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1.  Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats 
Ayu  2012;33(4):576-578.
Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity.
PMCID: PMC3665199  PMID: 23723679
Diuretic activity; electrolyte excretion; folklore plant; Linaria ramosissima
2.  Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats 
Background: In congestive heart failure, nephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, premenstrual tension and hypertension associated with oedema diuretic compounds are much helpful to relieve these conditions.
Aims: To study the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by Lipschitz method in albino rats.
Methods and Material: Five groups of Albino rats were used to evaluate the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by using metabolic cages. The group I serves as normal control received vehicle (2% CMC in normal saline), group II with Furosemide (10 mg/Kg, p.o), Groups III, IV and V with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira respectively. Immediately after the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treatment all the rats were hydrated with saline (15 ml/kg, p.o) and 2 animals placed in each metabolic cage, kept at 21°C±0.5°C. No food and water was made available to animals for 5 hour. The total volume of urine collected with each metabolic cage was measured at the end of 5 hour. Various parameters like total urine volume and concentration of different ions i.e.; Sodium, Potassium , Chloride in the urine were measured.
Results: In this model when compared to control group the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treated groups at different dose levels (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) have noted with significant increase in the urine volume and also significantly enhanced the excretion of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride ions in urine.
Conclusion: Results showed that single dose administration of standard Furosemide and alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira significantly (p<0.05*, p<0.01**, p<0.001***) increased the urine output along with an increase in elimination of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ions. Alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira 400 mg/Kg produced a comparable diuretic activity with standard Furosemide.
PMCID: PMC4080013  PMID: 24995192
C.pareira; Roots; Alcoholic extract; Hydrated rats; Diuretic activity
3.  Diuretic Effects of Cleistanthin A and Cleistanthin B from the Leaves of Cleistanthus Collinus in Wistar Rats 
To study the diuretic effects of cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B, phytoconstituents were isolated from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus in Wistar rats. The in vivo diuretic effects of cleistanthins A and B were determined according to the Lipschitz test. Prior to the experiment, the animals were fasted for 5 h and placed individually in metabolic cages. Cleistanthins A and B (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) and furosemide (5 mg/kg) were suspended in 0.5% w/v carboxymethyl cellulose and administered orally. The urine was collected up to 5 h after administration and subsequently up to 24 h after administration. The acidity and urine volume were measured immediately. The urinary sodium and potassium levels were determined using a flame photometer, and the chloride level was determined by argentometric titration. The diuretic index and diuretic activity were calculated mathematically. While cleistanthins A and B showed a diuretic index of more than one, the diuretic activity of these compounds was less than one, indicating inferior activity compared with furosemide. Both cleistanthin A and B produced a significant increase in the urine volume and alterations in urinary electrolyte levels. However, the effect of the compounds was not dose dependent. Cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B exert diuretic effects in male Wistar rats without affecting the urinary acidity.
PMCID: PMC3385220  PMID: 22754257
Cleistanthin A; cleistanthin B; diuretic activity
4.  Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats 
Pharmacognosy Research  2010;2(2):86-88.
The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities.
PMCID: PMC3140112  PMID: 21808546
Diuretic; electrolyte concentration; Plectranthus amboinicus
5.  Prolonged Diuretic Activity and Calcium-Sparing Effect of Tropaeolum majus: Evidence in the Prevention of Osteoporosis 
Although several studies indicate high effectiveness in the use of the hydroethanolic extract from Tropaeolum majus (HETM) as a diuretic, the impact of its prolonged use in the presence of low estrogen levels remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the diuretic effects of prolonged administration of HETM in ovariectomized rats and their interrelationship between calcium excretion and bone turnover. Forty-two female Wistar rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated orally with different doses of HETM (3, 30, and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. On the first day of treatment and at weekly intervals for four weeks the diuretic activity was evaluated. Electrolyte concentrations and creatinine levels were estimated from urine sample of each rat. The serum lipids, urea, creatinine, and osteocalcin were also measured at the end of the experiment. The data revealed that the HETM was able to sustain its diuretic effect after prolonged treatment. Moreover, its use has not affected the urinary calcium or potassium excretion, reduces lipid levels, and maintains osteocalcin levels similarly to untreated rats. These findings support the potential of HETM as a candidate to be used in clinical conditions in which the renal loss of calcium is not desired.
PMCID: PMC4083603  PMID: 25028592
6.  Diuretic Activity Of Root Extracts of Dalbergia Spinosa Roxb 
Ancient Science of Life  2009;28(3):11-13.
The benzene, alcoholic and aqueous root extracts (75mg/kg each)of Dalbergia spinosa Roxb were studied for its diuretic activity by using male albino rats by adopting the method of Tipschitz. The alcoholic extract increased the urine volume and electrolytes sodium, potassium and chloride, which is similar to the standard drug Furosemide (100mg/ kg) by inhibiting sodium, potassium, and chloride ion co-transport at thick ascending loop of henle. The present study showed that the alcoholic extract has significant diuretic activity comparable with standard drug Furosemide in producing urinary output and excretion of sodium,potassium and chloride in mEq/ lit/ 6 hrs
PMCID: PMC3336322  PMID: 22557314
Diuretic; Dalbergia spinosa Roxb. Male albino rats; Furosemide
7.  Study on the diuretic activity of Veerataru Kwatha in albino rats 
Ayu  2011;32(3):395-397.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic activity of Veerataru [Dichrostachys cinerea (Linn.)] Kwatha in experimental animals by following the standard procedure. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root of Veerataru was administered orally in the form of Kwatha at a dose of 5.4 and 10.8 ml/kg. Parameters like volume of urine, pH of urine and urinary electrolyte concentrations like sodium, potassium and chloride were studied. Veerataru Kwatha increased the urine output in a dose-dependent manner. However, it did not affect the urinary electrolyte concentrations. From the present study, it can be concluded that the root of Veerataru has diuretic property.
PMCID: PMC3326890  PMID: 22529658
Dichrostachys cinerea; diuretic activity; Veerataru Kwatha
8.  Amides from Piper as a Diuretic: Behind the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Piper glabratum Kunth 
Several species of the genus Piper are known in Brazilian folk medicine as having diuretic activity. So, we propose to investigate the acute diuretic activity and the possible toxic effects of Piper glabratum Kunth, popularly known as false Jaborandi. Additionally, we propose to check whether there is any correlation between the biological activities of the crude extract (MEPG) and its 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-trans-cinnamoyl-pyrrolidine (MMCP) in Wistar rats. The MEPG was fractioned by chromatography column and the MMCP was identified by analyses of 1H and 13C RMN spectral data and correlations. Both MEPG and MMCP were assayed for diuretic activity. The preparations obtained were orally administered in a single dose to rats. The urine excretion, pH, density, conductivity, and content of Na+, K+, Cl−, and HCO3− were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. Additionally, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated. MMCP at doses of 30 mg/kg was able to increase the urine volume, pH, and HCO3− excretion. Moreover, high dosage of MEPG showed important liver toxicity and elevated mortality when injected intraperitoneally. The results indicate that the MMCP shows important diuretic properties when administered in Wistar rats. Additionally, MEPG can induce important acute toxicity if given in high doses.
PMCID: PMC4102017  PMID: 25101133
9.  Comparative pharmacognosy of Pashanbhed 
Pashanbhed is a commercially available diuretic and lithotropic drug, used to treat renal problems. It is a controversial name as it is assigned to various plants such as Bergenia ligulata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Coleus aromaticus and Rotula aquatica.
To perform the comparative preliminary phytochemical screening, diuretic activity, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) finger printing profile of three plants (B. ligulata, C. aromaticus, and K. pinnata), most commonly used as Pashanbhed.
Materials and Methods:
Diuretic potential of methanolic extract (ME) of three plants were evaluated at two dose levels (500 and 1,000 mg/kg p.o.), using normal Wistar rats (Lipschitz method). Furosemide (20 mg/kg p.o.) was used as a standard drug. The effect on urine output and electrolyte changes were measured for 24 h and compared. All MEs were screened preliminarily for their constituents and their TLC finger printing profiles were prepared. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The MEs of all three plants have shown diuresis in normal rats. However, in intercomparison of the ME C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o.) produced more significant diuresis (P < 0.05) and electrolyte excretion compared to other test groups, the effect was at par with furosemide. The ME of these plants showed presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, etc.
The ME of C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o.) has showed highest diuretic action (4.2) among the tested extracts. This suggests the use of C. aromaticus leaves as “Pashanbhed”; the most effective diuretic drug.
PMCID: PMC4061584  PMID: 24948861
Bergenia ligulata; coleus aromaticus; diuretic; kalanchoe pinnata; pashanbhed
10.  Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat 
Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus) in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW) and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally), a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.
PMCID: PMC3960788  PMID: 24696813
Aqueous extract; diuretic activity; hydrochlorothiazide; saffron
11.  Negative modulation of nitric oxide production by neurotensin as a putative mechanism of the diuretic action of SR 48692 in rats 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1997;120(7):1312-1318.
We investigated the effect of the non-peptide neurotensin (NT) antagonist SR 48692 on renal function in rats and the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the diuretic action of this compound.In fed animals, SR 48692 dose-dependently (0.5 to 12.5 mg kg−1, p.o., 0.03 to 1 mg kg−1, i.p. and 0.1 to 1 μg/rat, i.c.v.) increased urine output and urinary excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl− and reduced urine osmolality. The diuretic activity was also evident in water-deprived, fasted animals and in fasted, water-loaded rats.NT (0.1 μg/rat, i.c.v.) had no effect on urine output in fed rats, but reduced the diuretic action of SR 48692 (1 μg/rat, i.c.v.). The opposite result was obtained in fasted, water-loaded animals: NT dose-dependently (0.01 and 0.1 μg/rat, i.c.v.) inhibited diuresis and this effect was significantly inhibited by i.c.v. SR 48692. In this experimental condition, SR 48692 did not further increase the on-going diuresis.The NO synthesis inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 30 mg kg−1, i.p.) alone had no effect on urine output in fed rats but prevented the diuretic action of i.c.v. or i.p. SR 48692; L-arginine (1 g kg−1, i.p.) but not D-arginine (1 g kg−1, i.p.) restored the SR 48692-dependent increase in diuresis. L-NAME had no effect on furosemide-stimulated diuresis.Systemically administered L-NAME or i.c.v. NT in fasted, water-loaded rats significantly reduced water diuresis but this effect was no longer seen in animals given i.p. L-arginine. Rats receiving i.c.v. NT, whose diuresis was significantly reduced, also excreted less nitrates and nitrites in urine.Increased diuresis after central or systemic administration of SR 48692 to fed rats was paralleled by increased urinary excretion of nitrates and nitrites, this being consistent with peripheral enhancement of NO production after NT-receptor blockade by SR 48692. The increase in diuresis after furosemide also involved an increase of nitrates and nitrites in urine, but this effect was about half that attained with an equipotent diuretic dose of SR 48692.In fed rats, the NO donor isosorbide-dinitrate, reduced systolic blood pressure (unlike SR 48692 which did not affect blood pressure) but also dose-dependently (1 and 5 mg kg−1, i.p.) stimulated urine output.The overall effects of SR 48692 strongly support a link between the actions of endogenous NT, AVP and peripheral NO production in the modulation of renal excretion of water, Na+, K+ and Cl−.
PMCID: PMC1564587  PMID: 9105707
Neurotensin; nitric oxide; Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME); furosemide; SR 48692; diuresis; isosorbide-dinitrate; arginine-vasopressin
12.  Diuretic Activity of Leaves of Garcinia Cambogia in Rats 
The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group.
PMCID: PMC3267310  PMID: 22303069
Aqueous extract; diuretic activity; ethanol extract; Garcinia cambogia
13.  Hypotensive, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Diuretic Activities of the Aqueous-methanol Extract of Ipomoea reniformis  
Ipomoea reniformis Roxb. (Convolvulaceae) is a small, weedy herb used for the management of cardiac problems in traditional systems of medicine in India and Pakistan. Objective of the present study was to investigate the hypotensive, diuretic and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of the aqueous-methanol (30:70) crude extract of the dried aerial parts of I. reniformis (Ir.Cr.) in rats.
To record blood pressure lowering effects of the Ir.Cr, different doses of the extract were administered through jugular vein to the ketamine-diazepam anesthetized normotensive rats and blood pressure was recorded via carotid artery. ACE inhibitory activity of the extract was studied in-vitro; using hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine as substrate, the product hippurate was quantified spectrophotometrically after reacting with cyanuric chloride/dioxane reagent. Effects of intraperitoneal administration of the extract on urine and urinary electrolyte excretion were also investigated in rats.
The extract (Ir.Cr.) produced 21.51 ± 3.41, 28.99 ± 2.30, 53.34 ± 0.88 and 61.71 ± 3.37% fall in mean arterial blood pressure of the anesthetized rats at the doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/Kg, respectively. Ir.Cr. was found to have serum ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 value of 422 ± 21.16 μg/mL. The extract also increased urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion significantly at the doses of 30 and 50 mg/Kg in rats. The study concludes that the crude extract of Ipomoea reniformis (Ir.Cr.) has hypotensive, ACE inhibitory and diuretic activities, which provide the scientific justification for the traditional uses of the plant as cardioprotective, antihypertensive and diuretic remedy.
PMCID: PMC3920690  PMID: 24523757
Convolvulus reniformis; Evolvulus emarginatus; Merremia emearginata; Antihypertensive; Diuretic
14.  Antiinflammatory, Diuretic and Antimicrobial Activities of Rungia pectinata Linn. and Rungia repens Nees 
The hydroalcoholic extracts prepared from leaves of Rungia pectinata and Rungia repens were investigated for antiinflammatory and diuretic activity in wistar rats. The results obtained were compared with that of standard drug aspirin and frusemide for their antiinflammatory and diuretic activity respectively. The acute toxicity study was also carried out using adult swiss albino mice of either sex which indicates the safety of the extracts even at a dose of 4000 mg/kg. R. pectinata showed better anti-inflammatory activity than R. repens. In the present study, it was demonstrated that hydroalcoholic extracts of both R. repens and R. pectinata produce diuretic effect by increasing the excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl−. Results showed that R. repens is most effective in increasing urinary electrolyte concentration of Na+ and K+ ions. The antimicrobial potency of the aerial parts of Rungia pectinata and Rungia repens have been studied using the petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone and ethanol extract against a wide number of bacteria and fungi by disc diffusion method. The ethanol extract at a concentration of 30 to 60 μg/disc showed significant activity against the bacteria and fungus investigated. All the extracts of R. pectinata and R. repens have got moderate action but chloroform and acetone extracts of R. repens and ethanol extract of R. pectinata have got significant activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
PMCID: PMC3038304  PMID: 21394276
Antiinflammatory; diuretic; antimicrobial; Rungia pectinata and Rungia repens
15.  Oral diuretic activity of hot water infusion of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) in rats 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2010;6(24):271-277.
Black tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (family: Theaceae)] has been used by Sri Lankan traditional practitioners to promote diuresis. However, the type and grade of tea is not specified.
Materials and Methods:
This study investigates the diuretic activity of black tea infusion (BTI) in rats using Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings (BOPF) grade from major agroclimatic elevations: high-, mid-, and low-grown. Different concentrations of BTI, furosemide (positive control), and water (vehicle) were orally administered to starved (18 h) male rats (n = 9/group), then hydrated. Acute and chronic (28 days) diuretic activities were assessed by measuring cumulative urine output at hourly intervals for 6 h. Electrolyte levels (Na+, K+, Ca2+, H+, Cl−, HCO3−), pH, osmolarity of urine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of treated rats were determined.
Administration of BTI induced a significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent diuretic activity, which varied with the tea produced in different agroclimatic elevations. Diuretic activity had a rapid onset (1st h), peaked at 2nd h and maintained up to 4th h (except the low dose). Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent increase in micturition frequency, which peaked at 2nd h. A close association between the caffeine content of tea and diuretic activity was evident. BTI-induced diuresis was accompanied with an increased urine Na+ level and GFR. The diuretic activity of BTI was mediated via multiple mechanisms: inhibition of both aldosterone secretion (with increased Na+/K+ ratio) and carbonic anhydrase [with decreased Cl−/(Na+ + K+) ratio] and via thiazide type of diuretic action (evaluated with increased Na+/Cl− ratio).
The Sri Lankan BOPF grade black tea possesses mild oral diuretic activity whose efficacy differs with the agroclimatic elevation of production. Furthermore, it supports the traditional claim that the black tea acts as a diuretic.
PMCID: PMC2992138  PMID: 21120027
Black tea; Camellia sinensis; diuretic activity; electrolytes; agroclimatic elevation; urine output
16.  Diuretic activity of the leaves of Coleus aromaticus Benth 
Ancient Science of Life  2009;29(1):20-21.
The aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves of Coleus aromaticus was evaluated for diuretic activity. Both extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in albino rats. Results revealed that both the aqueous and ethanolic extract at dose 500mgl kg showed significant diuretic activity by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration electrolyte. Furosamide (10 mg/kg) was used as reference drug while normal saline (0.9%) solution was used as control.
PMCID: PMC3336299  PMID: 22557339
Diuretic activity; Coleus aromaticus; Furosamide
17.  Evaluation of the diuretic activity of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves in mice 
In the Ethiopian traditional medicine, the leaves of Ajuga remota B. (Local name, Armagusa) is used in the treatment of hypertension. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota in mice after acute oral administration.
Adult mice were administered orally either aqueous (250 mg/kg, AA250; 500 mg/kg, AA500 and 1000 mg/kg, AA1000) or 80% methanol (250 mg/kg, AM250; 500 mg/kg, AM500 and 750 mg/kg, AM750) extract. Urine output and electrolyte contents were then quantified up to 5 h and compared with those administered with furosemide 10 mg/kg (F10) and distilled water (CON).
The larger dose of 80% methanol extract produced significant diuresis (p < 0.01), while the aqueous extract had shown diuresis both at the middle (p < 0.01) and higher (p < 0.01) doses by the end of the fifth hour compared to CON mice. Regarding electrolyte excretion, larger doses of both extracts had increased natriuresis (p < 0.001 for AA1000 and p < 0.01 for AM1000), while the effect on kaliuresis were smaller when compared with the standard, suggesting the plant could possibly have a potassium-sparing effect. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and cardiac glycosides, which might account for the diuretic activity.
The results indicate that the plant is endowed with significant diuretic activity at various doses, providing evidence for its folkloric use. The major components like flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and alkaloids found in the plant might have contributed to the observed diuretic activity.
PMCID: PMC3997187  PMID: 24720845
Furosemide; Diuretics; Ajuga remota; Natriuresis; Kaliuresis
18.  Sodium valproate stimulates potassium and chloride urinary excretion in rats: gender differences 
BMC Pharmacology  2007;7:9.
The diuretic effect of valproates and its relation to urinary potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-) excretion have not yet been investigated, so the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a single dose of sodium valproate (NaVPA) on 24-h urinary K+ and Cl- excretion in young adult Wistar rats of both genders. For measurement of K+ in urine, the same animals and samples as in our earlier publication were used (Pharmacology 2005 Nov, 75:111–115). The authors propose a new approach to the pathophysiological mechanisms of NaVPA effect on K+ and Cl- metabolism.
Twenty six Wistar rats were examined after a single intragastric administration of 300 mg/kg NaVPA (13 NaVPA-male and 13 NaVPA-female), 28 control intact Wistar rats (14 males and 14 females) were studied as a control group. The 24-h urinary K+, Cl-, creatinine and pH levels were measured.
Total 24-h diuresis and 24-h diuresis per 100 g of body weight were found to be significantly higher in NaVPA-rats of both genders than in rats of the control group (p < 0.05). The data showed NaVPA to enhance 24-h K+ excretion in NaVPA-males and NaVPA-females with significant gender-related differences: 24-h K+ excretion in NaVPA-male rats was significantly higher than in control males (p = 0.003) and NaVPA-female rats (p < 0.001). Regarding the 24-h K+ excretion, NaVPA-female rats did not show a statistically significant difference versus females of the control group (p > 0.05). 24-h urinary K+ excretion per 100 g of body weight in NaVPA-male rats was significantly higher than in control males (p = 0.025). NaVPA enhanced Cl- urinary excretion: 24-h Cl- urinary excretion, 24-h urinary Cl- excretion per 100 g of body weight and the Cl-/creatinine ratio were significantly higher in NaVPA-male and NaVPA-female rats than in gender-matched controls (p < 0.05). 24-h chloriduretic response to NaVPA in male rats was significantly higher than in female rats (p < 0.05).
NaVPA causes kaliuretic and chloriduretic effects with gender-related differences in rats. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of such pharmacological effects of NaVPA.
PMCID: PMC1959196  PMID: 17683602
Ancient Science of Life  2003;22(4):146-151.
Water extract of the leaves of Coleus Aromaticus Benth was tested for its diuretic activity in male albino rats. The study was carried out on normal rats using furosemide as a standard reference drug. Rats were treated with furosemide (4 mg/kg. p.o) and Coleus aromaticus (0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg, p/o). Urine was collected and its volume was recorded. Urinary levels of sodium, potassium and chloride were estimated. Treatment with Coleus aromaticus produced diuresis. The urine output and electrolytes concentration was significantly increased. Hence, it is suggested, Coleus aromaticus leaves has diuretic activity on rats.
PMCID: PMC3331014  PMID: 22557102
20.  Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats 
Ayu  2013;34(2):226-228.
Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity.
PMCID: PMC3821256  PMID: 24250136
Analgesic; folklore; gandhamardana hills; Nelsonia canescens; Rasna
21.  Natriuretic and saluretic effects of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. root extracts in rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(6):714-717.
The present study was aimed to investigate the diuretic effects of aqueous (AqE) and ethanolic (EtE) crude extracts of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. roots (family – Asclepiadaceae) using acute model in rats.
Materials and Methods:
A single individual dose of AqE and EtE of H. indicus root (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., each), frusemide and hydrochlorothiazide, (25 mg/kg, p.o., each) as reference diuretic drugs were administered orally to dehydrated rats. Control group rats were fed with normal saline (25 ml/kg, p.o.). All rats were caged in metabolic cages in a pairs and their urine output was monitored at 5 and 24 h intervals.
Both extracts significantly increased the urine output in higher doses. Although, the onset of this diuretic action was gradual (within 5 h), it lasted throughout the studied period (up to 24 h). Further, the intensity of diuresis induced by AqE (400 mg/kg) in 5 h was almost similar to that of frusemide and hydrochlothiazide. AqE of H. indicus root also caused marked increase in urinary Na+ and K+ levels. However, the routine urinalysis showed non-significant alterations in pH and specific gravity by either dose of crude extracts of H. indicus roots.
These effects demonstrate possible diuretic actions of H. indicus root extracts and support its folklore use in various urinary ailments. Further study need to be done to characterize active phytoconstituents.
PMCID: PMC3229792  PMID: 22144781
Diuretic; frusemide; Hemidesmus indicus; hydrochlorthiazide
22.  An orally active adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, FK838, increases renal excretion and maintains glomerular filtration rate in furosemide-resistant rats 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2003;139(8):1383-1388.
Loop and thiazide diuretics are common therapeutic agents for the treatment of sodium retention and oedema. However, resistance to diuretics and decreases in renal function can develop during diuretic therapy. Adenosine causes renal vasoconstriction, sodium reabsorption, and participates in the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism for the regulation of glomerular filtration rate.We tested the hypothesis that the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist FK838 is orally active and causes diuresis and natriuresis, but maintains glomerular filtration rate in normal rats or in rats with furosemide resistance.In normal male Sprague – Dawley rats, FK838 dose-dependently increased urine flow and sodium and chloride excretion while sparing potassium. In combination with furosemide, FK838 enhanced the diuretic and natriuretic actions of furosemide to the same extent as hydrochlorothiazide and did not increase the potassium loss in normal rats. In furosemide-resistant rats, FK838 increased urine flow and electrolyte excretion to a greater extent than hydrochlorothiazide. In addition, hydrochlorothiazide significantly decreased glomerular filtration rate, whereas FK838 maintained glomerular filtration rate in furosemide-resistant rats.This study shows that the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist FK838 is orally active and causes potent diuresis and natriuresis and maintains glomerular filtration rate in normal or furosemide-resistant rats. Adenosine A1 receptor antagonists may be novel therapeutics for the treatment of oedema in normal or otherwise diuretic-resistant patients.
PMCID: PMC1573969  PMID: 12922924
Adenosine; kidney; sodium; potassium; excretion; FK838; furosemide; hydrochlorothiazide; diuretic resistance
23.  Diuretic Potential of Whole Plant Extracts of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) 
The whole plant, Pergularia daemia (Family: Asclepediaceae), was extracted with 50% alcohol and a fresh batch of the plant material was successively extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol to determine its diuretic activity. The diuretic activity of the different extracts at a dose of 400 mg/Kg was assessed orally in rats with furosemide as a standard drug using Lipschitzs test. All extracts except the petroleum ether extract showed significant increase (p < 0.001) in urine output. Urinary electrolyte excretion was also affected by the extracts: the alcoholic, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extract caused an increase in the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium ions. These findings suggest that among the mentioned extracts, ethanolic has the maximum diuretic activity followed by n-butanol extract.
PMCID: PMC3813069  PMID: 24250415
Daemia extensa; Diuretic activity; Diuretic action; Electrolyte
24.  Use of piretanide, a new loop diuretic, in cirrhosis with ascites: relationship between the diuretic response and the plasma aldosterone level. 
Gut  1980;21(10):855-859.
Twenty patients with cirrhosis and ascites but no renal failure were given piretanide, a new loop diuretic, in order to investigate its efficacy and to relate the diuretic response with the pretreatment plasma aldosterone concentration. Eleven patients responded to piretanide 12 mg/day (equivalent in potency to 80 mg furosemide); there was no response in nine patients. Both groups were similar with regard to liver function, plasma urea, serum creatinine, plasma electrolytes, urine volume, and urine potassium concentration. The basal urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher in those patients who responded (23.6 +/- 5.7 mmol/day vs. 4.3 +/- 1.42 mmol/day; P < 0.01) (M +/- SE). Plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were normal or only slightly increased in patients who responded to piretanide (PRA = 1.22 +/- 0.20 ng/ml/h; PAC = 12.25 +/- 2.20 ng/100 ml) and very high in patients who did not respond (PRA = 8.71 +/- 1.18 ng/ml/h; PAC = 84.6 +/- 16.2 ng/100 ml) (P < 0.001). Patients unresponsive to piretanide 12 mg/day also failed to respond when the dose was increased to 24 mg/day. However, the addition of spironolactone, 150 mg/day, to piretanide was followed in these patients by a marked increase in diuresis and natriuresis. These results strongly suggest that the pre-treatment level of aldosterone is an important factor influencing the response to loop diuretics in patients with non-azotaemic cirrhosis and ascites.
PMCID: PMC1419382  PMID: 7439805
25.  Asparagus Root Regulates Cholesterol Metabolism and Improves Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesteremic Rats 
Hyperlipidemia/hypercholesteremia are major risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Root of Asparagus racemosus (AR) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and is known for its steroidal saponin content. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesteremic and antioxidant potential of AR root in both normo- and hypercholesteremic animals. Normal and hypercholesteremic male albino rats were administered with root powder of AR (5 and 10 g% dose levels) along with normal and hypercholesteremic diets, respectively, for a duration of 4 weeks. Plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, fecal sterol, bile acid excretion and hepatic antioxidant activity were assessed. Inclusion of AR root powder in diet, resulted in a dose-dependant reduction in plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, increased fecal excretion of cholesterol, neutral sterol and bile acid along with increases in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity and bile acid content in hypercholesteremic rats. Further, AR root also improved the hepatic antioxidant status (catalase, SOD and ascorbic acid levels). No significant changes in lipid and antioxidant profiles occurred in the normocholesteremic rats administered with AR root powder. AR root appeared to be useful as a dietary supplement that offers a protection against hyperlipidemia/hypercholesteremia in hypercholesteremic animals. The results of the present study indicate that the potent therapeutic phyto-components present in AR root i.e. phytosterols, saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid, could be responsible for increased bile acid production, elimination of excess cholesterol and elevation of hepatic antioxidant status in hypercholesteremic conditions.
PMCID: PMC2686619  PMID: 18955232
antioxidant; Asparagus racemosus; cholesterol metabolism; hypercholesteremia

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