The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) is used to examine students’ study approaches in higher education. The questionnaire assumes to measure two factors: a deep and a surface study approach. Analyses into the validity and reliability of the original English R-SPQ-2F yielded positive results. In this study, we examined the degree to which these positive results can also be found for the Dutch version that we developed. By comparing our results with the results of earlier studies in different cultures, we conclude cross-cultural sensitivity is an important point to be borne in mind when using the R-SPQ-2F. Our research supports the validity and reliability of our Dutch version of the R-SPQ-2F.
Many studies have explored approaches to learning in medical school, mostly in the classroom setting. In the clinical setting, students face different conditions that may affect their learning. Understanding students’ approaches to learning is important to improve learning in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) as an instrument for measuring clinical learning in medical education and also to show whether learning approaches vary between rotations.
All students involved in this survey were undergraduates in their clinical phase. The SPQ was adapted to the clinical setting and was distributed in the last week of the clerkship rotation. A longitudinal study was also conducted to explore changes in learning approaches.
Two hundred and nine students participated in this study (response rate 82.0%). The SPQ findings supported a two-factor solution involving deep and surface approaches. These two factors accounted for 45.1% and 22.5%, respectively, of the variance. The relationships between the two scales and their subscales showed the internal consistency and factorial validity of the SPQ to be comparable with previous studies. The clinical students in this study had higher scores for deep learning. The small longitudinal study showed small changes of approaches to learning with different rotation placement but not statistically significant.
The SPQ was found to be a valid instrument for measuring approaches to learning among clinical students. More students used a deep approach than a surface approach. Changes of approach not clearly occurred with different clinical rotations.
Approaches to learning; Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ); Learning process; Clinical teaching
Objective. Sasang typology is a traditional Korean medicine based on the biopsychosocial perspectives of Neo-Confucianism and utilizes medical herbs and acupuncture for type-specific treatment. This study was designed to develop and validate the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) for future use in the assessment of personality based on Sasang typology.
Design and Methods. We selected questionnaire items using internal consistency analysis and examined construct validity with explorative factor analysis using 245 healthy participants. Test-retest reliability as well as convergent validity were examined.
Results. The 14-item SPQ showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .817) and test-retest reliability (r = .837). Three extracted subscales, SPQ-behavior, SPQ-emotionality, and SPQ-cognition, were found, explaining 55.77% of the total variance. The SPQ significantly correlated with Temperament and Character Inventory novelty seeking (r = .462), harm avoidance (r = −.390), and NEO Personality Inventory extraversion (r = .629). The SPQ score of the So-Eum (24.43 ± 4.93), Tae-Eum (27.33 ± 5.88), and So-Yang (30.90 ± 5.23) types were significantly different from each other (P < .01).
Conclusion. Current results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SPQ and its subscales that can be utilized as an objective instrument for conducting personalized medicine research incorporating the biopsychosocial perspective.
Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) instruments need disease and country specific validation. In Arab countries, there is no specific validated questionnaire for assessment of HRQOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim of this study was to present an Arabic translation, adaptation, and the subsequent validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form (KDQOL-SFTM) version 1.3 questionnaire in a representative series of Egyptian CKD patients.
KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 was translated into Arabic by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities were reconciled, the final Arabic questionnaire was tested by interviewing 100 pre-dialysis CKD (stage 1-4) patients randomly selected from outpatients attending the Nephrology clinic at the Main Alexandria University Hospital. Test re-test reliability was performed, with a subsample of 50 consecutive CKD patients, by two interviews 7 days apart and internal consistency estimated by Cronbach’s α. Discriminant, concept, and construct validity were assessed.
All items of SF-36 met the criterion for internal consistency and were reproducible. Of the 10 kidney disease targeted scales, only three had Cronbach’s α <0.7: quality of social interaction (0.23), work status (0.28), and cognitive function (0.60). All disease specific scales were reproducible. Results from discriminant validity showed that the study questionnaire could discriminate between patients’ subgroups. As for concept validity, the correlation between all domains of the questionnaire with overall health ratewas significant for all domains except for the work status, sexual function, emotional wellbeing, and role emotional. Furthermore, the correlation between the disease specific domains and the two composite summaries of SF-36 (physical and mental composite summaries) was significant for all domains except for sexual function with mental composite summary. Construct validity was indicated by the observation that the majority of the domains of the kidney disease targeted scale of KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 were significantly inter-correlated. Finally, principal component analysis of the kidney disease targeted scale indicated that this part of the questionnaire could be summarized into 10 factors that together explained 70.9% of the variance.
The results suggest that this Arabic version of the KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for use in Egyptian patients with CKD.
Chronic kidney disease; Egypt; Health-related quality of life; KDQOL-SFTM 1.3; Questionnaire validation
Knowledge and awareness about osteoporosis and its related risk factors are important contributors to osteoporosis preventive behavior. There is a need to assess the reliability of international osteoporosis-related knowledge and belief measurement tools in Arabic community. This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Arabic version of Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT) and the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) among Syrian women.
The study included two phases. The first phase included a forward and backward translation of the osteoporosis-related tools (OKAT and OHBS) followed by a pilot testing. The second phase was an assessment of the test-retest reliability of the tools among a convenience sample of one hundred working women at Damascus Faculty of Medicine and its teaching hospitals. For this purpose each instrument was administered twice to all women at an interval of two weeks. Data collection took place in the fall of 2011, and was facilitated by a trained interviewer whose task was to administer the tools and collect some background data from the women who consented to participate in the study.
A total of one hundred women were recruited in this study for the reliability test-retest of the Arabic version of the tools. The mean age of studied women was 37.1 (SD = 8.4) years. Most of the women were married and nearly one-half of them had a university education. The internal consistency values for OHBS (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.806) as well as the OKAT (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.824) met the 0.7 Cronbach’s alpha value requirement. Item analysis did not necessitate any omissions in either tool. McNemar’s test identified only three items on the OKAT questionnaire that significantly differed from the test to the retest. The OKAT mean score (SD) for the test was 9.4 (2.6) and that for the re-test was 10.1 (2.9). Paired t test did not show significant difference (P = 0.068).
The Arabic version of both the Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT) and the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) was found to be reliable as well as acceptable. Further research is needed as to complete the validation of those tools and to use them at larger scale whether in knowledge assessment or in assessing interventions.
We examined the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Obsessive Compulsive Beliefs Questionnaire-44 (OBQ-44) in a sample of Kuwait University students. This questionnaire was developed by the Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group in order to assess belief domains believed to be crucial in the development of obsessive compulsive symptoms.
The Arabic version of the OBQ-44 was developed according to the standard translation and back-translation methods. The Arabic versions of the OBQ-44, the Maudsley Obsessive - Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), and Beck Depression Inventory-Revised (BDI-II) were then administered on a sample of 200 Kuwait University students from the faculty of humanities chosen through random cluster sampling. Retest was administered within a 4 week time period.
The results of principle component factor analysis with varimax rotation indicated 6 factors which overlapped to a high degree. A 3 factor solution was chosen based on the scree plot and factor loadings which explained 36.12% of the variance. The factors were labeled as responsibility and threat estimation (RT), importance and control of thought (ICT) and perfectionism/Certainty (PC). The reliability coefficient of the three factors and the total score were assessed using three methods: Internal consistency, Test-retest reliability and Split-half reliability. Results showed an acceptable internal consistency for the Arabic version of the OBQ-44. Regarding the validity of OBQ-44, the instrument correlated with the total score of MOCI and most of its subscales.
These data support the reliability and validity of the OBQ-44 in a sample of Kuwait University students.
Arabs; Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; Psychometrics; Questionnaire; Reproducibility of results
Existing research has suggested that comorbid psychopathy may explain one trajectory of violent behavior in a subset of individuals with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear which specific traits and symptoms are responsible for this relationship and whether it is limited to clinical and/or forensic categories, or if it reflects a dimensional relationship found in the general population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine differential relationships between specific factors of psychopathy and schizotypy in a non-psychiatric and non-forensic sample. Two hundred and twelve undergraduate students (50% female) completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R). After controlling for age and sex, regressions showed that the total SPQ score was positively related to the total PPI-R score and the Self-Centered Impulsivity factor, and negatively related to the Fearless Dominance factor. Self-Centered Impulsivity was positively related to all three SPQ factor scores, with the strongest relationship found with the Cognitive-Perceptual factor. In contrast, Fearless Dominance was negatively related to only the Interpersonal and Disorganized factors of the SPQ, with the strongest relationship found with the Interpersonal factor. Findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizotypy and the self-centered impulsivity aspect of psychopathy is not limited to extreme discrete populations, but exists in a more dimensional manner within a non-psychiatric sample. In addition, it appears that schizotypy is negatively related to the fearless dominance aspect of psychopathy, which appears to be a novel finding. Results provide preliminary findings that may have implications for developing appropriate prediction, assessment, and treatment techniques for violent behavior in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
psychopathy; schizotypy; self-centered impulsivity; fearless dominance; schizophrenia
The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) provides a brief measure of symptoms and impact of urinary incontinence on quality of life. It is suitable for use in clinical practice and research. An Arabic version of the ICIQ-UI SF was translated and validated in Egypt and Syria.
The objective was to assess the reliability of the Arabic version of the ICIQ-UI SF in women from Saudi Arabia.
Settings and Design:
A study at the Urogynecology Clinic was conducted from November 2010 until August 2011.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-seven consecutive Saudi women attending urogynecologic clinic were recruited. Questionnaires were distributed for self-completion and then redistributed to the same set of respondents two to four weeks later as part of a test-retest analysis for assessing questionnaire's stability.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Agreement between two measurements was determined by weighted Kappa. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient.
Participants had a mean (SD) age of 39 (9.9), median parity of 4, and mean BMI (SD) of 30.9 kg/m2 (4.6). There were no differences in the frequency and amount of urine leaks or the impact of UI on quality of life observed between the two visits. Assessment of internal consistency was excellent with the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.88-0.98). Participants agreed that the questionnaire was clear, appropriate, and easy to understand.
The Arabic ICIQ-UI SF is a stable and clear questionnaire that can be used for UI assessment in clinical practice and research among Saudi women.
ICIQ-UI short form; quality of life; questionnaire; reliability; Saudi Arabia; urinary incontinence
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
EQ-5D is a generic measure that permits comparisons in quality of life across disease states, and which may provide useful data for health policy and resource allocation decision-making. There are no published reports on the acceptability and psychometric properties of the EQ-5D in the Arabic language. We therefore investigated the validity and reliability of the Arabic translation of the EQ-5D in Jordan.
The study was conducted on a convenience sample consisting of consecutive adult Arabic-speaking outpatients or visitors attending a university teaching hospital. Subjects were interviewed twice using a standardized questionnaire containing the EQ-5D, Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). To assess the validity of the Arabic version of the EQ-5D, ten hypotheses relating responses to EQ-5D dimensions or the visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) to SF-36 scores or other variables were examined and test-retest reliability was assessed.
The study included 186 subjects who had a mean age of 45.3 years and included 87 (47%) females. The major problem reported in more than 102 (55%) of the subjects was anxiety/depression. All of the ten a-priori hypothesis relating EQ-5D responses to external variables were fulfilled. Cohen's κ for test-retest reliability (n=52) ranged from 0.48 to 1.0.
The Arabic translation of EQ-5D appears to be valid and reliable in measuring quality of life in Jordanian people.
The Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10) is a validated and reliable instrument to measure global levels of perceived stress. This study aims to assess the internal consistency, reliability, and factor structure of the Malay version of the PSS-10 for use among medical students.
The original English version of the PSS-10 was translated and back-translated into Malay language. The Malay version was distributed to 242 Bachelor of Medical Science students in a private university in Malaysia. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 70 students. An exploratory principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Reliability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
All 242 students participated in the initial questionnaire study (validity and factor structure), and 70 students participated in the test–retest reliability of the study. Exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors that accounted for 57.8% of the variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the 2 factors were 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. The reliability test showed an ICC of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.89).
The Malay version of the PSS-10 showed adequate psychometric properties. It is a useful instrument for measuring stress among medical students in Malaysia.
Malaysia; medical; psychological; reliability and validity; stress; students
Currently, there is one Behçet's disease (BD) specific self reporting questionnaire developed and published in the literature, The Leeds BD-quality of life (QoL). We conducted a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the Leeds BD-QoL
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 41 consecutive patients attending rheumatology clinics at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between June and December 2007. The BD-QoL questionnaire, the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) questionnaires were co-administered during the same visit, and severity scores were calculated. Cross-cultural adaptation of BD-QoL was performed using forward and backward translations of the original questionnaire. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the final version were determined. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to assess the dimensionality of the scale items. External construct validity was examined by correlating Arabic BD-QoL with the severity score, ADL and IADL.
The 30 items of the adapted Arabic BD-QoL showed a high internal consistency (KR-20 coefficient 0.89) and test-retest reliability (Spearman's test 0.91). The convergence of all 30 items suggests that the 30-item adapted Arabic BD-QoL scale is unidimensional. BD-QoL did not correlate with any of the patients' demographics. Still, it was positively correlated with patient severity score (r 0.4, p 0.02), and IADL (but not ADL).
This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Arabic BD-QoL questionnaire that is now available for use in clinical settings and in research studies, among Arabic speaking patients.
Behçet's disease; Quality of life; Arabic version of BD-QoL; Cross-cultural adaptation; Validity and reliability
The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in Arabic countries in recent years. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may in certain cases become problematic and engender negative consequences in daily life. As no instrument in the Arabic language is available, however, to measure excessive Internet use, the goal of the current study was to validate an Arabic version of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS).
The Arabic version of the CIUS was administered to a sample of 185 Internet users and exploratory and confirmatory analyses performed.
As found previously for the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. The total score on the CIUS was positively associated with time spent online.
The Arabic version of the CIUS seems to be a valid self-report to measure problematic Internet use.
The role of deliberate practice in medical students' development from novice to expert was examined for preclinical skill training.
Students in years 1-3 completed 34 Likert type items, adapted from a questionnaire about the use of deliberate practice in cognitive learning. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis were used to validate the questionnaire. Analysis of variance examined differences between years and regression analysis the relationship between deliberate practice and skill test results.
875 students participated (90%). Factor analysis yielded four factors: planning, concentration/dedication, repetition/revision, study style/self reflection. Student scores on 'Planning' increased over time, score on sub-scale 'repetition/revision' decreased. Student results on the clinical skill test correlated positively with scores on subscales 'planning' and 'concentration/dedication' in years 1 and 3, and with scores on subscale 'repetition/revision' in year 1.
The positive effects on test results suggest that the role of deliberate practice in medical education merits further study. The cross-sectional design is a limitation, the large representative sample a strength of the study. The vanishing effect of repetition/revision may be attributable to inadequate feedback. Deliberate practice advocates sustained practice to address weaknesses, identified by (self-)assessment and stimulated by feedback. Further studies should use a longitudinal prospective design and extend the scope to expertise development during residency and beyond.
To study the relationship between student motivation for learning and 38 factors related to teaching, curriculum and administration.
A total of 231 male and female medical students in the first three pre-clinical years participated in the study by completing a questionnaire.
Results and Conclusions:
Factors that have been rated as strong promoters of motivation include: injecting relevant clinical information into lectures, encouraging student participation, revising previous lectures, using explanatory Arabic phrases, using the chalk board, providing specific course objectives, adopting one easy reference, concentrating on the core curriculum and showing respect to students. Factors that have been evaluated as inhibitors of motivation included: content overload, unscheduled quizzes, giving one quiz per subject in a semester, difficult exams and afternoon lectures.
Student motivation; Medical education; Teaching style; Medical curriculum; Saudi Arabia
The objective of the study was to assess the quality of life in patients with skin disease.
Subjects and Methods:
A 6-month cross-sectional study was conducted in the Dermatology Clinic at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study sample consisted of all 297 adult patients with dermatological conditions attending clinic but without associated psychiatric disease. They completed a self-administered Arabic version of the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire (DLQI), containing ten items. The data was analyzed according to disease, age and gender.
The gender distribution of the study sample was 73% female and 27% male. The mean age was 29.4 years. The proportions of patients with various diagnoses were: sebaceous and apocrine gland disorders 31.3%, eczematous dermatitis 18.5%, cutaneous infections 13.5%, and pigmentary disorders 10.8%. The mean DLQI of all patients was 8.32. Patients with papulosquamous disorders recorded the highest mean DLQI score of 15.28, followed by immunological disorders with 11.11, eczematous dermatitis with 9.55, and miscellaneous disorders with 10.91. The mean DLQI was higher among females (9.02) than males (6.46). Age had no influence on the degree of impairment.
Measuring the impairment of the quality of life in dermatology patients is an important aspect of management. It allows clinicians to assess the extent and nature of the disability so that an appropriate management regimen can be implemented and its effectiveness assessed.
Dermatology Life Quality Index; Impairment; Quality of life; Skin disease
To produce a conceptually equivalent Arabic version to the original Self-Administered Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire with standardized dyspnea domain (CRQ-SAS) and to assess its reliability.
The study was carried out in two stages: stage I which was the translation of the CRQ-SAS questionnaire from the English to the Arabic language, and stage II which represented the test-retest reliability for patients receiving usual care for COPD who were not yet admitted to the pulmonary rehabilitation program.
Forty five patients with stable COPD were enrolled in this study. Strong test-retest reliability was found for the four domains of the CRQ-SAS, with the intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.97 for each of the domains. The association between most parameters and the four domains of CRQ-SAS were not found to be statistically significant, as measured by Pearson correlation. The number of exacerbations was negatively correlated with the dyspnea domain (correlation = -0.36, p-value = 0.02). The disease duration was negatively correlated with the domain fatigue (correlation = -0.35, p-value = 0.02). The correlation between FEV1/FVC ratio and emotion domain was -0.30 (p-value = 0.05). The mastery domain was negatively correlated with FEV1/FVC ratio with a correlation of -0.27 with borderline statistical significance (p-value = 0.07).
The Arabic translation of the CRQ-SAS was found to be reliable to assess the quality of life among patients with COPD.
Quality of Life; Pulmonary rehabilitation; COPD; Saudi Arabia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students.
The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors.
Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level.
This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of the Arabic translation of the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in pregnant and postpartum women.
A sample of 268 women participated. These included 113 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, 97 in the postpartum period and 58 healthy female university students. GHQ-12 and EPDS were also administered to the participants. Internal consistency reliability, assessed using Cronbach's α, was 0.74.
PSS-10 significantly correlated with both EPDS and GHQ12 (ρ = 0.58 and ρ = 0.48 respectively), and significantly increased with higher scores on stressful life events. PSS-10 scores were higher among university students who also recorded higher stressful life events scores.
The Arabic translated version of the PSS-10 showed reasonably adequate psychometric properties.
An understanding of depressive symptomatology from the perspective of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) could facilitate valid and interpretable comparisons across cultures. The objectives of the study were: (i) using the responses of a sample of Arab college students to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in CFA, to compare the "goodness of fit" indices of the original dimensional three-and two-factor first-order models, and their modifications, with the corresponding hierarchical models (i.e., higher - order and bifactor models); (ii) to assess the psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II, including convergent/discriminant validity with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25).
Participants (N = 624) were Kuwaiti national college students, who completed the questionnaires in class. CFA was done by AMOS, version 16. Eleven models were compared using eight "fit" indices.
In CFA, all the models met most "fit" criteria. While the higher-order model did not provide improved fit over the dimensional first - order factor models, the bifactor model (BFM) had the best fit indices (CMNI/DF = 1.73; GFI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.034). All regression weights of the dimensional models were significantly different from zero (P < 0.001). Standardized regression weights were mostly 0.27-0.60, and all covariance paths were significantly different from zero. The regression weights of the BFM showed that the variance related to the specific factors was mostly accounted for by the general depression factor, indicating that the general depression score is an adequate representation of severity. The BDI-II had adequate internal consistency and convergent/discriminant validity. The mean BDI score (15.5, SD = 8.5) was significantly higher than those of students from other countries (P < 0.001).
The broadly adequate fit of the various models indicates that they have some merit and implies that the relationship between the domains of depression probably contains hierarchical and dimensional elements. The bifactor model is emerging as the best way to account for the clinical heterogeneity of depression. The psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II lend support to our CFA results.
The fact that faculty tutors do have different backgrounds and specialty has been a concern as a factor that contributes to disparity in the delivery of brainstorming session outcomes. This paper aims to introduce a road map in the form of a set of focused objective structured questions (OSBQs) for tutors to follow in brainstorming.
Objectively structured questions were generated by the block planning committees. A pilot study was conducted from February 2008 – March 2009 and included groups (44 students) of second and third year undergraduate students of the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City. Four indicators were considered to check the validity of the proposed OSBQs; (i) feed back on the perception of medical students experiencing different types of tutorial sessions, (ii) learning objectives achieved under both systems, (iii) student’s performance under the OSBQs and the unguided tutorials and (iv) proper utilization of the time allocated to brainstorming sessions.
The student’s perception of their satisfaction of implementation of OSBQs was unanimous. Student’s performances were much better in blocks implementing OSBQs. The time allocated for brainstorming sessions was efficiently utilized with the introduction of OSBQs.
Implementation of OSBQs leads to standardization of tutorial sessions and allows more interaction between students to achieve their learning objectives and score better in their exams. Concern over the role of tutors will diminish.
Female sexual dysfunction is a common condition that extremely affects reproductive health and quality of life. To assess this health condition, a valid and reliable questionnaire is required. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Sexual Quality of Life-Female (SQOL-F) questionnaire in Iran.
Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the questionnaire from English into Persian. After linguistic validation and pilot examination, a cross-sectional study was carried out and psychometric properties of the Iranian version of questionnaire were tested. One hundred reproductive aged, married, healthy and sexually active women completed the questionnaire. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), and test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficient) analyses. In addition, content, and face validity were assessed and the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing exploratory factor analysis.
The mean age of participants was 33 (SD = 8.07) years, and the mean quality of sexual life score was 86.4 (SD = 1.78) ranging from 36 to 108. Most women were housewife (n = 92). Reliability evaluation revealed high internal consistency and good test-retest reliability. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.73 and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.88. The mean scores for the content validity index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR) were 0.91 and 0.84, respectively. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated a four-factor solution for the questionnaire that jointly accounted for 60.8% of variance observed.
The findings from this study suggest that the Iranian version of SQOL-F questionnaire has good psychometric properties and it will be useful to assess the female sexual quality of life in reproductive health care settings.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
There is rising interest in quality of life (QOL) research in Arabian countries. The aim of this study was to assess in a nationwide sample of Kuwaiti subjects the reliability and validity of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF), a shorter version of the widely used QOL assessment instrument that comprises 26 items in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and the environment.
A one-in-three systematic random proportionate sample of consenting Kuwaiti nationals attending large cooperative stores and municipal government offices in the six governorates completed the Arabic translation of the questionnaire. The indices assessed included test-retest reliability, internal consistency, item internal consistency (IIC), item discriminant validity (IDV), known-groups and construct validity.
There were 3303 participants (44.8% males, 55.2% females, mean age 35.4 years, range 16 to 87 years). The intra-class correlation for the test-retest statistic and the internal consistency values for the full questionnaire and the domains had a Cronbach's alpha≥0.7. Of the 24 items that constitute the domains, 21 met the IIC requirement of correlation ≥0.4 with the corresponding domain, while 16 met the IDV criterion of having a higher correlation with their corresponding domain than other domains. Domain scores discriminated significantly between well and sick groups. In the factor analysis, four strong factors emerged with the same construct as in the WHO report.
The Arabic translation of the WHOQOL-BREF has impressive reliability and validity indices. The poor IDV findings are due to the multidimensional nature of the questionnaire. The highly significant validity indices should reassure researchers that the questionnaire represents the same constructs across cultures. Negatively worded items possibly need refinement.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common, under-recognized, under diagnosed, under treated, and serious medical condition in adults. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for diagnosis of OSA; however, prohibitive cost of the test and rarity of sleep laboratory in the Arabic nations limit its access. So, searching for another simple, economical, reliable, and valid tool for identification of OSA at risk patients is of special public concern.
This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability and validity of Arabic version of Berlin questionnaire (ABQ) in detection of OSA at risk patients.
After hospital ethics approval and formal patients consent, 100 patients were subjected to full night PSG study after their response to the developed ABQ. The patients were classified into both low (30) and high risk (70) for OSA using ABQ and validated against apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Reliability was assessed by internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha test and consistency over time using test retest correlation.
The study demonstrated a high degree of internal consistency and stability over time for the developed ABQ. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 10-item tool was 0.92. Validation of ABQ against AHI at cutoff >5 revealed a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 90%, positive and negative predictive values of 96% and 93%, respectively.
The ABQ is reliable and valid scale in screening patients for the risk of OSA among Arabic-speaking nations, especially in resource-limited settings.
Apnea hypopnea index; Arabic version of Berlin questionnaire; Berlin questionnaire; obstructive sleep apnea; reliability and validity
The purpose of this study was to describe the questionnaire development process for evaluating important elements of an evidence-based practice (EBP) curriculum and to report on initial reliability and validity testing for the primary component of the questionnaire, an EBP knowledge exam.
The EBP knowledge test was evaluated with students enrolled in a doctor of chiropractic program. The initial version was tested with a sample of 374 and a revised version with a sample of 196 students. Item performance and reliability were assessed using item difficulty, item discrimination, and internal consistency. An expert panel assessed face and content validity.
The first version of the knowledge exam demonstrated a low internal consistency (KR20=0.55) and a few items had poor item difficulty and discrimination. This resulted in an expansion in the number of items from 20 to 40, as well as a revision of the poorly performing items from the initial version. The KR20 of the second version was 0.68; 32 items had item difficulties of between 0.20 and 0.80 and 26 items had item discrimination values of 0.20 or greater.
A questionnaire for evaluating a revised EBP integrated curriculum was developed and evaluated. Psychometric testing of the EBP knowledge component provided some initial evidence for acceptable reliability and validity.
Evidence-Based Practice; Reproducibility of Results; Questionnaires; Chiropractic; Knowledge
To support better headache management in primary care, the Global Campaign against Headache developed an 8-question outcome measure, the Headache Under-Response to Treatment (HURT) questionnaire. HURT was designed by an expert consensus group with patient-input. It assesses the need for and response to treatment, and provides guidance on actions to optimize therapy. It has proven content validity.
We aim to evaluate the Arabic version of HURT for clinical utility in primary care in Saudi Arabia.
HURT was translated according to the Global Campaign’s translation protocol. We assessed test-retest reliability in consecutive patients of four primary-care centres, who completed HURT at two visits 4-6 weeks apart while receiving usual care. We then provided training in headache management to the GPs practising in these centres, which were randomized in pairs to control (standard care) or intervention (care guided by implementation of HURT). We assessed responsiveness of HURT to clinical change by comparing base-line responses to HURT questions 1-6 with those at follow up. We assessed clinical utility by comparing outcomes between control and intervention pairs after 3 months, using locally-developed 5-point verbal-rating scales: the patient-satisfaction scale (PSS) and doctor-satisfaction scale (DSS).
For test-retest reliability in 40 patients, intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.66-0.78 for questions 1-4 and 0.90-0.93 for questions 5-7 (all P ≤ 0.001). For the dichotomous response to question 8, Kappa coefficient = 1 (P < 0.0001). Internal consistency was good (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.74). In 342 patients, HURT signalled clinical improvement over 3 months through statistically significant changes in responses to questions 1-6. PSS scores were higher among those in whom HURT recorded improvement, and also higher among those with less severe headache at baseline. Patients treated with guidance from HURT (n = 207) were more satisfied than controls (n = 135), but this did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06).
The Arabic HURT Questionnaire is reliable and responsive to clinical change in Arabic-speaking headache patients in primary care. HURT showed clinical utility in this first assessment, conducted in parallel with studies elsewhere in other languages, but this needs further study. Other Arabic instruments are not available as standards for comparison.
Headache; Management; HURT questionnaire; Primary care; Reliability; Validation; Global campaign against headache