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1.  Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin Injection 
A 3-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with right lower limb pain, edema, and livedoid discoloration that occurred immediately after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. The patient was diagnosed with Nicolau syndrome, a rare complication of intramuscular injection presumed to be related to the inadvertent intravascular injection. It was first reported following intramuscular injection of bismuth salt, but it can occur as a complication of various other drugs. Fasciotomy was carried out due to the resultant compartment syndrome and medical therapy with heparin, corticosteroid, and pentoxifyllin was initiated.
PMCID: PMC4242994  PMID: 25429182
Syndrome; Benzathine penicillin; Injection
2.  Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection: 3 Cases 
Archives of Plastic Surgery  2012;39(3):249-252.
Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection consisting of ischemic necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and muscular tissue that arises locoregionally. The characteristic pattern is pain around the injection site, developing into erythema, a livedoid dermatitis patch, and necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. Three patients were injected with drugs (diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, meperidine) for pain relief. Three patients complained of pain, and a skin lesion was observed, after which necrosis developed on their buttocks. Each patient underwent debridement and coverage. The wound healed uneventfully. We report three cases of Nicolau syndrome in the buttocks following diclofenac intramuscular injection.
PMCID: PMC3385328  PMID: 22783535
Necrosis; Nicolau syndrome; Injections; Intramuscular
3.  Nicolau Syndrome: An Iatrogenic Cutaneous Necrosis 
Nicolau syndrome is an uncommon complication of intramuscular injection leading to variable degrees of necrosis of skin and the underlying tissues. We report here two cases of this syndrome. Our first case was a 25 year-old male who developed intense pain and purplish discoloration of the skin in the right hip after intramuscular diclofenac injection. The second case was a 60 year-old male who developed intense pain and discoloration of skin, not only at the injection site, but also on the left scapular area and left elbow after receiving chlorpheniramine maleate injection intramuscularly. These cases highlight the need for awareness about this condition and the need to exercise utmost care during the administration of any parenteral injections by dermatologists.
PMCID: PMC2918347  PMID: 20808597
Avascular necrosis; intramuscular injection; Nicolau syndrome
4.  Nicolau Syndrome in Patient Following Diclofenac Administration: A Case Report 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(4):501-503.
Nicolau syndrome is a rare adverse reaction to a variety of intra-muscular drug preparations. The typical presentation is pain around the injection site soon after injection, followed by erythema, livedoid patch, hemorrhagic patch, and finally, necrosis of skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. The phenomenon has been related to the administration of a variety of drugs, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and penicillin. We report a case with typical features associated with diclofenac injection for pain control in a patient who had undergone bilateral total knee arthroplasty.
PMCID: PMC3229946  PMID: 22148020
Diclofenac; Nicolau syndrome; Total knee arthroplasty
6.  Nicolau syndrome following intramuscular diclofenac injection 
PMCID: PMC3673386  PMID: 23741679
7.  Syndrome de Nicolau compliquant une injection intramusculaire de benzathine penicilline 
PMCID: PMC4232028  PMID: 25404965
Syndrome de nicolau; injection; benzathine penicilline; Nicolau syndrome; injection; benzathine penicillin
9.  Nicolaus A. Friedreich's description of peripheral facial nerve paralysis in 1798. 
In 1798, Nicolaus A. Friedreich of Wurzburg published a detailed clinical account of three patients with idopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis. His astute observations of onset, physical findings, natural course, treatment, and recovery preceded those of Charles Bell by 23 years.
PMCID: PMC490158  PMID: 368292
11.  Dr. Nicolaus R. Rüdinger 
British Medical Journal  1896;2(1861):538-539.
PMCID: PMC2510282
13.  An attachment-based model of complicated grief including the role of avoidance 
Complicated grief is a prolonged grief disorder with elements of a stress response syndrome. We have previously proposed a biobehavioral model showing the pathway to complicated grief. Avoidance is a component that can be difficult to assess and pivotal to treatment. Therefore we developed an avoidance questionnaire to characterize avoidance among patients with CG.
We further explain our complicated grief model and provide results of a study of 128 participants in a treatment study of CG who completed a 15-item Grief-related Avoidance Questionnaire (GRAQ).
Results of Avoidance Assessment
Mean (SD) GRAQ score was 25. 0 ± 12.5 with a range of 0–60. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 and test re-test correlation was 0.88. Correlation analyses showed good convergent and discriminant validity. Avoidance of reminders of the loss contributed to functional impairment after controlling for other symptoms of complicated grief.
In this paper we extend our previously described attachment-based biobehavioral model of CG. We envision CG as a stress response syndrome that results from failure to integrate information about death of an attachment figure into an effectively functioning secure base schema and/or to effectively re-engage the exploratory system in a world without the deceased. Avoidance is a key element of the model.
PMCID: PMC2806638  PMID: 17629727
complicated grief; attachment; avoidance behaviour
14.  A systematic review of anterolateral thigh flap donor site morbidity 
The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap, widely used in reconstructive procedures, has gained popularity and become an important option for many anatomical locations. Use of the ALT flap has many technical advantages and benefits and, furthermore, is associated with minimal donor site morbidity, which can impact outcome and patient postoperative quality of life. Although there have been many studies examining the ALT flap, sample sizes have been small, which have hindered the ability to objectively assess specific complications and complication rates. This literature review summarizes several types of complications and their incidence regarding the donor site of the ALT flap. The authors synthesize the data and discuss these complications and offer recommendations to avoid them.
The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is widely used in reconstruction. Its advantage over other flaps is its purported minimal donor site morbidity. The present systematic review summarizes the types of complications and their incidence with this flap. A secondary objective is to delineate factors that influence these complications and make recommendations to avoid them.
Two independent assessors undertook a systematic review of the literature using multiple databases. All patients with ALT flap reconstruction for any defect were included. Donor site complications including lateral thigh paresthesia, musculoskeletal dysfunction, hypertrophic scarring, wound breakdown, infection, donor site pain, seroma, hematoma, compartment syndrome and muscle necrosis were extracted from identified articles and tabulated. Based on the number of pooled events and the number of cases performed, an incidence rate was calculated.
Forty-two relevant articles were identified that included 2324 flaps. Of the 2324 flaps, the majority were fasciocutaneous (n=737), and 1303 of the flaps were used in head and neck reconstruction. The incidence of complications were: lateral thigh paresthesia (24.0%); musculoskeletal dysfunction (4.8%); hypertrophic scarring or wound dehiscence (4.8%); donor site pain (3.3%); seroma (2.4%); infection (2.2%); hematoma (0.7%); compartment syndrome (0.09%); and partial muscle necrosis (0.09%).
Lateral thigh paresthesia is the most common complication. Severe complications such as compartment syndrome and muscle necrosis can occur, but are rare. Preservation of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, femoral motor nerve branches and deep fascia decreases the risk of complications. The degree of vastus lateralis disruption did not show a significant impact on musculoskeletal dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC3307676  PMID: 23598761
Anterolateral thigh flap; Complications; Donor site
15.  Correlates of Quality of Life in Older Adults With Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(8):1749-1753.
To evaluate associations between health-related quality of life (HRQL) and geriatric syndromes, diabetes complications, and hypoglycemia in older adults with diabetes.
A race-stratified random sample of 6,317 adults with type 2 or type 1 diabetes, aged 60 to 75 years, enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, who completed a survey that included a HRQL instrument based on the Short Form 8-item health survey. Administrative records were used to ascertain diagnoses of geriatric syndromes, diabetes complications, and hypoglycemia. Associations were estimated between HRQL and exposures in exposure-specific and combined exposure models (any syndrome, any complication, or hypoglycemia). Conservatively, differences of ≥3 points were considered the minimally important difference in HRQL scores.
HRQL was lower with nearly all exposures of interest. The lowest physical HRQL was associated with amputation. In combined exposure models, geriatric syndromes (−5.3 [95% CI −5.8 to −4.8], P < 0.001) and diabetes complications (−3.5 [−4.0 to −2.9], P < 0.001) were associated with lower physical HRQL. The lowest mental HRQL was associated with depression, underweight (BMI <18 kg/m2), amputation, and hypoglycemia. In combined exposure models, only hypoglycemia was associated with lower mental HRQL (−4.0 [−7.0 to −1.1], P = 0.008).
Geriatric syndromes and hypoglycemia are associated with lower HRQL to a comparable degree as diabetes complications. Addressing geriatric syndromes and avoiding hypoglycemia should be given as high a priority as preventing diabetes complications in older adults with diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3142040  PMID: 21636795
16.  Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes 
Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome which have a Huntington´s disease-like phenotype consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. In addition, cardiomyopathy may occur in McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are also found in a proportion of patients with autosomal dominant Huntington's disease-like 2, autosomal recessive pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and several inherited disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, namely abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome) and hypobetalipoproteinemia leading to vitamin E malabsorption. The latter disorders are characterized by a peripheral neuropathy and sensory ataxia due to dorsal column degeneration, but movement disorders and cognitive impairment are not present. NA syndromes are caused by disease-specific genetic mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration is not known. The association of the acanthocytic membrane abnormality with selective degeneration of the basal ganglia, however, suggests a common pathogenetic pathway. Laboratory tests include blood smears to detect acanthocytosis and determination of serum creatine kinase. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging may demonstrate striatal atrophy. Kell and Kx blood group antigens are reduced or absent in McLeod syndrome. Western blot for chorein demonstrates absence of this protein in red blood cells of chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Specific genetic testing is possible in all NA syndromes. Differential diagnoses include Huntington disease and other causes of progressive hyperkinetic movement disorders. There are no curative therapies for NA syndromes. Regular cardiologic studies and avoidance of transfusion complications are mandatory in McLeod syndrome. The hyperkinetic movement disorder may be treated as in Huntington disease. Other symptoms including psychiatric manifestations should be managed in a symptom-oriented manner. NA syndromes have a relentlessly progressive course usually over two to three decades.
PMCID: PMC3212896  PMID: 22027213
17.  Risks and complications in rhinoplasty 
Rhinoplasty is regarded to be associated with many risks as the expectations of patient and physician are not always corresponding. Besides of postoperative deformities many other risks and complications have to be considered.
Reduction-rhinoplasty e.g. can cause breathing disturbances which are reported in 70% of all revision-rhinoplasty-patients. One has to be aware however that scars and loss of mucosal-sensation can also give the feeling of a “blocked nose”.
The main risks of autogenous transplants are dislocation and resorption, while alloplasts can cause infection and extrusion. In this respect silicone implants can have a complication rate between 5-20%. Less complications are reported with other materials like Gore-Tex.
Complications of skin and soft tissues can be atrophy, fibrosis, numbness, cysts originating from displaced mucosa or subcutaneous granulomas caused by ointment material. Postoperative swelling depends mainly on the osteotomy technique. Percutaneous osteotomies cause less trauma, but may result in visible scars.
Infections are rare but sometimes life-threatening (toxic-shock-syndrome). The risk is higher, when sinus surgery and rhinoplasty are combined. Osteotomies can also cause injuries of the orbital region. Necrosis of eye-lids by infections and blindness by central artery occlusion are known. There are reports on various other risks like rhinoliquorrhea, brain damage, fistulas between sinus-cavernosus and carotid artery, aneurysms and thrombosis of the cavernous sinus. Discoloration of incisors are possible by damage of vessels and nerves. Rhinoplasty can also become a court-case in dissatisfied patients, a situation that may be called a “typical complication of rhinoplasty”. It can be avoided by proper patient selection and consideration of psychological disturbances.
Postoperative deformities are considered as main risks of rhinoplasty, causing revision surgery in 5% to 15% of the cases. The analysis of postoperative deformities allowes the identification of specific risks. The most frequent postoperative deformity is the “pollybeak” when a deep naso-frontal angle, cartilaginous hump and reduced tip projection are present preoperatively. The pollybeak is the indication in about 50% of all revision rhinoplasties. Other frequent postoperative deformities are a pendant and wide nasal tip, retractions of the columella base or irregularities of the nasal dorsum. These deformities are very often combined and caused by a loss of septal support. This is why the stability of the caudal septum in septorhinoplasty is the key for a predictable result. Maintaining the position of the tip and the columella is one of the main issues to avoid typical postoperative deformities.
The risks for rhinoplasty-complications can be reduced with increasing experience. A prerequisite is continuing education and an earnest distinction between complication and mistake.
PMCID: PMC3199839  PMID: 22073084
18.  Well leg compartment syndrome after pelvic and perineal surgery in the lithotomy position 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2005;81(958):534-536.
Objective: Lower limb compartment syndrome after prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position is a rare but potentially devastating complication. It is recognised after urological, colorectal, and gynaecological procedures. Sixteen cases of compartment syndrome after urological surgery have been reported. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of this complication in urological practice and identify risk factors for its development.
Design: A postal survey of UK consultant urologists was conducted.
Results: Replies were received from 261 consultants. In total there were 65 cases of compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome occurred after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in 51 cases and was rare in procedures lasting less than four hours. The incidence of compartment syndrome after cystectomy was estimated at around 1 in 500 cases. Risk factors for its development included perioperative blood loss, peripheral vascular disease, and obesity.
Conclusions: Compartment syndrome after use of the lithotomy position may be more common than is generally appreciated and has been underreported in the past. All staff should be aware of this serious complication and adopt strategies for its avoidance.
PMCID: PMC1743337  PMID: 16085748
19.  Spectrum of complicated migraine in children: A common profile in aid to clinical diagnosis 
Complicated migraine encompasses several individual clinical syndromes of migraine. Such a syndrome in children frequently presents with various neurological symptoms in the Emergency Department. An acute presentation in the absence of headache presents a diagnostic challenge. A delay in diagnosis and treatment may have medicolegal implication. To date, there are no reports of a common clinical profile proposed in making a clinical diagnosis for the complicated migraine. In this clinical review, we propose and describe: (1) A common clinical profile in aid to clinical diagnosis for spectrum of complicated migraine; (2) How it can be used in differentiating complicated migraine from migraine without aura, migraine with aura, and seizure; (3) We discuss the status of complicated migraine in the International Headache Society classification 2013; and (4) In addition, a common treatment strategy for the spectrum of migraine has been described. To diagnose complicated migraine clinically, it is imperative to adhere with the proposed profile. This will optimize the use of investigation and will also avoid a legal implication of delay in their management. The proposed common clinical profile is incongruent with the International Headache Society 2013. Future classification should minimize the dissociation from clinically encountered syndromes and coin a single word to address collectively this subtype of migraine with an acute presentation of a common clinical profile.
PMCID: PMC4318797  PMID: 25664241
Electroencephalography; Seizure; Seizure like activity; Complicated migraine; Stroke; Magnetic resonance imaging
20.  Complication avoidance in transcallosal transforaminal approach to colloid cysts of the anterior third ventriclen: An analysis of 80 cases 
Asian Journal of Neurosurgery  2014;9(2):51-57.
The objective of the present study is to analyze the complications and their avoidance in a series of 80 patients operated by transcallosal transforaminal approach to colloid cysts of the anterior third ventricle.
Materials and Methods:
The surgical outcome and complications of 80 patients operated by transcallosal transforaminal approach for colloid cysts in the anterior third ventricle was analyzed. A detailed pre- and post-operative neurological assessment was done in all patients. Neurocognitive assessment of corpus callosal function was done in the last 22 cases. CT scan of the brain was done in all patients, before and after surgery.
All patients underwent transcallosal transforaminal approach. Total excision of the lesion was achieved in 79 patients and subtotal in one. The complications encountered were postoperative seizures in six, acute hydrocephalus in four, venous cortical infarct in four, transient hemiparesis in four, transient memory impairment, especially for immediate recall in nine, mutism in one, subdural hematoma in one, meningitis in three, and tension pneumocephalus in one patient. There were two mortalities. There was no incidence of postoperative disconnection syndrome.
Colloid cyst is surgically curable. With good knowledge of the regional anatomy and meticulous microsurgical techniques, there is a low mortality and minimum morbidity, when compared to the natural history of the disease. With increasing experience, most of the complications are avoidable. The limited anterior callosotomy does not result in disconnection syndromes.
PMCID: PMC4129577  PMID: 25126118
Anterior third ventricle; colloid cyst; complications; disconnection syndrome; transcallosal; transforaminal
21.  Sotos syndrome and scoliosis surgical treatment: a 10-year follow-up 
European Spine Journal  2011;20(Suppl 2):271-277.
Sotos syndrome is caused by a gene deletion with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Cerebral gigantism, hypotonia and joint hyperextensibility are characteristic features of this syndrome. A percentage of these patients develop progressive scoliosis early in life. In the literature, few studies on the evolution of scoliosis in Sotos syndrome have been published. We retrospectively evaluated eight patients diagnosed with Sotos syndrome and scoliosis treated at the Garrahan Children Hospital between 1988 and March 2009. Clinical charts and imaging studies were assessed. Eight patients (19%) presented with scoliosis and seven of them (87.5%) required surgical treatment. The mean follow-up was 9.5 years (range 3–18). Mean age at first consultation was 5.2 years (range 1.1–11.2). Mean Cobb angle for scoliosis at first consultation was 34.3° (range 20°–42°) and the mean Cobb angle for kyphosis was 45.6° (range 30°–90°). Mean age at surgery was 11.2 years (range 3.7–18.10). The surgical procedures performed were instrumented posterior arthrodesis, alone or combined with anterior arthrodesis, instrumented anterior arthrodesis, while one patient is currently in treatment with growing rods. Preoperative mean Cobb angle for scoliosis was 72.3° (range 54°–130°) and for kyphosis was 59.8° (range 30°–108°); postoperative mean Cobb angle for scoliosis was 45.5° (range 6°–90°) and for kyphosis was 40.2° (range 30°–80°). There were three early complications (pleural effusion in two cases and death due to sepsis in one) and two late complications (kyphosis above the instrumentation area and dislodgement of the proximal hooks). Incidence of scoliosis in Sotos syndrome is high and thus close monitoring of patients with Sotos syndrome during growth is important for early detection of this entity. Joint hyperextensibility and hypotonia that are characteristic of the syndrome should be considered at the moment of surgery to avoid short fusions.
PMCID: PMC3111518  PMID: 21225435
Cerebral gigantism; Scoliosis deformity
22.  The HELLP syndrome: Clinical issues and management. A Review 
The HELLP syndrome is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10–20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. The present review highlights occurrence, diagnosis, complications, surveillance, corticosteroid treatment, mode of delivery and risk of recurrence.
Clinical reports and reviews published between 2000 and 2008 were screened using Pub Med and Cochrane databases.
Results and conclusion
About 70% of the cases develop before delivery, the majority between the 27th and 37th gestational weeks; the remainder within 48 hours after delivery. The HELLP syndrome may be complete or incomplete. In the Tennessee Classification System diagnostic criteria for HELLP are haemolysis with increased LDH (> 600 U/L), AST (≥ 70 U/L), and platelets < 100·109/L. The Mississippi Triple-class HELLP System further classifies the disorder by the nadir platelet counts. The syndrome is a progressive condition and serious complications are frequent. Conservative treatment (≥ 48 hours) is controversial but may be considered in selected cases < 34 weeks' gestation. Delivery is indicated if the HELLP syndrome occurs after the 34th gestational week or the foetal and/or maternal conditions deteriorate. Vaginal delivery is preferable. If the cervix is unfavourable, it is reasonable to induce cervical ripening and then labour. In gestational ages between 24 and 34 weeks most authors prefer a single course of corticosteroid therapy for foetal lung maturation, either 2 doses of 12 mg betamethasone 24 hours apart or 6 mg or dexamethasone 12 hours apart before delivery. Standard corticosteroid treatment is, however, of uncertain clinical value in the maternal HELLP syndrome. High-dose treatment and repeated doses should be avoided for fear of long-term adverse effects on the foetal brain. Before 34 weeks' gestation, delivery should be performed if the maternal condition worsens or signs of intrauterine foetal distress occur. Blood pressure should be kept below 155/105 mmHg. Close surveillance of the mother should be continued for at least 48 hours after delivery.
PMCID: PMC2654858  PMID: 19245695
23.  Design and rationale of the AngioSeal versus the Radial approach In acute coronary SyndromE (ARISE) trial: a randomized comparison of a vascular closure device versus the radial approach to prevent vascular access site complications in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients 
Trials  2013;14:435.
Arterial access is a major site of bleeding complications after invasive coronary procedures. Among strategies to decrease vascular complications, the radial approach is an established one. Vascular closure devices provide more comfort to patients and decrease hemostasis and need for bed rest. However, the inconsistency of data proving their safety limits their routine adoption as a strategy to prevent vascular complications, requiring evidence through adequately designed randomized trials. The aim of this study is to compare the radial versus femoral approach using a vascular closure device for the incidence of arterial puncture site vascular complications among non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients submitted to an early invasive strategy.
ARISE is a national, multicenter, non-inferiority randomized clinical trial. Two hundred patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome will be randomized to either radial or femoral access using a vascular closure device. The primary outcome is the occurrence of vascular complications at an arterial puncture site 30 days after the procedure, including major bleeding, retroperitoneal hematoma, compartment syndrome, hematoma ≥ 5 cm, pseudoaneurysm, arterio-venous fistula, infection, limb ischemia, arterial occlusion, adjacent nerve injury or the need for vascular surgical repair.
Enrollment was initiated in September 2012, and until October 2013 91 patients were included. The inclusion phase is expected to last until the second half of 2014.
The ARISE trial will help define the role of a vascular closure device as a bleeding avoidance strategy in patients with NSTEACS.
Trial registration identifier: NCT01653587
PMCID: PMC3878328  PMID: 24345099
Radial approach; Femoral approach; Vascular closure device; Angioplasty; Acute coronary syndrome; Access site complication
24.  Gluteal compartment syndrome after lumbar laminectomy 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr08.2009.2165.
Gluteal compartment syndrome may, in its severe form, have serious consequences. It may result in severe rhabdomyolysis, and if left untreated it can result in acute renal collapse, multiorgan failure and even death. The present report concerns a patient who developed a gluteal compartment syndrome after lumbar surgery. The syndrome was complicated by acute renal failure with high concentrations of serum creatinine kinase, myoglobin, and potassium, requiring acute haemodialysis before surgical release. The operation revealed increased intracompartmental pressure with weak or absent reaction of muscles to electric stimulation. To prevent the development of gluteal compartment syndrome during operative procedures, it is important to avoid harmful pressure to the gluteal regions on the operating table. It is also important to optimise muscle circulation by adequate hydration therapy and avoidance of nephrotoxic stimuli. If gluteal compartment syndrome develops, immediate diagnosis and surgical decompression are mandatory .
PMCID: PMC3029082  PMID: 22114624
25.  Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome 
Pediatric Nephrology (Berlin, Germany)  2012;27(12):2205-2211.
The dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is a rare but serious complication of hemodialysis. Despite the fact that maintenance hemodialysis has been a routine procedure for over 50 years, this syndrome remains poorly understood. The signs and symptoms vary widely from restlessness and headache to coma and death. While cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure are the primary contributing factors to this syndrome and are the target of therapy, the precise mechanisms for their development remain elusive. Treatment of this syndrome once it has developed is rarely successful. Thus, measures to avoid its development are crucial. In this review, we will examine the pathophysiology of this syndrome and discuss the factors to consider in avoiding its development.
PMCID: PMC3491204  PMID: 22710692
Reverse urea effect; Idiogenic osmoles; Uremia; Hemodialysis; Urea kinetics

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