Karyotype, host preference, isozyzme patterns, morphometrics, and mating behavior of two burrowing nematode populations from Hawaii, one infecting Anthurium sp. and the second infecting Musa sp., were compared with Radopholus similis and R. citrophilus populations from Florida. The population from Anthurium sp. had five chromosomes (n = 5), and that from Musa sp. had four (n = 4). Neither of the Hawaiian nematode populations persisted in roots of Citrus limon or C. aurantium. Anthurium clarinerivum and A. hookeri were hosts of the burrowing nematode population from anthurium in Hawaii and of R. citrophilus from Florida, whereas the two anthurium species were poor hosts of the population from Musa sp. in Hawaii and R. similis from Florida. The isozyme pattern of the population isolated from anthurium was identical to that of R. citrophigus, whereas the pattern of the population from banana in Hawaii was identical to that of R. similis. Mating behavior between the burrowing nematode population isolated from Anthurium sp. and a Florida population of R. citrophilus supports their close taxonomic relationship. Mating was observed between the population from Anthurium sp. and the Florida population of R. citrophilus but not between the Hawaiian burrowing nematode population isolated from Musa sp. and a Florida population of R. citrophilus. These findings indicate that a previously unidentified population of R. citrophilus which does not parasitize citrus occurs in Hawaii.
anthurium; banana; biotype; citrus; ornamental; race; Radopholus similis; Radopholus citrophilus
Growth and survival of Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae in guttation fluids (xylem sap exuded from leaf margins) of anthuriums were suppressed by several bacterial strains indigenous to leaves of various anthurium cultivars. Inhibition of growth was not observed in filter-sterilized guttation fluids and was restored to original levels only by reintroducing specific mixtures of bacteria into filter-sterilized guttation fluids. The inhibitory effect was related to the species in the bacterial community rather than to the total numbers of bacteria in the guttation fluids. One very effective bacterial community consisted of five species isolated from inhibitory guttation fluids of two susceptible anthurium cultivars. The individual strains in this community had no effect on the pathogen, but the mixture was inhibitory to X. campestris pv. dieffenbachiae in guttation fluids. The populations of the individual strains remained near the initial inoculum levels for at least 14 days. The effect of the five inhibitory strains on reducing disease in susceptible anthurium plants was tested by using a bioluminescent strain of X. campestris pv. dieffenbachiae to monitor the progression of disease in leaves nondestructively. Invasion of the pathogen through hydathodes at leaf margins was reduced by applying the strain mixture to the leaves. When the strain mixture was applied directly to wounds created on the leaf margins, the pathogen failed to invade through the wounds. This bacterial community has potential for biological control of anthurium blight.
The infection process of bacterial blight of anthurium was monitored with a bioluminescent strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae. The relationship between symptom expression on infected leaves (assessed visually) and the extent of bacterial movement within tissues (evaluated by bioluminescence emission) varied among anthurium cultivars. In several cultivars previously considered susceptible on the basis of symptom development alone, bacterial invasion of leaves extended far beyond the visually affected areas. In other cultivars previously considered resistant, bacterial invasion was restricted to areas with visible symptoms. In three cultivars previously considered resistant, leaves were extensively invaded by the bacterium, and yet few or no symptoms were seen on infected leaves. The pathogen was consistently recovered from leaf sections emitting bioluminescence but not from sections emitting no light. At an early stage of infection, no significant differences in the percentages of infected areas as determined by visual assessment were observed in any of the cultivars. However, differences among cultivars were detected by bioluminescence as the disease progressed, because bacterial invasion was not always accompanied by symptom expression. In susceptible cultivars, the advancing border of infection was 5 to 10 cm inward from the margins of the visible symptoms and often reached to the leaf petiole even when symptoms were visible in <10% of the total leaf area. Comparisons of anthurium cultivars in which a nondestructive method was used to quantify the severity of leaf infection by a bioluminescent pathogen have enabled us to evaluate susceptibility and resistance to bacterial blight accurately. Such evaluations will be of importance in breeding resistant cultivars for disease control.
Efficient control of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae, the causal agent of anthurium bacterial blight, requires a sensitive and reliable diagnostic tool. A nested PCR test was developed from a sequence-characterized amplified region marker identified by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR for the detection of X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae. Serological and pathogenicity tests were performed concurrently with the nested PCR test with a large collection of X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains that were isolated worldwide and are pathogenic to anthurium and/or other aroids. The internal primer pair directed amplification of the expected product (785 bp) for all 70 X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains pathogenic to anthurium tested and for isolates originating from syngonium and not pathogenic to anthurium. This finding is consistent with previous studies which indicated that there is a high level of relatedness between strains from anthurium and strains from syngonium. Strains originating from the two host genera can be distinguished by restriction analysis of the amplification product. No amplification product was obtained with 98 strains of unrelated phytopathogenic bacteria or saprophytic bacteria from the anthurium phyllosphere, except for a weak signal obtained for one X. axonopodis pv. allii strain. Nevertheless, restriction enzyme analysis permitted the two pathovars to be distinguished. The detection threshold obtained with pure cultures or plant extracts (103 CFU ml−1) allowed detection of the pathogen from symptomless contaminated plants. This test could be a useful diagnostic tool for screening propagation stock plant material and for monitoring international movement of X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae.
Background and Aims
For 84 years, botanists have relied on calculating the highest common factor for series of haploid chromosome numbers to arrive at a so-called basic number, x. This was done without consistent (reproducible) reference to species relationships and frequencies of different numbers in a clade. Likelihood models that treat polyploidy, chromosome fusion and fission as events with particular probabilities now allow reconstruction of ancestral chromosome numbers in an explicit framework. We have used a modelling approach to reconstruct chromosome number change in the large monocot family Araceae and to test earlier hypotheses about basic numbers in the family.
Using a maximum likelihood approach and chromosome counts for 26 % of the 3300 species of Araceae and representative numbers for each of the other 13 families of Alismatales, polyploidization events and single chromosome changes were inferred on a genus-level phylogenetic tree for 113 of the 117 genera of Araceae.
The previously inferred basic numbers x = 14 and x = 7 are rejected. Instead, maximum likelihood optimization revealed an ancestral haploid chromosome number of n = 16, Bayesian inference of n = 18. Chromosome fusion (loss) is the predominant inferred event, whereas polyploidization events occurred less frequently and mainly towards the tips of the tree.
The bias towards low basic numbers (x) introduced by the algebraic approach to inferring chromosome number changes, prevalent among botanists, may have contributed to an unrealistic picture of ancestral chromosome numbers in many plant clades. The availability of robust quantitative methods for reconstructing ancestral chromosome numbers on molecular phylogenetic trees (with or without branch length information), with confidence statistics, makes the calculation of x an obsolete approach, at least when applied to large clades.
Araceae; Bayesian inference; chromosome evolution; haploid chromosome number; dysploidy; maximum likelihood inference; polyploidy
We investigated a destructive pathogenic variant of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that was consistently isolated in Martinique (French West Indies). Since the 1960s, bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops in Martinique has been caused primarily by strains of R. solanacearum that belong to either phylotype I or phylotype II. Since 1999, anthurium shade houses have been dramatically affected by uncharacterized phylotype II strains that also affected a wide range of species, such as Heliconia caribea, cucurbitaceous crops, and weeds. From 1989 to 2003, a total of 224 R. solanacearum isolates were collected and compared to 6 strains isolated in Martinique in the 1980s. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of selected strains from Martinique were assessed (multiplex PCRs, mutS and egl DNA sequence analysis) and compared to the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of 32 reference strains covering the known diversity within the R. solanacearum species complex. Twenty-four representative isolates were tested for pathogenicity to Musa species (banana) and tomato, eggplant, and sweet pepper. Based upon both PCR and sequence analysis, 119 Martinique isolates from anthurium, members of the family Cucurbitaceae, Heliconia, and tomato, were determined to belong to a group termed phylotype II/sequevar 4 (II/4). While these strains cluster with the Moko disease-causing strains, they were not pathogenic to banana (NPB). The strains belonging to phylotype II/4NPB were highly pathogenic to tomato, eggplant, and pepper, were able to wilt the resistant tomato variety Hawaii7996, and may latently infect cooking banana. Phylotype II/4NPB constitutes a new pathogenic variant of R. solanacearum that has recently appeared in Martinique and may be latently prevalent throughout Caribbean and Central/South America.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of stacked species distribution models in predicting the alpha and gamma species diversity patterns of two important plant clades along elevation in the Andes. We modelled the distribution of the species in the Anthurium genus (53 species) and the Bromeliaceae family (89 species) using six modelling techniques. We combined all of the predictions for the same species in ensemble models based on two different criteria: the average of the rescaled predictions by all techniques and the average of the best techniques. The rescaled predictions were then reclassified into binary predictions (presence/absence). By stacking either the original predictions or binary predictions for both ensemble procedures, we obtained four different species richness models per taxa. The gamma and alpha diversity per elevation band (500 m) was also computed. To evaluate the prediction abilities for the four predictions of species richness and gamma diversity, the models were compared with the real data along an elevation gradient that was independently compiled by specialists. Finally, we also tested whether our richness models performed better than a null model of altitudinal changes of diversity based on the literature. Stacking of the ensemble prediction of the individual species models generated richness models that proved to be well correlated with the observed alpha diversity richness patterns along elevation and with the gamma diversity derived from the literature. Overall, these models tend to overpredict species richness. The use of the ensemble predictions from the species models built with different techniques seems very promising for modelling of species assemblages. Stacking of the binary models reduced the over-prediction, although more research is needed. The randomisation test proved to be a promising method for testing the performance of the stacked models, but other implementations may still be developed.
Transposable elements (TEs) are considered to be an important source of genome size variation and genetic and phenotypic plasticity in eukaryotes. Most of our knowledge about TEs comes from large genomic projects and studies focused on model organisms. However, TE dynamics among related taxa from natural populations and the role of TEs at the species or supra-species level, where genome size and karyotype evolution are modulated in concert with polyploidy and chromosomal rearrangements, remain poorly understood. We focused on the holokinetic genus Eleocharis (Cyperaceae), which displays large variation in genome size and the occurrence of polyploidy and agmatoploidy/symploidy. We analyzed and quantified the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy in relation to changes in both genome size and karyotype in Eleocharis. We also examined how this relationship is reflected in the phylogeny of Eleocharis.
Using flow cytometry, we measured the genome sizes of members of the genus Eleocharis (Cyperaceae). We found positive correlation between the independent phylogenetic contrasts of genome size and chromosome number in Eleocharis. We analyzed PCR-amplified sequences of various reverse transcriptases of the LTR retrotransposons Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy (762 sequences in total). Using real-time PCR and dot blot approaches, we quantified the densities of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy within the genomes of the analyzed species. We detected an increasing density of Ty1-copia elements in evolutionarily younger Eleocharis species and found a positive correlation between Ty1-copia densities and C/n-values (an alternative measure of monoploid genome size) in the genus phylogeny. In addition, our analysis of Ty1-copia sequences identified a novel retrotransposon family named Helos1, which is responsible for the increasing density of Ty1-copia. The transition:transversion ratio of Helos1 sequences suggests that Helos1 recently transposed in later-diverging Eleocharis species.
Using several different approaches, we were able to distinguish between the roles of LTR retrotransposons, polyploidy and agmatoploidy/symploidy in shaping Eleocharis genomes and karyotypes. Our results confirm the occurrence of both polyploidy and agmatoploidy/symploidy in Eleocharis. Additionally, we introduce a new player in the process of genome evolution in holokinetic plants: LTR retrotransposons.
The lycophytes are an ancient lineage of vascular plants that diverged from the seed plant lineage about 400 Myr ago. Although the lycophytes occupy an important phylogenetic position for understanding the evolution of plants and their genomes, no genomic resources exist for this group of plants.
Here we describe the construction of a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Based on cell flow cytometry, this species has the smallest genome size among the different lycophytes tested, including Huperzia lucidula, Diphaiastrum digita, Isoetes engelmanii and S. kraussiana. The arrayed BAC library consists of 9126 clones; the average insert size is estimated to be 122 kb. Inserts of chloroplast origin account for 2.3% of the clones. The BAC library contains an estimated ten genome-equivalents based on DNA hybridizations using five single-copy and two duplicated S. moellendorffii genes as probes.
The S. moellenforffii BAC library, the first to be constructed from a lycophyte, will be useful to the scientific community as a resource for comparative plant genomics and evolution.
Background and Aims
Plant evolution is well known to be frequently associated with remarkable changes in genome size and composition; however, the knowledge of long-term evolutionary dynamics of these processes still remains very limited. Here a study is made of the fine dynamics of quantitative genome evolution in Festuca (fescue), the largest genus in Poaceae (grasses).
Using flow cytometry (PI, DAPI), measurements were made of DNA content (2C-value), monoploid genome size (Cx-value), average chromosome size (C/n-value) and cytosine + guanine (GC) content of 101 Festuca taxa and 14 of their close relatives. The results were compared with the existing phylogeny based on ITS and trnL-F sequences.
The divergence of the fescue lineage from related Poeae was predated by about a 2-fold monoploid genome and chromosome size enlargement, and apparent GC content enrichment. The backward reduction of these parameters, running parallel in both main evolutionary lineages of fine-leaved and broad-leaved fescues, appears to diverge among the existing species groups. The most dramatic reductions are associated with the most recently and rapidly evolving groups which, in combination with recent intraspecific genome size variability, indicate that the reduction process is probably ongoing and evolutionarily young. This dynamics may be a consequence of GC-rich retrotransposon proliferation and removal. Polyploids derived from parents with a large genome size and high GC content (mostly allopolyploids) had smaller Cx- and C/n-values and only slightly deviated from parental GC content, whereas polyploids derived from parents with small genome and low GC content (mostly autopolyploids) generally had a markedly increased GC content and slightly higher Cx- and C/n-values.
The present study indicates the high potential of general quantitative characters of the genome for understanding the long-term processes of genome evolution, testing evolutionary hypotheses and their usefulness for large-scale genomic projects. Taken together, the results suggest that there is an evolutionary advantage for small genomes in Festuca.
Festuca; fescue; grasses; genome size evolution; chromosome size; base composition; GC content; polyploidy; phylogeny; retrotransposon dynamics; flow cytometry
Mitochondrial pseudogenes in nuclear chromosomes (numts) have been detected in the genomes of a diverse range of eukaryotic species. However, the numt content of different genomes and their properties is not uniform, and study of these differences provides insight into the mechanisms and dynamics of genome evolution in different organisms. In the genus Drosophila, numts have previously only been identified on a genome-wide scale in the melanogaster subgroup. The present study extends the identification to 11 species of the Drosophila genus. We identify a total of 302 numts and show that the numt complement is highly variable in Drosophilids, ranging from just 4 in D. melanogaster to 67 in D. willistoni, broadly correlating with genome size. Many numts have undergone large-scale rearrangements in the nucleus, including interruptions, inversions, deletions and duplications of sequence of variable size. Estimating the age of the numts in the nucleus by phylogenetic tree reconstruction reveals the vast majority of numts to be recent gains, 90% having arisen on terminal branches of the species tree. By identifying paralogs and counting duplications among the extant numts we estimate that 23% of extant numts arose through post-insertion duplications. We estimate genus average rates of insertion of 0.75 per million years, and a duplication rate of 0.010 duplications per numt per million years.
Spirodela polyrhiza is a species of the order Alismatales,
which represent the basal lineage of monocots with more ancestral features
than the Poales. Its complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome
could provide clues for the understanding of the evolution of mt genomes in
Spirodela polyrhiza mt genome was sequenced from total
genomic DNA without physical separation of chloroplast and nuclear DNA using
the SOLiD platform. Using a genome copy number sensitive assembly algorithm,
the mt genome was successfully assembled. Gap closure and accuracy was
determined with PCR products sequenced with the dideoxy method.
This is the most compact monocot mitochondrial genome with 228,493 bp. A
total of 57 genes encode 35 known proteins, 3 ribosomal RNAs, and 19 tRNAs
that recognize 15 amino acids. There are about 600 RNA editing sites
predicted and three lineage specific protein-coding-gene losses. The
mitochondrial genes, pseudogenes, and other hypothetical genes (ORFs) cover
71,783 bp (31.0%) of the genome. Imported plastid DNA accounts for an
additional 9,295 bp (4.1%) of the mitochondrial DNA. Absence of
transposable element sequences suggests that very few nuclear sequences have
migrated into Spirodela mtDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of
conserved protein-coding genes suggests that Spirodela
shares the common ancestor with other monocots, but there is no obvious
synteny between Spirodela and rice mtDNAs. After
eliminating genes, introns, ORFs, and plastid-derived DNA, nearly
four-fifths of the Spirodela mitochondrial genome is of
unknown origin and function. Although it contains a similar chloroplast DNA
content and range of RNA editing as other monocots, it is void of nuclear
insertions, active gene loss, and comprises large regions of sequences of
unknown origin in non-coding regions. Moreover, the lack of synteny with
known mitochondrial genomic sequences shed new light on the early evolution
of monocot mitochondrial genomes.
Nuclear genomes of human, animals, and plants are organized into subunits called chromosomes. When isolated into aqueous suspension, mitotic chromosomes can be classified using flow cytometry according to light scatter and fluorescence parameters. Chromosomes of interest can be purified by flow sorting if they can be resolved from other chromosomes in a karyotype. The analysis and sorting are carried out at rates of 102–104 chromosomes per second, and for complex genomes such as wheat the flow sorting technology has been ground-breaking in reducing genome complexity for genome sequencing. The high sample rate provides an attractive approach for karyotype analysis (flow karyotyping) and the purification of chromosomes in large numbers. In characterizing the chromosome complement of an organism, the high number that can be studied using flow cytometry allows for a statistically accurate analysis. Chromosome sorting plays a particularly important role in the analysis of nuclear genome structure and the analysis of particular and aberrant chromosomes. Other attractive but not well-explored features include the analysis of chromosomal proteins, chromosome ultrastructure, and high-resolution mapping using FISH. Recent results demonstrate that chromosome flow sorting can be coupled seamlessly with DNA array and next-generation sequencing technologies for high-throughput analyses. The main advantages are targeting the analysis to a genome region of interest and a significant reduction in sample complexity. As flow sorters can also sort single copies of chromosomes, shotgun sequencing DNA amplified from them enables the production of haplotype-resolved genome sequences. This review explains the principles of flow cytometric chromosome analysis and sorting (flow cytogenetics), discusses the major uses of this technology in genome analysis, and outlines future directions.
Chromosome sorting; Chromosome-specific BAC libraries; Chromosome sequencing; Chromosome genomics; Genome complexity reduction; Flow cytometry; Physical mapping
Various expansions or contractions of inverted repeats (IRs) in chloroplast genomes led to fluxes in the IR-LSC (large single copy) junctions. Previous studies revealed that some monocot IRs contain a trnH-rps19 gene cluster, and it has been speculated that this may be an evidence of a duplication event prior to the divergence of monocot lineages. Therefore, we compared the organizations of genes flanking two IR-LSC junctions in 123 angiosperm representatives to uncover the evolutionary dynamics of IR-LSC junctions in basal angiosperms and monocots.
The organizations of genes flanking IR-LSC junctions in angiosperms can be classified into three types. Generally each IR of monocots contains a trnH-rps19 gene cluster near the IR-LSC junctions, which differs from those in non-monocot angiosperms. Moreover, IRs expanded more progressively in monocots than in non-monocot angiosperms. IR-LSC junctions commonly occurred at polyA tract or A-rich regions in angiosperms. Our RT-PCR assays indicate that in monocot IRA the trnH-rps19 gene cluster is regulated by two opposing promoters, S10A and psbA.
Two hypotheses are proposed to account for the evolution of IR expansions in monocots. Based on our observations, the inclusion of a trnH-rps19 cluster in majority of monocot IRs could be reasonably explained by the hypothesis that a DSB event first occurred at IRB and led to the expansion of IRs to trnH, followed by a successive DSB event within IRA and lead to the expansion of IRs to rps19 or to rpl22 so far. This implies that the duplication of trnH-rps19 gene cluster was prior to the diversification of extant monocot lineages. The duplicated trnH genes in the IRB of most monocots and non-monocot angiosperms have distinct fates, which are likely regulated by different expression levels of S10A and S10B promoters. Further study is needed to unravel the evolutionary significance of IR expansion in more recently diverged monocots.
Limited DNA sequence and DNA marker resources have been developed for Iris (Iridaceae), a monocot genus of 200–300 species in the Asparagales, several of which are horticulturally important. We mined an I. brevicaulis-I. fulva EST database for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and developed ortholog-specific EST-SSR markers for genetic mapping and other genotyping applications in Iris. Here, we describe the abundance and other characteristics of SSRs identified in the transcript assembly (EST database) and the cross-species utility and polymorphisms of I. brevicaulis-I. fulva EST-SSR markers among wild collected ecotypes and horticulturally important cultivars.
Collectively, 6,530 ESTs were produced from normalized leaf and root cDNA libraries of I. brevicaulis (IB72) and I. fulva (IF174), and assembled into 4,917 unigenes (1,066 contigs and 3,851 singletons). We identified 1,447 SSRs in 1,162 unigenes and developed 526 EST-SSR markers, each tracing a different unigene. Three-fourths of the EST-SSR markers (399/526) amplified alleles from IB72 and IF174 and 84% (335/399) were polymorphic between IB25 and IF174, the parents of I. brevicaulis × I. fulva mapping populations. Forty EST-SSR markers were screened for polymorphisms among 39 ecotypes or cultivars of seven species – 100% amplified alleles from wild collected ecotypes of Louisiana Iris (I.brevicaulis, I.fulva, I. nelsonii, and I. hexagona), whereas 42–52% amplified alleles from cultivars of three horticulturally important species (I. pseudacorus, I. germanica, and I. sibirica). Ecotypes and cultivars were genetically diverse – the number of alleles/locus ranged from two to 18 and mean heterozygosity was 0.76.
Nearly 400 ortholog-specific EST-SSR markers were developed for comparative genetic mapping and other genotyping applications in Iris, were highly polymorphic among ecotypes and cultivars, and have broad utility for genotyping applications within the genus.
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10) and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar – Chinese Long (line 9930)), Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation) as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth and yield in divergent conditions.
Rice feeds much of the world, and possesses the simplest genome analyzed to date within the grass family, making it an economically relevant model system for other cereal crops. Although the rice genome is sequenced, validation and gap closing efforts require purely independent means for accurate finishing of sequence build data.
To facilitate ongoing sequencing finishing and validation efforts, we have constructed a whole-genome SwaI optical restriction map of the rice genome. The physical map consists of 14 contigs, covering 12 chromosomes, with a total genome size of 382.17 Mb; this value is about 11% smaller than original estimates. 9 of the 14 optical map contigs are without gaps, covering chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 10, and 12 in their entirety – including centromeres and telomeres. Alignments between optical and in silico restriction maps constructed from IRGSP (International Rice Genome Sequencing Project) and TIGR (The Institute for Genomic Research) genome sequence sources are comprehensive and informative, evidenced by map coverage across virtually all published gaps, discovery of new ones, and characterization of sequence misassemblies; all totalling ~14 Mb. Furthermore, since optical maps are ordered restriction maps, identified discordances are pinpointed on a reliable physical scaffold providing an independent resource for closure of gaps and rectification of misassemblies.
Analysis of sequence and optical mapping data effectively validates genome sequence assemblies constructed from large, repeat-rich genomes. Given this conclusion we envision new applications of such single molecule analysis that will merge advantages offered by high-resolution optical maps with inexpensive, but short sequence reads generated by emerging sequencing platforms. Lastly, map construction techniques presented here points the way to new types of comparative genome analysis that would focus on discernment of structural differences revealed by optical maps constructed from a broad range of rice subspecies and varieties.
Background and Aims
Brachypodium is a small genus of temperate grasses that comprises 12–15 species. Brachypodium distachyon is now well established as a model species for temperate cereals and forage grasses. In contrast to B. distachyon, other members of the genus have been poorly investigated at the chromosome level or not at all.
Twenty accessions comprising six species and two subspecies of Brachypodium were analysed cytogenetically. Measurements of nuclear genome size were made by flow cytometry. Chromosomal localization of 18–5·8–25S rDNA and 5S rDNA loci was performed by dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on enzymatically digested root-tip meristematic cells. For comparative phylogenetic analyses genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) applied to somatic chromosome preparations was used.
All Brachypodium species examined have rather small genomes and chromosomes. Their chromosome numbers and genome sizes vary from 2n = 10 and 0·631 pg/2C in B. distachyon to 2n = 38 and 2·57 pg/2C in B. retusum, respectively. Genotypes with 18 and 28 chromosomes were found among B. pinnatum accessions. GISH analysis revealed that B. pinnatum with 28 chromosomes is most likely an interspecific hybrid between B. distachyon (2n = 10) and B. pinnatum (2n = 18). Two other species, B. phoenicoides and B. retusum, are also allopolyploids and B. distachyon or a close relative seems to be one of their putative ancestral species. In chromosomes of all species examined the 45S rDNA loci are distally distributed whereas loci for 5S rDNA are pericentromeric.
The increasing significance of B. distachyon as a model grass emphasizes the need to understand the evolutionary relationships in the genus Brachypodium and to ensure consistency in the biological nomenclature of its species. Modern molecular cytogenetic techniques such as FISH and GISH are suitable for comparative phylogenetic analyses and may provide informative chromosome- and/or genome-specific landmarks.
5S rDNA; 25S rDNA; B. distachyon; Brachypodium; FISH; flow cytometry; GISH; nuclear genome size; ribosomal RNA genes
Citrus species constitute one of the major tree fruit crops of the subtropical regions with great economic importance. However, their peculiar reproductive characteristics, low genetic diversity and the long-term nature of tree breeding mostly impair citrus variety improvement. In woody plants, genomic science holds promise of improvements and in the Citrus genera the development of genomic tools may be crucial for further crop improvements. In this work we report the characterization of three BAC libraries from Clementine (Citrus clementina), one of the most relevant citrus fresh fruit market cultivars, and the analyses of 46.000 BAC end sequences. Clementine is a diploid plant with an estimated haploid genome size of 367 Mb and 2n = 18 chromosomes, which makes feasible the use of genomics tools to boost genetic improvement.
Three genomic BAC libraries of Citrus clementina were constructed through EcoRI, MboI and HindIII digestions and 56,000 clones, representing an estimated genomic coverage of 19.5 haploid genome-equivalents, were picked. BAC end sequencing (BES) of 28,000 clones produced 28.1 Mb of genomic sequence that allowed the identification of the repetitive fraction (12.5% of the genome) and estimation of gene content (31,000 genes) of this species. BES analyses identified 3,800 SSRs and 6,617 putative SNPs. Comparative genomic studies showed that citrus gene homology and microsyntheny with Populus trichocarpa was rather higher than with Arabidopsis thaliana, a species phylogenetically closer to citrus.
In this work, we report the characterization of three BAC libraries from C. clementina, and a new set of genomic resources that may be useful for isolation of genes underlying economically important traits, physical mapping and eventually crop improvement in Citrus species. In addition, BAC end sequencing has provided a first insight on the basic structure and organization of the citrus genome and has yielded valuable molecular markers for genetic mapping and cloning of genes of agricultural interest. Paired end sequences also may be very helpful for whole-genome sequencing programs.
With the availability of rice and sorghum genome sequences and ongoing efforts to sequence genomes of other cereal and energy crops, the grass family (Poaceae) has become a model system for comparative genomics and for better understanding gene and genome evolution that underlies phenotypic and ecological divergence of plants. While the genomic resources have accumulated rapidly for almost all major lineages of grasses, bamboo remains the only large subfamily of Poaceae with little genomic information available in databases, which seriously hampers our ability to take a full advantage of the wealth of grass genomic data for effective comparative studies.
Here we report the cloning and sequencing of 10,608 putative full length cDNAs (FL-cDNAs) primarily from Moso bamboo, Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens, a large woody bamboo with the highest ecological and economic values of all bamboos. This represents the third largest FL-cDNA collection to date of all plant species, and provides the first insight into the gene and genome structures of bamboos. We developed a Moso bamboo genomic resource database that so far contained the sequences of 10,608 putative FL-cDNAs and nearly 38,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated in this study.
Analysis of FL-cDNA sequences show that bamboo diverged from its close relatives such as rice, wheat, and barley through an adaptive radiation. A comparative analysis of the lignin biosynthesis pathway between bamboo and rice suggested that genes encoding caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase may serve as targets for genetic manipulation of lignin content to reduce pollutants generated from bamboo pulping.
The subgenus Ceratochloa of the genus Bromus includes a number of closely related allopolyploid forms or species that present a difficult taxonomic problem. The present work combines data concerning chromosome length, heterochromatin distribution and nuclear genome size of different 6x, 8x and 12x accessions in this subgenus. Special attention is paid to the karyotype structure and genomic constitution of duodecaploid plants recently found in South America. Hexaploid lineages possess six almost indistinguishable genomes and a nuclear DNA content between 12.72 pg and 15.10 pg (mean 1Cx value = 2.32 pg), whereas octoploid lineages contain the same six genomes (AABBCC) plus two that are characterized by longer chromosomes and a greater DNA content (1Cx = 4.47 pg). Two duodecaploid accessions found in South America resemble each other and apparently differ from the North American duodecaploid B. arizonicus as regards chromosome size and nuclear DNA content (40.00 and 40.50 pg vs. 27.59 pg). These observations suggest that the South American duodecaploids represent a separate evolutionary lineage of the B. subgenus Ceratochloa, unrecognized heretofore.
karyotype; C-banding; heterochromatin; flow cytometry; genome size
Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar production and increasingly, as a renewable energy source. Modern cultivars have polyploid, large complex genomes, with highly unequal contributions from ancestral genomes. Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the single largest components of most plant genomes and can substantially impact the genome in many ways. It is therefore crucial to understand their contribution to the genome and transcriptome, however a detailed study of LTR-RTs in sugarcane has not been previously carried out.
Sixty complete LTR-RT elements were classified into 35 families within four Copia and three Gypsy lineages. Structurally, within lineages elements were similar, between lineages there were large size differences. FISH analysis resulted in the expected pattern of Gypsy/heterochromatin, Copia/euchromatin, but in two lineages there was localized clustering on some chromosomes. Analysis of related ESTs and RT-PCR showed transcriptional variation between tissues and families. Four distinct patterns were observed in sRNA mapping, the most unusual of which was that of Ale1, with very large numbers of 24nt sRNAs in the coding region. The results presented support the conclusion that distinct small RNA-regulated pathways in sugarcane target the lineages of LTR-RT elements.
Individual LTR-RT sugarcane families have distinct structures, and transcriptional and regulatory signatures. Our results indicate that in sugarcane individual LTR-RT families have distinct behaviors and can potentially impact the genome in diverse ways. For instance, these transposable elements may affect nearby genes by generating a diverse set of small RNA's that trigger gene silencing mechanisms. There is also some evidence that ancestral genomes contribute significantly different element numbers from particular LTR-RT lineages to the modern sugarcane cultivar genome.
LTR Retrotransposons; Sugarcane; Genome; FISH; Epigenetic; Small RNA
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a subject of plant genomics research based on its importance as one of the world's leading cereal crops, a biofuels crop of high and growing importance, a progenitor of one of the world's most noxious weeds, and a botanical model for many tropical grasses with complex genomes. A rich history of genome analysis, culminating in the recent complete sequencing of the genome of a leading inbred, provides a foundation for invigorating progress toward relating sorghum genes to their functions. Further characterization of the genomes other than Saccharinae cereals may shed light on mechanisms, levels, and patterns of evolution of genome size and structure, laying the foundation for further study of sugarcane and other economically important members of the group.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism system for biomedical research. The syntenic conservation between the zebrafish and human genome allows one to investigate the function of human genes using the zebrafish model. To facilitate analysis of the zebrafish genome, genetic maps have been constructed and sequence annotation of a reference zebrafish genome is ongoing. However, the duplicative nature of teleost genomes, including the zebrafish, complicates accurate assembly and annotation of a representative genome sequence. Cytogenetic approaches provide "anchors" that can be integrated with accumulating genomic data.
Here, we cytogenetically define the zebrafish genome by first estimating the size of each linkage group (LG) chromosome using flow cytometry, followed by the cytogenetic mapping of 575 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones onto metaphase chromosomes. Of the 575 BAC clones, 544 clones localized to apparently unique chromosomal locations. 93.8% of these clones were assigned to a specific LG chromosome location using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and compared to the LG chromosome assignment reported in the zebrafish genome databases. Thirty-one BAC clones localized to multiple chromosomal locations in several different hybridization patterns. From these data, a refined second generation probe panel for each LG chromosome was also constructed.
The chromosomal mapping of the 575 large-insert DNA clones allows for these clones to be integrated into existing zebrafish mapping data. An accurately annotated zebrafish reference genome serves as a valuable resource for investigating the molecular basis of human diseases using zebrafish mutant models.
Comparisons of the genetic maps of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium LT2 suggest that the size and organization of bacterial chromosomes are highly conserved. Employing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we have estimated the extent of variation in genome size among 14 natural isolates of E. coli. The BlnI and NotI restriction fragment patterns were highly variable among isolates, and genome sizes ranged from 4,660 to 5,300 kb, which is several hundred kilobases larger than the variation detected between enteric species. Genome size differences increase with the evolutionary genetic distance between lineages of E. coli, and there are differences in genome size among the major subgroups of E. coli. In general, the genomes of natural isolates are larger than those of laboratory strains, largely because of the fact that laboratory strains were derived from the subgroup of E. coli with the smallest genomes.