Without ribosome biogenesis, translation of mRNA into protein ceases and cellular growth stops. We asked whether ribosome biogenesis is cell cycle regulated in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and we determined that it is not regulated in the same manner as in metazoan cells. We therefore turned our attention to cellular sensors that relay cell size information via ribosome biogenesis. Our results indicate that the small subunit (SSU) processome, a complex consisting of 40 proteins and the U3 small nucleolar RNA necessary for ribosome biogenesis, is not mitotically regulated. Furthermore, Nan1/Utp17, an SSU processome protein, does not provide a link between ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. However, when individual SSU processome proteins are depleted, cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This arrest was further supported by the lack of staining for proteins expressed in post-G1. Similarly, synchronized cells depleted of SSU processome proteins did not enter G2. This suggests that when ribosomes are no longer made, the cells stall in the G1. Therefore, yeast cells must grow to a critical size, which is dependent upon having a sufficient number of ribosomes during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, before cell division can occur.
The disaccharide trehalose accumulates as yeast cells enter quiescence. Glucose equivalents in the form of trehalose and glycogen lead to an increase in the apparent density of the cell. Upon exit from quiescence, trehalose stores are initially metabolized in preference over other energy sources to help drive cell cycle progression.
When conditions are unfavorable, virtually all living cells have the capability of entering a resting state termed quiescence or G0. Many aspects of the quiescence program as well as the mechanisms governing the entry and exit from quiescence remain poorly understood. Previous studies using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that upon entry into stationary phase, a quiescent cell population emerges that is heavier in density than nonquiescent cells. Here, we show that total intracellular trehalose and glycogen content exhibits substantial correlation with the density of individual cells both in stationary phase batch cultures and during continuous growth. During prolonged quiescence, trehalose stores are often maintained in favor over glycogen, perhaps to fulfill its numerous stress-protectant functions. Immediately upon exit from quiescence, cells preferentially metabolize trehalose over other fuel sources. Moreover, cells lacking trehalose initiate growth more slowly and frequently exhibit poor survivability. Together, our results support the view that trehalose, which is more stable than other carbohydrates, provides an enduring source of energy that helps drive cell cycle progression upon return to growth.
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae it has long been thought that cells must reach a critical cell size, called the “setpoint,” in order to allow the Start cell cycle transition. Recent evidence suggests that this setpoint is lowered when ribosome biogenesis is slowed. Here we present evidence that yeast can sense ribosome biogenesis independently of mature ribosome levels and protein synthetic capacity. Our results suggest that ribosome biogenesis directly promotes passage through Start through Whi5, the yeast functional equivalent to the human tumor suppressor Rb. When ribosome biogenesis is inhibited, a Whi5-dependent mechanism inhibits passage through Start before significant decreases in both the number of ribosomes and in overall translation capacity of the cell become evident. This delay at Start in response to decreases in ribosome biogenesis occurs independently of Cln3, the major known Whi5 antagonist. Thus ribosome biogenesis may be sensed at multiple steps in Start regulation. Ribosome biogenesis may thus both delay Start by increasing the cell size setpoint and independently may promote Start by inactivating Whi5.
Recent achievements in yeast functional proteomics have significantly advanced our knowledge about ribosome biogenesis. Here, we present a program developed to integrate data from various proteome analyses with cell biological data on components present in the ribosome producing factories. This program allows users to attribute factors to certain complexes and to specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. Thus, it helps to gain novel insights into the complex network involved in maturation of ribosomal subunits. The database can be accessed at the URL http://www.pre-ribosome.de.
The primary cilium is an antenna-like organelle that is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle. Ciliogenesis is initiated as cells enter quiescence, while cilium resorption precedes mitosis. The mechanisms coordinating ciliogenesis with the cell cycle are unknown. Here we identify the centrosomal protein, Nde1, as a negative regulator of ciliary length. Nde1 is expressed at high levels in mitosis, low levels in quiescence and localizes at the mother centriole, which nucleates the primary cilium. Cells depleted of Nde1 show longer cilia and a delay in cell cycle re-entry that correlates with ciliary length. Knockdown of Nde1 in zebrafish embryos results in increased ciliary length, suppression of cell division, reduction of the number of cells forming the Kupffer’s vesicle, and left-right patterning defects. These data suggest that Nde1 is an integral component of a network coordinating ciliary length with cell cycle progression and have implications in the transition from quiescence to a proliferative state.
induction of p53 can cause reversible quiescence and
irreversible senescence. Using nutlin-3a (a small molecule that
activates p53 without causing DNA damage), we have previously identified
cell lines in which nutlin-3a caused quiescence. Importantly, nutlin-3a
caused quiescence by actively suppressing the senescence program (while
still causing cell cycle arrest). Noteworthy, in these cells nutlin-3a
inhibited the mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin) pathway, which is known
to be involved in the senescence program. Here we showed that
shRNA-mediated knockdown of TSC2, a negative regulator of mTOR, partially
converted quiescence into senescence in these nutlin-arrested cells. In
accord, in melanoma cell lines and mouse embryo fibroblasts, which easily
undergo senescence in response to p53 activation, nutlin-3a failed to
inhibit mTOR. In these senescence-prone cells, the mTOR inhibitor
rapamycin converted nutlin-3a-induced senescence into quiescence. We
conclude that status of the mTOR pathway can determine, at least in part,
the choice between senescence and quiescence in p53-arrested cells.
p53; senescence; rapamycin; mTOR; cancer; cell cycle
The mechanisms that regulate T cell quiescence are poorly understood. We report that tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1) establishes a quiescence program in naive T cells by controlling cell size, cell cycle entry, and responses to T cell receptor stimulation. Loss of quiescence predisposed Tsc1-deficient T cells to apoptosis that resulted in loss of conventional T cells and invariant natural killer T cells. Loss of Tsc1 function dampened in vivo immune responses to bacterial infection. Tsc1-deficient T cells exhibited increased mTORC1 but diminished mTORC2 activities, with mTORC1 activation essential for the disruption of immune homeostasis. Therefore, Tsc1-dependent control of mTOR is crucial in establishing naive T cell quiescence to facilitate adaptive immune function.
naive T cells; quiescence; apoptosis; immune response; mTOR
The use of new candidate markers for yeast quiescence reveals that quiescence entry and exit primarily rely on cellular metabolic status and can be uncoupled from the cell cycle.
Quiescence is defined as a temporary arrest of proliferation, yet it likely encompasses various cellular situations. Our knowledge about this widespread cellular state remains limited. In particular, little is known about the molecular determinants that orchestrate quiescence establishment and exit. Here we show that upon carbon source exhaustion, budding yeast can enter quiescence from all cell cycle phases. Moreover, using cellular structures that are candidate markers for quiescence, we found that the first steps of quiescence exit can be triggered independently of cell growth and proliferation by the sole addition of glucose in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Importantly, glucose needs to be internalized and catabolized all the way down to glycolysis to mobilize quiescent cell specific structures, but, strikingly, ATP replenishment is apparently not the key signal. Altogether, these findings strongly suggest that quiescence entry and exit primarily rely on cellular metabolic status and can be uncoupled from the cell cycle.
When cell cycle withdrawal accompanies terminal differentiation, biosynthesis and cellular growth are likely to change also. In this study, nucleolus size was monitored during cell fate specification in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc using fibrillarin antibody labeling. Nucleolus size is an indicator of ribosome biogenesis and can correlate with cellular growth rate. Nucleolar size was reduced significantly during cell fate specification and differentiation, predominantly as eye disc cells entered a cell cycle arrest that preceded cell fate specification. This reduction in nucleolus size required Dpp and Hh signaling. A transient enlargement of the nucleolus accompanied cell division in the Second Mitotic Wave. Nucleoli continued to diminish in postmitotic cells following fate specification. These results suggest that cellular growth is regulated early in the transition from proliferating progenitor cells to terminal cell fate specification, contemporary with regulation of the cell cycle, and requiring the same extracellular signals.
Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis requires more than 150 auxiliary proteins, which transiently interact with pre-ribosomal particles. Previous studies suggest that several of these biogenesis factors function together as modules. Using a heterologous expression system, we show that the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) biogenesis factor Noc1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can simultaneously interact with the LSU biogenesis factor Noc2p and Rrp5p, a factor required for biogenesis of the large and the small ribosomal subunit. Proteome analysis of RNA polymerase-I-associated chromatin and chromatin immunopurification experiments indicated that all members of this protein module and a specific set of LSU biogenesis factors are co-transcriptionally recruited to nascent ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursors in yeast cells. Further ex vivo analyses showed that all module members predominantly interact with early pre-LSU particles after the initial pre-rRNA processing events have occurred. In yeast strains depleted of Noc1p, Noc2p or Rrp5p, levels of the major LSU pre-rRNAs decreased and the respective other module members were associated with accumulating aberrant rRNA fragments. Therefore, we conclude that the module exhibits several binding interfaces with pre-ribosomes. Taken together, our results suggest a co- and post-transcriptional role of the yeast Rrp5p–Noc1p–Noc2p module in the structural organization of early LSU precursors protecting them from non-productive RNase activity.
The balance of quiescence and cell division is critical for tissue homeostasis and organismal health. Serum stimulation of fibroblasts is well studied as a classic model of entry into the cell division cycle, but the induction of cellular quiescence, such as by serum deprivation (SD), is much less understood. Here we show that SS and SD activate distinct early transcriptional responses genome-wide that converge on a late symmetric transcriptional program. Several serum deprivation early response genes (SDERGs), including the putative tumor suppressor genes SALL2 and MXI1, are required for cessation of DNA synthesis in response to SD and induction of additional SD genes. SDERGs are coordinately repressed in many types of human cancers compared to their normal counterparts, and repression of SDERGs predicts increased risk of cancer progression and death in human breast cancers. These results identify a gene expression program uniquely responsive to loss of growth factor signaling; members of SDERGs may constitute novel growth inhibitors that prevent cancer.
Cells constantly sense their environment to decide whether to divide. Many genes that control the entry into cell division are known, and their excessive activation may cause cancer. In contrast, the way that cells cease to divide was thought to be a passive process, where signals for cell division gradually decay. In this study, the authors show that the decision to cease cell division and enter a state termed quiescence is also an active process. By monitoring the changes in activity over all genes, the authors identify a set of genes that respond specifically to decrements of external stimuli and ensure cessation of cell division. These genes act as brakes to prevent excessive cell division, and their inactivity is characteristic in many human cancers, particular those that progress to life threatening disease.
Integrin-mediated cytoskeletal tension supports growth-factor-induced proliferation, and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in growth factor-stimulated cells prevents the re-expression of cyclin D and cell cycle re-entry from quiescence. In contrast to cells that enter the cell cycle from G0, cycling cells continuously express cyclin D, and are subject to major cell shape changes during the cell cycle. Here, we investigated the cell cycle requirements for cytoskeletal tension and cell spreading in cycling mammalian cells that enter G1-phase from mitosis. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton at progressive time-points in G1-phase induced cell rounding, FA disassembly, and attenuated both integrin signaling and growth factor-induced p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Although cyclin D expression was reduced, the expression of cyclin A and entry into S-phase were not affected. Moreover, expression of cyclin B1, progression through G2- and M-phase, and commitment to a new cell cycle occurred normally. In contrast, cell cycle progression was strongly prevented by inhibition of MAPK activity in G1-phase, whereas cell spreading, cytoskeletal organization, and integrin signaling were not impaired. MAPK inhibition also prevented cytoskeleton-independent cell cycle progression. Thus, these results uncouple the requirements for cell spreading and cytoskeletal organization from MAPK signaling, and show that cycling mammalian cells can proliferate independently of actin stress fibers, focal adhesions, or cell spreading, as long as a threshold level of MAPK activity is sustained.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00018-012-1130-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Actin cytoskeleton; Cell cycle progression; Cell spreading; Cyclin; Focal adhesion; G1-phase; Integrin; Mitogen-activated protein kinase; Mitosis
Initiation of T-lymphocyte-mediated immune responses involves two cellular processes: entry into the cell cycle (G0→G1) for clonal proliferation and coordinated changes in surface and secreted molecules that mediate effector functions. However, a point during G0→G1 beyond which T cells are committed to enter the cell cycle has not been defined. We define here a G0→G1 commitment point that occurs 3 to 5 h after CD3 and CD28 stimulation of human CD4 or CD8 T cells. Transition through this point requires cdk6/4-cyclin D, since inhibition with TAT-p16INK4A during the first 3 to 5 h prevents cell cycle entry and maintains both naive and memory T cells in G0. Transition through the G0→G1 commitment point is also necessary for T cells to increase in size, i.e., to enter the cellular growth cycle. However, transition through this point is not required for the induction of effector functions. These can be initiated while cells are maintained in G0 with TAT-p16INK4A. We have termed this quiescent, activated state G0(A). Our data provide proof of the principle that entry of T cells into the cell cycle and cellular growth cycles are coupled at the G0→G1 commitment point but that these processes can be uncoupled from the early expression of molecules of effector functions.
Coordinated translation initiation is coupled with cell cycle progression and cell growth, whereas excessive ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation often lead to tumor transformation and survival. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common and aggressive cancers worldwide and generally displays inherently high resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. We found that RACK1, the receptor for activated C-kinase 1, was highly expressed in normal liver and frequently upregulated in HCC. Aberrant expression of RACK1 contributed to in vitro chemoresistance as well as in vivo tumor growth of HCC. These effects depended on ribosome localization of RACK1. Ribosomal RACK1 coupled with PKCβII to promote the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which led to preferential translation of the potent factors involved in growth and survival. Inhibition of PKCβII or depletion of eIF4E abolished RACK1-mediated chemotherapy resistance of HCC in vitro. Our results imply that RACK1 may function as an internal factor involved in the growth and survival of HCC and suggest that targeting RACK1 may be an efficacious strategy for HCC treatment.
Lifelong blood cell production is governed through the poorly understood integration of cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic control of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence and activation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) coordinately regulate multiple targets within signaling networks, making them attractive candidate HSC regulators. We report that miR-126, a miRNA expressed in HSC and early progenitors, plays a pivotal role in restraining cell-cycle progression of HSC in vitro and in vivo. miR-126 knockdown by using lentiviral sponges increased HSC proliferation without inducing exhaustion, resulting in expansion of mouse and human long-term repopulating HSC. Conversely, enforced miR-126 expression impaired cell-cycle entry, leading to progressively reduced hematopoietic contribution. In HSC/early progenitors, miR-126 regulates multiple targets within the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway, attenuating signal transduction in response to extrinsic signals. These data establish that miR-126 sets a threshold for HSC activation and thus governs HSC pool size, demonstrating the importance of miRNA in the control of HSC function.
► miR-126 is a novel regulator of the HSC quiescence/proliferation equilibrium ► Reduction in miR-126 induces an expansion of long-term HSC without exhaustion ► Constitutive miR-126 expression promotes HSC quiescence and progenitor proliferation ► miR-126 attenuates PI3K/AKT activation in response to cytokine stimulation
miR-126 regulates multiple targets within the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway to promote HSC quiescence and progenitor proliferation.
Primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) predominantly use chemokine receptor CCR5 to enter target cells. The natural ligands of CCR5, the β-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, and RANTES, interfere with HIV-1 binding to CCR5 receptors and decrease the amount of virions entering cells. Although the inhibition of HIV-1 entry by β-chemokines is well documented, their effects on postentry steps of the viral life cycle and on host cell components that control the outcome of infection after viral entry are not well defined. Here, we show that all three β-chemokines, and MIP-1α in particular, inhibit postentry steps of the HIV-1 life cycle in primary lymphocytes, presumably via suppression of intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). Productive HIV-1 infection of primary lymphocytes requires cellular activation. Cell activation increases intracellular cAMP, which is required for efficient synthesis of proviral DNA during early steps of viral infection. Binding of MIP-1α to cognate receptors decreases activation-induced intracellular cAMP levels through the activation of inhibitory G proteins. Furthermore, inhibition of one of the downstream targets of cAMP, cAMP-dependent PKA, significantly inhibits synthesis of HIV-1-specific DNA without affecting virus entry. These data reveal that β-chemokine-mediated inhibition of virus replication in primary lymphocytes combines inhibitory effects at the entry and postentry levels and imply the involvement of β-chemokine-induced signaling in postentry inhibition of HIV-1 infection.
Nascent ribosome biogenesis is required during cell growth. To gain insight into the importance of this process during mouse oogenesis and embryonic development, we deleted one allele of the ribosomal protein S6 gene in growing oocytes and generated S6-heterozygous embryos. Oogenesis and embryonic development until embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5) were normal. However, inhibition of entry into M phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis became evident post-E5.5 and led to perigastrulation lethality. Genetic inactivation of p53 bypassed this checkpoint and prolonged development until E12.5, when the embryos died, showing decreased expression of D-type cyclins, diminished fetal liver erythropoiesis, and placental defects. Thus, a p53-dependent checkpoint is activated during gastrulation in response to ribosome insufficiency to prevent improper execution of the developmental program.
The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) effectively eradicates multiple myeloma (MM) cells, partly by activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress apoptotic signaling. However, MM recurrences in bortezomib-treated patients are invariable. We have shown that ER stress signaling can also induce growth arrest and survival in cancer cells. Thus, we hypothesized that bortezomib therapy could induce quiescence and survival of residual MM cells, contributing to disease recurrence. Here, we report that in MM cells, proteasome inhibition with MG-132 or bortezomib results in a surviving cell fraction that enters a prolonged quiescent state (G0–G1 arrest). Mechanism analysis revealed that bortezomib-surviving quiescent cells attenuate eIF2α phosphorylation and induction of the ER stress proapoptotic gene GADD153. This occurs independently of the eIF2α upstream kinases PERK, GCN2, and PKR. In contrast, the prosurvival ER-chaperone BiP/Grp78 was persistently induced. The bortezomib-surviving quiescent fraction could be eradicated by a simultaneous or sequential combination therapy with salubrinal, an inhibitor of GADD34-PP1C phosphatase complex, and, in consequence, eIF2α dephosphorylation. This effect was mimicked by expression of a phosphorylated mimetic eIF2α-S51D mutant. Our data indicate that bortezomib can induce growth arrest in therapy-surviving MM cells and that attenuation of eIF2α phosphorylation contributes to this survival. Most importantly, this survival mechanism can be blocked by inhibiting eIF2α dephosphorylation. Thus, strategies that maintain eIF2α in a hyperphosphorylated state may be a novel therapeutic approach to maximize bortezomib-induced apoptosis and reduce residual disease and recurrences in this type of cancer.
Mutations in the tyrosine kinase, Btk, result in a mild immunodeficiency in mice (xid). While B lymphocytes from xid mice do not proliferate to anti-immunoglobulin (Ig), we show here induction of the complete complement of cell cycle regulatory molecules, though the level of induction is about half that detected in normal B cells. Cell cycle analysis reveals that anti-Ig stimulated xid B cells enter S phase, but fail to complete the cell cycle, exhibiting a high rate of apoptosis. This correlated with a decreased ability to induce the anti-apoptosis regulatory protein, Bcl-xL. Ectopic expression of Bcl-xL in xid B cells permitted anti-Ig induced cell cycle progression demonstrating dual requirements for induction of anti-apoptotic proteins plus cell cycle regulatory proteins during antigen receptor mediated proliferation. Furthermore, our results link one of the immunodeficient traits caused by mutant Btk with the failure to properly regulate Bcl-xL.
The cells of organisms as diverse as bacteria and humans can enter stable, nonproliferating quiescent states. Quiescent cells of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms can survive for long periods without nutrients. This alternative state of cells is still poorly understood, yet much benefit is to be gained by understanding it both scientifically and with reference to human health. Here, we review our knowledge of one “model” quiescent cell population, in cultures of yeast grown to stationary phase in rich media. We outline the importance of understanding quiescence, summarize the properties of quiescent yeast cells, and clarify some definitions of the state. We propose that the processes by which a cell enters into, maintains viability in, and exits from quiescence are best viewed as an environmentally triggered cycle: the cell quiescence cycle. We synthesize what is known about the mechanisms by which yeast cells enter into quiescence, including the possible roles of the protein kinase A, TOR, protein kinase C, and Snf1p pathways. We also discuss selected mechanisms by which quiescent cells maintain viability, including metabolism, protein modification, and redox homeostasis. Finally, we outline what is known about the process by which cells exit from quiescence when nutrients again become available.
Cellular quiescence, defined as reversible growth/proliferation arrest, is thought to represent a homogenous state induced by diverse anti-mitogenic signals. We used transcriptional profiling to characterize human diploid fibroblasts that exited the cell cycle after exposure to three independent signals—mitogen withdrawal, contact inhibition, and loss of adhesion. We show here that each signal caused regulation of a unique set of genes known to be important for cessation of growth and division. Therefore, contrary to expectation, cells enter different quiescent states that are determined by the initiating signal. However, underlying this diversity we discovered a set of genes whose specific expression in non-dividing cells was signal-independent, and therefore representative of quiescence per se, rather than the signal that induced it. This fibroblast “quiescence program” contained genes that enforced the non-dividing state, and ensured the reversibility of the cell cycle arrest. We further demonstrate that one mechanism by which the reversibility of quiescence is insured is the suppression of terminal differentiation. Expression of the quiescence program was not simply a downstream consequence of exit from the cell cycle, because key parts, including those involved in suppressing differentiation, were not recapitulated during the cell cycle arrest caused by direct inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases. These studies form a basis for understanding the normal biology of cellular quiescence.
Transcriptional profiling of fibroblasts induced to exit the cell cycle by distinct signals reveals distinctions and commonalities in the pathways to cellular quiescence.
Reversible phosphorylation is the most common posttranslational modification used in the regulation of cellular processes. This study of phosphatases and kinases required for peroxisome biogenesis is the first genome-wide analysis of phosphorylation events controlling organelle biogenesis. We evaluate signaling molecule deletion strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for presence of a green fluorescent protein chimera of peroxisomal thiolase, formation of peroxisomes, and peroxisome functionality. We find that distinct signaling networks involving glucose-mediated gene repression, derepression, oleate-mediated induction, and peroxisome formation promote stages of the biogenesis pathway. Additionally, separate classes of signaling proteins are responsible for the regulation of peroxisome number and size. These signaling networks specify the requirements of early and late events of peroxisome biogenesis. Among the numerous signaling proteins involved, Pho85p is exceptional, with functional involvements in both gene expression and peroxisome formation. Our study represents the first global study of signaling networks regulating the biogenesis of an organelle.
Because the immunosuppressant rapamycin (sirolimus) blocks T cell proliferation in G1 phase, it has been proposed as a potential treatment for psoriasis, a skin disease characterized by T cell activation and keratinocyte stem cell hyperproliferation. To determine another potentially important mechanism through which rapamycin can act as an antipsoriatic agent, we tested its direct effect on keratinocyte stem cell proliferation in vitro as well as in vivo. In vivo cell cycle quiescent (G0 phase) stem cell keratinocytes in primary culture sequentially express de novo cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), prior to S phase entry, and upregulate beta1 integrin. Rapamycin inhibited the growth of keratinocytes that were leaving quiescence as well as those already in cell cycle without affecting cell viability. Although beta1 integrin(bright) expression was not affected, the number of beta1 integrin(bright) cells entering S/G2/M was significantly lowered by rapamycin. Cells treated with rapamycin exhibited decreased PCNA expression while cyclin D1 expression, which precedes PCNA expression in the cell cycle, was not affected. We found similar effects on stem cell keratinocytes in patients with psoriasis treated systemically with rapamycin. Because PCNA is required for cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase, our data indicate that inhibition of PCNA protein synthesis may be an important regulatory element in the ability of rapamycin to exert a G1 block.
The ARF tumour suppressor stabilizes p53 by negatively regulating the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 to promote cell cycle arrest and cell death. However, ARF is also able to arrest cell proliferation by inhibiting ribosome biogenesis. In greater part this is achieved by targeting the transcription termination factor I (TTF-I) for nucleolar export, leading to an inhibition of both ribosomal RNA synthesis and processing. We now show that in the absence of ARF, TTF-I is ubiquitinylated by MDM2. MDM2 interacts directly with TTF-I and regulates its cellular abundance by targeting it for degradation by the proteasome. Enhanced TTF-I levels inhibit ribosome biogenesis by suppressing ribosomal RNA synthesis and processing, strongly suggesting that exact TTF-I levels are critical for efficient ribosome biogenesis. We further show that concomitant with its ability to displace TTF-I from the nucleolus, ARF inhibits MDM2 ubiquitinylation of TTF-I by competitively binding to a site overlapping the MDM2 interaction site. Thus, both the sub-nuclear localization and the abundance of TTF-I are key regulators of ribosome biogenesis.
Chromosomal involvement is a legitimate, yet not well understood, feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). Firstly, AD affects more women than men. Secondly, the amyloid-β protein precursor genetic mutations, responsible for a cohort of familial AD cases, reside on chromosome 21, the same chromosome responsible for the developmental disorder Down’s syndrome. Thirdly, lymphocytes from AD patients display a novel chromosomal phenotype, namely premature centromere separation (PCS). Other documented morphological phenomena associated with AD include the occurrence of micronuclei, aneuploidy, binucleation, telomere instability, and cell cycle re-entry protein expression. Based on these events, here we present a novel hypothesis that the time dimension of cell cycle re-entry in AD is highly regulated by centromere cohesion dynamics. In view of the fact that neurons can re-enter the cell division cycle, our hypothesis predicts that alterations in the signaling pathway leading to premature cell death in neurons is a consequence of altered regulation of the separation of centromeres as a function of time. It is well known that centromeres in the metaphase-anaphase transition separate in a non-random, sequential order. This sequence has been shown to be deregulated in aging cells, various tumors, syndromes of chromosome instability, following certain chemical inductions, as well as in AD. Over time, premature chromosome separation is both a result of, and a driving force behind, further cohesion impairment, activation of cyclin dependent kinases, and mitotic catastrophe, a vicious circle resulting in cellular degeneration and death.
Alzheimer disease; aneuploidy; cell cycle; chromosome