This pilot study aimed to evaluate the individual features of the metabolic syndrome (MeS) and its frequency in Qatari schoolchildren aged 6–12 years.
MeS has a strong future risk for development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is increasing the likelihood of MeS in children.
The associated features of MeS were assessed in 67 children. They were recruited from the outpatient pediatric clinic at Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured and body mass index was calculated for each child. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) were measured. MeS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-III) which was modified by Cook with adjustment for fasting glucose to ≥5.6 mM according to recommendations from the American Diabetes Association.
The overall prevalence of MeS according to NCEP-III criteria was 3.0% in children aged 6–12 years. Overweight and obesity was 31.3% in children aged 6–12 years, according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. The prevalence of MeS was 9.5% in overweight and obese subjects. Increased TG levels represented the most frequent abnormality (28.4%) in metabolic syndrome features in all subjects, followed by HDL-C (19.4%) in all subjects.
Increased TG levels and low HDL-C were the most frequent components of this syndrome. This study showed a significant prevalence of MeS and associated features among overweight and obese children. The overall prevalence of MeS in Qatari children is in accordance with data from several other countries.
metabolic syndrome; National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III; schoolchildren; Qatar
Childhood obesity is a national as well as worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of overweight and obesity among Qatari children with lipid profile and waist circumference as adverse cardiovascular risk factors in children aged 6–11 years. International Obesity Task Force reference values were used to screen for overweight and obesity.
A cross-sectional study in a randomly selected sample was conducted in 315 Qatari primary school students aged 6–11 years. Anthropometric measurements, including body weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index were calculated for 151 girls and 164 boys. Weight categories were based on International Obesity Task Force reference values. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were measured, and atherogenic index was calculated.
In total, 31.71% of boys and 32.78% of girls were overweight or obese. Overweight and obese children screened against International Obesity Task Force reference values had a significantly increased risk of high waist circumference (P < 0.0001), hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.002), low HDL-C (P = 0.017), and atherogenic index (P = 0.021) compared with children who were not overweight or obese. The partial correlation coefficient for the cardiovascular risk marker of waist circumference indicated a positive significant association with total cholesterol (r = 0.465, P = 0.003), triglycerides (r = 0.563, P < 0.001), and LDL-C (r = 0.267, P = 0.003), and a significant negative association with HDL-C (r = −0.361, P = 0.004). Overweight and obesity significantly increase the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) of cardiovascular risk factors as follows: hypertriglyceridemia (OR 6.34, CI 2.49–13.44, P < 0.0001); LDL-C (OR 3.18, CI 1.04–9.75, P = 0.043); hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.88, CI 1.10–3.19, P = 0.020); and increased waist circumference (OR 1.40, CI 1.29–1.55, P = 0.022). Overweight and obesity significantly increased the risk of atherosclerosis (assessed by atherogenic index) by about two-fold (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.06–3.15, P = 0.025).
Overweight and obese children screened by International Obesity Task Force reference values are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.
cardiovascular risks; children; lipid profile; obesity; and waist circumference
The origins of adult disease are considered to relate to fetal undernutrition, and this concept is termed
“developmental origins of adult health and disease” (DOHaD). Here, we describe several epidemiological studies
performed in Japan and discuss whether DOHaD is applicable to children in present day Japan. In a study of
healthy children and young adults, it was found that systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and
adiponectin were associated with birth weight. Hyperinsulinemia, high blood pressure, elevated transaminase
levels and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese children were inversely correlated with birth weight and
positively correlated with current weight and waist circumference. Birth weight was related to the development
of type 2 diabetes in children. DOHaD is therefore considered to be applicable in Japan. The key
considerations of DOHaD are the following two mismatches. The first mismatch pertains to growth and
development in response to environmental influences, especially those of nutrition. The second mismatch
pertains to the prenatal versus postnatal environment. We consider that the chance of children in present day
Japan developing adult diseases is determined by the above mismatches. Pediatricians and schoolteachers should
therefore understand the concept of DOHaD, so that they can educate both children and their families regarding
an appropriate diet to reduce the likelihood of developing adult diseases in later life.
birth weight; obesity; blood pressure; insulin; adiponectin
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing among children and adolescents. However, the prevalence of this disorder varies based on its different definitions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS in Iranian adolescents in junior high and high schools according to the definitions provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and De Ferranti.
Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Demographic data was collected using validated questionnaires. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were determined. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by trained individuals. Subjects with MetS were selected according to two definitions provided by the IDF and De Ferranti. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare the prevalence of MetS and its components based on sex, school level, and the two definitions.
The mean age of junior high and high school students was 13.11 ± 1.21ad 15.93 ± 1.07 years old, respectively. The prevalence of MetS among all participants was 4.8% and 12.7% according to the definitions by the IDF and De Ferranti, respectively. It was significantly higher among boys compared to girls. According to the IDF definition, low HDL-C and hypertension were the most frequent components. Based on the De Ferranti, abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were the most frequent components.
The prevalence of MetS was higher in both groups of students based on De Ferranti definition compared to the IDF definition. The prevalence was not significantly different in boys and girls. Further studies to investigate the most suitable definition of MetS for Iranian adolescents are necessary.
Metabolic Syndrome; Adolescence; International Diabetes Federation and De Ferranti
1. To determine the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in adults aged 18 years and above in Chandigarh, India. 2. To determine the socio-demographic factors associated with MS. 3. To determine the agreement between IDF (International Diabetes federation definition) and ATP-III (National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults criteria).
In a community based cross-sectional study, total 605 subjects aged 18 yrs and above were studied using multistage random sampling.
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome was estimated by using IDF and ATP-III criteria. By IDF, Metabolic Syndrome was found in 287 (47.4%) subjects and it was more prevalent among females 171 (59.6%) as compared to males 116 (40.4%). By applying ATP-III overall prevalence was less i.e. 233 (38.5%) but again its prevalence was more among females 141 (44.8%) than males 116 (39.5%). Higher socioeconomic status, sedentary occupation and high body mass index were significantly associated with Metabolic Syndrome.
Metabolic Syndrome is a major health problem in the region and proper emphasis should be given on its prevention and control.
Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), and waist height ratio (WHtR) to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.). Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.). Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.
To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients receiving clozapine.
Materials and Methods:
For this study, 100 patients attending the psychiatry outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital who were receiving clozapine for more than three months were evaluated for the presence of metabolic syndrome using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP-III) criteria.
Forty-six patients fulfilled IDF criteria and 47 met modified NCEP ATP-III criteria of metabolic syndrome. There was significant correlation between these two sets of criteria used to define the metabolic syndrome (Kappa value –0.821, P < 0.001). Among the individual parameters studied, increased waist circumference was the most common abnormality, followed by abnormal blood glucose levels and elevated triglyceride levels. All these abnormalities were seen in more than half (52-61%) of the patients. When the sample was divided into two groups, i.e., those with and without metabolic syndrome, patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher body mass index and had spent more time in school. Logistic regression analysis revealed that these two variables together explained about 19% of the variance in metabolic syndrome (adjusted r2 = 0193; F = 12.8; P < 0.001).
The findings of the present study suggest that metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in subjects receiving clozapine.
Clozapine; India; metabolic syndrome; prevalence
Obesity epidemic has been spread all over the world in the past few decades and has caused a major public health concern due to its increasing global prevalence. Obese individuals are at higher risks of developing dyslipidemic characteristics resulting in increased triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol content and reduced HDL-cholesterol levels. This disorder has profound implications as afflicted individuals have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Today, this phenotype is designated as metabolic syndrome. According to the criteria set by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), for a patient to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, the person must have central obesity plus any two of the following conditions: raised TG, reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised blood pressure, and increased fasting plasma glucose. Current National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) guidelines for the treatment of patients with the metabolic syndrome encourage therapies that lower LDL cholesterol and TG and raise HDL-cholesterol. Primary intervention often involves treatment with statins to improve the lipid profiles of these patients. However, recent studies suggest the potential of newly identified drugs including thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors that seem to be promising in reducing the level of progression of metabolic syndrome related disorders. This review discusses the current pharmacological treatments of the metabolic syndrome with the above mentioned drugs.
HDL-cholesterol; LDL Cholesterol; Triglycerides (TG); Type 2 diabetes
Aim. The present population-based study aimed to assess prevalence of metabolic syndrome and itsrelated components in Iranian youth in the different sex, age, and residential subgroups. Method. Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were determined. Trained individuals measured waist circumference and blood pressure. Subjects with MetS were selected according to two definitions provided by the IDF and de Ferranti. Results. Among girls in intervention area, hypertriglyceridemia was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas using IDF definition. Significant differences were observed between boys in rural and urban areas regarding some components of metabolic syndrome including hypertriglyceridemia and high waist circumference. Besides, boys who are residents in urban areas had higher blood pressure, as well as higher waist circumference, than boys in rural areas. Conclusion. Our youth population is at significant risk of developing metabolic syndrome, and the pattern of this phenomenon seems to be discrepant in boys as well as in rural and urban areas probably due to the different lifestyle aspects, genetic factors, and racial differences.
Population-based data on metabolic syndrome (MetS) among children is lacking in the United Arab Emirates which has among the highest rates of diabetes in the world. In this study we determined the prevalence of MetS and its correlates in a sample of adolescents.
Materials and Methods
A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 1,018 adolescents (48.4% girls) aged 12–18 years from Al Ain Abu Dhabi Emirates. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity and dietary habits. Blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. MetS was defined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 13%. Boys compared to girls were more likely to have MetS (21% vs. 4%, odds ratio [OR]: 6.57, 95%CI: 4.01 to 10.75). The prevalence of MetS increased with increase in body mass index and reached 59 percent in obese boys. After multivariable adjustment boys who were overweight (adjusted OR: 2.72 [1.37 to 5.35]), or obese (AOR: 12.70 [7.31 to 22.05]), or spent two or more than two hours on screen in a day (AOR: 1.65 [1.01 to 2.69) were more likely to have MetS. Girls who were overweight (AOR: 4.23 [1.32 to 13.62]) or obese (AOR: 8.32 [2.73 to 25.32]) were more likely to have MetS.
The prevalence of MetS is high among UAE boys. Population-based strategies are needed to address the high burden of metabolic syndrome targeted at the identified risk factors.
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of morbi-mortality, thus the characterization of the population magnitude of this syndrome is critical for allocating health care. However, prevalence estimates of MetS in the same population could differ depending on the definition used. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of the MetS using definitions proposed by: National Cholesterol Education Panel Revised (NCEP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2009 in a Japanese-Brazilians community (131 individuals, age 57 ± 16 years, 1st and 2nd generation). All individuals went through a clinical and laboratorial evaluation for assessment of weigh, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose. The prevalence of MetS was 26.7% (n = 35) and 37.4% (n = 49) under the NCEP and IDF definitions, respectively. Despite higher blood pressure measurements, waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels and lower HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.01), individuals identified with MetS did not show increased blood glucose levels. IDF definition classified 14 individuals (10.7%) with MetS that were not classified under the NCEP and 35 individuals were identified with MetS by both criteria. We observed, in this group, more severe lipid disorders, compared to individuals identified only under the IDF definition, and the BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.01; p = 0.006, respectively) were lower. In conclusion, the IDF revised criteria, probably because of the ethnic specific values of waist circumference, was able to identify a larger number of individuals with MetS. However, our data suggesting that additional studies are necessary to define best MetS diagnostic criteria in this population.
Metabolic syndrome; Japanese-Brazilians; IDF; NCEP; Waist circumference
Mortality risk across metabolic health-by-BMI categories in NHANES-III was examined. Metabolic health was defined as: (1) homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) <2.5; (2) ≤2 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III metabolic syndrome criteria; (3) combined definition using ≤1 of the following: HOMA-IR ≥1.95 (or diabetes medications), triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C <1.04 mmol/L (males) or <1.30 mmol/L (females), LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L (or cholesterol-lowering medications). Hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality were estimated with Cox regression models. Nonpregnant women and men were included (n = 4373, mean ± SD, age 37.1 ± 10.9 years, BMI 27.3 ± 5.8 kg/m2, 49.4% female). Only 40 of 1160 obese individuals were identified as MHO by all definitions. MHO groups had superior levels of clinical risk factors compared to unhealthy individuals but inferior levels compared to healthy lean groups. There was increased risk of all-cause mortality in metabolically unhealthy obese participants regardless of definition (HOMA-IR HR 2.07 (CI 1.3–3.4), P < 0.01; ATP-III HR 1.98 (CI 1.4–2.9), P < 0.001; combined definition HR 2.19 (CI 1.3–3.8), P < 0.01). MHO participants were not significantly different from healthy lean individuals by any definition. While MHO individuals are not at significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, their clinical risk profile is worse than that of metabolically healthy lean individuals.
Syndrome Z describes the interaction of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with the metabolic syndrome.
Purpose of study
A pilot study to determine the prevalence of syndrome Z in a teaching hospital in Singapore.
Patients (age ⩾18 years) recruited for this prospective study had to satisfy three of the following five inclusion criteria: fasting glucose >6.1 mmol/l, blood pressure ⩾130/85 mm Hg, HDL cholesterol <1.04 mmol/l in men and <1.2 mmol/l in women, triglycerides ⩾1.7 mmol/l, and a waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women. All subjects underwent standard overnight polysomnography. Overnight fasting glucose and lipid levels were measured and baseline anthropometric data recorded. All sleep studies were scored and reported by a sleep physician. OSA was deemed to be present if the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was ⩾5, with mild, moderate and severe categories classified according to the Chicago criteria.
There were 24 patients (19 males and five females) of whom 10 were Chinese, eight Malay and five of Indian origin, with one other. Mean age was 48±13.5 years, mean body mass index was 34.9±6.1 kg/m2 and mean waist circumference was 111.3±15.7 cm. 23 (95.8%) of the patients had OSA with a mean RDI of 39.6±22.4 events/h with 15 patients (62.5%) in the severe category. The five patients who fulfilled all five criteria for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome had severe OSA.
The prevalence of OSA in our studied population exhibiting the metabolic syndrome is very high. Therefore, a polysomnogram should always be considered for this subset of patients.
glucose; pilot study; polysomnography; prevalence; sleep
The metabolic syndrome (MES) is associated with a high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome as well as cut-off points for waist circumference (WC) for diagnosis of MES in Zahedan, southeast Iran.
Totally, 1802 people (735 men and 1067 women) with metabolic syndrome were surveyed according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria as well as obtained WC cut-off points for IDF criteria.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women than in men. In both sexes the prevalence increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 1802 individuals aged ≥19 years according to NCEP ATP III, IDF and IDF -AHA/NHLBI were 21.0% (15.4% in male, 24.9% female), 24.8 (20.0% in male, 28.1% in female) and 23.3% (19.7% in male, 25.8% in female), respectively. Low HDL-C (60.6%) and high WC (43.3%) were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome, followed by high triglycerides (32%), elevated glucose (17.1%) and high blood pressure (13%).
Our data shows a high prevalence of MES in Zahedan, Southeast Iran, therefore, future health prevention strategies are required for the prevention of MES.
Metabolic syndrome; Waist circumference; Epidemiology; Iran
The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We evaluated the impact of the HTGW on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women diagnosed with the MS. Thirty-six abdominally obese women with the MS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) [(mean (SD); age 49 (11) y, ht 165 (6) cm, wt 95 (16) kg] participated. The HTGW was defined as follows: a waist circumference ≥80 cm and triglycerides ≥1.7 mM. Unpaired t-tests and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were employed to detect mean differences between women with MS plus or minus HTGW. Women with the MS plus HTGW had higher total cholesterol (16%, p=0.015), VLDL-cholesterol (97%, p<0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (16%, p=0.002), insulin (40%, p=0.043), and abdominal visceral fat (24%, p=0.100), and lower total HDL-cholesterol (6%, p=0.024), HDL3 (11%, p=0.031) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) (5%, p=0.068) compared with women with the MS minus HTGW. Thus, the presence of the HTGW was accompanied by a worsened cardiometabolic risk factor profile in these obese women with the MS. In particular, women with the MS plus HTGW were more insulin resistant compared to women with the MS minus HTGW. In conclusion, the presence of the HTGW in obese women with the MS exacerbates insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors.
Adiposity; cardiovascular disease; diabetes; Syndrome X
Medically unexplained somatic complaints are among the most common clinical presentations in primary care in developing countries and they are considerable burden for patients and health care system.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of somatisation in comparison to psychologisation among a sample of Qatari patients who were visiting primary health care (PHC) centres and to investigate the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of somatisers (STs) and psychologisers (PGs).
The survey was conducted among PHC Qatari patients during the period from January to July 2007. About 2,320 patients were approached, of whom 1,689 agreed to participate and responded to the questionnaire. Among the studied Qatari patients, 404 patients were identified for clinical interview. The first stage of the study was conducted with the help of general practitioners, using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The second stage was carried out by a consultant using the Clinical Interview Schedule. A specific operational criterion was used to identify STs and PGs.
The prevalence rate of STs among the total studied sample was 12.4%, while the PGs were 11.5%. Among the identified psychiatric cases, the proportion of STs (52%) was higher than PGs (48%). Most of the diagnostic categories were more prevalent among PGs. The dissatisfaction at work and stressful life events within 12 months before the onset of the presenting symptoms were the three postulated determinants which were significantly more among STs than PGs.
The prevalence of somatised mental disorder was little higher than the psychologised mental disorder. The prevalence of somatisation and psychologisation is comparable with other reported studies from the Middle-East and Western countries. Dissatisfaction at work and stressful life events were significantly higher among STs than PGs.
somatisers; psychologisers; primary health care; determinants; Arab culture
OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF)–defined metabolic syndrome and its components among a cross-sectional sample of racially/ethnically diverse eighth grade youths and examine the association between the presence of the syndrome and participant fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data were from a cross-sectional study with 1,453 racially/ethnically diverse eighth grade students from 12 middle schools in three U.S. states (Texas, North Carolina, and California). Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose, and insulin; HOMA-IR was calculated. Sex, race/ethnicity, and pubertal stage were self-reported. IDF criteria were used to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The odds ratio for being classified with the syndrome was calculated by quintiles of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR.
RESULTS—Of the sample, 138 students (9.5%) were classified with metabolic syndrome. Hispanics were more likely to have high abdominal adiposity and high triglycerides. Male adolescents were more likely to have high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. Participants in the highest insulin quintile were almost 200 times more likely to be classified with the syndrome than participants in the lowest quintile with comparable associations for HOMA-IR quintiles.
CONCLUSIONS—In a racially/ethnically diverse sample of U.S. adolescents, 9.5% of participants were identified with the metabolic syndrome using the IDF criteria. The likelihood of metabolic syndrome classification significantly increased with higher insulin and HOMA-IR values.
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in Cuba, yet the prevalence of novel risk factors is not known. To examine the prevalence of risk factors of traditional and novel cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among an urban Cuban population, a cross-sectional pilot survey was undertaken in Havana city, Cuba. Ninety-seven adults aged 45-60 years registered to receive medical care at a policlinic. The prevalences of rates of CVD risk factors were: hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) (53.6%), hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/L) (47.0%), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (<1.03 mmol/L) (64.3%); diabetes (self-reported) (24.6%); metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria) (58.2%); overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) (78.0%); current smoking (39.3%); elevated level of C-reactive protein (3 15 μmol/L) (11.1%). The total carotenoid status was independently associa-ted with waist-circumference and risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In this small unrepresentative sample of people aged 40-65 years from Havana city, there was a high prevalence of traditional and novel CVD risk factors. The total serum carotenoid status appeared to be associated with an increased prevalence of CVD risk factors.
Cardiovascular diseases; Carotenoids; Cross-sectional studies; Obesity; Risk factors; Cuba
The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran.
In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3) criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome.
Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value<0.05). Our study shows high abdominal obesity and hypertension are the most prevalent components of metabolic syndrome. 15%, 13.3% and 1.8% of subjects had three, four and five criteria for metabolic syndrome, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of components of metabolic syndrome and waist circumference.
Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.
Menopause; Metabolic syndrome; Prevalence
To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in a population receiving attention in primary care centers (PCC) we selected a random cohort of ostensibly normal subjects from the registers of 5 basic-health area (BHA) PCC. Diagnosis of MS was with the WHO, NCEP and IDF criteria. Variables recorded were: socio-demographic data, CVD risk factors including lipids, obesity, diabetes, blood pressure and smoking habit and a glucose tolerance test outcome. Of the 720 individuals selected (age 60.3 ± 11.5 years), 431 were female, 352 hypertensive, 142 diabetic, 233 pre-diabetic, 285 obese, 209 dyslipemic and 106 smokers. CVD risk according to the Framingham and REGICOR calculation was 13.8 ± 10% and 8.8 ± 9.8%, respectively. Using the WHO, NCEP and IDF criteria, MS was diagnosed in 166, 210 and 252 subjects, respectively and the relative risk of CVD complications in MS subjects was 2.56. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the MS components (WHO set), the MS components (IDF set) and the female gender had an increased odds ratio for CVD of 3.48 (95CI%: 2.26–5.37), 2.28 (95%CI: 1.84–4.90) and 2.26 (95%CI: 1.48–3.47), respectively. We conclude that MS and concomitant CVD risk is high in ostensibly normal population attending primary care clinics, and this would necessarily impinge on resource allocation in primary care.
AIM: To examine the possible association between gastrointestinal symptoms and anxiety and depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
METHODS: The study was a matched case-control study based on a face to face interview with designed diagnostic screening questionnaires for gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and T2DM, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression and General Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7) for anxiety. The questionnaire consisted of questions about symptoms and signs of anxiety and depression disorders. Also, socio-demographic characteristics, life style habits and the family history of patients were collected. It was carried out from June 2010 to May 2011 among Qatari and other Arab nationals over 20 years of age at Primary Health Care Centers of the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar, including patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects over 20 years of age.
RESULTS: In the studied sample, most of the studied T2DM patients with GI symptoms (39.3%) and healthy subjects (33.3%) were in the age group 45-54 years (P < 0.001). The prevalence of severe depression (9.5% vs 4.4%, P < 0.001) and anxiety (26.3% vs 13.7%, P < 0.001) was significantly higher in T2DM patients with GI symptoms than in general population. Obesity (35.7% vs 31.2%) and being overweight (47.9% vs 42.8%) were significantly higher in T2DM patients with GI symptoms than in healthy subjects (P = 0.001). Mental health severity score was higher in T2DM patients with GI symptoms than in healthy subjects; depression (8.2 ± 3.7 vs 6.0 ± 3.6) and anxiety (7.6 ± 3.3 vs 6.0 ± 3.7). The most significant GI symptom which was considerably different from controls was early satiety [odds ratio (OR) = 10.8, P = 0.009] in depressed T2DM patients and loose/watery stools (OR = 2.79, P = 0.029) for severe anxiety. Anxiety was observed more than depression in T2DM patients with GI symptoms.
CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly associated with depression and anxiety in T2DM patients, especially anxiety disorders.
Gastrointestinal; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Distress; Depression; Anxiety; Qatar
This study was designed to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlated factors in an urban population in Ahvaz.
This descriptive analytical study performed with random cluster sampling method in 6 health centers in Ahvaz. In each selected center, 55 households were randomly selected. A questionnaire included: age, sex, marital status, ethnicity, education level, family history of diabetes (DM), Hypertension (HTN) and obesity, smoking and parity and previous history of gestational diabetes Mellitus in women were filled for each person.
Blood pressure, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), abdominal and waist circumference were measured in each participant. Fasting blood glucose (FBS), serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) level were measured in fasting blood sample.
The mean age of all participants was 42.27 ± 14 years (44.2 ± 14.26 years in men and 40.5 ± 13.5 in women). From total 912 participant, 434(47.2%) were men and 478(52.8%) women. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome based on ATPIII criteria (update2005) was 22.8% (15.9% in men and 29.1% in women) that showed significant difference (P = 0.0001). Prevalence of each component of MS in studied population was: 29.4% for abdominal obesity, 40.7% for high TG level, 40.2% for low HDL, 15.4% for hypertension and 37.8% for abnormal FBS. Among these factor, age of patients, BMI, sex had significant differences between persons with or without Ms (P = 0.0001). Ethnicity (Arab or Persian), cigarette smoking and family history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity, marital statues, education level, parity and previous history of GDM in women showed no significant differences between persons with MS and without MS.
Metabolic syndrome has high prevalence in our population and its prevalence increases with increasing age and BMI. Women are at higher risk for metabolic syndrome than men.
Metabolic syndrome; Hypertension; Hypertriglyceridemia; Low HDL; Abdominal circumference; Blood glucose
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) encompasses a cluster of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus risk factors. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the factors underlying the clustering of MetS components in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals.
Factor analysis was performed on 2978 (1652 non-diabetic and 1326 diabetic) participants. Entering waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), we performed exploratory factor analysis in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals separately. The analysis was repeated after replacing triglycerides and HDL-C with triglycerides to HDL-C ratio (triglycerides/HDL-C). MetS was defined by either adult treatment panel III (ATPIII), international diabetes federation (IDF) criteria, or by the modified form of IDF using waist circumference cut-off points for Iranian population.
The selection of triglycerides and HDL-C as two distinct variables led to identifying two factors explaining 61.3% and 55.4% of the total variance in non-diabetic and diabetic participants, respectively. In both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, waist circumference, HOMA-IR and SBP loaded on factor 1. Factor 2 was mainly determined by triglycerides and HDL-C. Factor 1 and 2 were directly and inversely associated with MetS, respectively. When triglycerides and HDL-C were replaced by triglycerides/HDL-C, one factor was extracted, which explained 47.6% and 38.8% of the total variance in non-diabetic and diabetic participants, respectively.
This study confirms that in both diabetic and non-diabetic participants the concept of a single underlying factor representing MetS is plausible.
Prevalence of obesity is increasing all over the world. ADRB3 Trp64Arg gene polymorphism was proposed to be associated with obesity, although inconsistent findings and differences of the Arg64 allele frequency among various ethnics were reported. Westernization was reported to increase the prevalence of obesity in developing world. In this study we determined the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among urban and rural Balinese, and studied the association of ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism with obesity and MetS.
A total of 528 Balinese (urban 282, rural 246) were recruited. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were measured using standard procedures. BMI and WC classifications were based on WHO classifications for Asian. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined as described in the Joint Interim Statement. Chi-square test was employed to test the association between the ADRB3 Trp64Arg genotype and disease traits.
Urban have higher BMI (p = 2.8 × 10-13), WC ( p < 2.2 × 10-16), TG (p = 0.0028), DBP (p = 1.8 × 10-5), and lower HDL-C (p = 0.0376) when compared to rural. Abdominal obesity and MetS prevalence were significantly higher in urban as compared to rural (both p < 0.001). The Arg64 allele frequency was similar between urban (0.06) and rural (0.05). The Arg64 rural female carriers have higher BMI and WC as compared to their Trp64 counterparts (p = 0.041 for BMI and p = 0.012 for WC), and consequently higher abdominal obesity prevalence (p = 0.007). Comparison between male and female, as well as urban and rural, showed different prevalence of MetS co-morbidities. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were consistently appeared in all groups, suggesting to play a role as determinant of MetS in both urban and rural.
Prevalence of obesity and MetS in urban were two times higher when compared to rural. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia appears to be the key determinant of MetS in both urban and rural Balinese. Our results indicated an association of the ADRB3 Trp64Arg gene polymorphism with obesity in the rural female.
Introduction. The present study aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Gorgan, Iran. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on hundred postmenopausal women who were referred to the health centers in Gorgan. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines. Results. The mean body mass index, waist circumference, hip, circumference waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly high among postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome, but the mean HDL-cholesterol was significantly low (P < 0.05). Overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 31%. Body mass index and waist circumference had a positive correlation with a number of metabolic syndrome factors (P < 0.001). Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio had a positive correlation with each other (P < 0.001). BMI had relatively high correlation with WC (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our results show that postmenopausal status might be a predictor of metabolic syndrome. Low HDL-cholesterol level and high abdominal obesity are the most frequent characteristics in comparison to other metabolic components. Our study also showed some related factors of metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women. These factors may increase cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.