Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-25 (1492466)

Clipboard (0)

Related Articles

1.  Metabolic Syndrome among Type-2 Diabetic Patients in Benghazi-Libya: A pilot study 
The Libyan Journal of Medicine  2008;3(4):177-180.
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three out of five conditions that are due to hyperinsulinemia: abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and/or low HDL), elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. The syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus and often precedes the onset of hyperglycemia. It has been shown that metabolic syndrome is an independent clinical indicator of macroand microvascular complications in diabetics.
Aim and objectives
the aim of this pilot study was to estimate the frequency and characteristics of metabolic syndrome among type-2 diabetic patients in Benghazi. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study involved 99 randomly selected adult patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The patients were interviewed and examined, and their lipid profiles were checked 9-12 hours after overnight fasting. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
About 92% of the patients had the metabolic syndrome according to ATP III criteria and 80.8% according to IDF criteria. Females were more affected, males with metabolic syndrome were significantly older, and females were significantly more obese. No significant difference was observed between males and females regarding waist circumference, HDL level and triglyceride level. The commonest and most important component of metabolic syndrome in the study group was low HDL.
Metabolic syndrome is common among Libyans with type-2 diabetes mellitus, and it is significantly more common in females than males. The most significant predictor of metabolic syndrome in type-2 diabetic patients in Benghazi is low HDL.
PMCID: PMC3074309  PMID: 21499470
Metabolic; diabetes; hypertension; dyslipidemia; obesity; Benghazi; Libya
2.  A pilot study on metabolic syndrome and its associated features among Qatari schoolchildren 
This pilot study aimed to evaluate the individual features of the metabolic syndrome (MeS) and its frequency in Qatari schoolchildren aged 6–12 years.
MeS has a strong future risk for development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is increasing the likelihood of MeS in children.
The associated features of MeS were assessed in 67 children. They were recruited from the outpatient pediatric clinic at Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured and body mass index was calculated for each child. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) were measured. MeS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-III) which was modified by Cook with adjustment for fasting glucose to ≥5.6 mM according to recommendations from the American Diabetes Association.
The overall prevalence of MeS according to NCEP-III criteria was 3.0% in children aged 6–12 years. Overweight and obesity was 31.3% in children aged 6–12 years, according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. The prevalence of MeS was 9.5% in overweight and obese subjects. Increased TG levels represented the most frequent abnormality (28.4%) in metabolic syndrome features in all subjects, followed by HDL-C (19.4%) in all subjects.
Increased TG levels and low HDL-C were the most frequent components of this syndrome. This study showed a significant prevalence of MeS and associated features among overweight and obese children. The overall prevalence of MeS in Qatari children is in accordance with data from several other countries.
PMCID: PMC3150174  PMID: 21845059
metabolic syndrome; National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III; schoolchildren; Qatar
3.  Metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who do not have obesity or type 2 diabetes 
Clinics  2012;67(3):219-223.
The individual components of metabolic syndrome may be independent predictors of mortality in patients with liver disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related components in hepatitis C virus–infected patients who are not obese and do not have type 2 diabetes.
This cross-sectional study included 125 patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Anthropometric data were measured according to standardized procedures. Bioimpedance analysis was performed on all patients.
Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 21.6% of patients. Of the subjects with metabolic syndrome, 59.3% had hypertension, 77.8% had insulin resistance, 85.2% were overweight, 48.1% had a high waist circumference, 85.2% had an increased body fat percentage, and 92.3% had an elevated waist:hip ratio. In the bivariate analysis, female sex (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.09–6.25), elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT) (OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.04–7.29), elevated fasting glucose (OR 8.05; 95% CI: 3.17-21.32), low HDL cholesterol (OR 2.80; 95% CI: 1.07–7.16), hypertriglyceridemia (OR 7.91; 95% CI: 2.88–22.71), elevated waist circumference (OR 10.33; 95% CI: 3.72–30.67), overweight (OR 11.33; 95% CI: 3.97–41.07), and increased body fat percentage (OR 8.34; 95% CI: 2.94–30.08) were independent determinants of metabolic syndrome. Using the final multivariate regression model, similar results were observed for abdominal fat (OR 9.98; 95% CI: 2.63–44.41) and total body fat percentage (OR 8.73; 95% CI: 2.33–42.34). However, metabolic syndrome risk was also high for those with blood glucose ≥5.55 mmol/L or HDL cholesterol <0.9 mmol/L (OR 16.69; 95% CI: 4.64–76.35; OR 7.23; 95% CI: 1.86–32.63, respectively).
Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among hepatitis C virus–infected patients without type 2 diabetes or obesity. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with hypertension, insulin resistance, increased abdominal fat, and overweight.
PMCID: PMC3297029  PMID: 22473401
Metabolic Syndrome; Chronic Hepatitis C; Genotype 1; Overweight; Insulin Resistance
4.  Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Population from Zahedan, Southeast Iran 
The metabolic syndrome (MES) is associated with a high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome as well as cut-off points for waist circumference (WC) for diagnosis of MES in Zahedan, southeast Iran.
Totally, 1802 people (735 men and 1067 women) with metabolic syndrome were surveyed according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria as well as obtained WC cut-off points for IDF criteria.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women than in men. In both sexes the prevalence increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 1802 individuals aged ≥19 years according to NCEP ATP III, IDF and IDF -AHA/NHLBI were 21.0% (15.4% in male, 24.9% female), 24.8 (20.0% in male, 28.1% in female) and 23.3% (19.7% in male, 25.8% in female), respectively. Low HDL-C (60.6%) and high WC (43.3%) were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome, followed by high triglycerides (32%), elevated glucose (17.1%) and high blood pressure (13%).
Our data shows a high prevalence of MES in Zahedan, Southeast Iran, therefore, future health prevention strategies are required for the prevention of MES.
PMCID: PMC3481671  PMID: 23113137
Metabolic syndrome; Waist circumference; Epidemiology; Iran
5.  Prevalence and clustering of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults in Shanghai, China 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:683.
Type 2 diabetes is becoming an epidemic in China. To evaluate the prevalence, clustering of metabolic risk factors and their impact on type 2 diabetes, we conducted a population-based study in Shanghai, China's largest metropolitan area.
From 2006 to 2007, 2,113 type 2 diabetes cases and 2,458 comparable controls of adults aged 40 to 79 years were enrolled. Demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors were assessed via standardized questionnaires. Plasma, red and white blood cells were collected and stored for future studies. Anthropometric indices and biochemical intermediates (including blood pressure, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and blood lipids) were measured. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome were also compared following two criteria recommended by the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS, 2004) and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III, 2002).
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (62% vs. 15% using CDS criteria) and its individual components, including obesity (51% vs. 42%), hypertension (54% vs. 41%), hypertriglyceridemia (42% vs. 32%), and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) levels (36% vs. 25%) were higher in diabetes cases than controls. Regardless of criteria used, those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) had similarly high prevalence of metabolic syndrome as did diabetes cases. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for demographics and lifestyle risk factors, the odds ratios of diabetes (95% CI) were 1.23 (1.04-1.45) for overweight (28 >= BMI >= 24), 1.81 (1.45-2.25) for obesity (BMI > 28), 1.53 (1.30-1.80) for central obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm for woman or waist circumference > 85 cm for man), 1.36 (1.17-1.59) for hypertension (sbp/dbp >= 140/90 mmHg), 1.55 (1.32-1.82) for high triglycerides (triglycerides > 1.70 mmol/l) and 1.52 (1.23-1.79) for low HDL-C (HDL-C < 1.04 mmol/L).
These data indicate that multiple metabolic risk factors--individually or jointly--were more prevalent in diabetes patients than in controls. Further research will examine hypotheses concerning the high prevalence of IFG, family history, and central obesity, aiding development of multifaceted preventive strategies specific to this population.
PMCID: PMC2989965  PMID: 21062480
6.  Prevalence of Premorbid Metabolic Syndrome in Spanish Adult Workers Using IDF and ATPIII Diagnostic Criteria: Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk Factors 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89281.
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined as a cluster of interconnected risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and high blood glucose levels. Premorbid metabolic syndrome (PMetS) is defined by excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus from those suffering MetS. We aimed to determine the prevalence of PMetS in a working population, and to analyse the relationship between the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII). The relationship between the presence of PMetS and cardiovascular risk factors was also analysed.
Research Methodology/Findings
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24,529 male and 18,736 female Spanish (white western European) adult workers (20–65 years) randomly selected during their work health periodic examinations. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and serum parameters were measured. The presence of MetS and PMetS was ascertained using ATPIII and IDF criteria. Cardiovascular risk was determined using the Framingham-REGICOR equation. The results showed MetS had an adjusted global prevalence of 12.39% using ATPIII criteria and 16.46% using IDF criteria. The prevalence of PMetS was slightly lower (11.21% using ATPIII criteria and 14.72% using IDF criteria). Prevalence in males was always higher than in females. Participants with PMetS displayed higher values of BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides, and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Logistic regression models reported lower PMetS risk for females, non-obese subjects, non-smokers and younger participants. Cardiovascular risk determined with Framingham-REGICOR was higher in participants with PMetS.
PMetS could be a reliable tool for the early identification of apparently healthy individuals who have a significant risk for developing cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3930690  PMID: 24586656
7.  Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:333.
With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs.
A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007) growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP) was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG) and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). International Diabetes Federation (2007) criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome.
Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245) Malay, 30.9% (n = 124) Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33) Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8), followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1) and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7). Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p < 0.01). Overweight/obese children had higher odds (OR = 16.3; 95%CI 2.2, 461.1) of developing the metabolic syndrome compared to normal-weight children. Binary logistic regression showed no significant association between age, gender and family history of communicable diseases with the metabolic syndrome. However, for ethnicity, Indians were found to have higher odds (OR = 5.5; 95%CI 1.5, 20.5) compared to Malays, with Chinese children (OR = 0.3; 95%CI 0.0, 2.7) having the lowest odds.
We conclude that being overweight or obese poses a greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome among children. Indian ethnicity is at higher risk compared to their counterparts of the same age. Hence, primary intervention strategies are required to prevent this problem from escalating.
PMCID: PMC3111384  PMID: 21592367
8.  Metabolic Syndrome in School Children in Mardin, South-Eastern of Turkey 
The Eurasian Journal of Medicine  2014;46(3):156-163.
To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in a school children population.
Materials and Methods:
Three thousand four hundred and sixty children aged between 7 and 15 in three elementary schools in the city of Mardin, located in the south-eastern region of Turkey, were included in this study in April and May 2011. Age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and a variety of blood tests were done. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used for the diagnosis of MES.
It was found that 9.42% of those tested were overweight, and 8.0% were obese. The study found that more girls (9.1%) were obese than girls (6.9%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.001). A positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) and the other parameters, namely waist and hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), triglyceride (TG) (p=0.0001). It was found that total cholesterol (T-Chol), TG, BMI, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly different among obese MES’s group and non-obese children (p<0.05). The waist/hip ratio reference value in girls was significantly higher than boys (p>0.05). The prevalence of MES was 6.3%. The number of components of MES was higher in girls and obese children. The rate of MES was 30.3% in obese children.
The frequency of obesity, hypertension and MES in childhood period have been steadily increasing. Children who are classified having central obesity and high body mass index should be more carefully evaluated to its potential to progress to MES. And the quality of the life should be improved by reducing the risks resulted from life style changes, necessary treatments and follow ups.
PMCID: PMC4299848  PMID: 25610318
Childhood obesity; metabolic syndrome; hypertension
9.  Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Group of U.S. Eighth-Grade Adolescents and Associations With Fasting Insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Levels  
Diabetes Care  2008;31(10):2020-2025.
OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF)–defined metabolic syndrome and its components among a cross-sectional sample of racially/ethnically diverse eighth grade youths and examine the association between the presence of the syndrome and participant fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data were from a cross-sectional study with 1,453 racially/ethnically diverse eighth grade students from 12 middle schools in three U.S. states (Texas, North Carolina, and California). Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose, and insulin; HOMA-IR was calculated. Sex, race/ethnicity, and pubertal stage were self-reported. IDF criteria were used to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The odds ratio for being classified with the syndrome was calculated by quintiles of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR.
RESULTS—Of the sample, 138 students (9.5%) were classified with metabolic syndrome. Hispanics were more likely to have high abdominal adiposity and high triglycerides. Male adolescents were more likely to have high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. Participants in the highest insulin quintile were almost 200 times more likely to be classified with the syndrome than participants in the lowest quintile with comparable associations for HOMA-IR quintiles.
CONCLUSIONS—In a racially/ethnically diverse sample of U.S. adolescents, 9.5% of participants were identified with the metabolic syndrome using the IDF criteria. The likelihood of metabolic syndrome classification significantly increased with higher insulin and HOMA-IR values.
PMCID: PMC2551648  PMID: 18591405
10.  Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in adults of Talca city, Chile 
Nutrition Journal  2008;7:14.
Insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a clustering of metabolic alterations associated to IR; however, there is no international consensus for defining its diagnosis. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of MS identified by the ATP III and IDF criteria in adults from Talca city.
Research and methods-
We studied 1007 individuals, aged 18–74, and residents from Talca. MS subjects were defined according to ATP III (three altered factors) and IDF criteria (patients with waist circumference >80/90 cm (W/M) and two others altered factors).
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the IDF and ATP III criteria was 36.4% and 29.5%, respectively after adjustment for age and sex. The agreement for both criteria was 89%. The prevalence in men was higher than in women for both MS definitions, although not significant. MS probability increased with age, and the highest risk was in the 57–68 age group (ATP-MS) and 53–72 age group (IDF-MS). Hypertension, high triglycerides and abdominal obesity are the most frequent alterations in MS.
MS prevalence in adults was higher when diagnosed with IDF than with ATP criterion; in both, age is directly related with the MS presence. The MS subjects showed higher levels of blood pressure, waist circumference and plasma triglycerides. Considering our results, it is worrisome that one third of our population has a high risk of developing DM2 and CVD in the future.
PMCID: PMC2397433  PMID: 18482457
11.  Prevalence and trends of Metabolic Syndrome in the adult US population, 1999–2010 
To characterize the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its five components and their pharmacological treatment in US adults by gender and race over time.
MetS is a constellation of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Prevalence estimates were estimated in adults (≥20 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2010 (in 2-year survey waves). The biological thresholds, defined by the 2009 Joint Scientific Statement, were: (1) waist circumference ≥ 102 cm (males), and ≥ 88 cm (females) (2) fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl (3) blood pressure of ≥130/85 mm Hg (4) triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl (5) high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dl (males) and <50 mg/dl (females). Prescription drug use was estimated for lipid-modifying agents, anti-hypertensives, and anti-hyperglycemic medications.
From 1999/2000 to 2009/10, the age-adjusted prevalence of MetS (based on biologic thresholds) decreased from 25.5% (95%CI: 22.5–28.6) to 22.9% (20.3–25.5). During this period, hypertriglyceridemia prevalence decreased (33.5% to 24.3%), as did elevated blood pressure (32.3% to 24.0%). The prevalence of hyperglycemia increased (12.9% to 19.9%), as did elevated waist circumference (45.4% to 56.1%). These trends varied considerably by gender and race/ethnicity groups. Decreases in elevated blood pressure, suboptimal triglycerides and HDL-C prevalence have corresponded with increases in anti-hypertensive and lipid-modifying drugs, respectively.
The increasing prevalence of abdominal obesity, particularly among females, highlights the urgency of addressing abdominal obesity as a healthcare priority. The use of therapies for MetS components aligns with favorable trends in their prevalence.
PMCID: PMC3756561  PMID: 23810877
Metabolic syndrome; waist circumference; hypertriglyceridemia; hyperglycemia; hypertension
12.  Physical and Mental Factors Associated with Obesity in Individuals with Mental Disorders Attending Psychiatric Day-Care Facilities 
Yonago Acta medica  2013;56(1):1-6.
Individuals with mental disorders have increased rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Here we evaluated factors influencing obesity in individuals with mental disorders who were attending psychiatric day-care facilities on an outpatient basis.
The subjects (n = 108) were outpatients attending hospital-based rehabilitation programs. We assessed body fat, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS) scores, frequency of day-care visits, satisfaction with body shape, physical comorbidity and lifestyle habits. Lifestyle habits were evaluated using Breslow's health index based on health-related choices.
The subjects were divided into 2 groups: obese group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and non-obese group (BMI < 25 kg/m2). The physical parameters and attributes of both groups were compared, and factors related to BMI were statistically analyzed. The prevalence of obesity was 47.2% in all patients, 42.4% in males and 54.8% in females. Weight, waist circumference, body fat and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group. Body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure exhibited significant positive correlations with BMI, whereas the frequency of day-care visits, satisfaction with body shape, GDS score and Breslow's health index exhibited significant negative correlations with BMI.
The present results showed that the prevalence of obesity was high in outpatients with mental disorders. Improvement in lifestyle choices is necessary to prevent obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome in such patients.
PMCID: PMC3760492  PMID: 24031145
Breslow’s health index; metabolic syndrome; mental disorder; obesity; psychiatric day-care facility
13.  The Contribution of Abdominal Obesity and Dyslipidemia to Metabolic Syndrome in Psychiatric Patients 
Metabolic syndrome is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients in order to identify the dominant factors of metabolic syndrome.
We enrolled 225 patients who had been admitted to a chronic psychiatric hospital from October 2005 to February 2006. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was assessed based on the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP)-III with the new criterion of waist circumference in the Asia-Pacific Region.
The study population was relatively young (41.1 ± 8.8 years) and obese (waist in men, 91.3 ± 9.2 cm; waist in women, 84.1 ± 8.8 cm). Sixty percent of patients met the waist criterion of metabolic syndrome and 56% met the low high density lipoprotein (HDL) criterion. The mean serum triglycerides were high (170.0 ± 119.7 mg/dL) and 46% of patients met the triglyceride criterion. In contrast, less than 10% of patients showed impaired fasting glucose or high blood pressure (5%, 9%, respectively). The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.2% by applying ATP-III criteria (40% in men and 20% in women, respectively). No specific anti-psychotic drugs were related to significant increase in the incidence of metabolic syndrome.
Abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia (low HDL and high triglycerides) were dominant contributing factors of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients, and the affected age groups were relatively young. These findings indicate that active and early screening, including triglycerides, HDL, and waist measurement, are absolutely essential to managing metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients.
PMCID: PMC2880690  PMID: 20526390
Antipsychotic agents; Dyslipidemias; Metabolic syndrome X; Obesity; Mental disorders
14.  Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Survey in Malaysia 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e46365.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country.
In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.
The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73), respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92), 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36), and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11). The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001.
The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young ages.
PMCID: PMC3460855  PMID: 23029497
15.  Gender-related differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates in urban Tanzania 
Urban areas in Africa suffer a serious problem with dual burden of infectious diseases and emerging chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes which pose a serious threat to population health and health care resources. However in East Africa, there is limited literature in this research area. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates among adults in Temeke, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results of this study will help inform future research and potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against such chronic diseases.
The study design was a cross sectional epidemiological study. A total of 209 participants aged between 44 and 66 years were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to measure lipid profile and fasting glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined using World Health Organization criteria.
The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was 13% and 35%, among men and women (p = 0.0003), respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 11% and 58% (p < 0.0001), and high WHR (men: >0.9, women: >0.85) was 51% and 73% (p = 0.002) for men and women respectively. Women had 4.3 times greater odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.9–10.1), 14.2–fold increased odds for abdominal adiposity (95% CI: 5.8–34.6), and 2.8 times greater odds of high waist-hip-ratio (95% CI: 1.4–5.7), compared to men. Women had more than three-fold greater odds of having metabolic syndrome (p = 0.001) compared to male counterparts, including abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and high fasting blood glucose components. In contrast, female participants had 50% lower odds of having hypertension, compared to men (95%CI: 0.3–1.0). Among men, BMI and waist circumference were significantly correlated with blood pressure, triglycerides, total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol (BMI only), and fasting glucose; in contrast, only blood pressure was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in women.
The prevalence of CVD risk factors was high in this population, particularly among women. Health promotion, primary prevention, and health screening strategies are needed to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Tanzania.
PMCID: PMC2723083  PMID: 19615066
16.  Epidemiological Studies of the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease in Japan: A Pediatric Perspective in Present Day Japan 
The origins of adult disease are considered to relate to fetal undernutrition, and this concept is termed “developmental origins of adult health and disease” (DOHaD). Here, we describe several epidemiological studies performed in Japan and discuss whether DOHaD is applicable to children in present day Japan. In a study of healthy children and young adults, it was found that systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and adiponectin were associated with birth weight. Hyperinsulinemia, high blood pressure, elevated transaminase levels and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese children were inversely correlated with birth weight and positively correlated with current weight and waist circumference. Birth weight was related to the development of type 2 diabetes in children. DOHaD is therefore considered to be applicable in Japan. The key considerations of DOHaD are the following two mismatches. The first mismatch pertains to growth and development in response to environmental influences, especially those of nutrition. The second mismatch pertains to the prenatal versus postnatal environment. We consider that the chance of children in present day Japan developing adult diseases is determined by the above mismatches. Pediatricians and schoolteachers should therefore understand the concept of DOHaD, so that they can educate both children and their families regarding an appropriate diet to reduce the likelihood of developing adult diseases in later life.
PMCID: PMC3687626  PMID: 23926383
birth weight; obesity; blood pressure; insulin; adiponectin
17.  Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in relation to socioeconomic status among Jamaican young adults: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:307.
The metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in many countries and has been associated with socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components among Jamaican young adults and evaluate its association with parental SES.
A subset of the participants from the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort was evaluated at ages 18-20 years between 2005 and 2007. Trained research nurses obtained blood pressure and anthropometric measurements and collected a venous blood sample for measurement of lipids and glucose. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components were estimated using the 2009 Consensus Criteria from the International Diabetes Federation, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, American Heart Association, World Heart Federation, International Atherosclerosis Society, and International Association for the Study of Obesity. SES was assessed by questionnaire using occupation of household head, highest education of parent/guardian, and housing tenure of parent/guardian. Analysis yielded means and proportions for metabolic syndrome variables and covariates. Associations with levels of SES variables were obtained using analysis of variance. Multivariable analysis was conducted using logistic regression models.
Data from 839 participants (378 males; 461 females) were analyzed. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.5%-1.9%). Prevalence was higher in females (1.7% vs. 0.5%). Prevalence of the components [male: female] were: central obesity, 16.0% [5.3:24.7]; elevated blood pressure, 6.7% [10.8:3.3]; elevated glucose, 1.2% [2.1:0.4]; low HDL, 46.8% [28.8:61.6]; high triglycerides, 0.6% [0.5:0.6]. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome for any of the SES measures used possibly due to lack of statistical power. Prevalence of central obesity was inversely associated with occupation (highly skilled 12.4%, skilled 13.5%, semi-skilled/unskilled 21.8%, p = 0.013) and education (tertiary 12.5%, secondary 14.1%, primary/all-age 28.4%, p = 0.002). In sex-specific multivariate logistic regression adjusted for hip circumference, central obesity remained associated with occupation and education for women only.
Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is low, but central obesity and low HDL are present in 16% and 47% of Jamaican youth, respectively. Central obesity is inversely associated with occupation and education in females.
PMCID: PMC2898824  PMID: 20525300
18.  Identifying Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Using Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2008;5(4):A115.
Metabolic syndrome is increasing among adolescents. We examined the utility of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to identify metabolic syndrome in adolescent girls.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 185 predominantly African American girls who were a median age of 14 years. Participants were designated as having metabolic syndrome if they met criteria for 3 of 5 variables: 1) high blood pressure, 2) low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 3) high fasting blood glucose level, 4) high waist circumference, and 5) high triglyceride level. We predicted the likelihood of the presence of metabolic syndrome by using previously established cutpoints of BMI and waist circumference. We used stepwise regression analysis to determine whether anthropometric measurements significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.
Of total participants, 18% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. BMI for 118 (64%) participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 25% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 4% of participants with a BMI below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001). Girls with a BMI above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a BMI below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002). The waist circumference for 104 (56%) participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 28% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 1% of participants with a waist circumference below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001). Girls with a waist circumference above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a waist circumference below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002). Stepwise regression showed that only waist circumference significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.
Both anthropometric measures were useful screening tools to identify metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference was a better predictor of metabolic syndrome than was BMI in our study sample of predominantly African American female adolescents living in an urban area.
PMCID: PMC2578768  PMID: 18793503
19.  Impact of metabolic syndrome and its components on cardiovascular disease event rates in 4900 patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to placebo in the field randomised trial 
Patients with the metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events.We aimed to establish whether CVD event rates were influenced by the metabolic syndrome as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and to determine which component(s) of the metabolic syndrome (MS) conferred the highest cardiovascular risk in in 4900 patients with type 2 diabetes allocated to placebo in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) trial.
Research design and methods
We determined the influence of MS variables, as defined by NCEP ATPIII, IDF and WHO, on CVD risk over 5 years, after adjustment for CVD, sex, HbA1c, creatinine, and age, and interactions between the MS variables in a Cox proportional-hazards model.
About 80% had hypertension, and about half had other features of the metabolic syndrome (IDF, ATPIII). There was no difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome variables between those with and without CVD at study entry. The WHO definition identified those at higher CVD risk across both sexes, all ages, and in those without prior CVD, while the ATPIII definition predicted risk only in those aged over 65 years and in men but not in women. Patients meeting the IDF definition did not have higher risk than those without IDF MS.
CVD risk was strongly influenced by prior CVD, sex, age (particularly in women), baseline HbA1c, renal dysfunction, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (low HDL-c, triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/L). The combination of low HDL-c and marked hypertriglyceridemia (> 2.3 mmol/L) increased CVD risk by 41%. Baseline systolic blood pressure increased risk by 16% per 10 mmHg in those with no prior CVD, but had no effect in those with CVD. In those without prior CVD, increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome variables (excluding waist) escalated risk.
Absence of the metabolic syndrome (by the WHO definition) identifies diabetes patients without prior CVD, who have a lower risk of future CVD events. Hypertension and dyslipidemia increase risk.
PMCID: PMC3286386  PMID: 22104275
20.  The prevalence of syndrome Z (the interaction of obstructive sleep apnoea with the metabolic syndrome) in a teaching hospital in Singapore 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2007;83(979):329-331.
Syndrome Z describes the interaction of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with the metabolic syndrome.
Purpose of study
A pilot study to determine the prevalence of syndrome Z in a teaching hospital in Singapore.
Patients (age ⩾18 years) recruited for this prospective study had to satisfy three of the following five inclusion criteria: fasting glucose >6.1 mmol/l, blood pressure ⩾130/85 mm Hg, HDL cholesterol <1.04 mmol/l in men and <1.2 mmol/l in women, triglycerides ⩾1.7 mmol/l, and a waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women. All subjects underwent standard overnight polysomnography. Overnight fasting glucose and lipid levels were measured and baseline anthropometric data recorded. All sleep studies were scored and reported by a sleep physician. OSA was deemed to be present if the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was ⩾5, with mild, moderate and severe categories classified according to the Chicago criteria.
There were 24 patients (19 males and five females) of whom 10 were Chinese, eight Malay and five of Indian origin, with one other. Mean age was 48±13.5 years, mean body mass index was 34.9±6.1 kg/m2 and mean waist circumference was 111.3±15.7 cm. 23 (95.8%) of the patients had OSA with a mean RDI of 39.6±22.4 events/h with 15 patients (62.5%) in the severe category. The five patients who fulfilled all five criteria for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome had severe OSA.
The prevalence of OSA in our studied population exhibiting the metabolic syndrome is very high. Therefore, a polysomnogram should always be considered for this subset of patients.
PMCID: PMC2600079  PMID: 17488863
glucose; pilot study; polysomnography; prevalence; sleep
21.  Prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome in a group of light and heavy smokers 
Smoking is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is widely accepted as a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Smoking reduces insulin sensitivity or induces insulin resistance and enhances cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated plasma triglycerides, decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and causes hyperglycemia. Several studies show that smoking is associated with metabolic abnormalities and increases the risk of Metabolic Syndrome. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of light and heavy smokers, wishing to give up smoking.
In this cross-sectional study all the enrolled subjects voluntary joined the smoking cessation program held by the Respiratory Pathophysiology Unit of San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Northern Italy.
All the subjects enrolled were former smokers from at least 10 years and had no cancer or psychiatric disorders, nor history of diabetes or CVD or coronary artery disease and were not on any medication.
The subjects smoke 32.3 ± 16.5 mean Pack Years. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 52.1%: 57.3% and 44.9% for males and females respectively. Analysing the smoking habit influence on the IDF criteria for the metabolic syndrome diagnosis we found that all the variables show an increasing trend from light to heavy smokers, except for HDL cholesterol. A statistical significant correlation among Pack Years and waist circumference (R = 0.48, p < 0.0001), Systolic Blood Pressure (R = 0.18, p < 0.05), fasting plasma glucose (R = 0.19, p < 0.005) and HDL cholesterol (R = −0.26, p = 0.0005) has been observed.
Currently smoking subjects are at high risk of developing the metabolic syndrome.
Therapeutic lifestyle changes, including smoking cessation are a desirable Public health goal and should successfully be implemented in clinical practice at any age.
PMCID: PMC3673853  PMID: 23721527
Metabolic syndrome; Smoking habit; Insulin resistance; Overweight; Waist circumference
22.  Adolescent prediabetes in a high-risk Middle East country: a cross-sectional study 
JRSM Open  2014;5(8):2054270414536550.
To estimate the prevalence of prediabetes in adolescents living in a high-risk country and to detect risk factors associated with this disorder.
Survey questionnaire combined with physical measurements and blood sugar determination.
Doha, capital city of Qatar.
A total of 1694 male and female students aged 11–18 years without previously diagnosed diabetes enrolled in four schools.
Main outcome measure
Blood sugar measurements. Other measured variables included gender, height, weight, abdominal circumference, country of origin, family history of diabetes and frequency of exercise.
Using a random blood sugar ≥7.8 mmol/L or a fasting blood sugar ≥5.5 mmol/L as cutpoints, we identified 4.2% of students (56 boys, 15 girls) as probable prediabetics. In a multivariate model, being boys (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7–6.2), having a diabetic parent (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.2) or having a waist-to-height ratio >0.5 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0) were significantly associated with being a prediabetic. The parental origin of diabetes had a differential effect upon blood sugar. The mean random blood sugar in students with a maternal inheritance pattern of diabetes was 5.61 mmol/L ± 1.0, compared to 5.39 mmol/L ± 0.89 in students with a paternal inheritance pattern (p = 0.02).
In a country with a high risk of adult diabetes, we identified 4.2% of students aged 11–18 as being prediabetic. Risk factors associated with prediabetes included male gender, family history of diabetes and waist-to-height ratio >0.5.
PMCID: PMC4100242  PMID: 25289147
diabetes; prediabetes; Middle East; paediatrics; epidemiology; obesity; exercise; risk factors; body mass index
23.  Differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in boys and girls based on various definitions 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):70-76.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing among children and adolescents. However, the prevalence of this disorder varies based on its different definitions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS in Iranian adolescents in junior high and high schools according to the definitions provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and De Ferranti.
Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Demographic data was collected using validated questionnaires. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were determined. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by trained individuals. Subjects with MetS were selected according to two definitions provided by the IDF and De Ferranti. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare the prevalence of MetS and its components based on sex, school level, and the two definitions.
The mean age of junior high and high school students was 13.11 ± 1.21ad 15.93 ± 1.07 years old, respectively. The prevalence of MetS among all participants was 4.8% and 12.7% according to the definitions by the IDF and De Ferranti, respectively. It was significantly higher among boys compared to girls. According to the IDF definition, low HDL-C and hypertension were the most frequent components. Based on the De Ferranti, abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were the most frequent components.
The prevalence of MetS was higher in both groups of students based on De Ferranti definition compared to the IDF definition. The prevalence was not significantly different in boys and girls. Further studies to investigate the most suitable definition of MetS for Iranian adolescents are necessary.
PMCID: PMC3653251  PMID: 23696762
Metabolic Syndrome; Adolescence; International Diabetes Federation and De Ferranti
24.  Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects 
Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians.
Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999–2002. We evaluated major risk factors-smoking or tobacco use, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia using pre-specified definitions in 2051 subjects (male 1009, female 1042) aged 15–39 years of age. Age-stratified analyses were performed and significance of trends determined using regression analyses for numerical variables and Χ2 test for trend for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to identify univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) for correlation of age and risk factors.
In males and females respectively, smoking or tobacco use was observed in 200 (11.8%) and 18 (1.4%), overweight or obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) in 12.4% and 14.3%, high waist-hip ratio, WHR (males > 0.9, females > 0.8) in 15% and 32.3%, hypertension in 5.6% and 3.1%, high LDL cholesterol (≥ 130 mg/dl) in 9.4% and 8.9%, low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl males, <50 mg/dl females) in 16.2% and 49.7%, hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 150 mg/dl) in 9.7% and 6%, diabetes in 1.0% and 0.4% and the metabolic syndrome in 3.4% and 3.6%. Significantly increasing trends with age for indices of obesity (BMI, waist, WHR), glycemia (fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome) and lipids (cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol) were observed (p for trend < 0.01). At age 15–19 years the prevalence (%) of risk factors in males and females, respectively, was overweight/obesity in 7.6, 8.8; high WHR 4.9, 14.4; hypertension 2.3, 0.3; high LDL cholesterol 2.4, 3.2; high triglycerides 3.0, 3.2; low HDL cholesterol 8.0, 45.3; high total:HDL ratio 3.7, 4.7, diabetes 0.0 and metabolic syndrome in 0.0, 0.2 percent. At age groups 20–29 years in males and females, ORs were, for smoking 5.3, 1.0; obesity 1.6, 0.8; truncal obesity 4.5, 3.1; hypertension 2.6, 4.8; high LDL cholesterol 6.4, 1.8; high triglycerides 3.7, 0.9; low HDL cholesterol 2.4, 0.8; high total:HDL cholesterol 1.6, 1.0; diabetes 4.0, 1.0; and metabolic syndrome 37.7, 5.7 (p < 0.05 for some). At age 30–39, ORs were- smoking 16.0, 6.3; overweight 7.1, 11.3; truncal obesity 21.1, 17.2; hypertension 13.0, 64.0; high LDL cholesterol 27.4, 19.5; high triglycerides 24.2, 10.0; low HDL cholesterol 15.8, 14.1; high total:HDL cholesterol 37.9, 6.10; diabetes 50.7, 17.4; and metabolic syndrome 168.5, 146.2 (p < 0.01 for all parameters). Multivariate adjustment for BMI, waist size and WHR in men and women aged 30–39 years resulted in attenuation of ORs for hypertension and dyslipidemias.
Low prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome) in adolescents and rapid escalation of these risk factors by age of 30–39 years is noted in urban Asian Indians. Interventions should focus on these individuals.
PMCID: PMC2713196  PMID: 19575817
25.  Incidence of metabolic syndrome and its characteristics of patients attending a diabetic outpatient clinic in a tertiary care hospital 
We sought to evaluate the incidence of metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic syndrome among type 2 diabetic patients attending the diabetic outpatient clinic at tertiary care hospital, Warangal.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in a period of 6 months from January 2011 to June 2011. The study group consisted of 75 type 2 diabetic patients. They were screened for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and clinical characteristics, and other co-morbidities were recorded. Metabolic syndrome diagnosis was made as per ATP III guidelines.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significant in men (54.8%) compared to women (45.2%). Incidence of metabolic syndrome was found to be more in normal weight patients (43.56%). Low high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were observed in both rural (90.63%) and urban (95.65%) patients with metabolic syndrome, followed by increase in waist circumference. The mean HDL level was found to be 23.77 mg/dl. Patients in the age group 51-60 years were found to be more affected with metabolic syndrome. Sedentary household female patients (58.3%) and illiterates (41.8%) were suffering from metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome had been suffering with diabetes (duration of diabetes) from 1 to 5 years. In summary, this cross-sectional study characterizes the metabolic and non-metabolic syndromes of type 2 diabetes patients living in Telangana regions, using ATP III guidelines, and generates a biological resource that enables further investigation of numerous hypotheses related to genetic exposure of both in a population.
These results suggest that higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed in non-obese male patients and was significantly associated with aging. Nevertheless, further studies are required to confirm the metabolic syndrome in larger population.
PMCID: PMC3633304  PMID: 23633836
Body mass index; diabetes; high density lipoprotein; metabolic syndrome; mortality

Results 1-25 (1492466)