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1.  Metabolic Syndrome among Type-2 Diabetic Patients in Benghazi-Libya: A pilot study 
The Libyan Journal of Medicine  2008;3(4):177-180.
Background
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three out of five conditions that are due to hyperinsulinemia: abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and/or low HDL), elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. The syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus and often precedes the onset of hyperglycemia. It has been shown that metabolic syndrome is an independent clinical indicator of macroand microvascular complications in diabetics.
Aim and objectives
the aim of this pilot study was to estimate the frequency and characteristics of metabolic syndrome among type-2 diabetic patients in Benghazi. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study involved 99 randomly selected adult patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The patients were interviewed and examined, and their lipid profiles were checked 9-12 hours after overnight fasting. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
Results
About 92% of the patients had the metabolic syndrome according to ATP III criteria and 80.8% according to IDF criteria. Females were more affected, males with metabolic syndrome were significantly older, and females were significantly more obese. No significant difference was observed between males and females regarding waist circumference, HDL level and triglyceride level. The commonest and most important component of metabolic syndrome in the study group was low HDL.
Conclusion
Metabolic syndrome is common among Libyans with type-2 diabetes mellitus, and it is significantly more common in females than males. The most significant predictor of metabolic syndrome in type-2 diabetic patients in Benghazi is low HDL.
doi:10.4176/080715
PMCID: PMC3074309  PMID: 21499470
Metabolic; diabetes; hypertension; dyslipidemia; obesity; Benghazi; Libya
2.  A pilot study on metabolic syndrome and its associated features among Qatari schoolchildren 
Aim:
This pilot study aimed to evaluate the individual features of the metabolic syndrome (MeS) and its frequency in Qatari schoolchildren aged 6–12 years.
Background:
MeS has a strong future risk for development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is increasing the likelihood of MeS in children.
Methods:
The associated features of MeS were assessed in 67 children. They were recruited from the outpatient pediatric clinic at Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured and body mass index was calculated for each child. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) were measured. MeS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-III) which was modified by Cook with adjustment for fasting glucose to ≥5.6 mM according to recommendations from the American Diabetes Association.
Results:
The overall prevalence of MeS according to NCEP-III criteria was 3.0% in children aged 6–12 years. Overweight and obesity was 31.3% in children aged 6–12 years, according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. The prevalence of MeS was 9.5% in overweight and obese subjects. Increased TG levels represented the most frequent abnormality (28.4%) in metabolic syndrome features in all subjects, followed by HDL-C (19.4%) in all subjects.
Conclusion:
Increased TG levels and low HDL-C were the most frequent components of this syndrome. This study showed a significant prevalence of MeS and associated features among overweight and obese children. The overall prevalence of MeS in Qatari children is in accordance with data from several other countries.
doi:10.2147/IJGM.S21103
PMCID: PMC3150174  PMID: 21845059
metabolic syndrome; National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III; schoolchildren; Qatar
3.  Metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who do not have obesity or type 2 diabetes 
Clinics  2012;67(3):219-223.
OBJECTIVE:
The individual components of metabolic syndrome may be independent predictors of mortality in patients with liver disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related components in hepatitis C virus–infected patients who are not obese and do not have type 2 diabetes.
METHODS:
This cross-sectional study included 125 patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Anthropometric data were measured according to standardized procedures. Bioimpedance analysis was performed on all patients.
RESULTS:
Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 21.6% of patients. Of the subjects with metabolic syndrome, 59.3% had hypertension, 77.8% had insulin resistance, 85.2% were overweight, 48.1% had a high waist circumference, 85.2% had an increased body fat percentage, and 92.3% had an elevated waist:hip ratio. In the bivariate analysis, female sex (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.09–6.25), elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT) (OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.04–7.29), elevated fasting glucose (OR 8.05; 95% CI: 3.17-21.32), low HDL cholesterol (OR 2.80; 95% CI: 1.07–7.16), hypertriglyceridemia (OR 7.91; 95% CI: 2.88–22.71), elevated waist circumference (OR 10.33; 95% CI: 3.72–30.67), overweight (OR 11.33; 95% CI: 3.97–41.07), and increased body fat percentage (OR 8.34; 95% CI: 2.94–30.08) were independent determinants of metabolic syndrome. Using the final multivariate regression model, similar results were observed for abdominal fat (OR 9.98; 95% CI: 2.63–44.41) and total body fat percentage (OR 8.73; 95% CI: 2.33–42.34). However, metabolic syndrome risk was also high for those with blood glucose ≥5.55 mmol/L or HDL cholesterol <0.9 mmol/L (OR 16.69; 95% CI: 4.64–76.35; OR 7.23; 95% CI: 1.86–32.63, respectively).
CONCLUSION:
Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among hepatitis C virus–infected patients without type 2 diabetes or obesity. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with hypertension, insulin resistance, increased abdominal fat, and overweight.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2012(03)03
PMCID: PMC3297029  PMID: 22473401
Metabolic Syndrome; Chronic Hepatitis C; Genotype 1; Overweight; Insulin Resistance
4.  Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Population from Zahedan, Southeast Iran 
Background:
The metabolic syndrome (MES) is associated with a high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome as well as cut-off points for waist circumference (WC) for diagnosis of MES in Zahedan, southeast Iran.
Methods:
Totally, 1802 people (735 men and 1067 women) with metabolic syndrome were surveyed according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria as well as obtained WC cut-off points for IDF criteria.
Results:
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women than in men. In both sexes the prevalence increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 1802 individuals aged ≥19 years according to NCEP ATP III, IDF and IDF -AHA/NHLBI were 21.0% (15.4% in male, 24.9% female), 24.8 (20.0% in male, 28.1% in female) and 23.3% (19.7% in male, 25.8% in female), respectively. Low HDL-C (60.6%) and high WC (43.3%) were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome, followed by high triglycerides (32%), elevated glucose (17.1%) and high blood pressure (13%).
Conclusion:
Our data shows a high prevalence of MES in Zahedan, Southeast Iran, therefore, future health prevention strategies are required for the prevention of MES.
PMCID: PMC3481671  PMID: 23113137
Metabolic syndrome; Waist circumference; Epidemiology; Iran
5.  Prevalence and clustering of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults in Shanghai, China 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:683.
Background
Type 2 diabetes is becoming an epidemic in China. To evaluate the prevalence, clustering of metabolic risk factors and their impact on type 2 diabetes, we conducted a population-based study in Shanghai, China's largest metropolitan area.
Methods
From 2006 to 2007, 2,113 type 2 diabetes cases and 2,458 comparable controls of adults aged 40 to 79 years were enrolled. Demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors were assessed via standardized questionnaires. Plasma, red and white blood cells were collected and stored for future studies. Anthropometric indices and biochemical intermediates (including blood pressure, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and blood lipids) were measured. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome were also compared following two criteria recommended by the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS, 2004) and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III, 2002).
Results
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (62% vs. 15% using CDS criteria) and its individual components, including obesity (51% vs. 42%), hypertension (54% vs. 41%), hypertriglyceridemia (42% vs. 32%), and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) levels (36% vs. 25%) were higher in diabetes cases than controls. Regardless of criteria used, those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) had similarly high prevalence of metabolic syndrome as did diabetes cases. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for demographics and lifestyle risk factors, the odds ratios of diabetes (95% CI) were 1.23 (1.04-1.45) for overweight (28 >= BMI >= 24), 1.81 (1.45-2.25) for obesity (BMI > 28), 1.53 (1.30-1.80) for central obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm for woman or waist circumference > 85 cm for man), 1.36 (1.17-1.59) for hypertension (sbp/dbp >= 140/90 mmHg), 1.55 (1.32-1.82) for high triglycerides (triglycerides > 1.70 mmol/l) and 1.52 (1.23-1.79) for low HDL-C (HDL-C < 1.04 mmol/L).
Conclusions
These data indicate that multiple metabolic risk factors--individually or jointly--were more prevalent in diabetes patients than in controls. Further research will examine hypotheses concerning the high prevalence of IFG, family history, and central obesity, aiding development of multifaceted preventive strategies specific to this population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-683
PMCID: PMC2989965  PMID: 21062480
6.  Prevalence of Premorbid Metabolic Syndrome in Spanish Adult Workers Using IDF and ATPIII Diagnostic Criteria: Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk Factors 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89281.
Background
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined as a cluster of interconnected risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and high blood glucose levels. Premorbid metabolic syndrome (PMetS) is defined by excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus from those suffering MetS. We aimed to determine the prevalence of PMetS in a working population, and to analyse the relationship between the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII). The relationship between the presence of PMetS and cardiovascular risk factors was also analysed.
Research Methodology/Findings
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24,529 male and 18,736 female Spanish (white western European) adult workers (20–65 years) randomly selected during their work health periodic examinations. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and serum parameters were measured. The presence of MetS and PMetS was ascertained using ATPIII and IDF criteria. Cardiovascular risk was determined using the Framingham-REGICOR equation. The results showed MetS had an adjusted global prevalence of 12.39% using ATPIII criteria and 16.46% using IDF criteria. The prevalence of PMetS was slightly lower (11.21% using ATPIII criteria and 14.72% using IDF criteria). Prevalence in males was always higher than in females. Participants with PMetS displayed higher values of BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides, and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Logistic regression models reported lower PMetS risk for females, non-obese subjects, non-smokers and younger participants. Cardiovascular risk determined with Framingham-REGICOR was higher in participants with PMetS.
Conclusions
PMetS could be a reliable tool for the early identification of apparently healthy individuals who have a significant risk for developing cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089281
PMCID: PMC3930690  PMID: 24586656
7.  Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:333.
Background
With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs.
Methods
A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007) growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP) was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG) and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). International Diabetes Federation (2007) criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome.
Results
Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245) Malay, 30.9% (n = 124) Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33) Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8), followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1) and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7). Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p < 0.01). Overweight/obese children had higher odds (OR = 16.3; 95%CI 2.2, 461.1) of developing the metabolic syndrome compared to normal-weight children. Binary logistic regression showed no significant association between age, gender and family history of communicable diseases with the metabolic syndrome. However, for ethnicity, Indians were found to have higher odds (OR = 5.5; 95%CI 1.5, 20.5) compared to Malays, with Chinese children (OR = 0.3; 95%CI 0.0, 2.7) having the lowest odds.
Conclusions
We conclude that being overweight or obese poses a greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome among children. Indian ethnicity is at higher risk compared to their counterparts of the same age. Hence, primary intervention strategies are required to prevent this problem from escalating.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-333
PMCID: PMC3111384  PMID: 21592367
8.  Metabolic Syndrome in School Children in Mardin, South-Eastern of Turkey 
The Eurasian Journal of Medicine  2014;46(3):156-163.
Objective:
To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in a school children population.
Materials and Methods:
Three thousand four hundred and sixty children aged between 7 and 15 in three elementary schools in the city of Mardin, located in the south-eastern region of Turkey, were included in this study in April and May 2011. Age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and a variety of blood tests were done. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used for the diagnosis of MES.
Results:
It was found that 9.42% of those tested were overweight, and 8.0% were obese. The study found that more girls (9.1%) were obese than girls (6.9%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.001). A positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) and the other parameters, namely waist and hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), triglyceride (TG) (p=0.0001). It was found that total cholesterol (T-Chol), TG, BMI, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly different among obese MES’s group and non-obese children (p<0.05). The waist/hip ratio reference value in girls was significantly higher than boys (p>0.05). The prevalence of MES was 6.3%. The number of components of MES was higher in girls and obese children. The rate of MES was 30.3% in obese children.
Conclusion:
The frequency of obesity, hypertension and MES in childhood period have been steadily increasing. Children who are classified having central obesity and high body mass index should be more carefully evaluated to its potential to progress to MES. And the quality of the life should be improved by reducing the risks resulted from life style changes, necessary treatments and follow ups.
doi:10.5152/eajm.2014.39
PMCID: PMC4299848  PMID: 25610318
Childhood obesity; metabolic syndrome; hypertension
9.  Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in adults of Talca city, Chile 
Nutrition Journal  2008;7:14.
Objective-
Insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a clustering of metabolic alterations associated to IR; however, there is no international consensus for defining its diagnosis. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of MS identified by the ATP III and IDF criteria in adults from Talca city.
Research and methods-
We studied 1007 individuals, aged 18–74, and residents from Talca. MS subjects were defined according to ATP III (three altered factors) and IDF criteria (patients with waist circumference >80/90 cm (W/M) and two others altered factors).
Results-
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the IDF and ATP III criteria was 36.4% and 29.5%, respectively after adjustment for age and sex. The agreement for both criteria was 89%. The prevalence in men was higher than in women for both MS definitions, although not significant. MS probability increased with age, and the highest risk was in the 57–68 age group (ATP-MS) and 53–72 age group (IDF-MS). Hypertension, high triglycerides and abdominal obesity are the most frequent alterations in MS.
Conclusion-
MS prevalence in adults was higher when diagnosed with IDF than with ATP criterion; in both, age is directly related with the MS presence. The MS subjects showed higher levels of blood pressure, waist circumference and plasma triglycerides. Considering our results, it is worrisome that one third of our population has a high risk of developing DM2 and CVD in the future.
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-14
PMCID: PMC2397433  PMID: 18482457
10.  Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Group of U.S. Eighth-Grade Adolescents and Associations With Fasting Insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Levels  
Diabetes Care  2008;31(10):2020-2025.
OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF)–defined metabolic syndrome and its components among a cross-sectional sample of racially/ethnically diverse eighth grade youths and examine the association between the presence of the syndrome and participant fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data were from a cross-sectional study with 1,453 racially/ethnically diverse eighth grade students from 12 middle schools in three U.S. states (Texas, North Carolina, and California). Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose, and insulin; HOMA-IR was calculated. Sex, race/ethnicity, and pubertal stage were self-reported. IDF criteria were used to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The odds ratio for being classified with the syndrome was calculated by quintiles of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR.
RESULTS—Of the sample, 138 students (9.5%) were classified with metabolic syndrome. Hispanics were more likely to have high abdominal adiposity and high triglycerides. Male adolescents were more likely to have high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. Participants in the highest insulin quintile were almost 200 times more likely to be classified with the syndrome than participants in the lowest quintile with comparable associations for HOMA-IR quintiles.
CONCLUSIONS—In a racially/ethnically diverse sample of U.S. adolescents, 9.5% of participants were identified with the metabolic syndrome using the IDF criteria. The likelihood of metabolic syndrome classification significantly increased with higher insulin and HOMA-IR values.
doi:10.2337/dc08-0411
PMCID: PMC2551648  PMID: 18591405
11.  Metabolic syndrome and its correlated factors in an urban population in South West of Iran 
Background
This study was designed to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlated factors in an urban population in Ahvaz.
Methods
This descriptive analytical study performed with random cluster sampling method in 6 health centers in Ahvaz. In each selected center, 55 households were randomly selected. A questionnaire included: age, sex, marital status, ethnicity, education level, family history of diabetes (DM), Hypertension (HTN) and obesity, smoking and parity and previous history of gestational diabetes Mellitus in women were filled for each person.
Blood pressure, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), abdominal and waist circumference were measured in each participant. Fasting blood glucose (FBS), serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) level were measured in fasting blood sample.
Results
The mean age of all participants was 42.27 ± 14 years (44.2 ± 14.26 years in men and 40.5 ± 13.5 in women). From total 912 participant, 434(47.2%) were men and 478(52.8%) women. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome based on ATPIII criteria (update2005) was 22.8% (15.9% in men and 29.1% in women) that showed significant difference (P = 0.0001). Prevalence of each component of MS in studied population was: 29.4% for abdominal obesity, 40.7% for high TG level, 40.2% for low HDL, 15.4% for hypertension and 37.8% for abnormal FBS. Among these factor, age of patients, BMI, sex had significant differences between persons with or without Ms (P = 0.0001). Ethnicity (Arab or Persian), cigarette smoking and family history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity, marital statues, education level, parity and previous history of GDM in women showed no significant differences between persons with MS and without MS.
Conclusion
Metabolic syndrome has high prevalence in our population and its prevalence increases with increasing age and BMI. Women are at higher risk for metabolic syndrome than men.
doi:10.1186/2251-6581-12-11
PMCID: PMC3598198  PMID: 23497506
Metabolic syndrome; Hypertension; Hypertriglyceridemia; Low HDL; Abdominal circumference; Blood glucose
12.  Prevalence and trends of Metabolic Syndrome in the adult US population, 1999–2010 
Objective
To characterize the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its five components and their pharmacological treatment in US adults by gender and race over time.
Background
MetS is a constellation of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods
Prevalence estimates were estimated in adults (≥20 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2010 (in 2-year survey waves). The biological thresholds, defined by the 2009 Joint Scientific Statement, were: (1) waist circumference ≥ 102 cm (males), and ≥ 88 cm (females) (2) fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl (3) blood pressure of ≥130/85 mm Hg (4) triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl (5) high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dl (males) and <50 mg/dl (females). Prescription drug use was estimated for lipid-modifying agents, anti-hypertensives, and anti-hyperglycemic medications.
Results
From 1999/2000 to 2009/10, the age-adjusted prevalence of MetS (based on biologic thresholds) decreased from 25.5% (95%CI: 22.5–28.6) to 22.9% (20.3–25.5). During this period, hypertriglyceridemia prevalence decreased (33.5% to 24.3%), as did elevated blood pressure (32.3% to 24.0%). The prevalence of hyperglycemia increased (12.9% to 19.9%), as did elevated waist circumference (45.4% to 56.1%). These trends varied considerably by gender and race/ethnicity groups. Decreases in elevated blood pressure, suboptimal triglycerides and HDL-C prevalence have corresponded with increases in anti-hypertensive and lipid-modifying drugs, respectively.
Conclusion
The increasing prevalence of abdominal obesity, particularly among females, highlights the urgency of addressing abdominal obesity as a healthcare priority. The use of therapies for MetS components aligns with favorable trends in their prevalence.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.064
PMCID: PMC3756561  PMID: 23810877
Metabolic syndrome; waist circumference; hypertriglyceridemia; hyperglycemia; hypertension
13.  Physical and Mental Factors Associated with Obesity in Individuals with Mental Disorders Attending Psychiatric Day-Care Facilities 
Yonago Acta medica  2013;56(1):1-6.
Background
Individuals with mental disorders have increased rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Here we evaluated factors influencing obesity in individuals with mental disorders who were attending psychiatric day-care facilities on an outpatient basis.
Methods
The subjects (n = 108) were outpatients attending hospital-based rehabilitation programs. We assessed body fat, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS) scores, frequency of day-care visits, satisfaction with body shape, physical comorbidity and lifestyle habits. Lifestyle habits were evaluated using Breslow's health index based on health-related choices.
Results
The subjects were divided into 2 groups: obese group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and non-obese group (BMI < 25 kg/m2). The physical parameters and attributes of both groups were compared, and factors related to BMI were statistically analyzed. The prevalence of obesity was 47.2% in all patients, 42.4% in males and 54.8% in females. Weight, waist circumference, body fat and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group. Body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure exhibited significant positive correlations with BMI, whereas the frequency of day-care visits, satisfaction with body shape, GDS score and Breslow's health index exhibited significant negative correlations with BMI.
Conclusion
The present results showed that the prevalence of obesity was high in outpatients with mental disorders. Improvement in lifestyle choices is necessary to prevent obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome in such patients.
PMCID: PMC3760492  PMID: 24031145
Breslow’s health index; metabolic syndrome; mental disorder; obesity; psychiatric day-care facility
14.  Gender-related differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates in urban Tanzania 
Background
Urban areas in Africa suffer a serious problem with dual burden of infectious diseases and emerging chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes which pose a serious threat to population health and health care resources. However in East Africa, there is limited literature in this research area. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates among adults in Temeke, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results of this study will help inform future research and potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against such chronic diseases.
Methods
The study design was a cross sectional epidemiological study. A total of 209 participants aged between 44 and 66 years were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to measure lipid profile and fasting glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined using World Health Organization criteria.
Results
The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was 13% and 35%, among men and women (p = 0.0003), respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 11% and 58% (p < 0.0001), and high WHR (men: >0.9, women: >0.85) was 51% and 73% (p = 0.002) for men and women respectively. Women had 4.3 times greater odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.9–10.1), 14.2–fold increased odds for abdominal adiposity (95% CI: 5.8–34.6), and 2.8 times greater odds of high waist-hip-ratio (95% CI: 1.4–5.7), compared to men. Women had more than three-fold greater odds of having metabolic syndrome (p = 0.001) compared to male counterparts, including abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and high fasting blood glucose components. In contrast, female participants had 50% lower odds of having hypertension, compared to men (95%CI: 0.3–1.0). Among men, BMI and waist circumference were significantly correlated with blood pressure, triglycerides, total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol (BMI only), and fasting glucose; in contrast, only blood pressure was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in women.
Conclusion
The prevalence of CVD risk factors was high in this population, particularly among women. Health promotion, primary prevention, and health screening strategies are needed to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Tanzania.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-9-30
PMCID: PMC2723083  PMID: 19615066
15.  The potential impact of family history of metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: In a highly endogamous population 
Aim:
This study aims to determine the potential impact of positive family history of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among two generations, on developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and the potential relation of consanguineous marriage among patients with MetS to the risk of developing T2DM among a sample of Qataris.
Design:
A cross-sectional study.
Setting:
Primary healthcare (PHC) centers.
Materials and Methods:
The survey and measurement were conducted from April 2011 to December 2012 among Qatari nationals above 20 years of age. Of the 2,182 subjects, who were approached to participate in the study, 1,552 (71%) gave their consent. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire followed by anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) as well as International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
Results:
Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 26.2% according to ATP III and 36.9% according to IDF (P < 0.0001). The mean age of MetS patients with T2DM was significantly higher than those without T2DM (Mean 48 ± 9.9 vs. 42.5 ± 9.2; P < 0.001). The proportion of females was higher among MetS patients with T2DM as compared to those without T2DM (61% vs. 51%; P = 0.053). In addition, there were significant differences between MetS patients with and without DM in terms of co-morbidities of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and high cholesterol. The proportion of MetS patients with positive family history for MetS was significantly higher in MetS patients with T2DM as compared to those without T2DM (46.7% vs. 33.8%; P = 0.009). The proportion of positive family history of MetS among fathers (35% vs. 21.9%; P = 0.005), mothers (30.5% vs. 18.8%; P = 0.008), maternal aunt (18.3% vs. 11.2%; P = 0.055), and maternal grand father (19.5% vs. 10%; P = 0.010) were significantly higher in MetS patients with T2DM as compared to the counterpart. The proportion of consanguineous marriages was almost two times higher among MetS patients with T2DM as compared to those without T2DM (80.9% vs. 41.9%; P < 0.001). The proportion of MetS patients with T2DM was lower than MetS patients without DM below 45 years, but after 45 years, the proportion of MetS patients with T2DM remained higher than their counterparts.
Conclusion:
Family history of MetS among parents, maternal aunt, maternal grandfather, and consanguineous marriages among patients of MetS are significantly associated with the development of T2DM in Qatar. These results support the necessity of earlier screening for T2DM among MetS patients with positive family history of MetS.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.129112
PMCID: PMC3987271  PMID: 24741517
Consanguinity; correlates; diabetes mellitus; genetics; metabolic syndrome; prevalence
16.  Epidemiological Studies of the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease in Japan: A Pediatric Perspective in Present Day Japan 
The origins of adult disease are considered to relate to fetal undernutrition, and this concept is termed “developmental origins of adult health and disease” (DOHaD). Here, we describe several epidemiological studies performed in Japan and discuss whether DOHaD is applicable to children in present day Japan. In a study of healthy children and young adults, it was found that systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and adiponectin were associated with birth weight. Hyperinsulinemia, high blood pressure, elevated transaminase levels and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese children were inversely correlated with birth weight and positively correlated with current weight and waist circumference. Birth weight was related to the development of type 2 diabetes in children. DOHaD is therefore considered to be applicable in Japan. The key considerations of DOHaD are the following two mismatches. The first mismatch pertains to growth and development in response to environmental influences, especially those of nutrition. The second mismatch pertains to the prenatal versus postnatal environment. We consider that the chance of children in present day Japan developing adult diseases is determined by the above mismatches. Pediatricians and schoolteachers should therefore understand the concept of DOHaD, so that they can educate both children and their families regarding an appropriate diet to reduce the likelihood of developing adult diseases in later life.
doi:10.1297/cpe.19.83
PMCID: PMC3687626  PMID: 23926383
birth weight; obesity; blood pressure; insulin; adiponectin
17.  The Contribution of Abdominal Obesity and Dyslipidemia to Metabolic Syndrome in Psychiatric Patients 
Background/Aims
Metabolic syndrome is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients in order to identify the dominant factors of metabolic syndrome.
Methods
We enrolled 225 patients who had been admitted to a chronic psychiatric hospital from October 2005 to February 2006. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was assessed based on the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP)-III with the new criterion of waist circumference in the Asia-Pacific Region.
Results
The study population was relatively young (41.1 ± 8.8 years) and obese (waist in men, 91.3 ± 9.2 cm; waist in women, 84.1 ± 8.8 cm). Sixty percent of patients met the waist criterion of metabolic syndrome and 56% met the low high density lipoprotein (HDL) criterion. The mean serum triglycerides were high (170.0 ± 119.7 mg/dL) and 46% of patients met the triglyceride criterion. In contrast, less than 10% of patients showed impaired fasting glucose or high blood pressure (5%, 9%, respectively). The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.2% by applying ATP-III criteria (40% in men and 20% in women, respectively). No specific anti-psychotic drugs were related to significant increase in the incidence of metabolic syndrome.
Conclusions
Abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia (low HDL and high triglycerides) were dominant contributing factors of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients, and the affected age groups were relatively young. These findings indicate that active and early screening, including triglycerides, HDL, and waist measurement, are absolutely essential to managing metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2010.25.2.168
PMCID: PMC2880690  PMID: 20526390
Antipsychotic agents; Dyslipidemias; Metabolic syndrome X; Obesity; Mental disorders
18.  The Metabolic Syndrome among Postmenopausal Women in Gorgan 
Introduction. The present study aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Gorgan, Iran. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on hundred postmenopausal women who were referred to the health centers in Gorgan. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines. Results. The mean body mass index, waist circumference, hip, circumference waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly high among postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome, but the mean HDL-cholesterol was significantly low (P < 0.05). Overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 31%. Body mass index and waist circumference had a positive correlation with a number of metabolic syndrome factors (P < 0.001). Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio had a positive correlation with each other (P < 0.001). BMI had relatively high correlation with WC (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our results show that postmenopausal status might be a predictor of metabolic syndrome. Low HDL-cholesterol level and high abdominal obesity are the most frequent characteristics in comparison to other metabolic components. Our study also showed some related factors of metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women. These factors may increase cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.
doi:10.1155/2012/953627
PMCID: PMC3296160  PMID: 22518135
19.  Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Survey in Malaysia 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e46365.
Introduction
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country.
Methods
In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.
Results
The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73), respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92), 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36), and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11). The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001.
Conclusions
The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young ages.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046365
PMCID: PMC3460855  PMID: 23029497
20.  Long-Term Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes and Measures of Overall and Regional Obesity: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(6):e1001230.
A collaborative re-analysis of data from the InterAct case-control study conducted by Claudia Langenberg and colleagues has established that waist circumference is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, independently of body mass index.
Background
Waist circumference (WC) is a simple and reliable measure of fat distribution that may add to the prediction of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but previous studies have been too small to reliably quantify the relative and absolute risk of future diabetes by WC at different levels of body mass index (BMI).
Methods and Findings
The prospective InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 26 centres in eight European countries and consists of 12,403 incident T2D cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We used Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analysis methods to estimate hazard ratios for T2D. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of T2D were calculated. BMI and WC were each independently associated with T2D, with WC being a stronger risk factor in women than in men. Risk increased across groups defined by BMI and WC; compared to low normal weight individuals (BMI 18.5–22.4 kg/m2) with a low WC (<94/80 cm in men/women), the hazard ratio of T2D was 22.0 (95% confidence interval 14.3; 33.8) in men and 31.8 (25.2; 40.2) in women with grade 2 obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m2) and a high WC (>102/88 cm). Among the large group of overweight individuals, WC measurement was highly informative and facilitated the identification of a subgroup of overweight people with high WC whose 10-y T2D cumulative incidence (men, 70 per 1,000 person-years; women, 44 per 1,000 person-years) was comparable to that of the obese group (50–103 per 1,000 person-years in men and 28–74 per 1,000 person-years in women).
Conclusions
WC is independently and strongly associated with T2D, particularly in women, and should be more widely measured for risk stratification. If targeted measurement is necessary for reasons of resource scarcity, measuring WC in overweight individuals may be an effective strategy, since it identifies a high-risk subgroup of individuals who could benefit from individualised preventive action.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Worldwide, more than 350 million people have diabetes, and this number is increasing rapidly. Diabetes is characterized by dangerous levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Blood sugar levels are usually controlled by insulin, a hormone that the pancreas releases after meals (digestion of food produces glucose). In people with type 2 diabetes (the commonest form of diabetes), blood sugar control fails because the fat and muscle cells that normally respond to insulin by removing sugar from the blood become insulin resistant. Type 2 diabetes can be controlled with diet and exercise, and with drugs that help the pancreas make more insulin or that make cells more sensitive to insulin. The long-term complications of diabetes, which include an increased risk of heart disease and stroke, reduce the life expectancy of people with diabetes by about 10 years compared to people without diabetes.
Why Was This Study Done?
A high body mass index (BMI, a measure of body fat calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared) is a strong predictor of type 2 diabetes. Although the risk of diabetes is greatest in obese people (who have a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m2), many of the people who develop diabetes are overweight—they have a BMI of 25–30 kg/m2. Healthy eating and exercise reduce the incidence of diabetes in high-risk individuals, but it is difficult and expensive to provide all overweight and obese people with individual lifestyle advice. Ideally, a way is needed to distinguish between people with high and low risk of developing diabetes at different levels of BMI. Waist circumference is a measure of fat distribution that has the potential to quantify diabetes risk among people with different BMIs because it estimates the amount of fat around the abdominal organs, which also predicts diabetes development. In this case-cohort study, the researchers use data from the InterAct study (which is investigating how genetics and lifestyle interact to affect diabetes risk) to estimate the long-term risk of type 2 diabetes associated with BMI and waist circumference. A case-cohort study measures exposure to potential risk factors in a group (cohort) of people and compares the occurrence of these risk factors in people who later develop the disease and in a randomly chosen subcohort.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers estimated the association of BMI and waist circumference with type 2 diabetes from baseline measurements of the weight, height, and waist circumference of 12,403 people who subsequently developed type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 16,154 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Both risk factors were independently associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but waist circumference was a stronger risk factor in women than in men. Obese men (BMI greater than 35 kg/m2) with a high waist circumference (greater than 102 cm) were 22 times more likely to develop diabetes than men with a low normal weight (BMI 18.5–22.4 kg/m2) and a low waist circumference (less than 94 cm); obese women with a waist circumference of more than 88 cm were 31.8 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than women with a low normal weight and waist circumference (less than 80 cm). Importantly, among overweight people, waist circumference measurements identified a subgroup of overweight people (those with a high waist circumference) whose 10-year cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes was similar to that of obese people.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that, among people of European descent, waist circumference is independently and strongly associated with type 2 diabetes, particularly among women. Additional studies are needed to confirm this association in other ethnic groups. Targeted measurement of waist circumference in overweight individuals (who now account for a third of the US and UK adult population) could be an effective strategy for the prevention of diabetes because it would allow the identification of a high-risk subgroup of people who might benefit from individualized lifestyle advice.
Additional Information
Please access these web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001230.
The US National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse provides information about diabetes for patients, health care professionals, and the general public, including detailed information on diabetes prevention (in English and Spanish)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information on all aspects of overweight and obesity (including some information in Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information for patients and carers about type 2 diabetes, about the prevention of type 2 diabetes, and about obesity; it also includes peoples stories about diabetes and about obesity
The charity Diabetes UK also provides detailed information for patients and carers, including information on healthy lifestyles for people with diabetes, and has a further selection of stories from people with diabetes; the charity Healthtalkonline has interviews with people about their experiences of diabetes
More information on the InterAct study is available
MedlinePlus provides links to further resources and advice about diabetes and diabetes prevention and about obesity (in English and Spanish)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001230
PMCID: PMC3367997  PMID: 22679397
21.  Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in relation to socioeconomic status among Jamaican young adults: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:307.
Background
The metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in many countries and has been associated with socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components among Jamaican young adults and evaluate its association with parental SES.
Methods
A subset of the participants from the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort was evaluated at ages 18-20 years between 2005 and 2007. Trained research nurses obtained blood pressure and anthropometric measurements and collected a venous blood sample for measurement of lipids and glucose. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components were estimated using the 2009 Consensus Criteria from the International Diabetes Federation, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, American Heart Association, World Heart Federation, International Atherosclerosis Society, and International Association for the Study of Obesity. SES was assessed by questionnaire using occupation of household head, highest education of parent/guardian, and housing tenure of parent/guardian. Analysis yielded means and proportions for metabolic syndrome variables and covariates. Associations with levels of SES variables were obtained using analysis of variance. Multivariable analysis was conducted using logistic regression models.
Results
Data from 839 participants (378 males; 461 females) were analyzed. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.5%-1.9%). Prevalence was higher in females (1.7% vs. 0.5%). Prevalence of the components [male: female] were: central obesity, 16.0% [5.3:24.7]; elevated blood pressure, 6.7% [10.8:3.3]; elevated glucose, 1.2% [2.1:0.4]; low HDL, 46.8% [28.8:61.6]; high triglycerides, 0.6% [0.5:0.6]. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome for any of the SES measures used possibly due to lack of statistical power. Prevalence of central obesity was inversely associated with occupation (highly skilled 12.4%, skilled 13.5%, semi-skilled/unskilled 21.8%, p = 0.013) and education (tertiary 12.5%, secondary 14.1%, primary/all-age 28.4%, p = 0.002). In sex-specific multivariate logistic regression adjusted for hip circumference, central obesity remained associated with occupation and education for women only.
Conclusion
Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is low, but central obesity and low HDL are present in 16% and 47% of Jamaican youth, respectively. Central obesity is inversely associated with occupation and education in females.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-307
PMCID: PMC2898824  PMID: 20525300
22.  Prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome in a group of light and heavy smokers 
Background
Smoking is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is widely accepted as a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Smoking reduces insulin sensitivity or induces insulin resistance and enhances cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated plasma triglycerides, decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and causes hyperglycemia. Several studies show that smoking is associated with metabolic abnormalities and increases the risk of Metabolic Syndrome. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of light and heavy smokers, wishing to give up smoking.
Methods
In this cross-sectional study all the enrolled subjects voluntary joined the smoking cessation program held by the Respiratory Pathophysiology Unit of San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Northern Italy.
All the subjects enrolled were former smokers from at least 10 years and had no cancer or psychiatric disorders, nor history of diabetes or CVD or coronary artery disease and were not on any medication.
Results
The subjects smoke 32.3 ± 16.5 mean Pack Years. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 52.1%: 57.3% and 44.9% for males and females respectively. Analysing the smoking habit influence on the IDF criteria for the metabolic syndrome diagnosis we found that all the variables show an increasing trend from light to heavy smokers, except for HDL cholesterol. A statistical significant correlation among Pack Years and waist circumference (R = 0.48, p < 0.0001), Systolic Blood Pressure (R = 0.18, p < 0.05), fasting plasma glucose (R = 0.19, p < 0.005) and HDL cholesterol (R = −0.26, p = 0.0005) has been observed.
Conclusions
Currently smoking subjects are at high risk of developing the metabolic syndrome.
Therapeutic lifestyle changes, including smoking cessation are a desirable Public health goal and should successfully be implemented in clinical practice at any age.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-5-28
PMCID: PMC3673853  PMID: 23721527
Metabolic syndrome; Smoking habit; Insulin resistance; Overweight; Waist circumference
23.  Impact of metabolic syndrome and its components on cardiovascular disease event rates in 4900 patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to placebo in the field randomised trial 
Background
Patients with the metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events.We aimed to establish whether CVD event rates were influenced by the metabolic syndrome as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and to determine which component(s) of the metabolic syndrome (MS) conferred the highest cardiovascular risk in in 4900 patients with type 2 diabetes allocated to placebo in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) trial.
Research design and methods
We determined the influence of MS variables, as defined by NCEP ATPIII, IDF and WHO, on CVD risk over 5 years, after adjustment for CVD, sex, HbA1c, creatinine, and age, and interactions between the MS variables in a Cox proportional-hazards model.
Results
About 80% had hypertension, and about half had other features of the metabolic syndrome (IDF, ATPIII). There was no difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome variables between those with and without CVD at study entry. The WHO definition identified those at higher CVD risk across both sexes, all ages, and in those without prior CVD, while the ATPIII definition predicted risk only in those aged over 65 years and in men but not in women. Patients meeting the IDF definition did not have higher risk than those without IDF MS.
CVD risk was strongly influenced by prior CVD, sex, age (particularly in women), baseline HbA1c, renal dysfunction, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (low HDL-c, triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/L). The combination of low HDL-c and marked hypertriglyceridemia (> 2.3 mmol/L) increased CVD risk by 41%. Baseline systolic blood pressure increased risk by 16% per 10 mmHg in those with no prior CVD, but had no effect in those with CVD. In those without prior CVD, increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome variables (excluding waist) escalated risk.
Conclusion
Absence of the metabolic syndrome (by the WHO definition) identifies diabetes patients without prior CVD, who have a lower risk of future CVD events. Hypertension and dyslipidemia increase risk.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-10-102
PMCID: PMC3286386  PMID: 22104275
24.  Identifying Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Using Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2008;5(4):A115.
Introduction
Metabolic syndrome is increasing among adolescents. We examined the utility of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to identify metabolic syndrome in adolescent girls.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 185 predominantly African American girls who were a median age of 14 years. Participants were designated as having metabolic syndrome if they met criteria for 3 of 5 variables: 1) high blood pressure, 2) low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 3) high fasting blood glucose level, 4) high waist circumference, and 5) high triglyceride level. We predicted the likelihood of the presence of metabolic syndrome by using previously established cutpoints of BMI and waist circumference. We used stepwise regression analysis to determine whether anthropometric measurements significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.
Results
Of total participants, 18% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. BMI for 118 (64%) participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 25% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 4% of participants with a BMI below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001). Girls with a BMI above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a BMI below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002). The waist circumference for 104 (56%) participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 28% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 1% of participants with a waist circumference below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001). Girls with a waist circumference above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a waist circumference below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002). Stepwise regression showed that only waist circumference significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.
Conclusion
Both anthropometric measures were useful screening tools to identify metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference was a better predictor of metabolic syndrome than was BMI in our study sample of predominantly African American female adolescents living in an urban area.
PMCID: PMC2578768  PMID: 18793503
25.  The prevalence of syndrome Z (the interaction of obstructive sleep apnoea with the metabolic syndrome) in a teaching hospital in Singapore 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2007;83(979):329-331.
Background
Syndrome Z describes the interaction of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with the metabolic syndrome.
Purpose of study
A pilot study to determine the prevalence of syndrome Z in a teaching hospital in Singapore.
Methods
Patients (age ⩾18 years) recruited for this prospective study had to satisfy three of the following five inclusion criteria: fasting glucose >6.1 mmol/l, blood pressure ⩾130/85 mm Hg, HDL cholesterol <1.04 mmol/l in men and <1.2 mmol/l in women, triglycerides ⩾1.7 mmol/l, and a waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women. All subjects underwent standard overnight polysomnography. Overnight fasting glucose and lipid levels were measured and baseline anthropometric data recorded. All sleep studies were scored and reported by a sleep physician. OSA was deemed to be present if the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was ⩾5, with mild, moderate and severe categories classified according to the Chicago criteria.
Results
There were 24 patients (19 males and five females) of whom 10 were Chinese, eight Malay and five of Indian origin, with one other. Mean age was 48±13.5 years, mean body mass index was 34.9±6.1 kg/m2 and mean waist circumference was 111.3±15.7 cm. 23 (95.8%) of the patients had OSA with a mean RDI of 39.6±22.4 events/h with 15 patients (62.5%) in the severe category. The five patients who fulfilled all five criteria for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome had severe OSA.
Conclusion
The prevalence of OSA in our studied population exhibiting the metabolic syndrome is very high. Therefore, a polysomnogram should always be considered for this subset of patients.
doi:10.1136/pgmj.2006.051805
PMCID: PMC2600079  PMID: 17488863
glucose; pilot study; polysomnography; prevalence; sleep

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