The membrane-bound hyaluronan synthase (HAS) from Streptococcus equisimilis (seHAS), which is the smallest Class I HAS, has four cysteine residues (positions 226, 262, 281, and 367) that are generally conserved within this family. Although Cys-null seHAS is still active, chemical modification of cysteine residues causes inhibition of wildtype enzyme (Kumari et al., J. Biol. Chem. 277, 13943, 2002). Here we studied the effects of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) treatment on a panel of seHAS Cys-mutants to examine the structural and functional roles of the four cysteine residues in the activity of the enzyme. We found that Cys226, Cys262, and Cys281 are reactive with NEM, but that Cys367 is not. Substrate protection studies of wildtype seHAS and a variety of Cys-mutants revealed that binding of UDP-GlcUA, UDP-GlcNAc or UDP can protect Cys226 and Cys262 from NEM inhibition. Inhibition of the six double Cys-mutants of seHAS by sodium arsenite, which can crosslink vicinyl sulfhydryl groups, also supported the conclusion that Cys262 and Cys281 are close enough to be crosslinked. Similar results indicated that Cys281 and Cys367 are also very close in the active enzyme. We conclude that three of the four Cys residues in seHAS (Cys262, Cys281, and Cys367 ) are clustered very close together, that these Cys residues and Cys226 are located at the inner surface of the cell membrane, and that Cys226 and Cys262 are located in or near a UDP binding site.
Sulfhydryl reagents; N-ethylmaleimide; enzyme inhibition; Cysteine modification; site directed mutagenesis; DTE, dithioerythritol; HA, hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid; HAS, HA synthase; NEM, N-ethylmaleimide; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; seHAS, Streptococcus equisimilis HAS; spHAS, Streptococcus pyogenes HAS
Streptococcus equisimilis hyaluronan (HA) synthase (SeHAS) contains four cysteines (C226, C262, C281 and C367) that are conserved in the mammalian HAS family. Previous studies of single Cys-to-Ser and all possible Cys-to-Ala mutants of SeHAS found that: the Cys-null mutant is active, Cys modification inhibits HAS activity and the conserved cysteines are clustered at the membrane–enzyme interface in substrate-binding sites (Kumari K, Weigel PH. 2005. Identification of a membrane-localized cysteine cluster near the substrate binding sites of the Streptococcus equisimilis hyaluronan synthase. Glycobiology. 15:529–539). We re-examined these Cys mutants using a single technique (size exclusion chromatography–multi-angle laser light scattering) that allows simultaneous assays on the same sample for both HA synthesis activity and HA product size. Among 18 mutants compared with wild type, 4 showed no change in either function and 3 showed changes in both (decreased activity and HA size). Only one of the two functions was altered in 11 other mutants, which showed either decreased polymerizing activity or product size. No mutants made larger HA, 8 made smaller HA and 10 showed no change in HA size. Nine mutants showed no change in activity and nine were less active. The mutants fell into four of nine possible groups in terms of changes in HA size or synthesis rate (i.e. none, increased or decreased). Specific Cys residues were associated with each mutant group and the pattern of effects on both functions. Thus, the four conserved Cys residues, individually and in specific combinations, influence the rate of sugar assembly by HAS and HA product size, but their participation in one function is independent of the other.
active-site cysteines; elongation rate; polymer length; size control; size control model
Hyaluronan synthase (HAS) utilizes UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc in the presence of Mg2+ to form the GAG hyaluronan (HA). The purified HAS from Streptococcus equisimilis (seHAS) shows high fidelity in that it only polymerizes the native substrates, UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcUA. However, other uridinyl nucleotides and UDP-sugars inhibited enzyme activity, including UDP-GalNAc, UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, UDP-GalUA, UMP, UDP and UTP. Purified seHAS was ~40% more active in 25 mM, compared to 50 mM, PO4 in the presence of either 50 mM NaCl or KCl, and displayed a slight preference for KCl over NaCl. The pH profile was surprisingly broad, with an effective range of pH 6.5–11.5 and the optimum between pH 9 and 10. SeHAS displayed two apparent pKa values at pH 6.6 and 11.8. As the pH was increased from ~6.5, both Km and Vmax increased until pH ~10.5, above which the kinetic constants gradually declined. Nonetheless, the overall catalytic constant (120/sec) was essentially unchanged from pH 6.5 to pH 10.5. The enzyme is temperature labile, but more stable in the presence of substrate and cardiolipin. Purified seHAS requires exogenous cardiolipin for activity and is very sensitive to the fatty acyl composition of the phospholipid. The enzyme was inactive or highly activated by synthetic cardiolipins containing, respectively, C14:0 or C18:1(Δ9) fatty acids. The apparent Ea for HA synthesis is 40 kJ (9.5 kcal/mol) disaccharide. Increasing the viscosity by increasing concentrations of PEG, ethylene glycol, glycerol, or sucrose inhibited seHAS activity. For PEGs, the extent of inhibition was proportional to their molecular mass. PEGs with average masses of 2.7, 11.7, and 20 Kg/mol caused 50% inhibition of Vmax at 21, 6.5, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The apparent Ki values for ethylene glycol, glycerol, and sucrose were, respectively, 4.5, 3.3 and 1.2 mM.
streptococcal; kinetics; pH; viscogens; temperature; divalent cations; CLm cardiolipin; ECM, extracellular matrix; GAG, glycosaminoglycan; HA, hyaluronic acid, hyaluronate, hyaluronan; HAS, HA synthase; seHAS, Streptococcus equisimilis HAS; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; Tris, trishydroxymethylamino methane; TBS, tris-buffered saline; TBST, tris-buffered saline containing 0.05% Tween20
SEC-MALLS analyses of E. coli membranes expressing Streptococcus equisimilis hyaluronan synthase (seHAS) demonstrated an inherent artifact (10–100 MDa) that co-eluted with HA, and skewed the apparent weight-average mass of HA to erroneously high values. Briefly heating samples to 65–75°C eliminated this artifact and increased the yield of recovered HA, due to the release of HA chains that were attached to membrane-bound HAS. Inclusion of alkaline phosphatase, which removed UDP produced during the reaction, improved the linearity of HA synthesis - even at high substrate utilization. Surprisingly, addition of EDTA, to chelate Mg+2 ions, did not completely stop the HAS reaction at 30°C or at 4°C. The best conditions for stopping the reaction without altering SEC-MALLS profiles of the product HA were to chill samples on ice in the presence of both EDTA and UDP. Even with excess substrate, the maximum size of product HA decreased as the enzyme concentration increased. Therefore, the maximum HA size made by HAS was determined by extrapolation to zero enzyme concentration. Using the above conditions, membrane-bound seHAS synthesized a cohort of HA products that steadily increased in weight-average molar mass, reaching a final maximal steady-state size of 4–6 MDa within 2–4 hours.
streptococcal; hyaluronan synthase; light scattering; size distribution; membranes; molar mass
Sirolimus (SRL), an inhibitor of human arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) proliferation and migration, prevents in-stent restenosis (ISR). Little is known about the effect of SRL on the extracellular matrix (ECM) component, hyaluronan, a key macromolecule in neointimal hyperplasia and inflammation. In this study, we investigated SRL regulation of the synthesis of hyaluronan by cultured human ASMC and the effect of SRL on hyaluronan mediated monocyte adhesion to the ECM. Hyaluronan production on a per cell basis was significantly inhibited by SRL at 4 days and remained so through 10 days. This reduction was correlated with reduced levels of hyaluronan synthase mRNAs while hyaluronan degradation rates were unchanged. Poly I:C, a viral mimetic, caused increased hyaluronan accumulation by ASMC cell layers and this increase was inhibited by SRL. The inhibition was paralleled by a reduction in hyaluronan dependent monocyte adhesion to the ECM. This study demonstrates that SRL not only regulates the proliferation of ASMC but reduces the production of hyaluronan by these cells. This alteration in ECM composition results in reduced monocyte adhesion to the ECM in cultures of ASMC. Alterations in hyaluronan accumulation may contribute to the inhibition of ISR that is achieved by SRL.
restenosis; arterial smooth muscle cells; sirolimus; hyaluronan; monocytes
We recently found that low-molecular-weight hyaluronan was induced by cyclic stretch in lung fibroblasts and accumulated in lungs from animals with ventilator-induced lung injury. The low-molecular-weight hyaluronan produced by stretch increased interleukin-8 production in epithelial cells, and was accompanied by an upregulation of hyaluronan synthase–3 mRNA. We hypothesized that low-molecular-weight hyaluronan induced by high VT was dependent on hyaluronan synthase 3, and was associated with ventilator-induced lung injury. Effects of high VT ventilation in C57BL/6 wild-type and hyaluronan synthase–3 knockout mice were compared. Significantly increased neutrophil infiltration, macrophage inflammatory protein–2 production, and lung microvascular leak were found in wild-type animals ventilated with high VT. These reactions were significantly reduced in hyaluronan synthase–3 knockout mice, except the capillary leak. Wild-type mice ventilated with high VT were found to have increased low-molecular-weight hyaluronan in lung tissues and concomitant increased expression of hyaluronan synthase–3 mRNA, neither of which was found in hyaluronan synthase–3 knockout mice. We conclude that high VT induced low-molecular-weight hyaluronan production is dependent on de novo synthesis through hyaluronan synthase 3, and plays a role in the inflammatory response of ventilator-induced lung injury.
hyaluronic acid; knockout mice; mechanical ventilation; tidal volume
Mechanistic information about the bacteriocin nisin was obtained by examining the efflux of 5(6)-carboxy-fluorescein from Listeria monocytogenes-derived liposomes. The initial leakage rate (percentage of efflux per minute) of the entrapped dye was dependent on both nisin and lipid concentrations. At all nisin concentrations tested, 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein efflux plateaued before all of the 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein was released (suggesting that pore formation was transient), but efflux resumed when more nisin was added. Isotherms for the binding of nisin to liposomes constructed on the basis of the Langmuir isotherm gave an apparent binding constant of 6.2 x 10(5)M(-1) at pH 6.0. The critical number of nisin molecules required to induce efflux from liposomes at pH 6.0 was approximately 7,000 molecules per liposome. The pH affected the 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein leakage rates, with higher pH values resulting in higher leakage rates. The increased leakage rate observed at higher pH values was not due to an increase in the binding affinity of the nisin molecules towards the liposomal membrane. Rather, the critical number of nisin molecules required to induce activity was decreased (approximately 1,000 nisin molecules per liposome at pH 7.0). These data are consistent with a poration mechanism in which the ionization state of histidine residues in nisin plays an important role in membrane permeabilization.
Insertion of newly synthesized proteins into or across the mitochondrial outer membrane is initiated by import receptors at the surface of the organelle. Typically, this interaction directs the precursor protein into a preprotein translocation pore, comprised of Tom40. Here, we show that a prominent β-barrel channel protein spanning the outer membrane, human voltage- dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC), bypasses the requirement for the Tom40 translocation pore during biogenesis. Insertion of VDAC into the outer membrane is unaffected by plugging the translocation pore with a partially translocated matrix preprotein, and mitochondria containing a temperature-sensitive mutant of Tom40 insert VDAC at the nonpermissive temperature. Synthetic liposomes harboring the cytosolic domain of the human import receptor Tom20 efficiently insert newly synthesized VDAC, resulting in transbilayer transport of ATP. Therefore, Tom20 transforms newly synthesized cytosolic VDAC into a transmembrane channel that is fully integrated into the lipid bilayer.
voltage-dependent anion-selective channel; porin; Tom20; import; mitochondria
Although a great deal is known about the life cycle of bacteriophage P22, the mechanism of phage DNA transport into Salmonella is poorly understood. P22 DNA is initially ejected into the periplasmic space and subsequently transported into the host cytoplasm. Three phage-encoded proteins (gp16, gp20, and gp7) are coejected with the DNA. To test the hypothesis that one or more of these proteins mediate transport of the DNA across the cytoplasmic membrane, we purified gp16, gp20, and gp7 and analyzed their ability to associate with membranes and to facilitate DNA uptake into membrane vesicles in vitro. Membrane association experiments revealed that gp16 partitioned into the membrane fraction, while gp20 and gp7 remained in the soluble fraction. Moreover, the addition of gp16, but not gp7 or gp20, to liposomes preloaded with a fluorescent dye promoted release of the dye. Transport of 32P-labeled DNA into liposomes occurred only in the presence of gp16 and an artificially created membrane potential. Taken together, these results suggest that gp16 partitions into the cytoplasmic membrane and mediates the active transport of P22 DNA across the cytoplasmic membrane of Salmonella.
Malignant pleural mesotheliomas is in most cases associated with elevated amounts of hyaluronan. To investigate the importance of hyaluronan for the malignant properties of mesotheliomas, we have expressed murine hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) in the non-hyaluronan producing mesothelioma cell line, Mero-25. We found that upon hyaluronan overproduction the mesothelioma cells changed their epitheloid character to a fibroblastic phenotype and were surrounded by pericellular matrices, the size of which correlated to the amount of synthesized hyaluronan. HAS2-transfected cells with the ability to synthesize about 520 ng hyaluronan/5 × 104cells/24 h exhibited about a 2-fold increase in the expression of the cell surface hyaluronan receptor CD44 and their locomotion increased compared to that of mock-transfected Mero-25 cells. Furthermore, the malignant properties of mesothelioma cell clones as determined by the ability to grow in a soft agar assay correlated to their hyaluronan production. These results provide evidence for an important role of hyaluronan in the aggressive spread of mesotheliomas in adjacent non-cancerous stromal tissues. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
malignant mesothelioma; hyaluronan synthase; hyaluronan receptor; tumour spreading
Lactococcin B (LcnB) is a small, hydrophobic, positively charged bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 9B4. Purified LcnB has a bactericidal effect on sensitive L. lactis cells by dissipating the proton motive force and causing leakage of intracellular substrates. The activity of LcnB depends on the reduced state of the Cys-24 residue. Uptake and efflux studies of different solutes suggest that LcnB forms pores in the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive L. lactis cells in the absence of a proton motive force. At low concentrations of LcnB, efflux of those ions and amino acids which are taken up by proton motive force-driven systems was observed. However, a 150-fold higher LcnB concentration was required for efflux of glutamate, previously taken up via a unidirectional ATP-driven transport system. Strains carrying the genetic information for the immunity protein against LcnB were not affected by LcnB. The proton motive force of immune cells was not dissipated, and no leakage of intracellular substrates could be detected.
Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) penetrates the cytoplasmic membrane of phagocytes and employs two distinct conformers to exert its multiple activities. One conformer forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize phagocyte membrane for efflux of cytosolic potassium. The other conformer conducts extracellular calcium ions across cytoplasmic membrane of cells, relocates into lipid rafts, translocates the adenylate cyclase enzyme (AC) domain into cells and converts cytosolic ATP to cAMP. We show that the calcium-conducting activity of CyaA controls the path and kinetics of endocytic removal of toxin pores from phagocyte membrane. The enzymatically inactive but calcium-conducting CyaA-AC− toxoid was endocytosed via a clathrin-dependent pathway. In contrast, a doubly mutated (E570K+E581P) toxoid, unable to conduct Ca2+ into cells, was rapidly internalized by membrane macropinocytosis, unless rescued by Ca2+ influx promoted in trans by ionomycin or intact toxoid. Moreover, a fully pore-forming CyaA-ΔAC hemolysin failed to permeabilize phagocytes, unless endocytic removal of its pores from cell membrane was decelerated through Ca2+ influx promoted by molecules locked in a Ca2+-conducting conformation by the 3D1 antibody. Inhibition of endocytosis also enabled the native B. pertussis-produced CyaA to induce lysis of J774A.1 macrophages at concentrations starting from 100 ng/ml. Hence, by mediating calcium influx into cells, the translocating conformer of CyaA controls the removal of bystander toxin pores from phagocyte membrane. This triggers a positive feedback loop of exacerbated cell permeabilization, where the efflux of cellular potassium yields further decreased toxin pore removal from cell membrane and this further enhances cell permeabilization and potassium efflux.
The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of pathogenic Bordetellae eliminates the first line of host innate immune defense by inhibiting the oxidative burst and complement-mediated opsonophagocytic killing of bacteria. The toxin penetrates myeloid phagocytes, such as neutrophil, macrophage or dendritic cells, and subverts their signaling by catalyzing a rapid and massive conversion of intracellular ATP to the key signaling molecule cAMP. In parallel, the toxin forms cation-selective pores and permeabilizes the cytoplasmic membrane of phagocytes. This so-called ‘hemolysin’ activity synergizes with the enzymatic AC activity of CyaA in promoting apoptotic or necrotic cell death, depending on the toxin dose. Moreover, the pore-forming activity promotes activation of NALP3 inflammasome and release of interleukin IL-1β. We show here that the capacity of CyaA to permeabilize phagocytes depends on its ability to mediate influx of extracellular calcium ions into cells. This enables bystander CyaA pores to escape rapid macropinocytic removal from cell membrane and exacerbate the permeabilization of cells. These observations set a new paradigm for the mechanism of action of pore-forming RTX leukotoxins on phagocytes.
The type III secretion systems are contact-activated secretion systems that allow bacteria to inject effector proteins across eukaryotic cell membranes. The secretion apparatus, called injectisome or needle complex, includes a needle that terminates with a tip structure. The injectisome exports its own distal components, like the needle subunit and the needle tip. Upon contact, it exports two hydrophobic proteins called translocators (YopB and YopD in Yersinia enterocolitica) and the effectors. The translocators, assisted by the needle tip, form a pore in the target cell membrane, but the structure of this pore remains elusive. Here, we purified the membranes from infected sheep erythrocytes, and we show that they contain integrated and not simply adherent YopB and YopD. In blue native PAGE, these proteins appeared as a multimeric 500- to 700-kDa complex. This heteropolymeric YopBD complex could be copurified after solubilization in 0.5% dodecyl maltoside but not visualized in the electron microscope. We speculate that this complex may not be stable and rigid but only transient.
Hyaluronan is a multifunctional glycosaminoglycan that forms the structural basis of the pericellular matrix. Hyaluronan is extruded directly through the plasma membrane by one of three hyaluronan synthases and anchored to the cell surface by the synthase or cell surface receptors such as CD44 or RHAMM. Aggregating proteoglycans and other hyaluronan-binding proteins, contribute to the material and biological properties of the matrix and regulate cell and tissue function. The pericellular matrix plays multiple complex roles in cell adhesion/de-adhesion, and cell shape changes associated with proliferation and locomotion. Time-lapse studies show that pericellular matrix formation facilitates cell detachment and mitotic cell rounding. Hyaluronan crosslinking occurs through various proteins, such as tenascin, TSG-6, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor, pentraxin and TSP-1. This creates higher order levels of structured hyaluronan that may regulate inflammation and other biological processes. Microvillous or filopodial membrane protrusions are created by active hyaluronan synthesis, and form the scaffold of hyaluronan coats in certain cells. The importance of the pericellular matrix in cellular mechanotransduction and the response to mechanical strain are also discussed.
Proteoglycan; Hyaluronan; Versican; Aggrecan; CD44; RHAMM; Mechanotransduction; Cell Adhesion; Cell Traction
The importance of bcl-2–family proteins in the control of cell death has been clearly established. One of the key members of this family, bax, has soluble, membrane bound and membrane integrated forms that are central to the regulation of apoptosis. Using purified monomeric human bax, defined liposomes and isolated human mitochondria we have characterized the soluble to membrane transition and pore formation by this protein. For the purified protein, activation but not oligomerization, is required for membrane binding. The transition to the membrane environment includes a binding step that is reversible and distinct from the membrane integration step. Oligomerization and pore activation occur after the membrane integration. In cells, bax targets several intracellular membranes, but notably does not target the plasma membrane while initiating apoptosis. When cholesterol was added to either the liposome bilayer or mitochondrial membranes we observed increased binding but markedly reduced integration of bax into both membranes. This cholesterol inhibition of membrane integration accounts for the reduction of bax pore activation in liposomes and mitochondrial membranes. Our results indicate that the presence of cholesterol in membranes inhibits the pore forming activity of bax by reducing the ability of bax to transition from a membrane associated to a membrane integral protein.
Hyaluronan is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan involved in invasion, proliferation and metastasis of various types of carcinomas. In many cancers, aberrant hyaluronan expression implicates disease progression and metastatic potential. Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer. The role of hyaluronan in melanoma progression including benign nevi and lymph node metastases has not been investigated earlier, nor the details of its synthesis and degradation.
The melanocytic and dysplastic nevi, in situ melanomas, superficially and deeply invasive melanomas and their lymph node metastases were analysed immunohistochemically for the amount of hyaluronan, its cell surface receptor CD44, hyaluronan synthases 1–3 and hyaluronidases 1–2.
Hyaluronan content of tumoral cells in deeply invasive melanomas and metastatic lesions was clearly reduced compared to superficial melanomas or benign lesions. Furthermore, hyaluronan content in the stromal cells of benign nevi was higher than in the premalignant or malignant tumors. The immunopositivity of hyaluronidase 2 was significantly increased in the premalignant and malignant lesions indicating its specific role in the degradation of hyaluronan during tumor progression. Similarly, the expression of hyaluronan synthases 1–2 and CD44 receptor was decreased in the metastases compared to the primary melanomas.
These findings suggest that the reciprocal relationship between the degrading and synthesizing enzymes account for the alterations in hyaluronan content during the growth of melanoma. These results provide new information about hyaluronan metabolism in benign, premalignant and malignant melanocytic tumors of the skin.
Hyaluronan; Hyaluronan synthase; Hyaluronidase; Cutaneous tumor; Benign nevus; Melanoma
Pore-forming colicins are soluble bacteriocins which form voltage-gated ion channels in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. To reach their target, these colicins first bind to a receptor located on the outer membrane and then are translocated through the envelope. Colicins are subdivided into two groups according to the envelope proteins involved in their translocation: group A colicins use the Tol proteins; group B colicins use the proteins TonB, ExbB, and ExbD. We have previously shown that a double-cysteine colicin A mutant which possesses a disulfide bond in its pore-forming domain is translocated through the envelope but is unable to form a channel in the inner membrane (D. Duché, D. Baty, M. Chartier, and L. Letellier, J. Biol. Chem. 269:24820-24825, 1994). Measurements of colicin-induced K+ efflux reveal that preincubation of the cells with the double-cysteine mutant prevents binding of colicins of group A but not of group B. Moreover, we show that the mutant is still in contact with its receptor and import machinery when it interacts with the inner membrane. From these competition experiments, we conclude that each Escherichia coli cell contains approximately 400 and 1,000 colicin A receptors and translocation sites, respectively.
Hyaluronan (HA), a linear polysaccharide composed of β1,3-GlcNAc-β1,4-GlcUA repeats, is found in the extracellular matrix of vertebrate tissues as well as the capsule of several pathogenic bacteria. All known HA synthases (HASs) are dual-action glycosyltransferases that catalyze the addition of two different sugars from UDP-linked precursors to the growing HA chain. The bacterial hyaluronan synthase, PmHAS from Gram-negative Pasteurella multocida, is a 972-residue membrane-associated protein. Previously, the Gram-positive Streptococcus pyogenes enzyme, SpHAS (419 residues), and the vertebrate enzyme, XlHAS1 (588 residues), were found to function as monomers of protein, but the PmHAS is not similar at the protein sequence level and has quite different enzymological properties. We have utilized radiation inactivation to measure the target size of recombinant full-length and truncated PmHAS. The target size of HAS activity was confirmed using internal enzyme standards of known molecular weight. We found that the Pasteurella HA synthase protein functions catalytically as a monomer. Functional truncated soluble PmHAS also behaves as a polypeptide monomer as assessed by gel filtration chromatography and light scattering.
glycosaminoglycan; glycosyltransferase; hyaluronan; hyaluronan synthase; Pasteurella multocida; radiation inactivation
Translocation of bacterial toxins or effectors into host cells using the Type III Secretion (T3S) system is a conserved mechanism shared by many Gram-negative pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa injects different proteins across the plasma membrane of target cells altering the normal metabolism of the host. Protein translocation presumably occurs through a proteinaceous transmembrane pore formed by two T3S secreted protein translocators, PopB and PopD. Unfolded translocators are secreted through the T3S needle prior to insertion into the target membrane. Purified PopB and PopD form pores in model membranes. However, their tendency to form heterogeneous aggregates in solution had hampered the analysis of how these proteins transition from a denatured state to a membrane-inserted state. Translocators were purified as stable complexes with the cognate chaperone PcrH, and isolated from the chaperone using 6 M urea. We report here the assembly of stable transmembrane pores by dilution of urea-denatured translocators in the presence of membranes. PopB and PopD spontaneously bound liposomes containing anionic phospholipids and cholesterol in a pH dependant manner as observed by two independent assays, time-resolved FRET and sucrose-step gradient ultracentrifugation. Using Bodipy-labeled proteins we found that PopB interacts with PopD on the membrane surface as determined by excitation energy migration and fluorescence quenching. Stable transmembrane pores are more efficiently assembled at pH lower than 5.0, suggesting that acidic-residues might be involved in the initial membrane binding and/or insertion. Altogether, the experimental setup described here represents an efficient method for the reconstitution and analysis of membrane-inserted translocators.
Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor associated with childhood and adolescence. The results of numerous studies have suggested that hyaluronan plays an important role in regulating the aggressive behavior of various types of cancer cells. However, no studies have addressed hyaluronan with respect to osteosarcomas. In this investigation, the mRNA expression copy number of three mammalian hyaluronan synthases (HAS) was determined using competitive RT-PCR in the osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line, MG-63. MG-63 are highly malignant osteosarcoma cells with an abundant hyaluronan-rich matrix. The results demonstrated that HAS-2 is the predominant HAS in MG-63. Accumulation of intracellular hyaluronan increased in association with the proliferative phase of these cells. The selective inhibition of HAS-2 mRNA in MG-63 cells by antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides resulted in reduced hyaluronan accumulation by these cells. As expected, the reduction in hyaluronan disrupted the assembly of cell-associated matrices. However, of most interest, coincident with the reduction in hyaluronan, there was a substantial decrease in cell proliferation, a decrease in cell motility and a decrease in cell invasiveness. These data suggest that hyaluronan synthesized by HAS-2 in MG-63 plays a crucial role in osteosarcoma cell proliferation, motility and invasion.
hyaluronan synthase; hyaluronan; MG-63; osteosarcoma
Osteoarthrosis is characterized by cartilage erosion, proteolysis of aggrecan and collagen, and disturbed rates of synthesis of aggrecan and hyaluronan by chondrocytes, with hyaluronan over-production being an early reaction. We considered that inhibition of hyaluronan export might prevent subsequent proteoglycan loss and collagen degradation.
To test this hypothesis, we studied a tissue culture model using bovine cartilages explants activated with IL-1α to induce osteoarthritic reactions using the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors tadalafil, zaprinast and vardenafil.
These drugs inhibited hyaluronan export, but they did not inhibit hyaluronan synthase activity. Simultaneously, they inhibited proteoglycan loss and collagen degradation, but not their synthesis. They also reduced the release of gelatinases into the culture media and diffusion of the indicator protein horseradish peroxidase through the cartilage explants. The mechanism of action of these compounds may be through inhibition of hyaluronan exporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 5 (MRP5), because the effective drug concentrations were much higher than required for phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition and intracellular cGMP accumulation.
Inhibition of hyaluronan over-production may be an appropriate target to attenuate IL-1-induced reactions in osteoarthritic cartilage.
Hyaluronan is a major molecule in joint fluid and plays a crucial role in joint motion and the maintenance of joint homeostasis. The concentration and average molecular weight of hyaluronan in the joint fluids are reduced in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the message expression of three isoforms of hyaluronan synthase and hyaluronidase from knee synovium, using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Synovia were obtained from 17 patients with osteoarthritis, 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 20 healthy control donors. The message expression of hyaluronan synthase-1 and -2 in the synovium of both types of arthritis was significantly less than in the control synovium, whereas that of hyaluronidase-2 in the synovium of both arthritides was significantly greater than in the control synovium. The decreased expression of the messages for hyaluronan synthase-1 and -2 and/or the increased expression of the message for hyaluronidase-2 may be reflected in the reduced concentration and decreased average molecular weight of hyaluronan in the joint fluids of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
arthritis; hyaluronan; hyaluronan synthase; hyaluronidase; synovium
Streptococcus faecalis obtains metabolic energy chiefly from the conversion of glucose to lactic acid; the present experiments deal with the mechanism of lactic acid translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. Efflux of [14C]lactate from preloaded cells was accelerated by raising the external pH, and also by the ionophores nigericin and valinomycin. These results suggest that lactate leaves the cell by an electroneutral process, presumably as lactic acid. Further evidence was obtained by studying the entry of [14C]lactate into nonmetabolizing cells. It appears that the membrane is essentially impermeable to the lactate anion, but allows passage of lactic acid. The most persuasive evidence is that, upon establishment of a pH gradient such that the cytoplasm was alkaline, l-[14C]lactate accumulated in the cells against the concentration gradient. Accumulation was transient, and dissipated in parallel with the collapse of the pH gradient. The concentration gradient attained at the peak was a function of the pH difference. Ionophores which are known to collapse a pH gradient, such as nigericin and valinomycin, abolished accumulation of l-lactate. We infer that lactic acid translocation, whether into the cells or outward, is an electroneutral process and for that reason the distribution of lactic acid across the membrane is a function of the pH of cytoplasm and medium. The specificity of translocation and its kinetic parameters suggest that it is mediated by a carrier of low specificity.
Import of precursor proteins into the yeast mitochondrial matrix can occur directly across the inner membrane. First, disruption of the outer membrane restores protein import to mitochondria whose normal import sites have been blocked by an antibody against the outer membrane or by a chimeric, incompletely translocated precursor protein. Second, a potential- and ATP-dependent import of authentic or artificial precursor proteins is observed with purified inner membrane vesicles virtually free of outer membrane components. Third, import into purified inner membrane vesicles is insensitive to antibody against the outer membrane. Thus, while outer membrane components are clearly required in vivo, the inner membrane contains a complete protein translocation system that can operate by itself if the outer membrane barrier is removed.
Chondrocytes exhibit specific responses to BMPs and TGF-βs. The bioactivity of these growth factors is regulated by numerous mediators. In our previous study, Smad1 was found to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of the hyaluronan receptor CD44. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of hyaluronan in the pericellular matrix to modulate the chondrocyte responses to BMP-7 or TGF-β1.
Nuclear translocation of Smad1, Smad2 and Smad4 was studied in bovine articular chondrocytes in response to BMP-7 and TGF-β1. The effects of matrix disruption by hyaluronidase treatment and the initiation of matrix repair by the addition of hyaluronan on the nuclear translocation of Smad proteins, Smad1 phosphorylation and luciferase expression by a CD44 reporter construct in response to BMP-7 were also studied.
The disruption of the hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix of chondrocytes resulted in diminished nuclear translocation of endogenous Smad1 and Smad4 in response to BMP-7; however, the nuclear translocation of Smad2 and Smad4 in these matrix-depleted chondrocytes in response to TGF-β1 was not diminished. Incubation of the matrix-depleted chondrocytes with exogenous hyaluronan restored Smad1 and Smad4 nuclear translocation and increased pCD44(499)-Luc luciferase expression in response to BMP-7. Both exogenous hyaluronan and matrix re-growth enhanced by HAS2 transfection restored Smad1 phosphorylation.
Disruption of hyaluronan-CD44 interactions has little effect on the TGF-β responses; however, re-establishing CD44-hyaluronan ligation promotes a robust cellular response to BMP-7 by articular chondrocytes. Thus, changes in cell-hyaluronan interactions may serve as a mechanism to modulate cellular responsiveness to BMP-7.