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1.  Effect of Purificatory Measures Through Cow's Urine and Milk on Strychnine and Brucine Content of Kupeelu (Strychnos Nuxvomica Linn.) Seeds 
Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs.
PMCID: PMC3746529  PMID: 23983327
Kupeelu; Strychnos nuxvomica; Shodhana; strychnine; Ayurveda; brucine; Cow's milk; Cow's urine
2.  A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):73-75.
Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema.
PMCID: PMC3530271  PMID: 23284209
Kupeelu; Kanji; anti-inflammatory; purification; Shodhana; purificatory procedure
3.  Simultaneous HPTLC determination of strychnine and brucine in strychnos nux-vomica seed 
Objective:
A simple, sensitive, and specific thin layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of strychnine and brucine in the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica.
Materials and Methods:
The method involved simultaneous estimation of strychnine and brucine after resolving it by high performance TLC (HPTLC) on silica gel plate with chloroform–methanol–formic acid (8.5:1.5:0.4 v/v/v) as the mobile phase.
Results:
The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines for precision (interday, intraday, intersystem), robustness, accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. The relationship between the concentration of standard solutions and the peak response was linear within the concentration range of 50–1000 ng/spot for strychnine and 100–1000 ng/spot for brucine. The method precision was found to be 0.58–2.47 (% relative standard deviation [RSD]) and 0.36–2.22 (% RSD) for strychnine and brucine, respectively. Accuracy of the method was checked by recovery studies conducted at three different concentration levels and the average percentage recovery was found to be 100.75% for strychnine and 100.52% for brucine, respectively.
Conclusions:
The HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of strychnine and brucine was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate and can be used for routine analysis and quality control of raw material of S. nux-vomica and several unani and ayurvedic formulations containing this as an ingredient.
doi:10.4103/0975-7406.94814
PMCID: PMC3341717  PMID: 22557924
HPTLC; method development; strychnine; brucine; validation
4.  Comparative physico-chemical profile of Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds processed through water and Nimbu Swarasa (lemon juice) 
Ayu  2013;34(4):411-416.
Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.), known as Indian liquorice, is reputed as one of the world's most deadly but most beautiful seed belonging to the family Fabaceae, characterised under the Upavisha (semi-poisonous drugs) and used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Gunja only after proper Shodhana (purification procedures) in different media such as Godugdha (cow's milk), Kanji (sour gruel), etc., Apart from the classical methods, some traditional practitioners use Nimbu Swarasa for the Shodhana of Gunja seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to carry out Shodhana of Gunja seeds using Nimbu Swarasa and water. This study revealed differences in physico-chemical parameters of purified samples, in comparison to raw drugs.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.127725
PMCID: PMC3968706  PMID: 24696580
Abrin; Abrus precatorius; Gunja; Nimbu Swarasa; Shodhana
5.  Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity 
Background:
Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite.
Objective:
The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed.
Materials and Methods:
Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard.
Results:
Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected.
Conclusion:
S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.96523
PMCID: PMC3371563  PMID: 22707864
Antidiabetic activity; alloxan; extract; kuchla
6.  Use of Strychnos Nux-Vomica (Azraqi) Seeds in Unani System of Medicine: Role of Detoxification 
Some plants used in Unani system of medicine are toxic, even deadly poisonous. The drugs having such plants as their components are detoxified before they are dispensed to the patients. One such drug, capsule Hudar, has Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Azraqi) seeds as one of its components and is very effectively used to elevate blood pressure. Ancient manuscripts describe many methods of its detoxification. It has been found that the detoxification processes studied reduce the strychnine content, as determined either by using uv-vis spectrophotometer or HPLC, present in Strychnos nux vomica seeds which is responsible for Strychnos nux vomica toxicity. The decrease in strychnine amount was best when the seeds were immersed for detoxification in excess of water for 5 days, in milk for 2 days followed by their boiling in milk. Strychnine in small amounts has been reported to give subjective feeling of stimulation
PMCID: PMC3005396  PMID: 21731158
Strychnos nux vomica; detoxification; Unani medicine
7.  Rituals can kill – A fatal case of brucine poisoning 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(8):421-423.
In some parts of India people follow a religious ritual of drinking an herbal preparation made from the bark of the Alstonia scholaris tree (Blackboard tree) on the day of the new moon in the month of July. This tree could be easily confused with the Strychnos nux vomica tree. Brucine is the predominant alkaloid present in the bark of the Strychnos nux vomica tree. The toxicological property of brucine is similar to strychnine. Brucine is a neurotoxin. A 29-year-old male presented with a history of consumption of an herbal preparation made from the bark of the Strychnos nux vomica tree confusing it for Alstonia scholaris. Soon after, he developed convulsions and later died in hospital on the same day. The aim of this case report is to highlight the fact that people must be cautious when they follow religious rituals.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2012.1293
PMCID: PMC3442185  PMID: 23024715
Brucine; Alstonia scholaris; strychnine; poisoning
8.  Importance of Media in Shodhana (Purification / Processing) of Poisonous Herbal Drugs 
Ancient Science of Life  2010;30(2):54-57.
In Ayurveda, a series of pharmaceutical procedures which converts a poisonous drug into a therapeutically very effective medicine for various ailments is termed as Shodhana. Various medias are being used for processing the herbal poisonous drugs, are quite interesting to understand with modern scientific technology. The analysis of media before and after Shodhana (purification /processing) will give clear rationale behind the selection of the particular media for the particular drug. The change that takes place during the Shodhana process can be explored by modern analytical methods. Researchers have proved the presence of strychnine and brucine in milk after Shodhana of Nux-vomica highlighting the role media for Shodhana. Importance of Shodhana, the role of media used for Shodhana process of few poisonous drugs is dealt briefly with scientific view.
PMCID: PMC3336272  PMID: 22557427
Shodhana; Purification; Processing; Poisonous herbs; Media
9.  Brucine suppresses ethanol intake and preference in alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded rats 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2014;35(7):853-861.
Aim:
Brucine (BRU) extracted from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L is glycine receptor antagonist. We hypothesize that BRU may modify alcohol consumption by acting at glycine receptors, and evaluated the pharmacodynamic profiles and adverse effects of BRU in rat models of alcohol abuse.
Methods:
Alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rats were administered BRU (10, 20 or 30 mg/kg, sc). The effects of BRU on alcohol consumption were examined in ethanol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm, ethanol/sucrose operant self-administration paradigm and 5-d ethanol deprivation test. In addition, open field test was used to assess the general locomotor activity of FH/Wjd rats, and conditioned place preference (CPP) was conducted to assess conditioned reinforcing effect.
Results:
In ethanol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm, treatment with BRU for 10 consecutive days dose-dependently decreased the ethanol intake associated with a compensatory increase of water intake, but unchanged the daily total fluid intake and body weight. In ethanol/sucrose operant self-administration paradigms, BRU (30 mg/kg) administered before each testing session significantly decreased the number of lever presses for ethanol and the ethanol intake, without affecting the number of sucrose (10%) responses, total sucrose intake, and the number of lever presses for water. Acute treatment with BRU (30 mg/kg) completely suppressed the deprivation-induced elevation of ethanol consumption. Treatment with BRU (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) did not alter locomotion of FH/Wjd rats, nor did it produce place preference or aversion.
Conclusion:
BRU selectively decreases ethanol consumption with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, BRU may represent a new pharmacotherapy for alcoholism.
doi:10.1038/aps.2014.28
PMCID: PMC4088279  PMID: 24909512
alcoholism; ethanol; brucine; glycine receptor antagonist; Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rat
10.  A comparative antibacterial evaluation of raw and processed Guñjā (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(1):20-23.
Background:
Seed of Guñjā (Abrus precatorius Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Guñjā in diseases like Indralupta (alopecia), Śotha (edema), Kṛmi (helminthes), Kuṣṭha (skin diseases), Kaṇḍu (itching), Prameha (urinary disorders) etc., after being treated with specific Śodhana (purification) procedures.
Objective:
To assess the antimicrobial action of of raw and Śhodhita (Processed) Guñjā seeds
Methods:
Guñjā seeds after being processed with Godugdha (cow's milk), Nimbu swarasa (Lemon juice), Kāñjī (Sour gruel) and water, as the media, were evaluated for its antibacterial effect against clinically important bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method.
Results:
Aqueous extracts of raw seeds of Guñjā exert its antibacterial effect on both Gram positive, as well as Gram negative bacteria but none of the Śodhita Guñjā seeds showed any bactericidal effect on any bacterial strains. Chloroform extracts of all the Śodhita Guñjā seed extracts could inhibit bacterial growth but with variations
Conclusion:
The study displayed that chloroform extracts of raw and śodhita samples for bacterial study were much sensitive than the aqueous extracts.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.113794
PMCID: PMC3733201  PMID: 23929989
Abrin; Abrus precatorius Linn; anti-bacterial; Guñjā; Śhodhana
11.  TLC – SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF STRYCHNINE AND BRUCINE FROM THE AYURVEDIC PILLS OF NUX VOMICA 
Ancient Science of Life  1986;6(1):47-48.
Ayurvedic preparations claim on their label only the quantity of crude drugs and not the quantity of active ingredients present therein. So work was taken up to find the percentage of strychnine and brucine from Ayurvedic pills of Nux vomica powder by TLC spectrophotometric analysis, which study has not been reported earlier. However, the literature survey only revealed the following work.
PMCID: PMC3331393  PMID: 22557548
12.  Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine 
Toxins  2015;7(1):138-155.
Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.
doi:10.3390/toxins7010138
PMCID: PMC4303819  PMID: 25594733
poisonous plants; Tibetan ethnomedicine; toxins; aconitine; strychnine; scopolamine; anisodamine
13.  OA02.09. Evaluation of varatika bhasma for its ulcer protective effect on albino rats. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S15.
Purpose:
Gastritis leadind to G.I.ulcers is a very prevalent metabolic and life style disorder. Many a times it is condition which arise due to various medications like NSAID's. Drugs effective in Ulcer protection is the need of the hour. Medications such as sucralfate in conventional system do work but in higher dose and with limitations. Thus, present study has been carried out, to evaluate efficacy of Varatika bhasma in ulcer protective activity with standard control as Sucralfate in aspirin induced ulcer.
Method:
Varatika bhasma was prepared by shodhana with kanji, bhaavana with kumari swarasa and subjecting to gajaputa. Further it was analyzed and used for experimental study. Winstar strain albino rats of either sex was taken in 3 groups with 6 rats in each group. Control group with food and water, standard with sucralfate and test with varatika bhasma was given for 6 days. on 7th day ulcer was induced with aspirin. later rats were sacrificed to cut open the stomach and to study the ulcer index and histopathology.
Result:
When compared to Sucralfate for ulcer protective effect, Varatika Bhasma shows significant result in lower doses. (Sucralfate 1 gm 6 hourly and Varatika Bhasma 250 mg twice daily). In ulcer index and histopathology studies, there were less / no ulcers found in the group treated with Varatika Bhasma in comparison with Sucralfate and Control group.
Conclusion:
For the ulcer protection, Varatika Bhasma provides better and promising result when compared to Sucralfate. This also cuts the cost of medication and time constrain for the administration of the medicine.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123829
PMCID: PMC4147483
14.  Role of media in the preparation of Apamarga Ksharataila 
Ayu  2010;31(3):391-394.
Generally, Tailas and Ghritas have been prepared by using Kalka (paste) and Drava dravya (liquid media usually SwaRasa or Kwatha). However, Apamarga Kshara taila is prepared by using Apamarga Kshara drava (the alkali is obtained after dissolving it in water, after obtaining it by burning, dissolving, and filtration of the same plant). Therefore, to evaluate the role of the media during the preparation, the Taila was prepared in different samples by using the fresh and dry paste of Apamarga along with SwaRasa and Kwatha of Apamarga. All the samples were tested through various analytical parameters, that is, pH, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, and soon. Finally, it was found that Apamarga Kshara taila prepared by using fresh Kalka and Ksharajala was better and it was also an easy pharmaceutical procedure.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.77158
PMCID: PMC3221078  PMID: 22131746
Kalka; Kshara and Kshara Drava; Swarasa; Decoction; taila
15.  Detoxification of Croton tiglium L. seeds by Ayurvedic process of Śodhana 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):157-161.
Objective:
Croton tiglium seeds, known as Jamālgoṭa in Hindi, Marathi, and Urdu is well-known for its toxicity (severe purgative action). In Ayurvedic texts, the plant is known as Kumbhinī and is used for the treatment of constipation after Śodhana (detoxification process) of the seeds with Godugdha (cow milk).
Material and Methods:
In the present study, C. tiglium seeds were purified with cow milk as reported in Ayurvedic classics. Phorbol esters equivalent to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and crotonic acid contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography method in the seeds of C. tiglium before and after the purification process.
Results:
The content of the phorbol ester equivalent to PMA in unpurified and purified sample was found to be 5.2 mg/100 g and 1.8 mg/100 g of dried seeds of C. tiglium, respectively. The quantity of crotonic acid in unpurified seeds of C. tiglium was found to be 0.102 mg/100 g of dried seeds while it was absent in the purified seed extract of C. tiglium.
Conclusion:
The toxicity of C. tiglium seeds may be due to the presence of phorbol esters and crotonic acid along with other constituents. These constituents are oil soluble and may be removed by cow milk during the process of Śodhana. Reduction in the level of these constituents after the purification decreases the toxicity of C. tiglium seeds. Reduction in the oily content from the seeds of C. tiglium during the purification process is also supported by the results obtained from the physiochemical parameters.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144619
PMCID: PMC4264303  PMID: 25538350
Croton tiglium; crotonic acid; phorbol ester; purification
16.  Evaluation of antiarthritic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model 
Background
Strychnos potatorum Linn (Loganiaceae) is a moderate sized tree found in southern and central parts of India, Sri Lanka and Burma. In traditional system of medicine, Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds were used for various ailments including inflammation, diabetes etc. To investigate the folkloric use of the seeds the present study was carried out on Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rats.
Methods
The present study states the effect of the aqueous extract (SPE) and the whole seed powder (SPP) of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds on the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritic rat paw edema, body weight changes and alterations in haematological and biochemical parameters in both developing and developed phases of arthritis. Histopathology of proximal interphalangeal joints and radiology of hind legs were studied.
Results
In FCA induced arthritic rats, there was significant increase in rat paw volume and decrease in body weight increment, whereas SPP and SPE treated groups, showed significant reduction in paw volume and normal gain in body weight. The altered haematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR) and biochemical parameters (blood urea, serum creatinine, total proteins and acute phase proteins) in the arthritic rats were significantly brought back to near normal by the SPP and SPE treatment at the dose of 200 mg/kg/p.o in both developing and developed phases of arthritis. Further the histopathological and radiological studies revealed the antiarthritic activity of SPP and SPE by indicating fewer abnormalities in these groups when compared to the arthritic control group.
Conclusion
In conclusion, both SPP and SPE at the specified dose level of 200 mg/kg, p.o. showed reduction in rat paw edema volume and it could significantly normalize the haematological and biochemical abnormalities in adjuvant induced arthritic rats in both developing and developed phases of FCA induced arthritis. Further the histopathological and radiological studies confirmed the antiarthritic activity of SPP and SPE.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-56
PMCID: PMC2978115  PMID: 20939932
17.  Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Effects of Homeopathic Remedies on Multiscale Entropy and Correlation Dimension of Slow Wave Sleep EEG in Young Adults with Histories of Coffee-Induced Insomnia 
Homeopathy  2012;101(3):182-192.
Background
Investigators of homeopathy have proposed that nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) and complex systems science offer conceptual and analytic tools for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects. Previous animal studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines alter delta electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave sleep. The present study extended findings of remedy-related sleep stage alterations in human subjects by testing the feasibility of using two different NDS analytic approaches to assess remedy effects on human slow wave sleep EEG.
Methods
Subjects (N=54) were young adult male and female college students with a history of coffee-related insomnia who participated in a larger 4-week study of the polysomnographic effects of homeopathic medicines on home-based all-night sleep recordings. Subjects took one bedtime dose of a homeopathic remedy (Coffea cruda or Nux vomica 30c). We computed multiscale entropy (MSE) and the correlation dimension (Mekler-D2) for stage 3 and 4 slow wave sleep EEG sampled in artifact-free 2-minute segments during the first two rapid-eye-movement (REM) cycles for remedy and post-remedy nights, controlling for placebo and post-placebo night effects.
Results
MSE results indicate significant, remedy-specific directional effects, especially later in the night (REM cycle 2) (CC: remedy night increases and post-remedy night decreases in MSE at multiple sites for both stages 3 and 4 in both REM cycles; NV: remedy night decreases and post-remedy night increases, mainly in stage 3 REM cycle 2 MSE). D2 analyses yielded more sporadic and inconsistent findings.
Conclusions
Homeopathic medicines Coffea cruda and Nux vomica in 30c potencies alter short-term nonlinear dynamic parameters of slow wave sleep EEG in healthy young adults. MSE may provide a more sensitive NDS analytic method than D2 for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects on human sleep EEG patterns.
doi:10.1016/j.homp.2012.05.007
PMCID: PMC3402916  PMID: 22818237
homeopathy; polysomnography; electroencephalography; Coffea cruda; Nux vomica; nonlinear dynamics, multiscale entropy; correlation dimension; slow wave sleep; complex systems; time-dependent sensitization
18.  Role of different media in Karpanpatru Taila preparation 
Ayu  2010;31(1):15-18.
Total six samples of Karpanpatru Taila were prepared with Murchchhita and Amurchchhita Sarshapa Taila (mustard oil) by using three different liquid media i.e. Gomutra, Takra and Kanji by following classical method and analyzed. The pharmaceutical analysis revealed that the Karpanpatru Taila prepared with Murchchhita Sarshapa taila by using Kanji, Gomutra, Takra as a liquid media showed minimum loss i.e. 4.00%, 8,33% & 8.66 respectively in comparison to Amurchchhita Sarshapa Taila by using Kanji, Gomutra, Takra i.e. 5.5%, 10.68%, 12% respectively. Pharmaceutical drawbacks like excessive frothing and burning of eyes & nose were absent during the preparation of Karpanpatru Taila with Takra and Kanji while present in batch of Gomutra. Analytical study reveals that Acid value was negligible increased after even 6 month in the samples of Murchchhita Karpanpatru Taila while significant increased in the samples of Amurchchhita Karpanpatru Taila. Saponification value was decreased in the samples of Murchhita Karpanpatru Taila while increased in the samples Amurchchhita Karpanpatru taila. Microbial growth was found absent in all the samples of Karpanpatru Taila even after 6 months.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.68198
PMCID: PMC3215315  PMID: 22131678
Sneha Kalpana; Murchchhana; Gomutra; Takra; Kanji;  Acid value; Saponification value
19.  Sedative Hypnotic Activity of Manahshila (Realgar) -An Experimental Evaluation 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;30(3):78-83.
Manahshila (Realgar) is one of the three major Arsenicals used in Ayurvedic therapeutics since ages. It is indicated in skin, respiratory, ophthalmic and psychological disorders. It is mentioned to be the best among Rasayanas and a good aphrodisiac. As Manahshila is indicated in Unmada (Psychological disorder); wide use of Manahshila in the formulations mentioned for psychological disorders; some of those formulations are used in treatment of sleeplessness and Ardraka (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) which is a commonly used Shodhana reagent of Manahshila is reported to be sedative, the potential sedative hypnotic activity is inferred and an experimental study was carried out to evaluate the sedative hypnotic activity of Manahshila. Effect of Ardraka Shodhita Manahshila (ASM) on the spontaneous motor activity of albino rats in actophotometer and on diazepam induced sleeping time was evaluated. There was a statistically significant reduction in the spontaneous motor activity (P<0.001) in the ASM treated Manahshila and there was early onset and hypnotic potentiation in the diazepam induced sleep in rats (P<0.01).
PMCID: PMC3336258  PMID: 22557432
Sedative hypnotic; Spontaneous Motor Activity; Actophotometer; Sleeping Time Test; Psychological Disorders
20.  Strychnos potatorum: Phytochemical and pharmacological review 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2014;8(15):61-66.
In traditional system of medicine, the seeds of Strychnos potatorum Linn. (family: Loganiaceae) are used in the treatment of gonorrhea, leukorrhea leukeorrhea, gastropathy, bronchitis, chronic diarrhea, dysentery, renal and vesicle calculi, diabetes, conjunctivitis, scleritis, ulcers and other eye disease. An attempt has been made to highlight this medicinal seeds through phytochemical and pharmacological study. The present review deals with the phytochemical and pharmacological screening of therapeutic importance from Strychnos potatorum L., an important medicinal plant. This study includes the collective information of different medicinal uses of Strychnos potatorum. The generated data has provided the basis for its wide use as the therapeutant both in the traditional and folk medicines.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.125533
PMCID: PMC3931202  PMID: 24600197
Medicinal plant; phytochemical; Strychnos potatorum
21.  Comparative study on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by two different methods 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):62-72.
Preparation of bhasma (calcined powder of metal/minerals) includes various processing steps like purification (Shodhana), levigation (Bhavana),calcinations cycle(Marana), improving quality and removing blemishes (Amritikarana) etc, processing of bhasma aims at formation of herbo-mineral complex molecule which can act in minimal dosage, palatable, easy for assimilation, highly efficacious with minimal or no complication. Although the most important equipment mentioned for Marana i.e. cow dung cakes and some type of woods are not only difficult to collect but also expensive and create pollution during puta and it's difficult task to give controlled heat in traditional method. Hence, a Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra (MPBNY) was prepared for puta (equipment for calcination) procedure which is easy to handle, portable and facilitate to supply controlled heat. A comparative study was conducted on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by traditional method and by using MPBNY with special reference to physico-chemical properties. The prepared Kasisa Bhasma was subjected to modern analytical parameters such as A.A.S. (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), X.R.D. (X-ray Diffraction) and Ayurvedic parameters eg. Rekhapurnatva (bhasma should enters in between lines of finger), Varitaratva (bhasma should float on the surface of water), Niramlatva (bitter less), Apunarbhava (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with jiggery, Abrus precatorius linn., honey and ghee) and Niruttha (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with silver). It was observed that Kasisa Bhasma of both methods possesses similar organoleptic as well as physico-chemical properties.
PMCID: PMC3530270  PMID: 23284208
Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra; Traditional Puta; Kasisa Bhasma
22.  A Comparative Study of the effect of Vasa Avaleha prepared with Vasa Swarasa and Vasa Kwatha in Tamaka Shwasa 
Ancient Science of Life  2009;28(3):23-28.
Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) is used to treat the diseases such as Shwasa, Kasa and Raktapitta in different dosage forms like Swarasa, Avaleha and Ghrita. Although the Avaleha Kalpana is not available in Brihattraya, but Gada Nigraha by Aacharya Sodhal and Bhava Prakasha have described its use in the form of Avaleha to treat the diseases of Respiratory System.
The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of two types of Vasa Avaleha prepared with either ‘Swarasa’ or ‘Kwatha’ of Vasa during their preparation. The outcomes were assessed on the basis of relief in subjective symptoms and certain hematologicalparameters.
Total 35 patients were enrolled for the study. Both the groups showed highly significant results on cardinal symptoms like frequency, intensity and duration of Shwasa (dyspnoea), Kasa (coughing), Peenasa (rhinitis) with maximum percentage in Vasa Avaleha (Swarasa). The formulations also shows a insignificant decrease in haematocrit values which includes Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Lymphocyte count and TL.STL. Overall Vasa Avaleha (Swarasa) shows maximum percentage of improvement than the other group.
PMCID: PMC3336325  PMID: 22557317
23.  Antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed 
Pharmacognosy Research  2011;3(3):208-213.
Aim:
The antianaphylactic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seed extract was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced anaphylaxis and mast cell stabilization was studied by using peritoneal mast cells of rats. The possible antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization mechanism was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced mast cell activation and level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells.
Materials and Methods:
Anaphylactic shock in mice was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of 8 mg/kg compound 48/80, prior to induction of anaphylaxis the animals were treated with S. potatorum Linn. seed extract administered orally 1 h before administration of compound 48/80, the rate mortality was observed in each group of animals. Mast cell stabilization was seen by preincubation of mast cells with the compound 48/80 and the extracts.
Results:
This study indicates that the chloroform, petroleum ether, and methanolic extracts were shown potent and has significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) inhibitory effects on compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction and mast cell activation. This compound also inhibited significantly compound 48/80 induced increased level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells.
Conclusion:
We conclude from this study that the different extracts of S. potatorum seed have potent antianaphylactic activity through mast cell stabilization and inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. The inhibitory effect of S. potatorum Linn. on release of histamine and nitric oxide protects from compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction may be through blocking vasodilatation, decrease vascular resistance, hypotension and tachycardia induced by immunogenic agent used in this study.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.85011
PMCID: PMC3193623  PMID: 22022171
Antianaphylactic; nitric oxide and mast cells; Strychnos potatorum seed
24.  Effects of Homeopathic Medicines on Polysomnographic Sleep of Young Adults with Histories of Coffee-Related Insomnia 
Sleep medicine  2010;12(5):505-511.
Background
Homeopathy, a common form of alternative medicine worldwide, relies on subjective patient reports for diagnosis and treatment. Polysomnography offers a modern methodology for evaluating the objective effects of taking homeopathic remedies that clinicians claim exert effects on sleep quality in susceptible individuals. Animal studies have previously shown changes in non rapid eye movement sleep with certain homeopathic remedies.
Methods
Young adults of both sexes (ages 18–31) with above-average scores on standardized personality scales for either cynical hostility or anxiety sensitivity (but not both), and a history of coffee-induced insomnia, participated in the month-long study. At-home polysomnographic recordings were obtained on successive pairs of nights once per week for a total of eight recordings (nights 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22, 23). Subjects (N=54) received placebo pellets on night 8 (single-blind) and verum pellets on night 22 (double-blind) in 30c doses of one of two homeopathic remedies, Nux Vomica or Coffea Cruda. Subjects completed daily morning sleep diaries and weekly Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scales, as well as Profile of Mood States Scales at bedtime on polysomnography nights.
Results
Verum remedies significantly increased PSG total sleep time and NREM, as well as awakenings and stage changes. Changes in actigraphic and self-rated scale effects were not significant.
Conclusions
The study demonstrated the feasibility of using in-home all-night sleep recordings to study homeopathic remedy effects. Findings are similar though not identical to those reported in animals with the same remedies. Possible mechanisms include initial disruption of the nonlinear dynamics of sleep patterns by the verum remedies.
doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.03.013
PMCID: PMC2972403  PMID: 20673648
Complementary and alternative medicine; Homeopathy; Polysomnography; Coffee; Insomnia; Young Adults; Coffea Cruda; Nux Vomica
25.  EFFECT OF SHODHANA ON THE TOXICITY OF ABRUS PRECATORIUS 
Ancient Science of Life  1998;18(2):127-129.
Seeds of Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn) are reported to be poisonous due to the presence of a toxic protein ‘abrin and an alkaloid hypaphorine. Te seeds after subjecting to the process of shodhana, find use in a number of Ayurvedic preparations. HPLC studies revealed that the process of shodhana resulted in depletion of more toxic alkaloid hypaphorine and protein abrin.
PMCID: PMC3331080  PMID: 22556879

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