Structural microvascular rarefaction, defined by a loss of vessels, is a common characteristic of hypertension and has been associated with elevated microvascular resistance. However, determining the causal relationship between microvascular network structure and resistance requires a consideration of all pattern changes throughout a network. The objectives of this study were to determine whether microvascular rarefaction is associated with other network pattern alterations and to evaluate whether pattern alterations in hypertension necessarily contribute to increased microvascular resistance. Mesenteric tissues from age-matched (15–16 weeks) male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were harvested and immunolabeled for PECAM. SHR networks displayed a decreased microvascular area, arteriolar-venular (AV) length, number of AV branches, and number of capillary segments. In addition, SHR networks displayed increased AV connections per network compared to WKY networks. Based on network geometries, resistance per network was calculated using a computational model. For simulations with equal vessel diameter and with relative diameters based on reported intravital measurements, SHR microvascular network resistance was not elevated compared to the WKY level. Our results suggest that microvascular pattern alterations associated with hypertension are more complex than vessel loss, and that these combined alterations do not necessarily lead to elevated resistance.
Microcirculation; Rarefaction; Hypertension; Mesentery; Resistance; SHR
A complication of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is microvascular rarefaction, defined by the loss of microvessels. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain incompletely identified. Recent work in our laboratory suggests that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may play a role by cleavage of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). In order to further delineate the role for MMPs in microvascular rarefaction, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship in the same tissue between MMP activity, VEGFR-2 cleavage and rarefaction. Using an in-vivo microzymographic technique we show significantly enhanced levels of MMP-1, -1/-9, -7, and -8 activities, but not MMP-2 and-3 activities, along mesenteric microvessels of the SHR compared to its normotensive control, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. Based on immunohistochemical methods, the SHR exhibited a decreased labeling of the extracellular, but not the intracellular, domain of VEGFR-2 along mesenteric microvessels. Chronic MMP inhibition served to attenuate VEGFR-2 cleavage and microvascular network rarefaction in the SHR mesentery. These results spatially link MMP-induced VEGFR-2 cleavage and rarefaction in the mesentery of the SHR and thus support the hypothesis that MMPs serve as regulators of microvascular dysfunction in hypertension.
Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat; Wister Kyoto rat; capillary; arteriole; venule; microzymography; matrix metalloproteinase inhibition
Elevated blood pressure during hypertension has been associated with microvascular rarefaction defined by loss of microvessels. However, whether rarefaction is a result of impaired angiogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare angiogenesis across the time course of mesenteric microvascular network remodeling in adult spontaneously hypertensive versus normotensive rats. Angiogenic responses in 15–16-week-old SHR and Wistar rats at 0, 3, 5, 10 or 25 days post 20 minute exteriorization of the mesentery were quantified. Consistent with the phenomenon of rarefaction, vascularized area in unstimulated SHR was decreased compared to Wistar. By 25 days, SHR vascular area had increased to the Wistar level and vascular length density and capillary sprouting were comparable. At 3 and 5 days, SHR and Wistar tissues displayed an increase in the capillary sprouting and vascular density relative to their unstimulated controls. At 10 days, capillary sprouting in the SHR remained elevated. The percent change in vascular density was elevated in the SHR compared to the Wistar group at 3 and 5 days and by 25 days the rate of change was more negative. Our results suggest that SHR networks undergo an increased rate of growth followed by an increased rate of pruning.
Hypertension; Angiogenesis; Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat; Microcirculation; Mesentery
The present study tested the hypothesis that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have impaired nitric oxide synthase (NOS)‐mediated regulation of vascular function versus Wistar‐Kyoto rats (WKY). Aorta and small mesenteric arteries were studied from male and female SHR (M SHR and F SHR) and WKY (M WKY and F WKY). Phenylephrine (PE)‐induced vasoconstriction was greater in aorta of M SHR versus all others (P < 0.05); there were neither sex nor strain differences in PE contraction in mesenteric arteries. The NOS inhibitor l‐Nitro‐Arginine Methyl Ester (l‐NAME) increased PE‐induced vasoconstriction in all rats, although the increase was the least in male SHR (P < 0.05), revealing a blunted vasoconstrictor buffering capacity of NOS. l‐NAME increased sensitivity to PE‐induced constriction only in mesenteric arteries of SHR, although, the maximal percent increase in contraction was comparable among groups. ACh‐induced relaxation was also less in aorta from M SHR versus all others (P < 0.05). ACh relaxation was comparable among groups in mesenteric arteries, although SHR exhibited a greater NOS component to ACh‐induced relaxation than WKY. To gain mechanistic insight into sex and strain differences in vascular function, NOS activity and NOS3 protein expression were measured. Aortic NOS activity was comparable between groups and M SHR had greater NOS3 expression than M WKY. In contrast, although vascular function was largely maintained in mesenteric arteries of SHR, NOS activity was less in SHR versus WKY. In conclusion, M SHR exhibit a decrease in NOS regulation of vascular function compared to F SHR and WKY, although this is not mediated by decreases in NOS activity and/or expression.
The present study tested the hypothesis that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have impaired nitric oxide synthase (NOS)‐mediated regulation of vascular function versus Wistar‐Kyoto rats (WKY). Aorta and small mesenteric arteries were studied from male and female SHR and WKY. Male SHR showed a decreased NOS regulation of vascular function compared to F SHR and WKY, although this was not mediated by decreases in NOS activity and/or expression.
NOS activity; NOS expression; phenylephrine; SHR
We examined the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), captopril, on cerebral arterioles in young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone (60 mg kg−1 day−1). We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF, arbitrary units) and cerebral arteriolar internal diameter (ID, μm) prior to and during stepwise hypotension (SH) in 6- (WKY-6) and 15-month-old (WKY-15) Wistar Kyoto rats and in age-matched SHR that were untreated (SHR-6 and SHR-15) or treated for 3 months with captopril (SHR-6C, 105±2 mg kg−1 day−1 and SHR-15C, 94±1 mg kg−1 day−1). ID and cross-sectional area of the vessel wall (CSA) were measured in deactivated (EDTA) cerebral arterioles during a second SH.Captopril decreased the lower limit of CBF autoregulation (61±6 in SHR-6C and 51±2 in SHR-15C versus 52±6 in WKY-6 and 62±7 in WKY-15 and 83±14 mmHg in SHR-6 and 120±19 mmHg in SHR-15; P<0.05) and CSA (510±21 in SHR-6C and 585±25 in SHR-15C versus 529±12 in WKY-6 and 549±20 in WKY-15 and 644±38 mmHg in SHR-6 and 704±38 mmHg in SHR-15; P<0.05).Captopril increased cerebral arteriolar external diameter of SHR (105±5 in SHR-6C and 94±4 in SHR-15C vs 125±8 in WKY-6 and 108±3 in WKY-15 and 83±2 mmHg in SHR-6 and 80±2 mmHg in SHR-15 for a pial arteriolar pressure step of 35–39 mmHg; P<0.05). Captopril attenuated increases in cerebral arteriolar distensibility in young SHR.Thus, ACEIs attenuate eutrophic and hypertrophic inward remodeling of cerebral arterioles in young and old SHR, thus decreasing the lower limit of CBF autoregulation.
Hypertension; eutrophic remodeling; hypertrophic remodeling; vascular distensibility; aging; lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation
Vasomotion describes oscillations of arterial vascular tone due to synchronized changes of intracellular calcium concentrations. Since increased calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has been associated with variances of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased vasomotion in hypertension is directly linked to increased TRPC expression. Using a small vessel myograph we observed significantly increased norepinephrine-induced vasomotion in mesenteric arterioles from SHR compared to normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats. Using immunoblottings we obtained significantly increased expression of TRPC1, TRPC3 and TRPC5 in mesenteric arterioles from SHR compared to WKY, whereas TRPC4 and TRPC6 showed no differences. Norepinephrine-induced vasomotion from SHR was significantly reduced in the presence of verapamil, SKF96365, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB) or gadolinium. Pre-incubation of mesenteric arterioles with anti-TRPC1 and anti-TRPC3 antibodies significantly reduced norepinephrine-induced vasomotion and calcium influx. Control experiments with pre-incubation of TRPC antibodies plus their respective antigenic peptide or in the presence of anti-β-actin antibodies or random immunoglobulins not related to TRPC channels showed no inhibitory effects of norepinephrine-induced vasomotion and calcium influx. Administration of candesartan or telmisartan, but not amlodipine to SHR for 16 weeks significantly reduced either the expression of TRPC1, TRPC3 and TRPC5 as well as norepinephrine-induced vasomotion in mesenteric arterioles. In conclusion we gave experimental evidence that the increased TRPC1, TRPC3 and TRPC5 expression in mesenteric arterioles from SHR causes increased vasomotion in hypertension.
vasomotion; transient receptor potential channels; angiotensin II 1 receptor blocker; calcium channel blocker; hypertension
1. To examine the mechanisms which may account for pregnancy-induced vasodilatation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we have investigated the changes in vascular reactivity and the effects of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in the in situ blood-perfused, mesenteric resistance vessels of 18-20 day pregnant SHR. The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) were compared in pregnant and nonpregnant SHR and gestation matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 2. Intra-arterial mean blood pressures (MBP) were similar in pregnant and nonpregnant SHR. Basal perfusion pressures (BPP) were decreased in pregnant compared with nonpregnant SHR. Pregnant WKY had lower MBP and BPP than either pregnant or nonpregnant SHR. 3. Vasoconstrictor responses to electrical stimulation (ES) and intra-arterial noradrenaline (NA) were decreased in pregnant compared with nonpregnant SHR. These responses were still greater in pregnant SHR when compared with pregnant WKY. Vascular reactivity to angiotensin II (AII) in pregnant SHR was reduced to a similar level to that in pregnant WKY. 4. L-NOARG (5 mg kg-1, i.v.), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, increased MBP and BPP in all groups. After L-NOARG, BPP were equalized between pregnant and nonpregnant SHR. Pregnant WKY still showed lower MBP and BPP than SHR groups. 5. L-NOARG potentiated vascular responses to ES, NA and AII in all groups. The blunted vascular responses to NA and ES were normalized and the reactivity to AII was only partially reversed in pregnant SHR compared with nonpregnant SHR. Pregnant WKY still had much lower vascular responses to ES and NA than either pregnant or nonpregnant SHR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The blood pressure of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is influenced by the Ca2+ content of its diet. As the SHR's greater dependence on dietary calcium may reflect a defect in intestinal calcium absorption, we measured in vitro unidirectional Ca2+ flux (J) in the duodenum-jejunum (four segments each) of the SHR (n = 6) and the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY; n = 6) by a modified Ussing apparatus. Because of the known and postulated interactions between Ca2+ and Na+ in both intestinal and vascular tissue, we assessed in vivo the influence of a concurrent manipulation of Na+ intake (three levels: 0.25%, 0.45%, and 1.0%) on the blood pressure development of SHRs (n = 35) and WKYs (n = 35), between 6 and 20 wk of age, exposed to three levels of dietary calcium (0.1, 1.0, and 2%). Net calcium flux (Jnet) (mean +/- SEM) was significantly (P less than 0.01) lower in the SHR (-2.8 +/- 6.3 nmol/cm2 X h) than in the WKY (34.6 +/- 8.8 nmol/cm2 X h). The SHR's decreased Jnet resulted from a significantly (P less than 0.03) lower mucosa-to-serosa flux (Jm-s) in the SHR (41.0 +/- 5.6 nmol/cm2 X h) compared with the Jm-s of the WKY (70.1 +/- 9.1 nmol/cm2 X h). Serosa-to-mucosa flux for calcium did not differ between the SHR (43.8 +/- 6.6 nmol/cm2 X h) and the WKY (35.5 +/- 8.0 nmol/cm2 X h). The SHR's decreased (P less than 0.002) Jm-s was confirmed by additional measurements in SHRs and WKYs. Jm-s was 36.2 +/- 3.7 nmol/cm2 X h in the SHRs (n = 11) and 64.4 +/- 6.7 nmol/cm2 X h in the WKYs (n = 9). The provision of an increased dietary Ca2+ (2% by weight) and increased Na+ (1%) to the SHR prevented the emergence of hypertension (P less than 0.001) (mean +/- SEM systolic blood pressure at 20 wk of age; 135 +/- 5 mmHg for the 2% Ca2+, 1% Na+ SHR vs. 164 +/- 2 mmHg for the control diet SHR). Ca2+ (0.1%) and Na+ (0.25%) restriction accelerated the SHR's hypertension (192 +/- 2 mmHg) (P less than 0.001) and was associated with higher pressures in the WKY (146 +/- 4 mmHg in the restricted WKY vs. 134 +/- 4 mmHg in the control WKY). In a parallel group of 24 SHRs and 24 WKYs fed one of three diets (2% Ca2+/1% Na+; 1% Ca2+/0.45% Na+; or 0.1% Ca2+/0.25% Na+), the heart (P < 0.05) and kidney (P = 0.08) weight of the SHRs varied depending on the diet at 20 wk of age. Low Ca2+ and Na+ intake was associated with increased heart weight (1.6+/-0.9 g) compared with the normal diet for SHR (1.51+/-0.07 g). Increased Ca2+ and Na+ intake was associated with a significantly (P = 0.05) lower heart weight in the SHR (1.37+/-0.03 g) and in the WKY (1.35+/-0.06 g) compared with their normal diet controls. These findings show one mechanism for the SHR's depressor response to supplemental dietary Ca2+ and, in part, explain the sodium dependence of calcium's cardiovascular protective effect.
High salt diet is known to aggravate the vascular pathology in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHR-SP). The aim of the present study was to assess the involvement of endothelial dysfunction in this effect. Contractile tension and membrane potential were simultaneously recorded in superior mesenteric artery rings of untreated and NaCl-loaded (1% NaCl in the drinking water) SHR-SP and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY).In unstimulated artery, hyperpolarization evoked by acetylcholine was not different in WKY and in NaCl-loaded WKY; it was reduced in SHR-SP and further reduced in NaCl-loaded SHR-SP. Hyperpolarization was unaffected by Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) but was abolished in high-KCl solution.In noradrenaline-stimulated artery, ACh-evoked hyperpolarization and relaxation were not different in WKY and in SHR-SP. NaCl-treatment did not affect the responses to ACh in WKY but decreased maximum relaxation in SHR-SP from 93±2% to 72±7% of the contraction. In WKY, in NaCl-loaded WKY and in SHR-SP, L-NA similarly shifted the concentration-relaxation curve to ACh to the right and depressed its maximum but L-NA did not affect the hyperpolarization to ACh. In NaCl-loaded SHR-SP, L-NA blunted the effects of ACh on membrane potential and on contraction.The NO donor SNAP abolished the depolarization and the contraction evoked by noradrenaline with the same potency in WKY and in untreated SHR-SP but was more potent in NaCl-loaded SHR-SP.In KCl-contracted arteries the relaxations to ACh were not different in WKY and SHR-SP but NaCl-loaded SHR-SP were more sensitive to ACh.The results showed that NaCl-rich diet markedly reduced the L-NA-resistant responses to ACh and increased the sensitivity to NO in SHR-SP.
Endothelium; membrane potential; relaxation; acetylcholine; mesenteric artery; NO; EDHF; Nω-nitro-L-arginine; hypertension; stroke
In phenylephrine (1 μM)-precontracted rat superior mesenteric arteries (MA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 0.3 and 1 mM) caused a biphasic response: a transient contraction followed by a relaxation. In the presence of thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TP) receptor antagonist (SQ 29548), the contractile component of the biphasic response was abolished. The relaxation response to H2O2 was smaller in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) when compared with normotensive Wistar–Kyoto rats (WKY).The mechanisms for the attenuated relaxation to H2O2 in the SHR were studied. KCl (40 mM) prevented the relaxation response. Calcium-dependent K+ channel (KCa) blockers (tetraethylammonium chloride, TEA; iberiotoxin, and charybdotoxin) showed a greater inhibition of H2O2 relaxation in SHR than in WKY, whereas voltage-dependent K+-channel (Kv) blocker 4-aminopyridine was more effective in inhibiting the relaxation in WKY than in SHR.H2O2 (1 mM) greatly enhanced the frequency and intensity of the spontaneous transient outward K+ currents in SHR MA, and the effects of H2O2 were inhibited by iberiotoxin, while in WKY MA the K+ currents induced by H2O2 were mainly of the Kv type. The consequence of the activation of different types of K+ channel was that the net increase in mean outward K+ current density in response to H2O2 was smaller in SHR than in WKY, which may account for the attenuated relaxation response to H2O2 in the SHR.The contractile responses of MA to TEA, iberiotoxin, and charybdotoxin were greater in SHR than in WKY.In summary, an attenuated relaxation response to H2O2 was found in SHR MA when compared to WKY. In contrast to the activation of Kv channels in WKY, H2O2 markedly enhanced KCa activity in SHR, resulting in an attenuation of the increase in mean outward K+ current density in response to H2O2. These results suggest that alteration in K+ channel activation by reactive oxygen species may play a role in the development of hypertension in SHR.
Hydrogen peroxide; mesenteric artery; potassium channels; reactive oxygen species; relaxation; spontaneously hypertensive rats
The Ca2+ buffering function of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the resting state of arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was examined. Differences in the effects of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and thapsigargin, agents which inhibit the Ca2+-ATPase of SR, on tension and cellular Ca2+ level were assessed in endothelium-denuded strips of femoral arteries from 13-week-old SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY).In resting strips preloaded with fura-PE3, the addition of CPA (10 μM) or thapsigargin (100 nM) caused an elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]i) and a contraction. These responses were significantly greater in SHR than in WKY.The addition of verapamil (3 μM) to the resting strips caused a decrease in resting [Ca2+]i, which was significantly greater in SHR than in WKY. In SHR, but not in WKY, this decrease was accompanied by a relaxation from the resting tone, suggesting the maintenance of myogenic tone in the SHR artery.Verapamil (3 μM) abolished differences between SHR and WKY. The effects of verapamil were much greater on the contraction than on the [Ca2+]i.The resting Ca2+ influx in arteries measured after a 5 min incubation of the artery with 45Ca was not increased by CPA or thapsigargin in either SHR or WKY. The net Ca2+ entry measured after a 30 min incubation of the artery with 45Ca was decreased by CPA or thapsigargin in both SHR and WKY. The resting Ca2+ influx was significantly higher in SHR than in WKY, and was decreased by nifedipine (100 nM) in the SHR artery, but was unchanged in the WKY artery.The resting 45Ca efflux from the artery was increased during the addition of CPA (10 μM). This increase was less in SHR than in WKY. The resting 45Ca efflux was the same in SHR and WKY.These results suggest that (1) the Ca2+ influx via L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) was increased in the resting state of the SHR femoral artery, (2) the greater part of the increased Ca2+ influx was buffered by Ca2+ uptake into the SR and some Ca2+ reached the myofilaments resulting in the maintenance of the myogenic tone, and (3) therefore the functional elimination of SR by CPA or thapsigargin caused a large elevation of [Ca2+]i and a potent contraction in this artery. During this process, the contraction was mainly due to the basal Ca2+ influx via L-type VDCCs. The present study also showed the existence of a relatively large compartment of [Ca2+]i which does not contribute to the contraction during the addition of CPA or thapsigargin.
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); sarcoplasmic reticulum; cyclopiazonic acid; thapsigargin; cytosolic Ca2+ level; Ca2+ influx; voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels
1. The Ca2+ buffering function of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the resting state of arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was examined. Differences in the effects of ryanodine that removes the function of SR, on tension and cellular Ca2+ level were assessed in endothelium-denuded strips of femoral arteries from 13-week-old SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). 2. The addition of ryanodine to the resting strips caused a concentration-dependent contraction in SHR. This contraction was extremely small in WKY. In the presence of 10(-5) M ryanodine, caffeine (20 mM) failed to cause a further contraction in SHR, but it caused a small contraction in WKY. After washout of the strips with a Krebs solution, the resting tone was greatly elevated in SHR when compared with WKY. 3. The elevated resting tone in SHR strips was abolished by 10(-7) M nifedipine. The ryanodine-induced contraction was also abolished by 10(-7) M nifedipine. Nifedipine itself caused a relaxation from the resting tone of SHR strips, suggesting the maintenance of myogenic tone. 4. In strips preloaded with fura-PE3, the addition of 10(-5) M ryanodine caused a large and moderate elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]i) in SHR and WKY, respectively. After washout, the resting [Ca2+]i was greatly elevated in SHR. The ryanodine-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i was decreased by 5 x 10(-6) M verapamil in SHR. Verapamil itself caused a decrease in resting [Ca2+]i which was significantly greater in SHR than in WKY, and caused a relaxation only in SHR. 5. The resting Ca2+ influx in arteries measured by a 5 min incubation with 45Ca was significantly increased in SHR when compared with WKY. The resting Ca2+ influx was not increased by 10(-5) M ryanodine in both SHR and WKY. The net cellular Ca2+ uptake in arteries measured by a 30 min incubation with 45Ca was decreased by 10(-5) M ryanodine in both strains. 6. The resting Ca2+ influx was decreased by 10(-7) M nifedipine in the SHR artery, but it was unchanged in the WKY artery. 7. These results suggest that (1) the Ca2+ influx via L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels was increased in the resting state of the SHR femoral artery, (2) the greater part of the increased Ca2+ influx was buffered by Ca2+ uptake into the SR and some Ca2+ reached the myofilaments resulting in the maintenance of the myogenic tone, and (3) therefore the functional removal of SR by ryanodine caused a potent contraction in this artery.
Analysis of global gene expression in mesenteric control and collateral arteries was used to investigate potential molecules, pathways, and mechanisms responsible for impaired collateral growth in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR). A fundamental difference was observed in overall gene expression pattern in SHR versus Wistar Kyoto (WKY) collaterals; only 6% of genes altered in collaterals were similar between rat strains. Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified major differences between WKY and SHR in networks and biological functions related to cell growth and proliferation and gene expression. In SHR control arteries, several mechano-sensitive and redox-dependent transcription regulators were downregulated including JUN (−5.2×, P = 0.02), EGR1 (−4.1×, P = 0.01), and NFĸB1 (−1.95×, P = 0.04). Predicted binding sites for NFĸB and AP-1 were present in genes altered in WKY but not SHR collaterals. Immunostaining showed increased NFĸB nuclear translocation in collateral arteries of WKY and apocynin-treated SHR, but not in untreated SHR. siRNA for the p65 subunit suppressed collateral growth in WKY, confirming a functional role of NFkB. Canonical pathways identified by IPA in WKY but not SHR included nitric oxide and renin–angiotensin system signaling. The angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGTR1) exhibited upregulation in WKY collaterals, but downregulation in SHR; pharmacological blockade of AGTR1 with losartan prevented collateral luminal expansion in WKY. Together, these results suggest that collateral growth impairment results from an abnormality in a fundamental regulatory mechanism that occurs at a level between signal transduction and gene transcription and implicate redox-dependent modulation of mechano-sensitive transcription factors such as NFĸB as a potential mechanism.
Arteriogenesis; collateral gene expression; microarray analysis; peripheral vascular disease
Transient receptor potential (TRP) C1 and C3 (TRPC1 and TRPC3) are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and are thought to be involved in vascular contractility. In the present study, we determined the effect of systemic hypertension on TRPC1/TRPC3 channel expression and vascular contractility in rat carotid artery (CA). CA were studied from male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), and Long Evans (LE) rats. TRPC1/3 expression was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. TRP channel function was evaluated by whole-cell patch clamp, using UTP (60 μM) to stimulate TRPC1/3 channels. Contractions of endothelium-denuded CA segments to UTP (1–300 μM) and phenylephrine (Phe; 0.1 nM–10 μM) were measured in an isometric tension bath. TRPC1 and TRPC3 mRNA was present in CA of both WKY and SHR. Western blot demonstrated 3.1 ± 1.2 times greater TRPC3 expression and 0.5 ± 0.2 times TRPC1 in SHR versus WKY CA. Isolated CA showed potentiated contraction to UTP in the SHR versus WKY. Activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) in UTP-mediated constriction only occurred in SHR CA. Contraction to Phe was unaltered between WKY and SHR CA and involved equal significant VDCC activation in both groups. Patch clamp demonstrated that the UTP-stimulated current (Iutp) was greater in SHR compared to the normotensive WKY and LE rats with peak Iutp (at −110 mV) of −63 ± 24 pA compared to −25 ± 4 pA, respectively. We demonstrate that UTP-mediated but not Phe-mediated constrictions are potentiated in the CA during hypertension. Expression of TRPC1 is decreased whereas TRPC3 is increased in SHR CA. Interestingly, VDCC activation only contributes to UTP-mediated contraction of SHR CAs whereas it contributes substantially and equally in Phe-mediated contraction. We speculate that the alteration of TRPC channel expression in hypertension leads to greater smooth muscle depolarization, VDCC activation, and vascular contractility in the UTP (but not Phe) signaling pathway.
calcium; carotid artery; hypertension; transient receptor potential channel; vascular smooth muscle
1. Vascular contractions induced by K(+)-free solution and relaxation responses following the return of K+ to the organ bath were studied in mesenteric arterial rings from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) with particular focus on the role of vascular adrenergic nerve-endings and endothelium. 2. In endothelium-denuded rings the omission of K+ from the incubation medium resulted in gradual contractions, the rate of which was slower in SHR than WKY. Nifedipine (1 microM) inhibited the contractions more effectively in SHR than WKY. 3. Adrenergic denervation in vitro with 6-hydroxydopamine reduced the contractions induced by the K(+)-free medium in endothelium-denuded rings. The remaining contractions after denervation were markedly greater in SHR than WKY. 4. The presence of intact vascular endothelium attenuated the K(+)-free contractions in both strains, the attenuation being smaller in SHR than WKY. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM) and methylene blue (10 microM), but not indomethacin (10 microM), abolished the attenuating effect of endothelium on the K(+)-free contractions. L-Arginine (1 mM) reversed the effect of L-NAME in WKY but not in SHR. 5. The re-addition of K+ after full K(+)-free contractions dose-dependently relaxed the rings. The rate of this K(+)-induced relaxation was significantly slower in SHR than WKY at all K+ concentrations (0.1-5.9 mM) studied, whether the endothelium or functioning adrenergic nerve-endings were present or not. Ouabain (1 mM) totally inhibited the K+ relaxation in SHR but only partially in WKY.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Hypertension is, amongst others, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling. As sphingolipids have been implicated in both the regulation of vascular contractility and growth, we investigated whether sphingolipid biology is altered in hypertension and whether this is reflected in altered vascular function.
Methods and Findings
In isolated carotid arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, shifting the ceramide/S1P ratio towards ceramide dominance by administration of a sphingosine kinase inhibitor (dimethylsphingosine) or exogenous application of sphingomyelinase, induced marked endothelium-dependent contractions in SHR vessels (DMS: 1.4±0.4 and SMase: 2.1±0.1 mN/mm; n = 10), that were virtually absent in WKY vessels (DMS: 0.0±0.0 and SMase: 0.6±0.1 mN/mm; n = 9, p<0.05). Imaging mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry indicated that these contractions were most likely mediated by ceramide and dependent on iPLA2, cyclooxygenase-1 and thromboxane synthase. Expression levels of these enzymes were higher in SHR vessels. In concurrence, infusion of dimethylsphingosine caused a marked rise in blood pressure in anesthetized SHR (42±4%; n = 7), but not in WKY (−12±10%; n = 6). Lipidomics analysis by mass spectrometry, revealed elevated levels of ceramide in arterial tissue of SHR compared to WKY (691±42 vs. 419±27 pmol, n = 3–5 respectively, p<0.05). These pronounced alterations in SHR sphingolipid biology are also reflected in increased plasma ceramide levels (513±19 pmol WKY vs. 645±25 pmol SHR, n = 6–12, p<0.05). Interestingly, we observed similar increases in ceramide levels (correlating with hypertension grade) in plasma from humans with essential hypertension (185±8 pmol vs. 252±23 pmol; n = 18 normotensive vs. n = 19 hypertensive patients, p<0.05).
Hypertension is associated with marked alterations in vascular sphingolipid biology such as elevated ceramide levels and signaling, that contribute to increased vascular tone.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) caused a transient contraction in endothelium-intact (E+) and -denuded (E−) mesenteric arteries (MA) from 8 – 10-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) in a concentration-dependent manner (10−5 M to 10−3 M).The contraction to H2O2 in MA (E+ or E−) was greater in SHR than in WKY. Removal of endothelium potentiated the contraction to H2O2 in WKY but not in SHR. Tachyphylaxis to H2O2 was less prominent in SHR than in WKY.The contraction of aorta to H2O2 (5×10−4 M), expressed as a percentage of 80 mM KCl-induced contraction, was approximately half of that found in the MA. A greater contraction was found in E+ but not E− SHR aortic rings.The contraction of MA to H2O2 (5×10−4 M) was greatly inhibited by SQ 29548 and ICI 192605 (thromboxane A2 (TXA2)/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonists), quinacrine (a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor), indomethacin and diclofenac (cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors), and furegrelate (a TXA2 synthase inhibitor).Production of thromboxane B2 induced by H2O2 (5×10−4 M) was greater in SHR MA than in WKY, and was inhibited by quinacrine, indomethacin and diclofenac, and furegrelate, but not by SQ 29584 and ICI 192605.These results suggested (1) that SHR MA exhibits a higher contraction involving an increased smooth muscle reactivity and less tachyphylaxis to H2O2 than WKY; (2) that a greater production of TXA2 through activation of PLA2-COX-TXA2 synthase pathway appeared to be responsible for the enhanced contraction in SHR MA. The enhanced vascular response to H2O2 may be related to hypertension in SHR.
Hydrogen peroxide; hypertension; mesenteric artery; reactive oxygen species; spontaneously hypertensive rats; thromboxane A2; Wistar-Kyoto rats
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have been used frequently as a model for human essential hypertension. However, both the SHR and its normotensive control, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY), consist of genetically different sublines. We tested the hypothesis that the pathophysiology of vascular remodeling in hypertension differs among rat sublines.
Methods and Results
We studied mesenteric resistance arteries of WKY and SHR from three different sources, at 6 weeks and 5 months of age. Sublines of WKY and SHR showed differences in blood pressure, body weight, vascular remodeling, endothelial function, and vessel ultrastructure. Common features in small mesenteric arteries from SHR were an increase in wall thickness, wall-to-lumen ratio, and internal elastic lamina thickness.
Endothelial dysfunction, vascular stiffening, and inward remodeling of small mesenteric arteries are not common features of hypertension, but are subline-dependent. Differences in genetic background associate with different types of vascular remodeling in hypertensive rats.
The α2-adrenoceptor function in mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was investigated by comparing membrane potential changes in response to adrenergic agonists in preparations from female SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and normotensive Wistar rats (NWR).Resting membrane potential was found to be less negative in mesenteric arteries from SHR than in those from NWR and WKY. Apamin induced a decrease in the membrane potential of mesenteric artery rings without endothelium from NWR and WKY, but had no effects in those from SHR. Both UK 14,304 and adrenaline, in the presence of prazosin, induced a hyperpolarization that was significantly lower in de-endothelialized mesenteric rings from SHR than in those from NWR and WKY. In mesenteric rings with endothelium, however, similar hyperpolarization was observed in the three strains.In NWR mesenteric rings with endothelium the hyperpolarization induced by activation of α2-adrenoceptors was abolished by apamin, whereas in intact SHR mesenteric rings this hyperpolarization was slightly reduced by apamin and more efficiently reduced by Nω-nitro-L-arginine.It is concluded that the activity of potassium channels coupled to α2-adrenoceptors is altered in the smooth muscle cells of SHR mesenteric arteries, contributing to their less negative membrane potential. On the other hand, the endothelial α2-receptors are functioning in mesenteric vessels from SHR and their stimulation induces a hyperpolarization mainly through the release of nitric oxide.
Alpha-2 adrenoceptors; mesenteric arteries; endothelium; spontaneously hypertensive rats; potassium channels; membrane potential
Background and purpose:
To analyse the influence of hypertension in the modulation induced by inducible NOS (iNOS)-derived NO and superoxide anion (O2
•−) of vasoconstrictor responses and the sources of O2
Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in segments of aorta from normotensive, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); protein and mRNA expressions were respectively measured by western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and O2
•− production was evaluated by ethidium fluorescence.
The contractile responses to phenylephrine (1 nM–30 μM) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (0.1–100 μM) were greater in aortic segments from SHR than WKY. The selective iNOS inhibitor, 1400W (10 μM), increased the phenylephrine contraction only in WKY segments; however, iNOS protein and mRNA expressions were greater in aorta from SHR than WKY. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, 150 U ml−1) reduced phenylephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine responses only in aorta from SHR; the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin (0.3 mM) decreased phenylephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine responses more in vessels from SHR than WKY. Co-incubation with SOD plus 1400W potentiated the phenylephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine responses more in segments from SHR than WKY. O2
•− production was greater in aorta from SHR than WKY; apocynin abolished this difference.
Conclusions and implications:
•− formation from NADP(H) oxidase in vessels from hypertensive rats contributes to the vasoconstrictor responses and counteract the increase of NO from iNOS and the consequent modulation of these responses.
iNOS; superoxide anion; NAD(P)H oxidase; aorta; hypertension
1. It has recently been suggested that therapy with beta-adrenoceptor blockers reduces peripheral arterial resistance via enhanced vascular dilatation. Therefore, we studied the effects of celiprolol, which is a specific beta 1-antagonist that has a weak beta 2-agonist action, on arterial tone in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 2. Two doses of celiprolol (5 and 50 mg kg-1 day-1) were administered to the SHR, while the WKY rats received only the higher dose of the drug. During the 12-week treatment period the higher dose attenuated the increase in blood pressure by approximately 20 mmHg in SHR, whereas the lower dose was without significant antihypertensive effect. Celiprolol therapy did not affect blood pressure in the normotensive WKY rats. 3. Responses of mesenteric arterial rings in vitro were examined at the end of the study. Interestingly, endothelium-mediated relaxations of noradrenaline (NA)-precontracted rings to acetylcholine (ACh) in the absence and presence of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, diclofenac, were equally enhanced in both celiprolol-treated SHR groups. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) practically abolished the relaxations to ACh in all SHR irrespective of whether they had received celiprolol, whereas in WKY rats L-NAME only attenuated the responses to ACh. However, no differences were found between the SHR groups in relaxations to ACh when hyperpolarization of smooth muscle was prevented by precontractions induced by 50 mM KCl. Vasorelaxation of NA-precontracted rings to the exogenous nitric oxide donor, nitroprusside, was also moderately augmented in both celiprolol-treated SHR groups, while the relaxation to beta-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline, remained equally impaired in all SHR whether or not they had received celiprolol. No differences were observed between the two WKY groups in the responses to ACh, nitroprusside or isoprenaline. 4. Contractile sensitivity of mesenteric arterial rings to the receptor-mediated agonists, NA and 5-hydroxytryptamine, was comparable in all study groups. 5. In conclusion, SHR treatment with either the low or the higher dose of celiprolol was accompanied by enhancement of both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent nitric oxide-mediated arterial relaxation, possibly via a hyperpolarization mechanism. Interestingly, this effect appeared to be independent of the reduction in blood pressure.
Using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), this study investigated whether electroacupuncture (EA) could reduce early stage hypertension by examining nitric oxide (NO) levels in plasma and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels in the mesenteric resistance artery. EA was applied to the acupuncture point Governor Vessel 20 (GV20) or to a non-acupuncture point in the tail twice weekly for 3 weeks under anesthesia. In conscious SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, blood pressure was determined the day after EA treatment by the tail-cuff method. We measured plasma NO concentration, and evaluated endothelial NO syntheses (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) protein expression in the mesenteric artery. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were lower after 3 weeks of GV20 treatment than EA at non-acupuncture point and no treatment control in SHR. nNOS expression by EA was significantly different between both WKY and no treatment SHR control, and EA at GV20 in SHR. eNOS expression was significantly high in EA at GV 20 compared with no treatment control. In conclusion, EA could attenuate the blood pressure elevation of SHR, along with enhancing NO/NOS activity in the mesenteric artery in SHR.
Background and Purpose
Regular physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological therapy for prevention and control of hypertension. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training in vascular remodelling and in the mechanical and functional alterations of coronary and small mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY), SHR and SHR trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks were used to evaluate vascular structural, mechanical and functional properties.
Exercise did not affect lumen diameter, wall thickness and wall/lumen ratio but reduced vascular stiffness of coronary and mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise also reduced collagen deposition and normalized altered internal elastic lamina organization and expression of MMP-9 in mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise did not affect contractile responses of coronary arteries but improved the endothelium-dependent relaxation in SHR. In mesenteric arteries, training normalized the increased contractile responses induced by U46619 and by high concentrations of acetylcholine. In vessels from SHR, exercise normalized the effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the NOS inhibitor l-NAME in vasodilator or vasoconstrictor responses, normalized the increased O2− production and the reduced Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression and increased NO production.
Conclusions and Implications
Exercise training of SHR improves endothelial function and vascular stiffness in coronary and small mesenteric arteries. This might be related to the concomitant decrease of oxidative stress and increase of NO bioavailability. Such effects demonstrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the vascular system and could contribute to a reduction in blood pressure.
aerobic exercise; hypertension; vascular alterations; oxidative stress
1. Vascular contraction induced by phenylephrine was studied in tail artery rings from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) with particular focus on the role of endothelium. The influence of receptor reserve and the density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors on the possible differences observed were also analysed. 2. Phenylephrine (0.01-100 microM) induced concentration-dependent vasoconstrictions. The maximum response (alpha, P < 0.001) was greater but the pEC50 (P < 0.05) smaller in rings from SHR than from WKY rats irrespective of the presence or absence of endothelium. 3. Removal of endothelial cells resulted in a decrease of the maximum contraction with no modification in the pEC50 in arteries from both WKY and SHR. 4. The density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors (Bmax) and the dissociation constant (KD) were found to be the same for preparations from SHR and WKY rats in [3H]-prazosin binding experiments. 5. The apparent affinity (pKA) determined by the nested hyperbolic method and the operational model was similar in tail arteries from the two rat strains, irrespective of the presence or absence of endothelium. However, in endothelium-denuded rings, the pKA value was enhanced when compared with intact rings, in both SHR and WKY rats. 6. In rings from hypertensive rats, the operational parameter maximum possible effect (Em) was greater and the agonist efficacy (tau) was smaller than in rings from normotensive rats. When the endothelium was removed log tau and Em diminished in preparations from both rat strains. 7. In summary, the increased maximum responsiveness to phenylephrine in rings from SHR could be due to enhancement in Em. The log tau values indicate a deterioration in the transduction of the stimulus provided by the agonist in tail arteries from hypertensive animals. This study also suggests that the absence of endothelium modifies the alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction probably by altering the transduction signalling mechanisms. The importance of analysing the degree of endothelium functionality when comparing results from different groups of rats is stated.
1. The effects of long-term atenolol (25 mg kg-1 day-1) therapy on arterial function were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The 14-week treatment attenuated the increase in blood pressure by approximately 30 mmHg in SHR, but did not affect blood pressure in WKY rats. 2. Responses of mesenteric arterial rings in vitro were examined at the end of the study. The relaxation to acetylcholine was similar in WKY rats and atenolol-treated SHR and more pronounced than in untreated SHR, whereas the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) was comparable in all study groups. Moreover, after maximal relaxations to acetylcholine, marked recontractions developed in untreated SHR but not in the other groups. Vasorelaxation to isoprenaline was also attenuated in SHR and was moderately improved by the atenolol therapy. 3. Arterial relaxation induced by return of potassium to the organ bath upon precontractions elicited by potassium-free solution were used to evaluate vascular smooth muscle Na+, K+-ATPase. The rate of potassium relaxation was fastest in WKY rats and was also faster in atenolol-treated than in untreated SHR. 4. The ability of vascular smooth muscle to sequester calcium was evaluated by eliciting responses to caffeine or noradrenaline after loading periods in different organ bath calcium concentrations. The subsequent contractions were lower in untreated SHR than in WKY rats, and augmented in SHR by the atenolol treatment. 5. Smooth muscle contractions to noradrenaline were comparable in SHR and WKY rats, while atenolol treatment slightly increased the maximal response to this agonist in SHR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)