The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in long-distance drivers located in the Zonguldak area and to show the correlation between OSAS and traffic accidents.
In this study, 241 long-distance drivers who were residents of Zonguldak province were interviewed face-to-face and a questionnaire regarding OSAS symptoms, occupational histories, and numbers of accidents was administered. Body mass measurements were also taken from participants. Patients who exhibited evidence of OSAS underwent polysomnography (PSG).
Snoring was detected in 56% out of all participants, daytime sleepiness was observed in 26.6% and apnoea in 11.6%. All-night PSG was applied to 42 participants who had a high probability of clinical OSAS. Among these, eight had an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) < 5. The prevalence of OSAS was 14.1%. There was a significant relationship between the ratio of traffic accidents per professional years and AHI (r = 0.571; p < 0.005).
OSAS prevalence was higher among long-distance drivers in the Zonguldak region. Disease severity was directly proportional to traffic-accident risk, and thus represents a serious social problem.
Obstructive sleep apnoea; Prevalence; Traffic accident
Purpose. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered an “at risk” state for dementia and efforts are needed to target modifiable risk factors, of which Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is one. This study aims to evaluate the predictive utility of the multivariate apnoea prediction index (MAPI), a patient self-report survey, to assess OSA in MCI. Methods. Thirty-seven participants with MCI and 37 age-matched controls completed the MAPI and underwent polysomnography (PSG). Correlations were used to compare the MAPI and PSG measures including oxygen desaturation index and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI). Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were performed using various cut-off scores for apnoea severity. Results. In controls, there was a significant moderate correlation between higher MAPI scores and more severe apnoea (AHI: r = 0.47, P = 0.017). However, this relationship was not significant in the MCI sample. ROC curve analysis indicated much lower area under the curve (AUC) in the MCI sample compared to the controls across all AHI severity cut-off scores. Conclusions. In older people, the MAPI moderately correlates with AHI severity but only in those who are cognitively intact. Development of further screening tools is required in order to accurately screen for OSA in MCI.
Portable monitors are increasingly being used as a diagnostic screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and in-laboratory validation of these devices with polysomnography (PSG) is required.
To assess the reliability of the MediByte (Braebon Medical Corporation, Canada) type 3 screening device compared with overnight PSG.
To cover a range of OSA severity, a consecutive series of patients wore the screening device while simultaneously undergoing PSG. Data acquired from the screener and PSG were blinded and scored separately. The number of apneas and hypopneas per hour were calculated using recording time (respiratory disturbance index [RDI]) for the MediByte device, and sleep time (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]) for PSG.
Data from 73 patients with a mean age of 53 years and body mass index of 32.2 kg/m2 showed high measurement association between the RDI and AHI, with a Pearson correlation of 0.92, accounting for 85% of the variance. Based on Bland-Altman measurement agreement, the mean difference between the RDI and AHI (−5.9±11.2 events/h) indicated screener under-reporting. For an AHI of greater than 15 events/h, the sensitivity and specificity of the screener was 80% and 97%, respectively; for an AHI of greater than 30 events/h, the positive predictive value was 100%, while the negative predictive value was 88%.
The MediByte device accurately identified patients without OSA and had a high sensitivity for moderate-to-severe OSA.
Diagnostic screening; Home sleep testing; Obstructive sleep apnea; OSA screener; PM studies; Portable monitor
standard diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is
overnight polysomnography (PSG) which is costly in terms of time and
money. Consequently, a number of alternatives to PSG have been
proposed. Oximetry is appealing because of its widespread availability
and ease of application. The diagnostic performance of an automated
analysis algorithm based on falls and recovery of digitally recorded
oxygen saturation was compared with PSG.
and forty six patients with suspected OSA were randomly selected for
PSG and automated off line analysis of the digitally recorded oximeter signal.
derived apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) and oximeter derived respiratory
disturbance index (RDI) were highly correlated (R = 0.97). The mean (2SD) of the
differences between AHI and RDI was 2.18 (12.34)/h. The sensitivity and
specificity of the algorithm depended on the AHI and RDI criteria
selected for OSA case designation. Using case designation criteria of
15/h for AHI and RDI, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and
88%, respectively. If the PSG derived AHI included EEG based arousals as part of the hypopnoea definition, the mean (2SD) of the differences between RDI and AHI was -0.12 (15.62)/h and the sensitivity and specificity profile did not change significantly.
population of patients suspected of having OSA, off line automated
analysis of the oximetry signal provides a close estimate of AHI as
well as excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for OSA.
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can result in cardiovascular complications. Nocturnal arrhythmias are reported up to 50% of adult OSA patients. Arrhythmias and heart rate variability in children with OSA have not been well studied.
We sought to study rhythm disturbances in childhood OSA and also to analyze the relationship of heart rate variability to the severity of OSA in children.
In a retrospective cross sectional study, records of children aged < 15 years with history of snoring and suspected OSA, who had undergone polysomnography (PSG) for first time were analyzed. The cardiac rhythm and heart rate variability were studied during PSG.
A total of 124 patients diagnosed with OSA were grouped into mild (n = 52), moderate (n = 30), and severe (n = 42) OSA. During PSG, all had sinus arrhythmias and only three patients had premature atrial contractions (PACs). The standard deviation of heart rate (SD-HR) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in severe OSA (9.1 ± 2.4) was significantly higher than SD-HR in mild OSA (7.5 ± 1.3, P < 0.0001). The maximum heart rate (max-HR) during REM-sleep in severe OSA (132.1 ± 22.1) was significantly higher than the max-HR in mild OSA (121.3 ± 12.6 bpm, P = 0.016).
There was no significant arrhythmia in children with OSA during their sleep. Heart rate variability correlated with the severity of OSA.
Arrhythmia; children; obstructive sleep apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor to develop perioperative complications during weight loss surgery, but the mechanisms are unclear. It is possible, that patients with OSA have a higher incidence of desaturation during induction of anesthesia.
We enrolled 100 morbidly obese (body mass index: 53±10) adult patients undergoing open bariatric surgery in a prospective study. At least 1 h before induction of anesthesia, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) was measured by an oximetry finger probe in the sitting and supine positions, and Mallampati score was taken. Oxygen saturation was recorded also during induction of anesthesia, and nadir values were analyzed, and the STOP-BANG questionnaire was applied.
Thirty-six patients presented with clinical suspicion of OSA. Body weight predicted oxygen saturation in the supine and sitting position, prior to induction of anesthesia. Nadir oxygen saturation during induction of anesthesia was considerably higher in patients with clinical suspicion of OSA, a significant finding that persisted as a trend after correction for age, gender and BMI. The Mallampati score was an independent predictor of OSA, even in morbidly obese patients scheduled for weight loss surgery.
Morbidly obese patients presenting for weight loss surgery have a significant risk to desaturate during induction of anesthesia. A history of OSA does not independently increase the risk of desaturation during induction of anesthesia, if the appropriate precautions are being taken.
Obstructive sleep apnea; obesity; bariatric surgery; oximetry; anesthesia.
To compare a commercially available, level III in-home diagnostic sleep test (Embletta, Embletta USA) and in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) in women with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Consecutive women scheduled for routine PSG testing for evaluation of clinically suspected OSA and who met inclusion/exclusion criteria, were invited to participate. An in-home Embletta portable monitor test was performed one week before or after diagnostic PSG.
Forty-seven of 96 women who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria agreed to participate. The mean (± SD) age of the patients was 52.0±11.0 years, with a mean body mass index of 34.86±9.04 kg/m2, and 66% (31 of 47) of patients were at high risk for OSA according to the Berlin score. Paired analysis of the overall population revealed no significant difference in mean apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) between the two diagnostic methods (P=0.475). At an AHI of ≥5, the Embletta test was highly sensitive (90.6%) in determining abnormal versus normal OSA, with a positive predictive value of 82.7%. However, a higher Embletta AHI threshold of ≥10 may be more useful, with a higher level of agreement (kappa coefficient) with PSG testing and a positive predictive value of 92.3%. The in-home study was less useful at distinguishing severe from nonsevere OSA, yielding a sensitivity of 50%.
In women believed to be at high-risk for OSA, Embletta in-home sleep testing is useful for the detection of sleep disordered breathing.
Obstructive sleep apnea; Polysomnography; Women
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common, under-recognized, under diagnosed, under treated, and serious medical condition in adults. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for diagnosis of OSA; however, prohibitive cost of the test and rarity of sleep laboratory in the Arabic nations limit its access. So, searching for another simple, economical, reliable, and valid tool for identification of OSA at risk patients is of special public concern.
This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability and validity of Arabic version of Berlin questionnaire (ABQ) in detection of OSA at risk patients.
After hospital ethics approval and formal patients consent, 100 patients were subjected to full night PSG study after their response to the developed ABQ. The patients were classified into both low (30) and high risk (70) for OSA using ABQ and validated against apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Reliability was assessed by internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha test and consistency over time using test retest correlation.
The study demonstrated a high degree of internal consistency and stability over time for the developed ABQ. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 10-item tool was 0.92. Validation of ABQ against AHI at cutoff >5 revealed a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 90%, positive and negative predictive values of 96% and 93%, respectively.
The ABQ is reliable and valid scale in screening patients for the risk of OSA among Arabic-speaking nations, especially in resource-limited settings.
Apnea hypopnea index; Arabic version of Berlin questionnaire; Berlin questionnaire; obstructive sleep apnea; reliability and validity
We aimed to evaluate the validity of the BodyMedia's SenseWear™ Armband (BSA) device in estimating total sleep time (TST) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Simultaneous overnight recordings of in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) and BSA were performed on (1) 107 OSA patients (mean age of 45.2 ± 14.3 years, mean apnea hypopnea index of 43 ± 35.7/hr and (2) 30 controls matched with OSA patients for age and body mass index. An agreement analysis between the PSG and BSA scoring results was performed using the Bland and Altman method.
There was no significant difference in OSA patients between BSA and PSG with regard to TST, total wake time, and sleep efficiency. There was also no significant difference in the controls between BSA and PSG with regard to TST, total wake time, and sleep efficiency. Bland Altman plots showed strong agreement between TST, wake time, and sleep efficiency for both OSA and the controls. The intraclass correlation coefficients revealed perfect agreement between BSA and PSG in different levels of OSA severity and both genders.
The current data suggest that BSA is a reliable method for determining sleep in patients with OSA when compared against the gold standard test (PSG). BSA can be a useful tool in determining sleep in patients with OSA and can be combined with portable sleep studies to determine TST.
Actigraphy; armband; polysomnography; portable monitoring; sleep apnea; sleep duration; sleep-disordered breathing; type 4 sleep study
High C‐reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Some, but not all, previous studies have reported increased levels of CRP and homocysteine in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). A study was undertaken to investigate the levels of these factors in carefully selected patients with OSAS and matched normal controls.
CRP and homocysteine levels were measured in 110 subjects following polysomnography (PSG). Non‐OSAS patients (group 1) were compared with two patient groups (mild/moderate OSAS (group 2) and severe OSAS (group 3)) group‐matched for body mass index (BMI), and a fourth group of patients with severe OSAS who were more obese (group 4). All were free of other disease and similar in age, smoking habits and cholesterol levels. 50 suitable patients were commenced on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment after PSG and 49 were reassessed 6 weeks later.
CRP levels were similar in groups 1, 2 and 3 (median (interquartile range (IQR)) 1.11 (0.76–2.11) mg/l vs 1.82 (1.20–3.71) mg/l vs 2.20 (1.16–3.59) mg/l; p = 0.727, Kruskal‐Wallis test), but were significantly higher in group 4 than in the other groups (5.36 (2.42–9.17) mg/l, p<0.05 by individual group comparisons). In multivariate analysis of all subjects, BMI was an independent predictor for CRP levels (β = 0.221; p = 0.006) but apnoea‐hypopnoea index and other measures of OSAS were not. There was no difference in homocysteine levels between all four groups (p = 0.1). CPAP did not alter CRP (2.29 (1.32–4.10) vs 2.84 (1.13–5.40) mg/l; p = 0.145) or homocysteine levels (8.49 (3.66) vs 9.90 (4.72) μmol/l; p = 0.381).
CRP and homocysteine levels are not associated with OSAS severity in men but CRP is independently associated with obesity.
The aim of our study was to validate a Greek translation of the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and to explore whether this screening questionnaire could be used to help identify primary care patients at greater risk of having OSAS.
We recruited 189 patients visiting a primary health care setting on the island of Crete, Greece. They all completed the Greek Version of the BQ. Patients were then referred to a Sleep Disorders Unit for evaluation of suspected sleep-disordered breathing.
A PSG study was performed in 129 of the 189 subjects (68.3%). BQ identified 74.4% (n = 96) of the patients as high-risk for OSAS and the remaining 25.6% (n = 33) as low-risk. The sensitivity and specificity of BQ for OSAS diagnosis were 76% and 40%, respectively, for an apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥5 per hour but <15 per hour, 84% and 61% for an AHI ≥15 per hour but ≤30 per hour, and 79% and 39% for an AHI >30 per hour.
In conclusion, the Greek Version of the BQ is a useful instrument for identifying patients at risk for OSAS in primary health care in Greece. The findings of our study confirm that such screening tools should be used by primary care clinicians for OSAS prediction.
Berlin questionnaire; Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; Primary care patients; Screening tool; Greece; validation
BACKGROUND: Laboratory full polysomnography (PSG) is considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS), but it is expensive and time consuming. A study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of a partially attended night time respiratory recording (NTRR) and a clinical questionnaire in patients with suspected SAHS in comparison with full PSG. METHODS: Seventy six patients (54 men) of mean (SD) age 51 (11.5) years with a body mass index of 31 (5.7) kg/m2 were studied at random on two different nights with full PSG at the sleep laboratory and with NTRR on a respiratory ward. NTRR records oximetry, airflow, chest and abdominal motion. All signals were continuously displayed on a computer screen throughout the night and respiratory events were scored automatically the following morning. All patients completed a clinical questionnaire. RESULTS: Mean values of the apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) using NTRR were lower than those obtained with full PSG (22.7 (2.4) versus 32.2 (3) events/hour) which was mainly due to underrecognition of hypopnoeas. Sensitivity and specificity of NTRR for the diagnosis of SAHS were 82% and 90%, respectively, taking as reference AHI > 10 on full PSG (AHI-PSG > 10). The mean (+/-2SD) difference in AHI between the two methods was 9.6 (range -5.4-24.6) (95% confidence interval 6.2 to 13). Symptoms of witnessed apnoeas, impotence, the overall clinical impression of a trained physician, and a neck size over 40 cm were significantly more prevalent in patients with AHI-PSG of > 10, but impotence was the only clinical feature significantly more prevalent in patients with false negative compared with true negative NTRR results that helped to distinguish patients with NTRR < 10 but AHI-PSG > 10. CONCLUSIONS: NTRR is a helpful and easy complementary diagnostic tool in clinical practice because it detects patients with moderate to severe SAHS reasonably well and therefore can be useful for confirming a diagnosis of SAHS and also for treatment decisions. It is suggested that patients with suspicion of SAHS should be initially studied by NTRR. When NTRR is negative, a full PSG should be performed if witnessed apnoeas, impotence, systemic hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and a trained physician's clinical impression of SAHS are present.
Standard practice in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) management requires that a positive diagnostic, overnight polysomnography (PSG) test be obtained before initiating treatment. However, long waiting times due to lack of access to PSG testing facilities may delay the initiation of definitive treatment for OSA.
To evaluate the response of patients who had a high clinical suspicion for OSA and who were waiting for a PSG test to an empirical continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) trial.
A retrospective study of all patients who had been offered empirical CPAP therapy for suspected OSA was conducted. After outpatient assessment, 183 patients with a high pretest probability of having OSA began empirical CPAP testing using an arbitrary CPAP pressure. The presence of OSA, the accuracy of empirical CPAP pressure prescription, the adherence to empirical CPAP and the improvement in daytime somnolence were evaluated at the time of PSG.
Of 183 patients on a CPAP trial, 91% had OSA, which was at least moderate (more than 15 apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep) in 75% of the patients. Eighty per cent of the patients had significant daytime somnolence (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] greater than 10, mean ± SD ESS 14±5), which improved with CPAP (ESS 9.0±5, P<0.01). In 40% of the patients, the arbitrary CPAP pressure was lower than that determined by manual titration. Adherence to a trial of CPAP (longer than 2 h/night) predicted OSA with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 41%; the positive and negative predictive values were 92% and 22%, respectively.
At the time of PSG testing, OSA was present in 91% of the patients who had received empirical CPAP. An empirical CPAP provided satisfactory interim treatment for excessive somnolence, despite the fact that the CPAP pressure was suboptimal in 40% of the patients.
Continuous positive airway pressure; CPAP responsiveness; CPAP trial; Empirical CPAP; Obstructive sleep apnea
ApneaLink™ (AL) is a single-channel type-4 device that measures airflow. A limited number of studies have assessed AL’s usefulness in diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using automated scoring alone. This study was conducted to assess the sensitivity and specificity of AL in a selected group of people with clinical suspicion of OSA, using both automatic and manual scoring and comparing the results with those obtained for polysomnography (PSG).
Simultaneous overnight recordings of in-laboratory PSG and AL were performed for 95 patients (mean age 46.3±12.6 yr) with a high clinical suspicion of OSA. PSG was scored manually according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guidelines. AL data were analyzed automatically using a manufacturer-provided computerized algorithm. Manual scoring of the AL flow signal followed the AASM guidelines for reduction in flow.
The mean apnea hypopneas index (AHI) for PSG was 34.1±32.4/hr. The AL Auto-AHI was 20.1±25.2/h, and the AL Manual-AHI was 39.5±30.4/h. The Pearson correlation coefficients were r=0.883 between PSG-AHI and AL Auto-AHI, and r=0.966 between PSG-AHI and AL Manual-AHI. At AHIs of 5, 10, 15, and 30, the AL Auto sensitivity/specificity was 0.79/0.68, 0.70/0.89, 0.64/0.94 and 0.63/0.98, and the AL Manual sensitivity/specificity was 1.00/0.43, 1.00/0.56, 0.98/0.58 and 1.00/0.80.
Combining auto and manual scoring of data (automatic scoring followed by manual scoring) recorded by single-channel ApneaLink™ provides good diagnostic agreement with conventional PSG recordings.
sleep-disordered breathing; sleep apnea; ApneaLink; polysomnography; type 4 sleep study; portable monitoring
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often not diagnosed in patients presenting for surgical procedures thereby increasing the incidence of adverse perioperative course. Early diagnosis of this disease is important in modifying anesthetic management as well as utilizing specific means which may decrease the complications and improve the patient outcome.
Patients greater than eighteen years of age, ASA I-III scheduled for elective surgical procedures under anesthesia were randomly selected. Their demographic data, diagnosis and nature of surgery were noted in a semi-structured performa. They were then screened for the presence of OSA with the help of a STOP BANG questionnaire.
This study included two hundred four patients randomly selected. Slight female predominance was seen in this sample (55.4%). Mean age of the subjects was 42.7 years (SD=15.08). 24.5% subjects were at high risk for OSA (STOP-BANG>3) with a male predominance (72% versus 37% in low risk group; X2=18.62; P<0.001). High risk OSA subjects had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (57% vs. 11.7% in low risk group; X2=33.35; P<0.001). Similarly, this group had a higher prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (14% versus 3.8% in low risk group; X2=6.54; P=0.03). Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (22%) and hypothyroidism (6%) was also higher in this group (5.2% and 1.9% in low risk group respectively; X2=15.42; P<0.001).
High degree of suspicion and knowledge of association of OSA and medical diseases may help in detection of such cases and decrease the rate of perioperative complications thus improving patients safety.
Anaesthesia; complication; obstructive sleep apnea; STOP BANG
Small uncontrolled series suggest that treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with epilepsy may improve seizure control. Prior to conducting a definitive randomized controlled trial, we addressed critical design issues in a pilot study.
We identified a cohort of adult patients with medically refractory epilepsy and coexisting OSA, documented by polysomnography (PSG). After an 8-week baseline period, subjects with OSA were randomized to therapeutic or sham continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for 10 weeks. Subjects maintained seizure calendars and antiepileptic drug dosages were held constant.
Sixty-eight subjects with suspected OSA were enrolled and 35 subjects randomized to therapeutic CPAP (22 subjects) or sham (13 subjects) CPAP. Male gender and an elevated sleep apnea questionnaire score were predictive of OSA on PSG. Nineteen subjects in the therapeutic group and all 13 subjects in the sham group completed the trial. Baseline apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and CPAP adherence were comparable between groups. A significant reduction in AHI was observed in the therapeutic CPAP group as compared to the sham group. Subjects, study coordinators, and principal investigators were unable to predict treatment allocation.
This pilot study provided critical information related to study design and feasibility for planning a comprehensive trial to test the hypothesis that treating obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy improves seizure control.
= antiepileptic drugs;
= apnea-hypopnea index;
= body mass index;
= continuous positive airway pressure;
= obstructive sleep apnea;
Opioid-dependent patients treated with methadone have subjective sleep complaints and disrupted sleep on polysomnography (PSG). Previous studies of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in this population have focused on central sleep apnea (CSA). Our objectives were to: (1) characterize obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and CSA in patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid dependence; (2) examine factors associated with SDB in this population; and (3) investigate whether SDB was related to severity of subjective sleep complaints in MMT patients with subjective sleep disturbances.
We analyzed OSA and CSA from one night of home PSG in 71 patients who were in MMT for at least 3 months and had a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) score > 5.
OSA (defined as obstructive apnea-hypoponea index (OAHI) ≥ 5) was observed in 35.2% of our sample. OSA was associated with higher body mass index, longer duration in MMT, and non-Caucasian race. CSA (defined as central apnea index (CAI) ≥ 5) was observed in 14.1% of the sample. CSA was not associated with methadone dose or concomitant drug use. Subjective sleep disturbance measured with the PSQI was not related to OSA or CSA.
SDB was common in this sample of MMT patients and OSA was more common than CSA. Given the lack of association between presence of SDB and severity of subjective sleep difficulties, factors other than sleep apnea must account for complaints of disturbed sleep in this population.
methadone; opiate dependence; sleep; sleep apnea; central sleep apnea; obstructive sleep apnea; sleep-disordered breathing
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using polysomnography (PSG) data within 6 months before and after surgery.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed PSG and body mass index (BMI) data from patients with OSA who were 18 years or older and who underwent UPPP between January 1, 1988, and August 31, 2006.
RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (51 men [81.0%]; mean ± SD age, 42.1±13.9 years; mean ± SD BMI, 34.9±7.2) underwent PSG a mean ± SD of 50±47 days before and 88.5±34.0 days after UPPP. Surgical cure was defined as a postoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 5 or less. Fifteen patients (24%) achieved a surgical cure. Twenty-one patients (33%) had a postoperative AHI of 10 or less, whereas 32 (51%) achieved a 50% or greater reduction in AHI and/or an AHI of 20 or less. No significant changes were noted in BMI before and 6 months after UPPP. Patients who attained an AHI of 5 or less were younger (mean ± SD age, 35.9±13.1 vs 44±13.7 years; P=.05), had lower BMIs (mean ± SD, 30.8±6.5 vs 34.6±6.6; P=.05), and had less severe OSA (mean ± SD AHI, 38.1±33.6 vs 69.6±32.8; P=.004). Of the 48 patients (76%) with a post-UPPP AHI greater than 5, 35 (56%) received continuous positive airway pressure, with a mean reduction in pressure of 1.4 cm H2O (95% confidence interval, -0.4 to -2.4 cm H2O).
CONCLUSION: Independent of changes in BMI, in our retrospective analysis, UPPP achieved an AHI of 5 or less in 24% and an AHI of 10 or less in 33% of patients with OSA who underwent PSG 6 months before and after surgery. In those with residual OSA who received continuous positive airway pressure, the required pressure setting decreased by 1.4 cm H2O.
Independent of changes in body mass index, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty achieved an apnea-hypopnea index of 5 or less in 15 patients and of 10 or less in 21 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who underwent polysomnography 6 months before and after surgery. In those with residual OSA who received continuous positive airway pressure, the required pressure setting decreased by 1.4 cm H2O.
Prevalence of both diabetes mellitus and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is high among general population. Both of these conditions are associated with significant morbidity. OSA affects approximately 25% of men and 9% of women, and its prevalence is even higher among obese, Hispanics, African American and diabetic patients. Diabetes on the other hand besides having high prevalence in general population has even higher prevalence among ethnic populations as Hispanics and African American. Despite the availability of several simple screening tools for OSA, as Berlin questionnaire, STOP-BANG questionnaire, NAMES Criteria, the utility for screening of OSA among the diabetic population remains marginal. This in turn can lead to significant morbidity and complications related to OSA as well as worsening of diabetes mellitus and increase in diabetic complications due to untreated sleep related breathing disorder. It is therefore imperative for the primary care giver to screen for OSA among the diabetic population as a part of their routine evaluation to prevent worsening of diabetes, and its cardiovascular, renal, ophthalmologic and neurological complications.
Obstructive sleep apnea and diabetes mellitus; Obstructive sleep apnea screening; Obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome
To assess the presence of a first night effect (FNE) in children and adolescents and to examine if a single night polysomnography (PSG) is sufficient for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS).
Prospective case study of 70 patients (group 1: 2–6 years, n = 22; group 2: 7–12 years, n = 32; group 3: 13–17 years, n = 16) referred for OSAS. Diagnostic criteria for OSAS: one or more of the following: (1) obstructive apnoea index (OAI) ⩾1; (2) obstructive apnoea hypopnoea index (oAHI) ⩾2; (3) SaO2 ⩽89% in association with obstruction.
In all age groups, but mainly in the oldest children, REMS increased during the second night, mainly at the expense of stage 2 sleep. The first night PSG correctly identified OSAS in 86%, 91%, and 100% of the children for groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively. This represents 9% false negatives for OSAS when only the first night PSG was used. All cases missed had mild OSAS, except for one with oAHI >5 on night 2. There were also seven patients with OSAS on night 1 but with a normal PSG on night 2: all had oAHI <5.
There is a FNE in children and adolescents. A single night PSG is sufficient for diagnosing OSAS, but in cases with a suggestive history and examination and with a negative first night, a second night study might be advisable.
first night effect; polysomnography; obstructive sleep apnoea; sleep disordered breathing
Undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent breathing disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of preoperative screening and subsequent treatment for OSA on the health of patients.
We conducted a two-year follow-up study of patients previously enrolled in a large prospective study in which patients were given the STOP questionnaire for OSA screening (n = 2,467). All patients who underwent a polysomnography were considered eligible (n = 211) and were asked to complete a paper-based mailed questionnaire. The severity of OSA, comorbidities, and treatment modalities and their effects were evaluated from the returned questionnaire. Research ethics board approval was obtained and returning the questionnaire implied informed patient consent.
The response rate was 67%. One hundred twenty-eight (82%) of the 156 patients who responded had OSA established by polysomnography. Among these 128 patients with OSA, 88 (69%) were prescribed continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy and 40 (31%) were prescribed other (non-CPAP) treatment. Among those 88 patients receiving CPAP, 40 (45%) were compliant and 48 (55%) were non-compliant. The CPAP compliant patients had a greater reduction in medication for comorbidities than the CPAP non-compliant or the other treatment group (38% vs 3% vs 0%, respectively; P < 0.001). A significant improvement in snoring, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness was reported by CPAP compliant users compared with CPAP non-compliant or other treatment groups (P < 0.001).
The preoperative patients who were identified to have OSA and were compliant with CPAP use may have health benefits in terms of improved snoring, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. Timely diagnosis and treatment compliance may reduce symptoms of OSA and severity of associated comorbidities along with a reduction in medications.
Medicine & Public Health; Pediatrics; Cardiology; Anesthesiology; Pain Medicine; Pneumology/Respiratory System; Intensive / Critical Care Medicine
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent nocturnal hypoxia and sleep disruption. Sleep fragmentation caused hyperalgesia in volunteers, while nocturnal hypoxemia enhanced morphine analgesic potency in children with OSA. This evidence directly relates to surgical OSA patients who are at risk for airway compromise due to postoperative use of opioids. Using accepted experimental pain models, we characterized pain processing and opioid analgesia in male volunteers recruited based on their risk for OSA.
After approval from the Intitutional Review Board and informed consent, we assessed heat and cold pain thresholds and tolerances in volunteers after overnight polysomnography (PSG). Three pro-inflammatory and 3 hypoxia markers were determined in the serum. Pain tests were performed at baseline, placebo, and two effect site concentrations of remifentanil (1 and 2 µg/ml), an μ-opioid agonist. Linear mixed effects regression models were employed to evaluate the association of 3 PSG descriptors [wake after sleep onset, number of sleep stage shifts, and lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) during sleep] and all serum markers with pain thresholds and tolerances at baseline, as well as their changes under remifentanil.
Forty-three volunteers (12 normal and 31 with a PSG-based diagnosis of OSA) were included in the analysis. The lower nadir SaO2 and higher insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) were associated with higher analgesic sensitivity to remifentanil (SaO2, P = 0.0440; IGFBP-1, P = 0.0013). Other pro-inflammatory mediators like interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were associated with an enhanced sensitivity to the opioid analgesic effect (IL-1β, P = 0.0218; TNF-α, P = 0.0276).
Nocturnal hypoxemia in subjects at high risk for OSA was associated with an increased potency of opioid analgesia. A serum hypoxia marker (IGFBP-1) was associated with hypoalgesia and increased potency to opioid analgesia; other pro-inflammatory mediators also predicted an enhanced opioid potency.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov
The objectives of this study were; (1) to assess the prevalence and frequency of headache in patients referred to polysomnography (PSG) due to a clinical suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or another sleep disturbance and compare with a reference population, and (2) to assess the association of OSA severity with headache and headache frequency.
A total of 784 participants filled in a headache questionnaire between 2003 and 2009 at the Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Akershus University Hospital. Of these patients 477 were suspected to have OSA, and 307 had other sleep complaints. We assessed the prevalence of headache and monthly headache frequencies, as well as sleep apnea severity using an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). The association of headache and monthly headache frequencies with PSG subgroups was assessed using multivariate logistic and ordered logistic regression analysis.
The frequency of headache was not associated with the severity of OSA. Patients referred to a sleep study for any reason had higher odds ratio (OR) for having experienced headache during the past year than population controls after adjustment for age, gender and education, i.e. patients with normal AHI had OR of 3.56, patients with OSA had OR of 3.51, and patients with other sleep disturbances had OR of 3.33. Similarly, the adjusted OR of being in a higher category of monthly headache frequency compared to controls was higher in those with normal AHI (OR 3.42), OSA (OR 3.29), and other sleep disturbances (OR 3.00).
The odds of headache and headache frequency were higher in subjects referred to a PSG for any sleep disturbance independently of OSA, compared to general population controls. However, there was no association between experiencing headache during the past year or headache frequency with OSA severity.
Obstructive sleep apnea; Polysomnography; Headache; Headache frequency
The burden of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial drivers in Nigeria is not known.
To assess the prevalence of high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among intra-city commercial drivers.
Setting and Design:
A descriptive cross-sectional study in three major motor parks in Lagos metropolis.
Materials and Methods:
Demographic, anthropometric and historical data was obtained. The risk of OSA and EDS was assessed using the STOP BANG questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively.
The relationship between the OSA risk, EDS risk and past road traffic accident (RTA) was explored using the Pearson's chi square. Independent determinants of OSA risk, EDS risk and past RTA, respectively, were assessed by multiple logistic regression models.
Five hundred male commercial drivers (mean age (years) ±SD = 42.36 ± 11.17 and mean BMI (kg/m2) ±SD = 25.68 ± 3.79) were recruited. OSA risk was high in 244 (48.8%) drivers and 72 (14.4%) had EDS. There was a positive relationship between OSA risk and the risk of EDS (Pearson's X2 = 28.2, P < 0.001). Sixty-one (12.2%) drivers had a past history of RTA but there was no significant relationship between a past RTA and either OSA risk (X2 = 2.05, P = 0.15) or EDS risk (X2 = 2.7, P = 0.1), respectively. Abdominal adiposity, regular alcohol use and EDS were independent determinants of OSA risk while the use of cannabis and OSA risk were independent determinants of EDS. No independent risk factor for past RTA was identified.
A significant proportion of commercial drivers in Lagos metropolis are at high risk of OSA and EDS.
Commercial drivers; excessive day time sleepiness; Lagos; obstructive sleep apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has become an important public health concern. Polysomnography (PSG) is traditionally considered an established and effective diagnostic tool providing information on the severity of OSA and the degree of sleep fragmentation. However, the numerous steps in the PSG test to diagnose OSA are costly and time consuming. This study aimed to apply the multiclass Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MMTS) based on anthropometric information and questionnaire data to predict OSA. Implementation results showed that MMTS had an accuracy of 84.38% on the OSA prediction and achieved better performance compared to other approaches such as logistic regression, neural networks, support vector machine, C4.5 decision tree, and rough set. Therefore, MMTS can assist doctors in prediagnosis of OSA before running the PSG test, thereby enabling the more effective use of medical resources.