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1.  Etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired urinary tract infections in J N M C Hospital Aligarh, India 
Background
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain the common infections diagnosed in outpatients as well as hospitalized patients. Current knowledge on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is essential for appropriate therapy. Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria may not be detected by routine disk diffusion susceptibility test, leading to inappropriate use of antibiotics and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial strains isolated from patients with community acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) at Aligarh hospital in India as well as identification of ESBL producers in the population of different uropathogens.
Methods
Urinary isolates from symptomatic UTI cases attending to the JN Medical College and hospital at Aligarh were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. Isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporin were tested for ESBL production by double disk synergy test method.
Results
Of the 920 tested sample 100 samples showed growth of pathogens among which the most prevalent were E. coli (61%) followed by Klebsiella spp (22%). The majority (66.66%) of the isolates were from female while the remaining were from male. Among the gram-negative enteric bacilli high prevalence of resistance was observed against ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Most of the isolates were resistant to 4 or more number of antibiotics. Forty two percent of isolates were detected to produce ESBL among which 34.42 % were E. coli isolates.
Conclusion
This study revealed that E. coli was the predominant bacterial pathogen of community acquired UTIs in Aligarh, India. It also demonstrated an increasing resistance to Co-trimoxazole and production of extended spectrum β-lactamase among UTI pathogens in the community. This study is useful for clinician in order to improve the empiric treatment.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-4
PMCID: PMC1852324  PMID: 17378940
2.  Antimicrobial resistance in pathogens causing urinary tract infections in a rural community of Odisha, India 
Background:
Antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract pathogens has increased worldwide. Empiric treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) is determined by antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in a population of specific geographical location.
Objectives:
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CA-UTI in rural Odisha, India, and the effect of gender and age on its prevalence as well as etiologic agents and the resistance profile of the bacterial isolates.
Materials and Methods:
Consecutive clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from 1670 adult patients. The urine samples were processed and microbial isolates were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all bacterial isolates by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method.
Results:
The prevalence of UTI was significantly higher in females compared with males (females 45.2%, males 18.4%, OR = 2.041, 95% CI = 1.64-2.52, P ≤ 0.0001). Young females within the age group of 18-37 years and elderly males (≥68 years) showed high prevalence of UTI. Escherichia coli (68.8%) was the most prevalent isolate followed by Enterococcus spp. (9.7%). Amikacin and nitrofurantoin were the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 5.8% and 9.8%, respectively.
Conclusion:
Our study revealed E. coli as the pre-dominant bacterial pathogen. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for uncomplicated CA-UTIs. In the Indian setting, routine urine cultures may be advisable, since treatment failure is likely to occur with commonly used antimicrobials. Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is necessary for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.108180
PMCID: PMC3663160  PMID: 23723727
Antimicrobial; community-acquired urinary tract infection; Escherichia coli; prevalence; resistance
3.  Multidrug-Resistance and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Production in Uropathogenic E. Coli which were Isolated from Hospitalized Patients in Kolkata, India 
Background and Objective: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are mostly caused by Escherichia coli. The appropriate therapy demands a current knowledge on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern amongst these pathogens, as an inappropriate use of antibiotics may lead to complications and treatment failure. The UTIs which are caused by multidrug resistant Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria further pose a severe problem, as the treatment options are limited. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern of multi drug resistance amongst the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates which were obtained from hospitalized patients.
Materials and Methods: Forty UPEC were isolated from 200 urine samples of hospitalized patients who were clinically suspected for UTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was performed by using 16 antibiotics, by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion technique. The isolates which were resistant to the third generation cephalosporins were subjected to the ESBL confirmatory test by using drug and drug-inhibitor combination disks by following the CLSI guidelines.
Results: All the 40 isolates except three were multidrug resistant. They showed the highest sensitivities for nitrofurantoin (72.5%) and amikacin (70%). A high level of resistance was observed against ampicillin (97.5%), nalidixic acid and cefelexin (95%), amoxicillin (92.5%), cotrimoxazole (82.5%) and ciprofloxacin (80%) respectively. Thirty different antibiotic resistance patterns were observed against the different antibiotics. Twenty-eight out of the 40 isolates were resistant to the third generation cephalosporins. However, the phenotypic test for the ESBL confirmation indicated that eighteen out of the twenty-eight isolates were ESBL producers and that eleven different drug resistance patterns were observed amongst them.
Conclusions: Therefore, this study accounts for the varied multidrug resistance pattern amongst the uropathogenic E. coli which were isolated from hospitalized patients in Kolkata, an eastern region of India. Nitrofurantoin and amikacin should be assigned as potent drugs to treat this infection in this region of the country. These varied resistance patterns present major therapeutic and infection control challenges and they suggest a heterogeneous population of the uropathogenic E. coli isolates which circulate in this sector of India.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/4990.2796
PMCID: PMC3616554  PMID: 23634394
Antibiotic susceptibility; Urinary tract infection; Uropathogenic E. coli; Extended- spectrum beta lactamase
4.  Comparative Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infection Cases from Representative States of Northern and Southern India 
Context: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections described in outpatient settings. Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of urinary tract pathogens is a matter of global public health concern. Treatment of UTI depends on both prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of causative bacteria at any specific geographical location.
Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of uropathogens and their AMR profile in two different geographical parts of India.
Materials and Methods: Clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from adult patients, bacterial flora isolated from human urine was evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility profile using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method among patients from Hyderabad (Southern India), Rajasthan and Punjab (Northern India). The data were analysed using Chi-square (χ2) test, confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) analysis and p-value using SPSS 16 software.
Results: Escherichia coli (55.1%) were the most prevalent isolates followed by Enterococcus faecalis (15.8%). Amikacin was the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 14%. The present study revealed the geographical difference in prevalence of uropathogens with Klebsiella pneumoniae being the second most common uropathogen followed by E. faecalis in the states from northern India while no K. pneumoniae was seen in samples from southern India but E. faecalis was the second most prevalent organism.
Conclusion: Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is highly recommended for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines in Indian settings.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/9349.4889
PMCID: PMC4225884  PMID: 25386432
Antimicrobial resistance; Bacteriuria and antibiotics; Community-acquired urinary yract infections; Uropathogens
5.  Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Uropathogens in Obstetric Patients 
Background:
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most commonly encountered infections in obstetric patients. Although a variety of etiology is involved, Escherichia coli and other coliforms account for a large majority of these naturally acquired infections. The estimation of local etiology and susceptibility profile could support the most effective empirical treatment.
Aim:
The current study was undertaken to find the spectrum of micro-organisms responsible for causing UTI in obstetric patients and to find out the most appropriate antibiotic.
Materials and Methods:
Consecutive patients in different stages of pregnancy with or without symptoms of UTI attending the antenatal clinic during November 2011 to March 2012 were screened for significant bacteriuria. The bacterial uropathogens isolated were then subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and screened for ESBL production and methicillin resistance.
Results:
During the 5-month study period, out of the 250 samples screened, a total of 60 (24%) samples of urine from pregnant females, in different stages of pregnancy were found to be positive on culture. The Enterobacteriaceae accounted for nearly two-thirds of the isolates and E. coli alone accounted for 63% of the urinary isolates followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 8%. Among the Gram-positive cocci, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (15%) were more frequently isolated than Staphylococcus aureus (8.3%). A significantly high resistance was noted to the beta-lactam group of antimicrobials, fluoroquinolones and cotrimoxazole, both by the Gram-negative bacilli as well as Gram-positive cocci. Resistance was quite low against the aminoglycosides and nitrofurantoin and virtually absent against imipenem.
Conclusion:
The susceptibility patterns seen in our study seem to suggest that it is absolutely necessary to obtain sensitivity reports before initiation of antibiotic therapy in cases of suspected UTI.
doi:10.4103/1947-2714.98591
PMCID: PMC3409656  PMID: 22866269
ESBL; Pregnancy; Urinary tract infection; Uropathogens
6.  Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Urban Community of Meerut City, India 
ISRN Microbiology  2013;2013:749629.
Urinary tract infection is one of the common infections in the Indian community. Distribution and susceptibility of UTI-causing pathogens change according to time and place. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens in the Indian community as well as to determine the effect of gender and age on the etiology of bacterial uropathogens. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from 288 patients of the age ranging from 15 to ≥48 years. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on all isolated bacteria by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of each antibiotic was calculated. The UTI prevalence was 53.82% in patients; however, the prevalence was significantly higher in females than in males (females: 73.57%; males: 35.14%; P = 0.000). Females within the age group of 26–36 years and elderly males of ≥48 years showed higher prevalence of UTI. Gram negative bacteria (90.32%) were found in high prevalence than Gram positive (9.68%). Escherichia coli (42.58%) was the most prevalent gram negative isolate. Nitrofurantoin (78.71%) was found the most resistant drug among all uropathogens. Tested carbapenems were found the most susceptible drug against isolated uropathogens which showed 92.26% and 84.52% susceptibility, respectively.
doi:10.1155/2013/749629
PMCID: PMC3830820  PMID: 24288649
7.  Frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria implicated in community urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2000–2009) 
Background
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of the empirical therapy, the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTI in the community (in Aveiro, Portugal) was evaluated throughout a ten-year period.
Methods
In this retrospective study, all urine samples from patients of the District of Aveiro, in ambulatory regime, collected at the Clinical Analysis Laboratory Avelab during the period 2000–2009 were analysed. Samples with more than 105 CFU/mL bacteria were considered positive and, for these samples, the bacteria were identified and the profile of antibiotic susceptibility was characterized.
Results
From the 155597 samples analysed, 18797 (12.1%) were positive for bacterial infection. UTI was more frequent in women (78.5%) and its incidence varied with age, affecting more the elderly patients (38.6%). Although E. coli was, as usual, the most common pathogen implicated in UTI, it were observed differences related to the other bacteria more implicated in UTI relatively to previous studies. The bacteria implicated in the UTI varied with the sex of the patient, being P. aeruginosa a more important cause of infection in men than in women. The incidence of the main bacteria changed over the study period (P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp and Providencia spp increased and Enterobacter spp decreased). Although E. coli was responsible for more than an half of UTI, its resistance to antibiotics was low when compared with other pathogens implicated in UTI, showing also the lowest percentage of multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates (17%). Bacteria isolated from females were less resistant than those isolated from males and this difference increased with the patient age.
Conclusions
The differences in sex and age must be taken into account at the moment of empirical prescription of antimicrobials. From the recommended antimicrobials by the European Association of Urology guidelines, the first line drugs (pivmecillinam and nitrofurantoin) and the alternative antibiotic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMX-CLA) are appropriate to treat community-acquired UTI, but the fluoroquinolones should not be suitable to treat male infections and the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) shall not be used in the treatment of UTI at this level.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-19
PMCID: PMC3556060  PMID: 23327474
Community-acquired urinary tract infection; Uropathogens; Antibiotics; Antimicrobial resistance; Multidrug resistance
8.  Antibiotic resistance pattern among common bacterial uropathogens with a special reference to ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli 
Background & objectives:
The resistance of bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) to commonly prescribed antibiotics is increasing both in developing as well as in developed countries. Resistance has emerged even to more potent antimicrobial agents. The present study was undertaken to report the current antibiotic resistance pattern among common bacterial uropathogens isolated in a tertiary care hospital in south India, with a special reference to ciprofloxacin.
Methods:
A total of 19,050 consecutive urine samples were cultured and pathogens isolated were identified by standard methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The clinical and demographic profile of the patients was noted.
Results:
Of the 19,050 samples, 62 per cent were sterile, 26.01 per cent showed significant growth, 2.3 per cent showed insignificant growth and 9.6 per cent were found contaminated. Significant association (P<0.001) of prior use of antibiotics in males, UTI in adults, gynaecological surgery in females, obstructive uropathy in males and complicated UTI in females with the occurrence of UTI with ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli was noted. Significant association was noted in females with prior antibiotics, with prior urological surgery and in males with prior complicated UTI. There was no significant association with diabetes mellitus with the occurrence of UTI with ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. Fluoroquinolone resistance was found to increase with age.
Interpretations & conclusions:
Ciprofloxacin resistance has emerged due to its frequent use. This resistance was seen more in the in-patients, elderly males and females. Also the resistance to other antibiotics was also high. Increasing antibiotic resistance trends indicate that it is imperative to rationalize the use of antimicrobials in the community and also use these conservatively.
PMCID: PMC3573607  PMID: 23287133
Ciprofloxacin; Escherichia coli; minimum inhibitory concentration; urinary tract infection
9.  Single Clinical Isolates from Acute Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections Are Representative of Dominant In Situ Populations 
mBio  2014;5(2):e01064-13.
ABSTRACT
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most commonly acquired bacterial infections in humans, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains are responsible for over 80% of all cases. The standard method for identification of uropathogens in clinical laboratories is cultivation, primarily using solid growth media under aerobic conditions, coupled with morphological and biochemical tests of typically a single isolate colony. However, these methods detect only culturable microorganisms, and characterization is phenotypic in nature. Here, we explored the genotypic identity of communities in acute uncomplicated UTIs from 50 individuals by using culture-independent amplicon pyrosequencing and whole-genome and metagenomic shotgun sequencing. Genus-level characterization of the UTI communities was achieved using the 16S rRNA gene (V8 region). Overall UTI community richness was very low in comparison to other human microbiomes. We strain-typed Escherichia-dominated UTIs using amplicon pyrosequencing of the fimbrial adhesin gene, fimH. There were nine highly abundant fimH types, and each UTI sample was dominated by a single type. Molecular analysis of the corresponding clinical isolates revealed that in the majority of cases the isolate was representative of the dominant taxon in the community at both the genus and the strain level. Shotgun sequencing was performed on a subset of eight E. coli urine UTI and isolate pairs. The majority of UTI microbial metagenomic sequences mapped to isolate genomes, confirming the results obtained using phylogenetic markers. We conclude that for the majority of acute uncomplicated E. coli-mediated UTIs, single cultured isolates are diagnostic of the infection.
IMPORTANCE
In clinical practice, the diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) are based on analysis of a single bacterial isolate cultured from urine, and it is assumed that this isolate represents the dominant UTI pathogen. However, these methods detect only culturable bacteria, and the existence of multiple pathogens as well as strain diversity within a single infection is not examined. Here, we explored bacteria present in acute uncomplicated UTIs using culture-independent sequence-based methods. Escherichia coli was the most common organism identified, and analysis of E. coli dominant UTI samples and their paired clinical isolates revealed that in the majority of infections the cultured isolate was representative of the dominant taxon at both the genus and the strain level. Our data demonstrate that in most cases single cultured isolates are diagnostic of UTI and are consistent with the notion of bottlenecks that limit strain diversity during UTI pathogenesis.
doi:10.1128/mBio.01064-13
PMCID: PMC3940035  PMID: 24570371
10.  Prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae urinary isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:487.
Background
Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the major bacterial pathogens being isolated and reported from mid stream urine (MSU) specimens, globally. These uropathogens are mostly implicated as the major extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, severely limiting the therapeutic management in cases of urinary tract infections. Limited studies had been reported from Nepal investigating the ESBL producers among uropathogens. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL producing E.coli and K. pneumoniae in urinary isolates at a centrally located major tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.
Methods
Between September 2011 and May 2012, during the nine months period, 6308 MSU specimens were collected aseptically from the same number of clinically suspected patients of urinary tract infections. The samples were cultured on MacConkey agar and blood agar. The isolates with significant bacteriuria (105 CFU / ml) were identified based on standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out using various antimicrobial discs alongwith ceftriaxone on E.coli and K. pneumoniae isolates by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as per the recommendations of CLSI. On initial screening with ceftriaxone (30 μg) disc showing resistance was then confirmed for ESBL production by phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT) using ceftazidime (30 ug) and ceftazidime + clavulanic acid (30 μg + 10ug) disc as per guidelines of CLSI (2011).
Results
Out of a total of 6308 MSU specimens investigated for significant bacteriuria, E.coli isolates were 444 (7.04%) and K.pneuminiae were 145 (2.3%) making a total of 589 (9.34%). Initial screening with ceftriaxone disc revealed 155 isolates of E.coli and 70 isolates of K.pneumoniae to be resistant. Further testing by PCDDT method showed 60/444 (=13.51%) of E. coli and 24/145 (=16.55%) of K. pneumoniae isolates to be confirmed ESBL producers. These ESBL – producer uropathogens showed high degree of resistance to ceftriaxone (100.0%), amoxycillin, fluoroquinolones and co-trimoxazole.
Conclusion
An emerging and moderately high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae was observed and confirmed in the urinary isolates investigated. It is essential to have a regular and routine monitoring of ESBL producing clinical isolates in laboratory practice.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-487
PMCID: PMC4222089  PMID: 24274894
Antimicrobial resistance; Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Mid stream urine (MSU); Prevalence; Urinary isolates
11.  Antimicrobial resistance in urinary isolates from inpatients and outpatients at a tertiary care hospital in South-Kivu Province (Democratic Republic of Congo) 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:374.
Background
The rate of antimicrobial resistant isolates among pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is not known. The aim of the current study was to determine this rate at the Bukavu Provincial General Hospital (province of South-Kivu, DRC).
Findings
A total of 643 isolates (both from inpatients and outpatients) collected from September 2012 to August 2013 were identified using biochemical methods, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The isolates were further screened for Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) production. Beta-lactamase AmpC phenotype was investigated in 20 antibiotic-resistant isolates.
Escherichia coli (58.5%), Klebsiella spp. (21.9%) and Enterobacter spp. (16.2%) were the most frequent uropathogens encountered. Rare uropathogens included Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp., and Acinetobacter spp. Resistance was significantly more present in inpatients isolates (22.1% of isolates) when compared to outpatients isolates (8.4% of isolates), (p-value <0.001). Antibiotic-resistant isolates displayed resistance to common antimicrobial drugs used for UTIs treatment in South Kivu province, namely: ciprofloxacin, ampicillin and third generation cephalosporins. ESBL-phenotype was present in 92.9% of antibiotic-resistant isolates. Only amikacin, nitrofurantoin and imipenem displayed satisfactory activity against antibiotic resistant isolates.
Conclusions
This study confirms the presence of antibiotic-resistant uropathogens (mainly ESBL-producers isolates) at the Bukavu General Hospital. This study should serve as a wake-up call and help to raise awareness about the threat to public health of antibiotic resistance in this DRC province.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-374
PMCID: PMC4074390  PMID: 24943866
Urinary tract infections; South-Kivu; Democratic Republic of Congo; Multidrug resistance; Prevalence; Extended spectrum beta-lactamases; Antibotics
12.  Empiric antibiotic therapy in acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections and fluoroquinolone resistance: a prospective observational study 
Background
The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary isolates from community acquired acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTI) and to evaluate which antibiotics were empirically prescribed in the outpatient management of uUTI.
Methods
Among the patients which were admitted to outpatient clinics of Ankara University Medical Faculty, Ibni-Sina Hospital during 2005-2006, a total of 429 women between the age of 18 and 65 years old who were clinically diagnosed with uUTI and to whom prescribed empirical antibiotics were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Patients' demographical data, urine culture results, resistance rates to antimicrobial agents and prescribed empiric antimicrobial therapy were analyzed.
Results
Totally 390 (90.9%) patients among all study population were requested for urine culture by their physicians. 150 (38.5%) of these urine cultures were positive. The most common isolated uropathogen was Escherichia coli (E. coli) (71.3%). The variations of uropathogens according to age and menopause status were not significantly different.
The resistance rates of E. coli isolates for ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulonate, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, fluoroquinolones (FQ), co-trimoxazole (TMP-SMX) and gentamicin were 55.1%, 32.7%, 32.7%, 23.4%, 15.9%, 25.2%, 41.1%, 6.1% respectively. FQ were the most common prescribed antibiotics (77.9%) (P < 0.001), followed by TMP-SMX (10.7%), fosfomycin (9.2%), nitrofurantoin (2.1%). Treatment durations were statistically longer than the recommended 3-day course (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
Empirical use of FQ in uUTI should be discouraged because of increased antimicrobial resistance rates.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-8-27
PMCID: PMC2770515  PMID: 19852849
13.  Characteristics of urinary tract infection pathogens and their in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in China: data from a multicenter study 
BMJ Open  2013;3(12):e004152.
Objective
This study assessed the characteristics of pathogens identified in clinical isolates from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) and their in vitro sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics in the clinical setting in China.
Design and setting
Multicenter study was conducted between January and December 2011 in 12 hospitals in China.
Participants
Urine samples were collected from 356 symptomatic patients treated in the study hospitals for acute uncomplicated cystitis, recurrent UTI or complicated UTI.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured using broth microdilution according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2011 guidelines. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were tested: fosfomycin tromethamine, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, cefdinir, cefixime, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, azithromycin, nitrofurantoin and oxacillin. Escherichia coli isolates were screened and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) production was confirmed by a double-disk synergy test.
Results
198 urine samples were culture-positive and 175 isolates were included in the final analysis. E coli was detected in 50% of cultures, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (9%), Enterococcus faecalis (9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5%). The detection rate of ESBL-producing E coli was 53%. Resistance to levofloxacin was the most common among all the isolates. Nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin tromethamine had the greatest activity against E coli; overall, 92% and 91% of isolates were susceptible to these antimicrobials. E faecalis had the highest susceptibility rates to fosfomycin tromethamine (100%).
Conclusions
The most frequently identified pathogens in our patients were ESBL-producing E coli and E faecalis. Fosfomycin tromethamine and nitrofurantoin showed a good antimicrobial activity against UTI pathogens. They may represent good options for the empiric treatment of patients with UTI.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004152
PMCID: PMC3863131  PMID: 24334199
14.  Antibiograms from community-acquired uropathogens in Gulu, northern Uganda - a cross-sectional study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:193.
Background
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in clinical practice and empirical treatment is largely employed due to predictability of pathogens. However, variations in antibiotic sensitivity patterns do occur, and documentation is needed to inform local empirical therapy. The current edition of the Uganda Clinical Guidelines recommends amoxicillin or cotrimoxazole as choice drugs for empirical treatment of community-acquired UTI. From our clinical observations, we suspected that this recommendation was not effective in our setting. In order to examine validity, we sought to identify bacteria from community-acquired infections and determine their susceptibility against these antibiotics plus a range of potentially useful alternatives for treatment of UTI.
Methods
A cross-sectional study of mid-stream urine collected from 339 symptomatic patients over a three-month period at Gulu regional referral hospital. Qualitative culture and identification of bacteria and antibiotic sensitivity testing using the modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was done. Participants’ demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using a standard form. Results were analyzed by simple proportions among related variables and confidence intervals computed using binomial exact distribution.
Results
Eighty two cultures were positive for UTI. Staphylococcus spp (46.3%) and Escherichia coli (39%) were the most common pathogens. There was high resistance to cotrimoxazole (73.2%), nalidixic acid (52.4%) and amoxicillin (51.2%). The most favorable antibiograms were obtained with gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and levofloxacin where 85.4%, 72.0%, 67.1% of isolates respectively, were either sensitive or intermediate. Only 51% of isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.
Conclusion
There was high resistance to most antibiotics tested in this study. The recommendations contained in the current edition of the Uganda Clinical Guidelines are not in tandem with antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens seen in our setting. Amoxicillin-clavulanate or gentamicin should be considered for replacement of amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole for empirical treatment of UTI in our setting.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-193
PMCID: PMC3643887  PMID: 23627344
Antibiograms; Antibiotic resistance; Uropathogens; Empirical treatment; Uganda
15.  Urinary Tract Infection: Aetiology and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern in Infants From A Tertiary Care Hospital in Northern India 
Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in childhood. Present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of the uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in infants (< 1yr) suspected with UTI.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Microbiology Department on urine samples received from infants for a period of two years from September 2011 to August 2013.
Results: Culture positivity rate was found to be 15.7%. There was an overall male preponderance in cases of UTI (70.1%). Most common bacterial isolate was E.coli (45.4%) followed by Klebsiella (16.7%) and Enterococcus spp (13.2%). Isolation of candida was 21.1%, maximum from ICU (63.1%). Maximum gram negative isolates (50%) showed high resistance to gentamicin, amikacin, cefotaxime and norfloxacin while most of the isolates (5%) were found susceptible to nitrofurantoin and piperacillin-tazobactam. 45.1% of gram negative bacilli were ESBL producer. We recommend continuous monitoring of changes in bacterial pathogens causing UTI and antibiotic sensitivity in each area for effective treatment of UTI.
Conclusion: Since antimicrobial resistance is a major problem, such study will help in formulating a strict antibiotics prescription policy in our country.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8772.4919
PMCID: PMC4253157  PMID: 25478339
Antibiotic sensitivity; Antibiotic prescription policy; Infant UTI
16.  Bacterial susceptibility to oral antibiotics in community acquired urinary tract infection 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2003;88(3):215-218.
Background: The most common oral antibiotics used in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) are sulphonamides and cephalosporins, but emerging resistance is not unusual.
Aims: To assess the change in susceptibility of urinary pathogens to oral antibiotics during the past decade in children with community acquired UTI.
Methods: The study sample included two groups of children with a first community acquired UTI: 142 children enrolled in 1991 and 124 enrolled in 1999. UTI was diagnosed by properly collected urine specimen (suprapubic aspiration, transurethral catheterisation, or midstream specimen in circumcised males) in symptomatic patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was compared between the two groups.
Results: The pathogens recovered in the two groups were similar: in 1991—E coli 86%, Klebsiella 6%, others 8%; in 1999—E coli 82%, Klebsiella 13%, and others 5%. A slight but generalised decrease in bacterial susceptibility to common antibiotics in the two groups was shown: ampicillin 35% versus 30%; cephalexin 82% versus 63% (p < 0.001); nitrofurantoin 93% versus 92%. The only exception was co-trimoxazole, 60% versus 69%. Overall resistance to antibiotics in 1999 was as follows: ampicillin 70%, cephalexin 37%, co-trimoxazole 31%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 24%, nitrofurantoin 8%, cefuroxime-axetil 5%, nalidixic acid 3%.
Conclusions: This study shows a slight but generalised decrease in bacterial susceptibility to common oral antibiotics in the past decade in our population. Empirical initial treatment with co-trimoxazole or cephalexin is inadequate in approximately one third of UTI cases. A larger number of pathogens may be empirically treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate (24% resistance); 95% of organisms are susceptible to cefuroxime-axetil.
doi:10.1136/adc.88.3.215
PMCID: PMC1719471  PMID: 12598381
17.  Gender and Age-Dependent Etiology of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:349597.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most frequent community-acquired infections worldwide. Escherichia coli is the most common UTI pathogen although underlying host factors such as patients' age and gender may influence prevalence of causative agents. In this study, 61 273 consecutive urine samples received over a 22-month period from outpatients clinics of an urban area of north Italy underwent microbiological culture with subsequent bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive samples. A total of 13 820 uropathogens were isolated and their prevalence analyzed according to patient's gender and age group. Overall Escherichia coli accounted for 67.6% of all isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.8%), Enterococcus faecalis (6.3%), Proteus mirabilis (5.2%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5%). Data stratification according to both age and gender showed E. coli isolation rates to be lower in both males aged ≥60 years (52.2%), E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa being more prevalent in this group (11.6% and 7.8%, resp.), as well as in those aged ≤14 years (51.3%) in whom P. mirabilis prevalence was found to be as high as 21.2%. Streptococcus agalactiae overall prevalence was found to be 2.3% although it was shown to occur most frequently in women aged between 15 and 59 years (4.1%). Susceptibility of E. coli to oral antimicrobial agents was demonstrated to be as follows: fosfomycin (72.9%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (72.9%), ciprofloxacin (76.8%), ampicillin (48.0%), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (77.5%). In conclusion, both patients' age and gender are significant factors in determining UTIs etiology; they can increase accuracy in defining the causative uropathogen as well as providing useful guidance to empiric treatment.
doi:10.1100/2012/349597
PMCID: PMC3351074  PMID: 22629135
18.  Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Urinary Pathogens in Female Outpatients 
Background:
Urinary tract Infection (UTI) is among the most common infections described in outpatient setting and hospital patients. In almost all cases empirical antimicrobial treatment initiates before the laboratory results of urine culture are available; thus antibiotic resistance may increase in uropathogens due to frequent use of antibiotics.
Aims:
The study was designed to find the prevalence of UTI in females with urinary tract symptoms, to determine the causative organism (s) of UTI, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture (antibiogram).
Materials and Methods:
The prospective, observational study involved 139 females, aged 15 years and above clinically suspected for UTI attending outpatient Departments of Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the study subjects. A chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used to analyze data.
Results:
The overall prevalence of UTI was found to be 45.32% (63/139). Escherichia coli (33.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.9%) were the most common organisms isolated. The most effective antibiotic for both was Nitrofurantoin.
Conclusions:
Regular monitoring is required to establish reliable information about susceptibility pattern of urinary pathogens for optimal empirical therapy of patients with UTI.
doi:10.4103/1947-2714.94940
PMCID: PMC3334255  PMID: 22536558
Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns; Prevalence; Urinary tract infections
19.  Surveillance of multidrug resistant uropathogenic bacteria in hospitalized patients in Indian 
Objective
To record surveillance, antibiotic resistance of uropathogens of hospitalized patients over a period of 18 months.
Methods
Urine samples from wards and cabins were used for isolating urinary tract infection (UTI)-causing bacteria that were cultured on suitable selective media and identified by biochemical tests; and their antibiograms were ascertained by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method, in each 6-month interval of the study period, using 18 antibiotics of five different classes.
Results
From wards and cabins, 1 245 samples were collected, from which 996 strains of bacteria belonging to 11 species were isolated, during April 2011 to September 2012. Two Gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), and nine Gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. Both S. aureus and E. faecalis were vancomycin resistant, and resistant-strains of all pathogens increased in each 6-month period of study. Particularly, all Gram-negatives were resistant to nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole, the most preferred antibiotics of empiric therapy for UTI.
Conclusions
Antibiograms of 11 UTI-causing bacteria recorded in this study indicated moderately higher numbers of strains resistant to each antibiotic studied, generating the fear of precipitating fervent episodes in public health particularly with bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and S. aureus. Moreover, vancomycin resistance in strains of S. aureus and E. faecalis is a matter of concern.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60071-4
PMCID: PMC3634932  PMID: 23620859
UTI; MDR bacteria; Hospitalized patients; Antibiograms; Nosocomial infections; Antibiotics; Staphylococcus aureus; Acinetobacter baumannii; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae
20.  Detection of Intracellular Bacterial Communities in Human Urinary Tract Infection 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(12):e329.
Background
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections and are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). While UTIs are typically considered extracellular infections, it has been recently demonstrated that UPEC bind to, invade, and replicate within the murine bladder urothelium to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs). These IBCs dissociate and bacteria flux out of bladder facet cells, some with filamentous morphology, and ultimately establish quiescent intracellular reservoirs that can seed recurrent infection. This IBC pathogenic cycle has not yet been investigated in humans. In this study we sought to determine whether evidence of an IBC pathway could be found in urine specimens from women with acute UTI.
Methods and Findings
We collected midstream, clean-catch urine specimens from 80 young healthy women with acute uncomplicated cystitis and 20 asymptomatic women with a history of UTI. Investigators were blinded to culture results and clinical history. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy for evidence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria. Evidence of IBCs was found in 14 of 80 (18%) urines from women with UTI. Filamentous bacteria were found in 33 of 80 (41%) urines from women with UTI. None of the 20 urines from the asymptomatic comparative group showed evidence of IBCs or filaments. Filamentous bacteria were present in all 14 of the urines with IBCs compared to 19 (29%) of 66 samples with no evidence of IBCs (p < 0.001). Of 65 urines from patients with E. coli infections, 14 (22%) had evidence of IBCs and 29 (45%) had filamentous bacteria, while none of the gram-positive infections had IBCs or filamentous bacteria.
Conclusions
The presence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria in the urines of women with acute cystitis suggests that the IBC pathogenic pathway characterized in the murine model may occur in humans. The findings support the occurrence of an intracellular bacterial niche in some women with cystitis that may have important implications for UTI recurrence and treatment.
Analyzing urine specimens from women with bladder infections, Scott Hultgren and colleagues find evidence for intracellular bacterial communities, which have been associated with recurrent urinary tract infections in mice.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Every year, nearly 10 million people in the United States—mainly women—consult their doctors because of a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTIs occur when bacteria living in the gut—usually Escherichia coli—get transferred to the opening of the urethra (the tube through which urine leaves the body), as may occur during sexual intercourse. From here, the bacteria can move into the bladder (the muscular sac that stores urine until it is excreted) where they can multiply and cause cystitis (inflammation of the bladder). If cystitis is untreated, the bacteria can move further up the urinary tract and infect the kidneys (which make urine). Symptoms of UTIs include pain when urinating, frequent and intense urges to urinate, and cloudy urine. UTIs are diagnosed by looking for bacteria and white blood cells (that fight infection) in the urine; the usual treatment is a short course of antibiotics.
Why Was This Study Done?
Half the women who get a UTI will have another attack within a year, often caused by the same bacterial strain. It is generally thought that these strains persist in the gut and reinfect the urinary tract, but recent animal studies suggest an additional explanation. In mice, E. coli strains that cause UTIs can invade the cells lining the bladder. Here, they replicate and form so-called intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs). Many of the infected cells fall off the bladder's surface into the urine, but IBCs also release bacteria, many of which have a long, slender filamentous appearance (E. coli usually have a simple rod-like shape). Immune system cells normally kill bacteria in the urine but cannot deal with filamentous bacteria. In mice, these bacteria can then reinfect the lining of the bladder and establish long-lasting intracellular reservoirs of bacteria that are protected from antibiotics and probably from the host immune system. If this IBC cycle occurs in people, it might explain why some UTIs recur and might suggest ways to manage these recurrences. In this study, therefore, the researchers have investigated whether there is an IBC cycle in women.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers collected urine from 80 young women with cystitis and from 20 women with no symptoms who had had cystitis previously. They identified the type of bacteria in each sample and looked for IBCs and filamentous bacteria using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and a technique called immunofluorescence. None of the women without cystitis had IBCs or filamentous bacteria in their urine, but IBCs were found in nearly 1 in 5, and filamentous bacteria were in nearly half, of urine samples from the women with cystitis. All the urine samples that contained IBCs also contained filamentous bacteria. All of the women with IBCs and most of them with filamentous bacteria had E coli infections. Finally, the women with IBCs and filamentous bacteria in their urine had higher bacterial counts in their urine and had symptoms of cystitis for slightly longer than those without.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that the IBC cycle identified in mice occurs in at least some women with UTIs and may be associated with infections caused by E. coli. Because only one urine sample was collected from each woman, the cycle may be more common than these findings suggest. That is, in some cases the sample may have been taken at a time when there were no IBCs or filamentous bacteria in the urine. Also, because samples were taken at only one point in time, this study does not show whether intracellular bacteria persist and contribute to recurrent UTIs in women, as they appear to do in mice. To provide more information about the IBC cycle in people and its clinical relevance, additional studies are needed to examine whether there are any associations between the presence of IBCs and filamentous bacteria and treatment responses and recurrence, and to examine what is actually happening in the bladder during UTI. Until such studies are done, the clinical implications of the current findings remain uncertain. However, one possibility is that the presence of IBCs and filamentous bacteria in urine might identify people who would benefit from longer treatment with antibiotics or treatment with antibiotics that kill bacteria inside human cells.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040329.
The MedlinePlus encyclopedia contains pages on urinary tract infection, on cystitis, and on recurrent cystitis (in English and Spanish)
Information is available from the UK National Health Service Direct health encyclopedia on urinary tract infections and on cystitis
The US National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse provides information on urinary tract infections (in English and Spanish)
Information is available from the American Urological Association on urinary tract infections in adults
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040329
PMCID: PMC2140087  PMID: 18092884
21.  Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria causing nosocomial urinary tract infections in an Iranian referral teaching hospital 
Objective:
Gram-negative bacilli are the most important cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is a common mechanism of resistance among these bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTI in a referral hospital as well as their susceptibility pattern to the most commonly used antibiotics.
Methods:
In a prospective cross-sectional study performed over a 6-month period, urinary specimens obtained from hospitalized patients with documented culture-proved nosocomial UTI (age range of 1-87 years). Isolated aerobic Gram-negative bacteria underwent further microbiologic tests for detection of ESBL, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility test using Kirby-Bauer (disk diffusion) and E-test methods.
Findings:
During the study period, 213 urine samples were detected to have growth of Gram-negative organism. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (61%). ESBL was detected in 102 isolates including 38.5% of E. coli, 39.5% of Klebsiella pneumonia, 88.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 100% of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics on E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains showed high resistance to all tested antibiotics.
Conclusion:
Large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTIs produce ESBL with most being multidrug-resistant. Therefore, routine ESBL detection testing and subsequent antibiogram with disk diffusion method could be useful to determine the best treatment options for UTI.
doi:10.4103/2279-042X.132703
PMCID: PMC4078647  PMID: 24991629
Antimicrobial; extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria; Gram-negative; nosocomial urinary tract infection; susceptibility
22.  Alterations in antibiotic susceptibility of urinary tract infection pathogens 
Journal of Nephropathology  2012;1(1):43-48.
Background
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the third most common infection in human. New resisted strains of uropathogens have been developed due to different factors such as widespread use of antibiothics.
Objectives
We conducted this study to assess the recent pattern and susceptibility of uropathogens. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried on 32600 ambulatory patients’ urine samples from six laboratories from 2008 to 2010 in Ahvaz, Khuzestan. Of those, 3000 positive culture were found. Data including underlying disease, pregnancy, catheterization and drug history were gathered by questionnaire. Susceptibility of pathogens to eight antimicrobial agents was determined.
Materials and Methods
This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried on 32600 ambulatory patients’ urine samples from six laboratories from 2008 to 2010 in Ahvaz, Khuzestan. Of those, 3000 positive culture were found. Data including underlying disease, pregnancy, catheterization and drug history were gathered by questionnaire. Susceptibility of pathogens to eight antimicrobial agents was determined.
Results
Mean age of patients was 33.87 ± 3.80 years and 84.9% of them were female. The results showed that, E. coli, Kelebsiella and Enterobacter were the most common pathogens (73.5%, 13.8% and 6.6%, respectively). E. coli was susceptible to Ciprofloxacin, Amikacin, and Nitrofurantoin in 76.9%, 76.4% and 76.1% of cases, respectively. Klebsiella was more susceptible to Ciprofloxacin, Ceftizoxim and Amikacin in 81.1%, 79.9% and 87.7% of positive cultures. Enterobacter was most susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (71.7%), but completely resistant to Ampicillin unexpectedly.
Conclusions
E. coli and other isolates were more sensitive to Gentamicin, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin compared to the other antibiotics tested and therefore these may be the drugs of choice for the empiric treatment of community-acquired UTI in our region.
doi:10.5812/jnp.8
PMCID: PMC3886162  PMID: 24475385
Urinary tract infection; E. coli; Antibiotic susceptibility; Antibiotic resistance
23.  Antimicrobial resistance pattern in Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection among inpatients 
Background & objectives:
Recent studies suggest an increasing antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI). We undertook this study to know the resistance pattern of E. coli causing UTI in patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in north India, and to know the treatment given and response of the patients.
Methods:
The details of E. coli grown from urine samples and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern were collected from the laboratory registers and the patient details were collected from the case records. The urine samples received were processed using standard methods and antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test.
Results:
Of the total 311 E. coli isolates, 119 (38.2%) were isolated from in-patients, which were considered for the study. Of these 119 E. coli isolates, 91 (76.51%) were multi drug resistant (MDR). The isolates showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin (88.4%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.4%), norfloxacin (74.2%), cefuroxime (72.2%), ceftriaxone (71.4%) and co-trimoxazole (64.2%). The isolates were sensitive to amikacin (82.6%), piperacillin-tazobactum (78.2%), nitrofurantoin (82.1%) and imipenem (98.9%). Ceftriaxone was most commonly used for empirical therapy for UTI among inpatients in our hospital. Of the 93 cases of UTI due to MDR E. coli, 73 improved on treatment and 12 worsened, which were referred to higher centres.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Our study showed that 76.5 per cent of E. coli isolates from urine samples of inpatients were MDR. Diabetes, chronic renal disease and catherization were some of the risk factors associated. The high rate of resistance could be because only inpatients were included and the increased usage of cephalosporins in our hospital for empirical therapy.
PMCID: PMC4165009  PMID: 25109731
Antimicrobial resistance; Escherichia coli; MDR; therapy; UTI
24.  High prevalence of multidrug resistance in bacterial uropathogens from Kathmandu, Nepal 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:38.
Background
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases and people of all age-groups and geographical locations are affected. The impact of disease is even worst in low-resource developing countries due to unaware of the UTIs caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and the possibility of transfer of MDR traits between them. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MDR bacterial isolates from UTI patients, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the conjugational transfer of multidrug resistance phenotypes in Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Results
Two hundred and nineteen bacterial isolates were recovered from 710 urine samples at Kathmandu Model hospital during the study period. All samples and isolates were investigated by standard laboratory procedures. Among the significant bacterial growth (30.8%, 219 isolates), 41.1% isolates were MDR. The most prevailing organism, E. coli (81.3%, 178 isolates) was 38.2% MDR, whereas second most common organism, Citrobacter spp. (5%, 11 isolates) was found 72.7% MDR. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production was detected in 55.2% of a subset of MDR E. coli isolates. Among the 29 MDR E. coli isolates, plasmids of size ranging 2-51 kb were obtained with different 15 profiles. The most common plasmid of size 32 kb was detected in all of the plasmid-harbored E. coli strains. The majority of E. coli isolates investigated for the multidrug resistance transfer were able to transfer plasmid-mediated MDR phenotypes along with ESBL pattern with a frequency ranging from 0.3 × 10-7 to 1.5 × 10-7 to an E. coli HB101 recipient strain by conjugation. Most of the donor and recipient strain showed high levels of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for commonly-used antibiotics.
Conclusions
The high prevalence of multidrug resistance in bacterial uropathogens was observed. Particularly, resistance patterns were alarmingly higher for amoxycillin, co-trimoxazole, flouroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, which necessitate the re-evaluation of first and second line therapies for UTI. In addition, conjugational co-transfer of MDR phenotypes with ESBL-positive phenotypes was observed in MDR E. coli.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-38
PMCID: PMC3296586  PMID: 22260454
Urinary tract infection; Multidrug resistance; Plasmid
25.  Resistance profile for pathogens causing urinary tract infection in a pediatric population, and antibiotic treatment response at a University Hospital, 2010-2011  
Colombia Médica : CM  null;45(1):39-44.
Introduction:
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in childhood and causes acute and chronic morbidity and long-term hypertension and chronic kidney disease.
Objectives:
To describe the demographic characteristics, infectious agents, patterns of antibiotic resistance, etiologic agent and profile of susceptibility and response to empirical treatment of UTI in a pediatric population.
Methods:
This is a descriptive, retrospective study.
Results:
Included in the study were 144 patients, 1:2.06 male to female ratio. The most common symptom was fever (79.9%) and 31.3% had a history of previous UTI. 72.0% of the patients had positive urine leukocyte count (>5 per field), urine gram was positive in 85.0% of samples and gram negative bacilli accounted for 77.8% for the total pathogens isolated. The most frequent uropathogens isolated were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Our E.coli isolates had a susceptibility rate higher than 90% to most of the antibiotics used, but a resistance rate of 42.6% to TMP SMX and 45.5% to ampicillin sulbactam. 6.3% of E. coli was extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producer strains. The most frequent empirical antibiotic used was amikacin, which was used in 66.0% of the patients. 17 of 90 patients who underwent voiding cistouretrography (VCUG) had vesicoureteral reflux.
Conclusion:
This study revealed that E. coli was the most frequent pathogen of community acquired UTI. We found that E. coli and other uropathogens had a high resistance rate against TMP SMX and ampicillin sulbactam. In order to ensure a successful empirical treatment, protocols should be based on local epidemiology and susceptibility rates.
PMCID: PMC4045227  PMID: 24970958
Urinary tract infection; drug resistance; bacterial; Escherichia coli

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