient Science of Life  2008;28(2):29-32.
The use of Neutraceuticals has drastically risen in recent years. Dr Stephan De Felice coined the term Neutraceuticals from “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical” in 1989. Related terms are “functional food” and “dietary supplement”. In Ayurvedic pharmaceutics there are some secondary preparations like Avaleha Kalpana (Medicated semisolid preparation), Asavarista Kalpana (fermented preparation), Sneha Kalpana (Medicated fatty preparation), Ksheerapaka Kalpana (Medicated milk preparation) etc. which can be correlated with Neutraceuticals. In this paper “Neutraceuticals” and “Avaleha Kalpana” have been correlated and discussed.
PMCID: PMC3336349  PMID: 22557309
Neutraceuticals; Functional food; Avaleha Kalpana
8.  Critical review on the pharmaceutical vistas of Lauha Kalpas (Iron formulations) 
Iron is one among the major metals present in the earth's crust and is essential for sound sustenance of human body. Its deficiency leads to various health ailments. Contemporary medicine advises iron supplements in iron deficiency anemia. Ayurvedic classics also quote significant information about administration of iron. Lauha Kalpas are the unique compound herbo-mineral formulations where iron (Lauha) is used as a major ingredient. Relevant literature (Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Charaka Samhita, Rasendra Sara Samgraha etc.) reviewed to gather information about Lauha Kalpas. Critical analysis of these Lauha Kalpas reveals that ancient seers administered iron in a better acceptable form. Unlike popular understanding these are not only Khalviya preparations; but Churna (powders), Avaleha (confectionaries), Rasakriya (solidified decoctions), and Putapaka (incinerated) form of preparations are also found. Apart from solid dosage forms, semisolid dosage forms mentioned in classics are very much useful. Unfortunately most of the formulations are not found in the market. Hence Pharmaceutical firms may bring these unique dosage forms in to the market to supply the healthcare needs of the community. It is interesting that iron preparations are used in Ayurveda in different medical conditions apart from anemia (Pandu). This leaves a scope for further researches on different dosage forms of iron and their indications.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.93944
PMCID: PMC3326790  PMID: 22529676
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Hematinics; Iron; Lauha Kalpa; pharmaceutics; Rasaushadhi
9.  OA03.01. Biomedical studies on the classical ayurvedic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in AVT, Coimbatore (19762011): After the biomedical auscultation, Ayurveda at a turning point? 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S24.
Purpose:
In India today Ayurveda lacks recognition and is underused. Modern research seems to be a key in Ayurveda's recognition. But it did not show much result. Why is it so? The relation between Ayurveda and biomedicine might impact the results of the biomedical research on Ayurveda. How would it happen?
Method:
Through a casestudy: Two biomedical studies on the classical ayurvedic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis at the Ayurvedic Trust (AVT), Coimbatore : WHOICMR (1976-1984) and NIHNCCAM (2005-10) allow a comparative approach with an historical perspective. An ethnographic approach (interviews ; participative observation ; literary research) to describe actors’ representations, capabilities, practices and relations within a specific context. With an anthropological approach (dependance), the two studies’ examination as development projects through project analysis tools (objectives, functions, means, roles, achievements). A comparative examination through parameters assessed for each study: a) Objectives’ achievement; b) Ayurveda's dependance on biomedicine according to the functions of the studies projects; and for each actor (Ayurveda vs biomedicine): c) Interest for the objectives; d) means and roles according to the functions.
Result:
A)Biomedical studies on Ayurveda do not aim at a better recognition of Ayurveda: our case study is an exception. B)Biomedical research on Ayurveda, its results and its impact are significantly dependent on biomedicine in its relation to Ayurveda. C)The historical perspective shows a development of Ayurveda's abilities in research: a) higher education of ayurvedic physicians and researchers; b) more experience of and expertise on research; c) better scientific communication tools and expertise.
Conclusion:
The historical perspective indicates a movement towards Ayurveda's emancipation of biomedicine regarding research and the reformulation of its own agenda. Further research might include issues like the role of research in the recognition of Ayurveda and the overall relation between Ayurveda and biomedicine, specifically regarding the integrative approach. Social sciences might help.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123838
PMCID: PMC4147493
10.  Simple Spectrophotometric Methods for Standardizing Ayurvedic Formulation 
Traditional medicines are effective but the standardization of Ayurvedic formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles. Department of AYUSH has given preliminary guidelines for standardizing these conventional formulations, for uniformity of batches in production of Ayurvedic formulation and it is necessary to develop methods for evaluation. The present work is an attempt to standardize asav-arishta, the traditional Ayurvedic formulation using simple, non-expensive spectrophotometric methods. The various parameters performed included total phenolics, total flavonoids, total alkaloids and total saponins, also included pH, sugar %, alcohol content and specific gravity. The results obtained may be considered as tools for assistance to the regulatory authorities, scientific organizations and manufacturers for developing standards.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.103852
PMCID: PMC3546334  PMID: 23325998
Ashokarishta; ayurved; balarishta; dashmoolaarishta; spectrophotometer
11.  Pharmacovigilance: Boon for the safety and efficacy of Ayuvedic formulations 
Pharmacovigilance is a corrective process originating in pharmaco-epidemiology. The 1997 Erice Declaration, presented at the World Health Organisation, became the basis on which the concept was implemented internationally for conventional systems of medicine. The increasing international acceptance of Ayurveda, led regulators to implement a similar program for Ayurveda, particularly as some medical professionals, scientists and members of the public reported adverse reactions after taking Ayurvedic formulations. The World Health Organisation therefore persuaded the Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to implement a pharmacovigilance program for Ayurveda, as a means to ensuring the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. After a year of due diligence, the pharmacovigilance program was launched nationally on 29 September 2008. Since that time, Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicines have been monitored according to the provisions of a protocol prepared by the National Pharmacovigilance Resource Centre, IPGTRA, Jamnagar, and approved by Department of AYUSH. The program was reviewed, first, on 21st January 2009 by the National Pharmaco-vigilance Consultative Committee for ASU drugs (NPCC-ASU), and again, on 15 Feburary, 2010, when an evaluation meeting effectively rubber stamped the program. Among the outcomes of these meetings were several suggestions of measures to improve the program’s efficiency. Recent developments include the constitution of pharmacovigilance centers at all Ayurveda Teaching institutes and research centers.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.74427
PMCID: PMC3117316  PMID: 21731371
Adverse drug reaction; Awareness; Ayurvedic medicine; Pharmacovigilance; Safety
12.  EFFECT OF TIME ON THE FERMENTATION AND STORAGE OF CANDANASAVA 
Ancient Science of Life  1984;4(1):51-55.
Asavas and aristas are produced by fermentation. The usual fermenting period as per the texts is one month. But the Ayurvedic practitioners believe that prolonged incubation results in increased alcohol content of the products. Candanasava was prepared and studied to examine whether these claims are tenable. Maximum alcohol production (9.8%) in 30 days was reached in the earthen pot. With the progress of time beyond 30 days there was loss of yield, alcohol and sugar. There was rich growth of fungi in the pots.
Candanasava stored in glass bottles did not show any change in any of the measured parameters. There was no increase of alcohol with the prolonged storage contrary to the claims. Chromatographically there was no difference between candanasava as obtained after 30 days fermentation period in earthen pot and the same product stored in glass bottles for three more months
PMCID: PMC3331484  PMID: 22557449
13.  PA01.73. A retrospective analysis of efficacy of various ayurvedic formulations in psychiatric diseases 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S123.
Purpose:
Mental disorders are high on rise in India. Epidemiological studies conducted in India on mental and behavioural disorders report varying prevalence rates, ranging from 9.5 to 370 per 1000 population. The overall DALYs burden for mental disorders is projected to increase to 15 per cent by the year 2020 and this increase is proportionately larger than that for cardiovascular diseases. Ayurveda bears great responsibility in preventing and treating the mental disorders. Medhya Rasayana is the treatment perspective to prevent and manage psychiatric disorders. In Ayurveda, Rasayana therapy has been stated as a unique therapy in curing mental diseases. It can promote memory and intelligence and can increase immunity against disease and promote strength and vitality as well as it can control ageing process by serving as anti oxidant agent. A review of various studies carried out in Ayurveda is made to enlist the best effective treatment measures in promoting and preventing mental disorders.
Method:
Available research works carried out at Institute for Post Graduate Teaching & Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar from the year 2001 to 2012 are screened and referred with relation to mental disorders. The treatments are reviewed and enlisted for assessing the efficacy.
Result:
On reviewing the researches, it was found that nearly 15 works found suitable are carried out in relation to mental disorders. The data shows that Ayurvedic formulations like Aamalakyadi and Medhya Rasayana Ghrita (in Alzheimer's disease), Rasayana Ghana tablets (in stress), Rasona tablets, Brahmi ghrita, flax seed capsules and Ashwagandharishta (in depression), Shirodhara (in insomnia), Saraswatarishta (in perimenopausal syndrome) are effective in psychiatric diseases.
Conclusion:
Researches show that Ayurvedic formulations are effective in moderate manner in treating the psychiatric diseases. Ayurvedic Medhya Rasayana formulations can be used for preventing and managing psychiatric disorders.
PMCID: PMC3800878
14.  Adjunct therapy of Ayurvedic medicine with anti tubercular drugs on the therapeutic management of pulmonary tuberculosis 
Background:
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an age old disease described in Vedic Medicine as ‘Yakshma’. Later on, in Ayurveda it earned a prefix and found way into mythology as ‘Rajayakshma’. After the discovery of streptomycin, the therapeutic management of PTB received a major breakthrough. The treatment module changed remarkably with the formulation of newer anti-tubercular drugs (ATD) with appreciable success. Recent resurgence of PTB in developed countries like United States posed a threat to the medical community due to resistant strains. Consequently, WHO looked toward traditional medicine. Literature reveals that Ayurvedic treatment of PTB was in vogue in India before the introduction of ATD with limited success. Records show that 2766 patients of PTB were treated with Ayurvedic drugs in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata in the year 1933-1947.
Objectives:
To evaluate the toxicity reduction and early restoration by adjunct therapy of Ayurvedic drugs by increasing the bio-availability of ATDs.
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, treatment response of 99 patients treated with ATD as an adjunct with Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) and a multi-herbal formulation described in Chikitsa-sthana of Charaka samhita i.e. Chyawanprash were investigated. Hematological profile, sputum bacterial load count, immunoglobulin IgA and IgM, blood sugar, liver function test, serum creatinine were the assessed parameters besides blood isoniazid and pyrazinamide, repeated after 28 days of treatment.
Results:
The symptoms abated, body weight showed improvement, ESR values were normal, there was appreciable change in IgA and IgM patterns and significantly increased bioavailability of isoniazid and pyrazinamide were recorded.
Conclusion:
This innovative clinical study coupled with empowered research may turn out to be promising in finding a solution for the treatment of PTB.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.100180
PMCID: PMC3487240  PMID: 23125511
Adjunct therapy; anti-tubercular drugs; Ayurveda; tuberculosis
15.  PA03.21. To evaluate the effect of Vaman, Kanak Bindu Aristha & Kusthakalanal Taila on Psoriasis 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S90.
Purpose:
It Psoriasis is one the most dreadful dermatological condition affecting up to 2.5% of the world's & approximately 0.8% Indian population. is a common, chronic and non- infectious skin disease characterized by well defined slightly raised, dry erythematous macules with silvery scales and typical extensor distribution affecting any sex. In Ayurveda all dermatological conditions are grouped under broad term Kustha. Ayurveda has its own systemic approach plan to treat diseases. In the case of treating Kustha, Acharyas has specifically emphasized on Shaodhan Chikitsa ,Shamana because of its repeated relapse. So in this present study we selected Vamana procedures of Panchkarma which are like Biopurification procedures of body and drug kanakbinduarishta, kushtakalanal Taila.
Method:
Selection of Cases: The study was conducted on 30 clinically diagnosed and confirmed cases of Psoriasis randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A was administered vaman, kanak bindu arishta and local app. of kustha kalanal oil. Group B was administered kanak bindu arishta and local app. of kustha kalanal oil. The duration of the trial was for 3 Months. The drugs used were Kanak bindu arishta, Kushta kalanal taila and Oil-as per requirement The criteria for assessment was Pasi score,Kandu,Mandala rupa
Result:
In the evaluation the results were highly significant in Group A and all criteria were PASI (t = 9.63, p <0.001), Kandu (t = 9.28, p <0.001), Daha (t = 6.50, p <0.001). In the evaluation the results were highly significant in Group B and all criteria were PASI (t = 9.63, p <0.001), Kandu (t = 9.28, p <0.001), Daha (t = 6.50, p <0.001).
Conclusion:
Thus finally we can conclude that Vaman followed by administration of kanakbindu arishta and local application of kushta kalanal oil is effective in management of Psoriasis as it is safe, cost effective & free from any side effects. It also prevents the relapse considerably.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123918
PMCID: PMC4147566
16.  Quality control evaluation of Keshamasi, Keshanjana and Keshamasi eye ointment 
Ayu  2014;35(1):58-62.
Background:
Keshanjana (collyrium) is a well known Ayurvedic preparation prepared out of Keshamasi (ash prepared by scalp hairs) mixed with Goghrita (cow's ghee). This medicine is indicated for the treatment of Shushkakshipaka (dry eye syndrome) in the classical literature of Ayurveda; hence, it was under taken for standardization and clinical evaluation in an extra-mural research project from Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Department of AYUSH, New Delhi.
Aim:
To develop standard quality parameters for the Keshamasi, Keshanjana and Keshamasi ointment.
Materials and Methods:
Scalp hairs of male and females collected from saloons were converted to classical Masi Kalpana and mixed with cow ghee and petrolatum in the ratio of 1:5 to prepare the Keshanjana and Keshamasi ointment respectively. Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) were adopted and recorded accordingly. The raw material, furnished products and plain Goghrita were subjected for quality control parameters i.e., physico-chemical evaluation, anti-microbial study, particle size analysis, heavy metal analysis through inductive couple plasma spectroscopy with high performance thin layer liquid chromatography fingerprints.
Results:
Rancidity was negative in all the samples, indicating that the physico-chemical parameters are in acceptable range. Lead and zinc were present in most of the samples; while all samples are were free from microbial contamination.
Conclusion:
As no standards are available to compare the results of the current study, the observations cannot be compared. Thus the profile generated in the current study can be considered as standard to refer in future studies.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141938
PMCID: PMC4213971  PMID: 25364202
Keshamasi; Keshanjana; ointment; quality control profile
17.  Clinical evaluation of Vṛṣya effect of Pūga Khaṇḍa on sexual health and seminal parameters 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):134-138.
Background:
Due to changes in life-style, the human beings are losing their Vṛṣyatā (virility). Bio-medicine hasn’t been able to address this challenge. Hence, we see that many people seek the help of herbal medicines to get relief. In view of the above, it becomes necessary to provide potent formulations to address this ailment.
Objectives:
The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Pūga Khaṇḍa on seminal parameters and sexual health.
Materials and Methods:
Pūga Khaṇḍa has been mentioned as Vṛṣya (aphrodisiac) in the 30th chapter of Bhaiśajyaratnāvalī. A simple-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study comparing this Pūga Khaṇḍa preparation with a placebo was conducted in 52 patients attending O.P.D. of Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana of Muniyal Institute of Ayurveda Medical Sciences, Manipal. An elaborative case taking Proforma was specially designed for this purpose incorporating all aspects of the disease in the Ayurvedic parlance. Both groups received either Pūga Khaṇḍa or placebo, in empty stomach in the early morning with water, as per the randomisation plan for a period of 45 days. Patients were followed-upto 4 weeks, 43 patients (84%) had completed the trial and no adverse effects were reported. The assessment was done on the basis of changes in seminal parameters and sexual health parameters.
Results:
A varying degree of improvement was observed in sexual parameters viz. duration of coitus (P<0.001), frequency of coitus (P<0.01), Sexual desire (P<0.05), penile erection (P<0.01), A significant improvement was seen in duration of coitus (P< 0.001) in the group treated by Pūga Khaṇḍa.
Conclusion:
The trial drug Pūga Khaṇḍa was superior to placebo in reducing the mean sign and symptom score of seminal parameters and sexual health.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.122995
PMCID: PMC3902532  PMID: 24501440
Klaibya; Puga Khanda; seminal parameters; sexual parameters; Vrushya
18.  A comparative review study of Sneha Kalpana (Paka) vis-a-vis liposome 
Ayu  2011;32(1):103-108.
Ayurvedic dosage forms are very exclusive in its pharmaceutics and therapeutics. Sneha Kalpana is a group of products of medicated taila and ghee, these drugs are treating very wide range of diseases among patients of all age groups. Liposomal system of drug delivery is a new invention in conventional system of medicine. This system is also covering a high degree of objective of therapeutics at different targets successfully. Probably, here is very distinctive similarity between these two on account of their aqueous and oleaginous origin. Most likely, these are two faces of same coin. A brief survey of literature is done here to explore possibilities of further investigation in benefit of mankind by applying wisdom of both fields together. In fact, this is a review paper based on certain hypothesis which may be established or rejected factually by further researches.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.85740
PMCID: PMC3215405  PMID: 22131767
Aqueous; liposomes; oleaginous; Sneha Kalpana; therapeutics
19.  PA01.69. Immunological and virological effect of amrita tablate in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S119.
Purpose:
To assess the safety and efficacy of Amrita tablets in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients.
Method:
The randomized double blind placebo controlled trial carried out 40 HIV positive patients at Ayurvedic Drug Research Institute Motihari Bihar, with permission from Institutional Ethic Committee for achieve the purpose. Out of 40 HIV patients 30 were male and 10 patients of female. The HIV positive patients were randomly assigned to three groups A, B and C. Group A received Amrita tablet. Group B received Amritasava and group C received Placebo. The doses of Amrita tablet, two tabs. And Amritasava 10ml with one cup water twice daily for six months. The hematological investigation was repeated at the end of the study.
Result:
In study participants, HIV was more common in the 15 30 year's age group. Half of the enrolled patients where from the age group 42% from 30 40 years and 8% from 40 50 age group. It was observed the end of trial period of amrita tablet was marked increase in the number of CD4count and viral load reduced<300 copies/ml. It was also found gradual reduction of clinical feature of early symptomatic stage of HIV disease. Among the participants received Amritasava there was moderate increase in the number of CD4 count, but there was no difference in viral load. Participants was received placebo there was no differences in CD4 count before the six months.
Conclusion:
Amrita tab. is an ideal herbal formulation. It contain mainly standardchemically defined Asava of Amrita (Tinospora cardifolia) ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and yasthimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra). It increases in number of CD4 count and reduce viral load. It is safe and no adverse toxic effect on long therapy. Now it is necessary to evaluate the physiological activity, pharmacological property toxicity and determination of structure of amrita tab. To antiretroviral classes of drug for used in the health care systems of countries with in the Region and elsewhere in the world.
PMCID: PMC3800873
20.  Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development 
Mens Sana Monographs  2008;6(1):187-225.
The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.
While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.
The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well.
While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research.
The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.
We thus realise that morbidity, disability, and death assail all three societies: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in infectious diseases, it is poverty/deprivation in its various manifestations that is the culprit in poverty-related diseases, and it is lifestyle stress in its various avatars that is the culprit in lifestyle diseases. It is as though poverty and lifestyle stress have become the modern “bacteria” of developing and developed societies, respectively.
For those societies afflicted with diseases of poverty, of course, the prime concern is to escape from the deadly grip of poverty-disease-deprivation-helplessness; but, while so doing, they must be careful not to land in the lap of lifestyle diseases. For the haves, the need is to seek well-being, positive health, and inner rootedness; to ask science not only to give them new pills for new ills, but to define and study how negative emotions hamper health and how positive ones promote it; to find out what is inner peace, what is the connection between spirituality and health, what is well-being, what is self-actualisation, what prevents disease, what leads to longevity, how simplicity impacts health, what attitudes help cope with chronic sicknesses, how sicknesses can be reversed (not just treated), etc. Studies on well-being, longevity, and simplicity need the concerted attention of researchers.
The task ahead is cut out for each one of us: physician, patient, caregiver, biomedical researcher, writer/journalist, science administrator, policy maker, ethicist, man of religion, practitioner of alternate/complementary medicine, citizen of a world community, etc. Each one must do his or her bit to ensure freedom from disease and achieve well-being.
Those in the developed world have the means to make life meaningful but, often, have lost the meaning of life itself; those in the developing world are fighting for survival but, often, have recipes to make life meaningful. This is especially true of a society like India, which is rapidly emerging from its underdeveloped status. It is an ancient civilization, with a philosophical outlook based on a robust mix of the temporal and the spiritual, with vibrant indigenous biomedical and related disciplines, for example, Ayurveda, Yoga, etc. It also has a burgeoning corpus of modern biomedical knowledge in active conversation with the rest of the world. It should be especially careful that, while it does not negate the fruits of economic development and scientific/biomedical advance that seem to beckon it in this century, it does not also forget the values that have added meaning and purpose to life; values that the ancients bequeathed it, drawn from their experiential knowledge down the centuries.
The means that the developed have could combine with the recipes to make them meaningful that the developing have. That is the challenge ahead for mankind as it gropes its way out of poverty, disease, despair, alienation, anomie, and the ubiquitous all-devouring lifestyle stresses, and takes halting steps towards well-being and the glory of human development.
doi:10.4103/0973-1229.40567
PMCID: PMC3190550  PMID: 22013359
Diseases of Poverty; Lifestyle Diseases; Optimism Deprivation; Farmer Suicides; Capability Deprivation; Well-Being; Longevity; Professional Burnout; Psychosomatic Ailments; Human Development; Faulty Lifestyle; Lifestyle Stress; Health Promoting Behaviours; Negative Emotions; Positive Health; The Simplicity Movement
21.  PA02.12. Toxicity studies on shankha vati 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S57.
Purpose:
Shankha Vati, a classical Ayurvedic formulation that is widely used by the practitioners of Ayurveda, contains a heavy metal i.e. Parada (mercury) and a poisonous herbal drug i.e. Vatsanabha (Aconitum chasmantum Staff.ex.Holmes) along with other ingredients. There are certain apprehensions on this formulation, mainly due to the presence of its ingredient Vatsanabha. Shankha Vati (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 10/186 – 187, also in Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part1), is one of the formulations in which Vatsanabha is used without its usual coingredient and antidote Tankana (borax). With an hypothesis that classical combination of Shankha Vati is not completely safe and there could be some adverse effects due to the presence of poisonous ingredient Vatsanabha in it, and any possible adverse effects of Shankha Vati due to the presence of Vatsanabha will be nullified by the addition of Tankana to the formulation, another modified formulation with the addition of purified Tankana equal to the quantity of Vatsanabha in the classical Shankha Vati, was also taken up for the study.
Method:
Acute toxicity study as per OECD Guideline 425, and Chronic toxicity study (90 days with the recovery period of 30 days) as per AYUSH170 guideline (Guidelines for preclinical safety evaluation for Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drugs and other traditional medicines in India) were carried out. Biochemical and haematological investigations were carried out on 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days. Histopathological study of acute chronic toxicity study were carried out.
Result:
Histopathological study of both acute and chronic toxicity study were also carried out. There were no toxicity related changes found in the animals treated classical Shankha Vati as well as modified Shankha Vati in both acute and chronic toxicity study. Similarly biochemical and haematological investigations also did not toxicity related changes.
Conclusion:
Classical formulation of Shankha Vati is completely safe and there is no need to modify the composition to make it safer.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123876
PMCID: PMC4147529
22.  EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE FERMENTATION IN ASAVAS AND ARISTAS PART II - DRAKSHASAVA 
Ancient Science of Life  1983;2(4):216-219.
A saccharomyces sp. causing fermentation in Meduca asava was isolated from Maduca flowers (Maduca longifolia Macbride). The capability of the organism to cause fermentation in Drakshasava was carried out. The Saccharomyces sp. caused alcoholic fermentation and the alcoholic fermentation and the alcohol produced was almost equal in quantity to that prepared according to textual method. The change in the pH of fermenting medium did not help in increased production of alcohol.
PMCID: PMC3336763  PMID: 22556985
23.  A Comparative Study of the effect of Vasa Avaleha prepared with Vasa Swarasa and Vasa Kwatha in Tamaka Shwasa 
Ancient Science of Life  2009;28(3):23-28.
Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) is used to treat the diseases such as Shwasa, Kasa and Raktapitta in different dosage forms like Swarasa, Avaleha and Ghrita. Although the Avaleha Kalpana is not available in Brihattraya, but Gada Nigraha by Aacharya Sodhal and Bhava Prakasha have described its use in the form of Avaleha to treat the diseases of Respiratory System.
The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of two types of Vasa Avaleha prepared with either ‘Swarasa’ or ‘Kwatha’ of Vasa during their preparation. The outcomes were assessed on the basis of relief in subjective symptoms and certain hematologicalparameters.
Total 35 patients were enrolled for the study. Both the groups showed highly significant results on cardinal symptoms like frequency, intensity and duration of Shwasa (dyspnoea), Kasa (coughing), Peenasa (rhinitis) with maximum percentage in Vasa Avaleha (Swarasa). The formulations also shows a insignificant decrease in haematocrit values which includes Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Lymphocyte count and TL.STL. Overall Vasa Avaleha (Swarasa) shows maximum percentage of improvement than the other group.
PMCID: PMC3336325  PMID: 22557317
24.  Historical perspective of Indian neurology 
Objective:
To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution.
Background:
The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C.) during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation's first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835), Calcutta (1835) and Mumbai (1848). Prior to India's independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI). Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN).
Design/Methods:
Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India.
Results:
Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930's. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951) include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991). The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in the amount of basic, clinical and epidemiological research being conducted across the country every day.
Conclusions:
The history of neurology in India roots back to its rich culture and tradition. Over time, there has been great structural and organizational evolution and the future of neurology in India appears to be bright. However, the number of neurologists and research in neurology needs to experience a significant growth in the future to ensure the best patient care.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.120422
PMCID: PMC3841583  PMID: 24339562
Ayurveda; dementia; Epilepsy; history; stroke
25.  Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward ayurvedic medicine use among allopathic resident doctors: A cross-sectional study at a tertiary care hospital in India 
Context:
Ayurveda is most commonly practiced form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in India. There are very few studies showing the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of allopathic doctors about Ayurvedic drugs and its use.
Aims:
The study was initiated to assess KAP toward Ayurvedic medicine use among allopathic resident doctors.
Settings and Design:
Cross-sectional and prospective study.
Materials and Methods:
After obtaining permission from the Institutional Ethics Committee, allopathic resident doctors from clinical departments were approached personally. They were given pre-formed validated questionnaire to assess KAP toward Ayurvedic medicine use.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Descriptive statistics.
Results:
Allopathic residents had little knowledge about basic concepts of Ayurveda, that is, ‘panchakarma’ and ‘tridosha’. Majority residents (99%) had no opportunity to learn basics of Ayurveda, but 67% residents prescribed Ayurvedic medicines to patients. However, many residents (76%) mentioned that cross practice should not be allowed due to lack of knowledge. One resident knew that cross-practice was not allowed by law. The commonly prescribed proprietary Ayurvedic medicines were Liv-52 (39%), Shatavari (13%), Cystone (12%) and common ailments for which these medicines prescribed were liver disorders (34%), arthritis (18%), cough and cold (13%), kidney stones (11%), and piles (10%). Nearly 76% residents felt incorporation of Ayurveda with modern medicine would attract more patients and at the same time most residents (92%) agreed that Ayurvedic medicines need scientific testing before use. Though 50% of the residents agreed for voluntary training in Ayurveda, 80% denied compulsory training. Nearly 63% residents recommended Ayurveda among all CAMs. Most of residents heard of Ayurveda from their colleagues.
Conclusions:
This study reveals that allopathic resident doctors had little knowledge about Ayurveda and Ayurvedic medicine use but engaged in prescription of Ayurvedic medicines. So some interventions should be taken to increase the knowledge and awareness of allopathic resident doctors about Ayurvedic medicine use.
doi:10.4103/2229-3485.115380
PMCID: PMC3757582  PMID: 24010059
Allopathy; Ayurveda; cross-practice; knowledge; attitude; and practices study; residents

Results 1-25 (514715)