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1.  Nicolau Syndrome: An Iatrogenic Cutaneous Necrosis 
Nicolau syndrome is an uncommon complication of intramuscular injection leading to variable degrees of necrosis of skin and the underlying tissues. We report here two cases of this syndrome. Our first case was a 25 year-old male who developed intense pain and purplish discoloration of the skin in the right hip after intramuscular diclofenac injection. The second case was a 60 year-old male who developed intense pain and discoloration of skin, not only at the injection site, but also on the left scapular area and left elbow after receiving chlorpheniramine maleate injection intramuscularly. These cases highlight the need for awareness about this condition and the need to exercise utmost care during the administration of any parenteral injections by dermatologists.
doi:10.4103/0974-2077.58523
PMCID: PMC2918347  PMID: 20808597
Avascular necrosis; intramuscular injection; Nicolau syndrome
2.  Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection: 3 Cases 
Archives of Plastic Surgery  2012;39(3):249-252.
Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection consisting of ischemic necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and muscular tissue that arises locoregionally. The characteristic pattern is pain around the injection site, developing into erythema, a livedoid dermatitis patch, and necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. Three patients were injected with drugs (diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, meperidine) for pain relief. Three patients complained of pain, and a skin lesion was observed, after which necrosis developed on their buttocks. Each patient underwent debridement and coverage. The wound healed uneventfully. We report three cases of Nicolau syndrome in the buttocks following diclofenac intramuscular injection.
doi:10.5999/aps.2012.39.3.249
PMCID: PMC3385328  PMID: 22783535
Necrosis; Nicolau syndrome; Injections; Intramuscular
3.  Nicolau Syndrome in Patient Following Diclofenac Administration: A Case Report 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(4):501-503.
Nicolau syndrome is a rare adverse reaction to a variety of intra-muscular drug preparations. The typical presentation is pain around the injection site soon after injection, followed by erythema, livedoid patch, hemorrhagic patch, and finally, necrosis of skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. The phenomenon has been related to the administration of a variety of drugs, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and penicillin. We report a case with typical features associated with diclofenac injection for pain control in a patient who had undergone bilateral total knee arthroplasty.
doi:10.5021/ad.2011.23.4.501
PMCID: PMC3229946  PMID: 22148020
Diclofenac; Nicolau syndrome; Total knee arthroplasty
5.  Nicolaus A. Friedreich's description of peripheral facial nerve paralysis in 1798. 
In 1798, Nicolaus A. Friedreich of Wurzburg published a detailed clinical account of three patients with idopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis. His astute observations of onset, physical findings, natural course, treatment, and recovery preceded those of Charles Bell by 23 years.
PMCID: PMC490158  PMID: 368292
7.  Dr. Nicolaus R. Rüdinger 
British Medical Journal  1896;2(1861):538-539.
PMCID: PMC2510282
10.  Nicolau syndrome following intramuscular diclofenac injection 
doi:10.4103/2229-5178.110642
PMCID: PMC3673386  PMID: 23741679
11.  An attachment-based model of complicated grief including the role of avoidance 
Introduction
Complicated grief is a prolonged grief disorder with elements of a stress response syndrome. We have previously proposed a biobehavioral model showing the pathway to complicated grief. Avoidance is a component that can be difficult to assess and pivotal to treatment. Therefore we developed an avoidance questionnaire to characterize avoidance among patients with CG.
Methods
We further explain our complicated grief model and provide results of a study of 128 participants in a treatment study of CG who completed a 15-item Grief-related Avoidance Questionnaire (GRAQ).
Results of Avoidance Assessment
Mean (SD) GRAQ score was 25. 0 ± 12.5 with a range of 0–60. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 and test re-test correlation was 0.88. Correlation analyses showed good convergent and discriminant validity. Avoidance of reminders of the loss contributed to functional impairment after controlling for other symptoms of complicated grief.
Discussion
In this paper we extend our previously described attachment-based biobehavioral model of CG. We envision CG as a stress response syndrome that results from failure to integrate information about death of an attachment figure into an effectively functioning secure base schema and/or to effectively re-engage the exploratory system in a world without the deceased. Avoidance is a key element of the model.
doi:10.1007/s00406-007-0745-z
PMCID: PMC2806638  PMID: 17629727
complicated grief; attachment; avoidance behaviour
12.  Gluteal compartment syndrome after lumbar laminectomy 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr08.2009.2165.
Gluteal compartment syndrome may, in its severe form, have serious consequences. It may result in severe rhabdomyolysis, and if left untreated it can result in acute renal collapse, multiorgan failure and even death. The present report concerns a patient who developed a gluteal compartment syndrome after lumbar surgery. The syndrome was complicated by acute renal failure with high concentrations of serum creatinine kinase, myoglobin, and potassium, requiring acute haemodialysis before surgical release. The operation revealed increased intracompartmental pressure with weak or absent reaction of muscles to electric stimulation. To prevent the development of gluteal compartment syndrome during operative procedures, it is important to avoid harmful pressure to the gluteal regions on the operating table. It is also important to optimise muscle circulation by adequate hydration therapy and avoidance of nephrotoxic stimuli. If gluteal compartment syndrome develops, immediate diagnosis and surgical decompression are mandatory .
doi:10.1136/bcr.08.2009.2165
PMCID: PMC3029082  PMID: 22114624
13.  Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome 
Pediatric Nephrology (Berlin, Germany)  2012;27(12):2205-2211.
The dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is a rare but serious complication of hemodialysis. Despite the fact that maintenance hemodialysis has been a routine procedure for over 50 years, this syndrome remains poorly understood. The signs and symptoms vary widely from restlessness and headache to coma and death. While cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure are the primary contributing factors to this syndrome and are the target of therapy, the precise mechanisms for their development remain elusive. Treatment of this syndrome once it has developed is rarely successful. Thus, measures to avoid its development are crucial. In this review, we will examine the pathophysiology of this syndrome and discuss the factors to consider in avoiding its development.
doi:10.1007/s00467-012-2199-4
PMCID: PMC3491204  PMID: 22710692
Reverse urea effect; Idiogenic osmoles; Uremia; Hemodialysis; Urea kinetics
14.  Late diagnosis of Marfan syndrome with fatal outcome in a young male patient: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8827.
Introduction
Marfan syndrome is a heritable disorder of the connective tissue that affects many organ systems. However, the most serious complication in patients with Marfan syndrome is progressive aortic root dilation, which may lead to aortic dissection, rupture or aortic regurgitation. Prevention of these life threatening complications is of major importance.
Case presentation
We report here a case of a 34-year-old, Caucasian male diagnosed for the first time with Marfan syndrome. He required medical attention due to his chest pain that resulted as a consequence of strenuous physical effort. Medical examinations revealed severe aortic root enlargement and aortic intramural hematoma. Patient ended-up fatally during open heart surgery.
Conclusion
It is very important to recognize on time Marfan syndrome, as preventive actions that should be undertaken can avoid its serious consequences.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-8827
PMCID: PMC2827127  PMID: 20184697
15.  Pain Management in the Cirrhotic Patient: The Clinical Challenge 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2010;85(5):451-458.
Pain management in patients with cirrhosis is a difficult clinical challenge for health care professionals, and few prospective studies have offered an evidence-based approach. In patients with end-stage liver disease, adverse events from analgesics are frequent, potentially fatal, and often avoidable. Severe complications from analgesia in these patients include hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, and gastrointestinal bleeding, which can result in substantial morbidity and even death. In general, acetaminophen at reduced dosing is a safe option. In patients with cirrhosis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided to avert renal failure, and opiates should be avoided or used sparingly, with low and infrequent dosing, to prevent encephalopathy. For this review, we searched the available literature using PubMed and MEDLINE with no limits.
doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0534
PMCID: PMC2861975  PMID: 20357277
16.  Polycystic ovary syndrome and its impact on women’s quality of life: More than just an endocrine disorder 
In the past, polycystic ovary syndrome has been looked at primarily as an endocrine disorder. Studies now show that polycystic ovary syndrome is a metabolic, hormonal, and psychosocial disorder that impacts a patient’s quality of life. It is extremely important to holistically treat these patients early on to help them deal with the emotional stress that is often overlooked with polycystic ovary syndrome. Early diagnosis and long term management can help control polycystic ovary syndrome so that women can still live a healthy active life and avoid long-term complications such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.
PMCID: PMC3108690  PMID: 21701605
polycystic ovary syndrome; quality of life; sexual satisfaction; infertility; psychological distress; hirsutism; metabolic syndrome
17.  Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome associated with micronodular adrenocortical disease and Cushing syndrome 
European journal of pediatrics  2009;169(1):125-126.
We report the case of a 6-year-old female with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome secondary to bilateral adrenal nodular hyperplasia, who presented with hypertension and seizures, and was found have MRI changes consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The patient received anti-hypertensive medication and a bilateral adrenalectomy was performed. One month later, resolution of her brain MRI changes were seen. This is the first case described in the literature of a patient with Cushing syndrome and PRES. We review the link between hypertension and Cushing syndrome, along with the pathophysiology of PRES and emphasize the importance of early recognition and treatment of hypertension in pediatric patients with Cushing syndrome to avoid possible cerebrovascular complications that may be related to a hypertensive event.
doi:10.1007/s00431-009-0990-4
PMCID: PMC3124700  PMID: 19415327
Cushing syndrome; hypertension; adrenal tumors; hyperplasia
18.  Endoscopic-assisted Fascial Decompression for Forearm Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2010;5(4):427-429.
A case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm treated with endoscopic-assisted fascial decompression is presented. The diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm was confirmed by direct measurement of intracompartmental pressures. Following endoscopic-assisted fascial decompression, the patient was able to begin rehabilitation therapy within 2 weeks. There were no wound-related complications. The patient reported no recurrence of symptoms after returning to work requiring heavy lifting, and morbidity associated with open decompression was avoided. Endoscopic release is not an option in traumatic compartment syndrome, but a minimally invasive approach may be considered in cases of exertional compartment syndrome. Reports of endoscopic-assisted fascial decompression in exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm are relatively scarce. Confirmation of the safety and efficacy of these evolving techniques in the hand surgery literature remains important.
doi:10.1007/s11552-010-9261-0
PMCID: PMC2988132  PMID: 22131927
Exertional compartment syndrome; Endoscopic; Forearm; Fasciotomy; Minimally invasive
19.  Extravasation of radiographic contrast material and compartment syndrome in the hand: a case report 
Radiocontrast agents are a type of medical contrast material used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in X-ray based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) or radiography. Radiocontrast agents are typically iodine or barium compounds.
Extravasation of contrast is a possible complication of imaging studies performed with contrasts. Most extravasations cause minimal swelling or erythema, however, skin necrosis, ulceration and compartment syndrome may occur with extravasation of large volumes of contrast.
A case report is presented in which significant extravasation of contrast was caused while injecting the contrast intravenously into the back of the hand of a 50 year old patient during computed tomography. The patient was undergoing chemotherapy. The patient developed a compartment syndrome and a fasciotomy was required. Treatment options are outlined and emphasis is made on prevention of this iatrogenic complication.
Some of the preventive measures to avoid these complications include use of non-ionic contrast (low osmolarity), careful choice of the site of intravenous administration, and close monitoring of the patient during injection of contrast to minimize or prevent extravasation injuries. Clear information to patients and prompt recognition of the complication can allow for other non-surgical treatment options than the one required in this case.
doi:10.1186/1757-7241-19-9
PMCID: PMC3044092  PMID: 21294896
20.  Complications and pitfalls of lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections 
Lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections are used in the treatment of lumbar radicular pain and other lumbar spinal pain syndromes. Complications from these procedures arise from needle placement and the administration of medication. Potential risks include infection, hematoma, intravascular injection of medication, direct nerve trauma, subdural injection of medication, air embolism, disc entry, urinary retention, radiation exposure, and hypersensitivity reactions. The objective of this article is to review the complications of lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections and discuss the potential pitfalls related to these procedures. We performed a comprehensive literature review through a Medline search for relevant case reports, clinical trials, and review articles. Complications from lumbar epidural injections are extremely rare. Most if not all complications can be avoided by careful technique with accurate needle placement, sterile precautions, and a thorough understanding of the relevant anatomy and contrast patterns on fluoroscopic imaging.
doi:10.1007/s12178-008-9035-2
PMCID: PMC2682416  PMID: 19468908
Back pain; Spinal injection; Epidural steroid injection; Lumbar interlaminar epidural; Lumbar transforaminal epidural; Complications; Safety; Risk management
21.  Carotid Stenting without Angioplasty and without Protection 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2008;14(2):153-163.
Summary
Endovascular stenting is a consolidated alternative to thrombendarterectomy in the treatment of extracranial carotid artery atheromasic stenosis.
The most common complication of stenting is a distal embolism causing clinically silent or symptomatic cerebral ischaemia. To prevent this complication distal embolism protection devices are often used but their effectiveness remains unsettled. In addition, there is some evidence that distal embolism may actually be triggered by the protection systems due to clot formation at their distal surface or in the intimal lesions these systems cause. Another rarer complication is hyperperfusion syndrome arising during both stenting and thrombendarterectomy but more common in endovascular procedures. To avoid these complications the Neuroradiology Service at Bellaria Hospital (Bologna Local Health Trust) has devised a mini-invasive carotid stenting technique that does not require either distal embolism protection or angioplasty.
The technique uses only the radial force exerted by the self-expanding stent to widen the atherosclerotic stenosis slowly and gradually. The goal of treatment has also changed from a prompt restoration of the atheromasic vessel’s original calibre to slow transformation of the hemodynamic significance of the stenosis. The technique’s success lies mainly in selecting the stenosis to treat using CT angiography to ana-lyse plaque morphology and structure. We used the technique to treat 83 stenotic lesions in 75 patients. The study aims to describe and discuss our experience.
PMCID: PMC3313718  PMID: 20557756
primary carotid stenting, atherosclerotic disease, mini-invasive technique, endovascular, protection device
22.  Acute lower limb compartment syndrome after Cesarean section: a case report 
Introduction
Acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb is a rare but severe intra- and post-partum complication. Prompt diagnosis is essential to avoid permanent functional restriction or even the loss of the affected limb. Clinical signs and symptoms might be nonspecific, especially in the early stages; therefore, knowledge of predisposing risk factors can be helpful.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 32-year-old Caucasian woman with acute post-partum compartment syndrome.
Conclusion
Acute compartment syndrome is an important differential diagnosis for the sudden onset of intra- or post-partum lower-limb pain. Predisposing factors for the manifestation of acute compartment syndrome in an obstetric environment are augmented intra-partum blood loss, prolonged hypotensive episodes and the use of oxytocin to support or induce labor because of its vasoconstrictive properties. Treatment is prompt surgical decompression by performing fasciotomy in any affected muscular compartments.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-161
PMCID: PMC3096988  PMID: 21513525
23.  Neuropraxia of the palmar cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve during carpal tunnel decompression. 
Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the most commonly encountered conditions in the hand clinic and carpal tunnel decompression is the most frequently performed procedure in hand surgery. It is an effective procedure for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. However, there is a high risk of complications that can be avoided with an understanding of wrist anatomy, appropriate planning and execution. We highlight one such complication, a case of neuropraxia of the palmar cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve that followed carpal tunnel decompression.
PMCID: PMC1963910  PMID: 16395819
24.  Nutritional Rehabilitation: Practical Guidelines for Refeeding the Anorectic Patient 
Weight restoration is crucial for successful treatment of anorexia nervosa. Without it, patients may face serious or even fatal medical complications of severe starvation. However, the process of nutritional rehabilitation can also be risky to the patient. The refeeding syndrome, a problem of electrolyte and fluid shifts, can cause permanent disability or even death. It is essential to identify at-risk patients, to monitor them carefully, and to initiate a nutritional rehabilitation program that aims to avoid the refeeding syndrome. A judicious, slow initiation of caloric intake, requires daily management to respond to entities such as liver inflammation and hypoglycemia that can complicate the body's conversion from a catabolic to an anabolic state. In addition, nutritional rehabilitation should take into account clinical characteristics unique to these patients, such as gastroparesis and slowed colonic transit, so that measures can be taken to ameliorate the physical discomforts of weight restoration. Adjunct methods of refeeding such as the use of enteral or parenteral nutrition may play a small but important role in a select patient group who cannot tolerate oral nutritional rehabilitation alone.
doi:10.1155/2010/625782
PMCID: PMC2925090  PMID: 20798756
25.  Cardiovascular Changes in Cirrhosis: Pathogenesis and Clinical Implications 
Liver cirrhosis is associated with a wide range of cardiovascular abnormalities including hyperdynamic circulation, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, and pulmonary vascular abnormalities. The pathogenic mechanisms of these cardiovascular changes are multifactorial and include neurohumoral and vascular dysregulations. Accumulating evidence suggests that cirrhosis-related cardiovascular abnormalities play a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple life-threatening complications including hepatorenal syndrome, ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, gastroesophageal varices, and hepatopulmonary syndrome. Treatment targeting the circulatory dysfunction in these patients may improve the short-term prognosis while awaiting liver transplantation. Careful fluid management in the immediate post-transplant period is extremely important to avoid cardiac-related complications. Liver transplantation results in correction of portal hypertension and reversal of all the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the cardiovascular abnormalities, resulting in restoration of a normal circulation. The following is a review of the pathogenesis and clinical implications of the cardiovascular changes in cirrhosis.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.65181
PMCID: PMC3003209  PMID: 20616408
Cirrhosis; cirrhotic cardiomyopathy; hyperdynamic circulation; liver transplantation

Results 1-25 (98192)