Heterosexual contact is the primary mode of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) transmission worldwide. The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major coreceptor that is associated with the mucosal transmission of R5-tropic HIV-1 during sexual intercourse. The CCR5 molecule is thus a target for antibody-based therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking HIV-1 entry into cells. We have previously demonstrated that polyreactive natural antibodies (NAbs) from therapeutic preparations of immunoglobulin G and from human breast milk contain NAbs directed against CCR5. Such antibodies inhibit the infection of human macrophages and T lymphocytes by R5-tropic isolates of HIV in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that human immunoglobulins from the cervicovaginal secretions of HIV-seronegative or HIV-seropositive women contain NAbs directed against the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5. Natural affinity-purified anti-CCR5 antibodies bound to CCR5 expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells and further inhibited the infection of macrophages and dendritic cells with primary and laboratory-adapted R5-tropic HIV but not with X4-tropic HIV. Natural anti-CCR5 antibodies moderately inhibited R5-tropic HIV transfer from monocyte-derived dendritic cells to autologous T cells. Our results suggest that mucosal anti-CCR5 antibodies from healthy immunocompetent donors may hamper the penetration of HIV and may be suitable for use in the development of novel passive immunotherapy regimens in specific clinical settings of HIV infection.
The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a coreceptor with CD4 to permit infection by primary macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains. The CCR5Δ32 mutation, which is associated with resistance to infection in homozygous individuals and delayed disease progression in heterozygous individuals, is rare in Africa, where the HIV-1 epidemic is growing rapidly. Several polymorphisms in the promoter region of CCR5 have been identified, the clinical and functional relevance of which remain poorly defined. We evaluated the effect of 4 CCR5 promoter mutations on systemic and mucosal HIV-1 replication, disease progression, and perinatal transmission in a cohort of 276 HIV-1–seropositive women in Nairobi, Kenya. Mutations at positions 59353, 59402, and 59029 were not associated with effects on mortality, virus load, genital shedding, or transmission in this cohort. However, women with the 59356 C/T genotype had a 3.1-fold increased risk of death during the 2-year follow-up period (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–9.5) and a significant increase in vaginal shedding of HIV-1–infected cells (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.3), compared with women with the 59356 C/C genotype.
Objective: The mechanism whereby the placental cells of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected mother protect the fetus from HIV-1 infection is unclear. Interferons (IFNs) inhibit the replication of viruses by
acting at various stages of the life cycle and may play a role in protecting against vertical transmission of HIV-1. In
addition the β-chemokines RANTES (regulated on activation T cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory
protein-1-α (MIP-1α), and MIP-1β can block HIV-1 entry into cells by preventing the binding of the
macrophage-trophic HIV-1 strains to the coreceptorCCR5. In this study the production of IFNs and β-chemokines
by placental trophoblasts of HIV-1-infected women who were HIV-1 non-transmitters was examined.
Methods: Placental trophoblastic cells were isolated from 29 HIV-1-infected and 10 control subjects. Supernatants
of trophoblast cultures were tested for the production of IFNs and β-chemokines by enzyme
linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, HIV-1-gag and IFN-β transcripts were determined by a
semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay.
Results: All placental trophoblasts of HIV-1-infected women contained HIV-1-gag transcripts. There were no
statistical differences in the median constitutive levels of IFN-α and IFN-γ produced by trophoblasts of HIV-1-
infected and control subjects. In contrast, trophoblasts of HIV-1-infected women constitutively produced significantly
higher levels of IFN-β protein than trophoblasts of control subjects. Furthermore, the median levels of
β-chemokines produced by trophoblasts of HIV-infected and control women were similar.
Conclusions: Since there was no correlation between the placental HIV load and the production of interferons or
β-chemokines, the role of trophoblast-derived IFNs and β-chemokines in protecting the fetus from infection with
HIV-1 is not clear.
The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are used by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in conjunction with CD4 to infect cells. In addition, some virus strains can use alternative chemokine receptors, including CCR2b and CCR3, for infection. A polymorphism in CCR2 (CCR2-V64I) is associated with a 2- to 4-year delay in the progression to AIDS. To investigate the mechanism of this protective effect, we studied the expression of CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I, their chemokine and HIV-1 coreceptor activities, and their effects on the expression and receptor activities of the major HIV-1 coreceptors. CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I were expressed at similar levels, and neither molecule affected the expression or coreceptor activity of CCR3, CCR5, or CXCR4 in cotransfected cell lines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CCR2-V64I heterozygotes had normal levels of CCR2b and CCR5 but slightly reduced levels of CXCR4. CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I functioned equally well as HIV-1 coreceptors, and CCR2-V64I PBMCs were permissive for HIV-1 infection regardless of viral tropism. The MCP-1-induced calcium mobilization mediated by CCR2b signaling was unaffected by the polymorphism, but MCP-1 signaling mediated by either CCR2b- or CCR2-V64I-encoded receptors resulted in heterologous desensitization (i.e., limiting the signal response of other receptors) of both CCR5 and CXCR4. The heterologous desensitization of CCR5 and CXCR4 signaling by both CCR2 allele receptor types provides a mechanistic link that might help explain the in vivo effects of CCR2 gene variants on progression to AIDS as well as the reported antiviral activity of natural CCR2 ligands.
Like human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), HIV-2 requires a coreceptor in addition to CD4 for entry into cells. HIV and SIV coreceptor molecules belong to a family of seven-transmembrane-domain G-protein-coupled receptors. Here we show that primary HIV-2 isolates can use a broad range of coreceptor molecules, including CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, and CXCR4. Despite broad coreceptor use, the chemokine ligand SDF-1 substantially blocked HIV-2 infectivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating that its receptor, CXCR4, was the predominant coreceptor for infection of these cells. However, expression of CXCR4 together with CD4 on some cell types did not confer susceptibility to infection by all CXCR4-using virus isolates. These data therefore indicate that another factor(s) influences the ability of HIV-2 to replicate in human cell types that express the appropriate receptors for virus entry.
HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors are a heterogeneous group of individuals with regard to immunologic and virologic markers of HIV-1 disease. CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has recently been identified as an important coreceptor for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. A mutant allele of CCR5 confers a high degree of resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygous individuals and partial protection against HIV disease progression in heterozygotes. The frequency of CCR5 heterozygotes is increased among HIV-1- infected long-term nonprogressors compared with progressors; however, the host defense mechanisms responsible for nonprogression in CCR5 heterozygotes are unknown. We hypothesized that nonprogressors who were heterozygous for the mutant CCR5 gene might define a subgroup of nonprogressors with higher CD4+ T cell counts and lower viral load compared with CCR5 wild-type nonprogressors. However, in a cohort of 33 HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors, those who were heterozygous for the mutant CCR5 gene were indistinguishable from CCR5 wild-type nonprogressors with regard to all measured immunologic and virologic parameters. Although epidemiologic data support a role for the mutant CCR5 allele in the determination of the state of long-term nonprogression in some HIV-1- infected individuals, it is not the only determinant. Furthermore, long-term nonprogressors with the wild-type CCR5 genotype are indistinguishable from heterozygotes from an immunologic and virologic standpoint.
We investigated the association of polymorphisms in CCR5, the major human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 coreceptor, and copy number of its potent ligand CCL3L1 with tuberculosis in 298 individuals from Colombia. The CCR5-HHD haplotype, a known genetic determinant of increased susceptibility to HIV-AIDS, and a high copy number of CCL3L1, a known genetic determinant of enhanced CCL3/CCL3L1 chemokine expression, each associated with presence of tuberculosis. Furthermore, CCR5-HHD was associated with higher CCR5 gene and surface expression. These results substantiate the strong link between the pro-inflammatory effects of CCR5 and its ligands with active tuberculosis and suggest that chemokine-chemokine receptor genetic determinants may influence tuberculosis in addition to HIV/AIDS.
Exposed seronegative individuals (ES) with persistent high-risk sexual behavior may be less susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection because they carry the chemokine receptor (CR) gene alleles CCR5 open reading frame (ORF) Δ32, CCR5 promoter −2459G, or CCR2 ORF 64I (CCR2-64I), all of which have been found to diminish HIV-1 infectivity and/or disease progression. To investigate this, we determined the haplotypes for these three genetic loci in 93 ES and 247 low-risk control individuals. To test if protective haplotypes exert their effect by modulating CR expression, we measured the protein expression of CCR5 and CXCR4 on circulating CD4+ T cells and CD14+ monocytes in 71 ES and 92 controls. To avoid investigator bias, the analysis was performed without knowledge of each subject's risk and genotype. The CCR5 −2459G allele was significantly enriched in ES Caucasian men, who constituted the majority (84%) of the ES cohort, compared to the control Caucasian men (P = 0.02). This increase was mostly attributable to a higher frequency of the −2459 A/G versus the −2459 A/A genotype in individuals heterozygous for the Δ32 allele (P = 0.012). No protective influence of the CCR2-64I allele was observed. The haplotypes CCR5 ORF Δ32/CCR5 −2459A (in complete linkage disequilibrium) and CCR5 ORF wt/CCR5 −2459G had a cumulative negative effect on the expression of CCR5, since we measured significantly reduced CCR5 densities on both T-helper cells and monocytes only when both haplotypes were present. Densities of CCR5 on lymphocytes and monocytes were correlated (r = 0.59; P < 0.0001), indicating concordance of CCR5 expression patterns across different cell types. We conclude that the CCR5 ORF Δ32/wt-CCR5 −2459 A/G genotype combination offers an advantage in resisting sexual HIV-1 transmission and that this effect is mediated by a relative paucity of CCR5 on potential target cells of HIV-1.
CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a major coreceptor for cell entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); its expression is highly associated with virus replication and susceptibility. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCR5 promoter play a critical role in CCR5 transcriptional regulation. HHA and HHE represent two contrasting haplotypes of CCR5 with two base pair difference in the promoter. Identifying the transcription factors (TFs) that differentially bind to the polymorphic sites (SNPs) in CCR5 haplotypes helps elucidate HIV transmission/pathogenesis. Promoter binding and two-dimensional southwestern blot analysis are coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS to purify transcription complex and identify the differential TFs binding profile, including proteins bound to one haplotype in different amounts than the other and proteins specificly bound to one haplotype. This strategy has great promise for investigating how differential TF binding to CCR5 haplotypes may impact HIV-AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) susceptibility or disease progression.
CCR5; haplotype; SNPs; HHA; HHE; promoter trapping; two-dimensional southwestern blot; transcription factors
BACKGROUND: CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a cell entry cofactor for macrophage-tropic isolates of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Recently, an inactive CCR5 allele (designated here as CCR5-2) was identified that confers resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygotes and slows the rate of progression to AIDS in heterozygotes. The reports conflict on the effect of heterozygous CCR5-2 on HIV-1 susceptibility, and race and risk levels have not yet been fully analyzed. Here we report our independent identification of CCR5-2 and test its effects on HIV-1 pathogenesis in individuals with contrasting clinical outcomes, defined race, and quantified risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mutant CCR5 alleles were sought by directed heteroduplex analysis of genomic DNA from random blood donors. Genotypic frequencies were then determined in (1) random blood donors from North America, Asia, and Africa; (2) HIV-1+ individuals; and (3) highly exposed-seronegative homosexuals with quantified risk. RESULTS: CCR5-2 was the only mutant allele found. It was common in Caucasians, less common in other North American racial groups, and not detected in West Africans or Tamil Indians. Homozygous CCR5-2 frequencies differed reciprocally in highly exposed-seronegative (4.5%, n = 111) and HIV-1-seropositive (0%, n = 614) Caucasians relative to Caucasian random blood donors (0.8%, n = 387). This difference was highly significant (p < 0.0001). By contrast, heterozygous CCR5-2 frequencies did not differ significantly in the same three groups (21.6, 22.6, and 21.7%, respectively). A 55% increase in the frequency of heterozygous CCR5-2 was observed in both of two cohorts of Caucasian homosexual male, long-term nonprogressors compared with other HIV-1+ Caucasian homosexuals (p = 0.006) and compared with Caucasian random blood donors. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier estimates indicated that CCR5-2 heterozygous seroconvertors had a 52.6% lower risk of developing AIDS than homozygous wild-type seroconvertors. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that homozygous CCR5-2 is an HIV-1 resistance factor in Caucasians with complete penetrance, and that heterozygous CCR5-2 slows the rate of disease progression in infected Caucasian homosexuals. Since the majority (approximately 96%) of highly exposed-seronegative individuals tested are not homozygous for CCR5-2, other resistance factors must exist. Since CCR5-2 homozygotes have no obvious clinical problems, CCR5 may be a good target for the development of novel antiretroviral therapy.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection occurs in the central nervous system and causes a variety of neurobehavioral and neuropathological disorders. Both microglia, the residential macrophages in the brain, and astrocytes are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Unlike microglia that express and utilize CD4 and chemokine coreceptors CCR5 and CCR3 for HIV-1 infection, astrocytes fail to express CD4. Astrocytes express several chemokine coreceptors; however, the involvement of these receptors in astrocyte HIV-1 infection appears to be insignificant. In the present study using an expression cloning strategy, the cDNA for the human mannose receptor (hMR) was found to be essential for CD4-independent HIV-1 infectivity. Ectopic expression of functional hMR rendered U87.MG astrocytic cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection, whereas anti-hMR serum and hMR-specific siRNA blocked HIV-1 infection in human primary astrocytes. In agreement with these findings, hMR bound to HIV-1 virions via the abundant and highly mannosylated sugar moieties of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. Moreover, hMR-mediated HIV-1 infection was dependent upon endocytic trafficking as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, as well as inhibition of viral entry by endosomo- and lysosomotropic drugs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the direct involvement of hMR in HIV-1 infection of astrocytes and suggest that HIV-1 interaction with hMR plays an important role in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis.
To estimate the prevalence, incidence, and clearance of abnormal vaginal cytology and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women.
Pap tests were done semiannually for 335 HIV-seropositive and 75 HIV-seronegative women with prior hysterectomy in the prospective Women’s Interagency HIV Study cohort. Endpoints included abnormal Pap tests after hysterectomy and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia regardless of hysterectomy.
Over a median of 5.6 years of follow-up, vaginal Pap tests were abnormal at 1,076 (29%, 95% C.I. 25%, 33%) of 3,700 visits among HIV seropositive vs. 31 (4%, 95% C.I. 2%, 8%) of 763 visits among seronegative women (P < 0.001). Abnormal Pap tests included 641 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 425 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), and 10 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-seropositive women, and 28 ASC-US and three LSIL in HIV-seronegative women. The incidence of abnormal Pap tests after hysterectomy was 14/100 person-years among HIV-seropositive and 2/100 person-years among HIV-seronegative women (P < 0.001) and remained stable across time. The 5-year clearance rate of abnormal Pap tests was 34/100 person-years for HIV-seropositive and 116/100 person-years for HIV-seronegative women (P < 0.001). In multivariate regression models, women with lower CD4 counts were more likely to have and less likely to clear abnormal cytology when it occurred. The incidence of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ was 0.2 and 0.01 per 100 person-years for HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women (P = 0.001). Two HIV-seropositive women developed Stage II cancers, with remission after radiotherapy.
Vaginal Pap tests are often abnormal in HIV-seropositive women. Though more common than in HIV-seronegative women, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ and especially vaginal cancers are infrequent.
The chemokine receptor CCR5 and to a lesser extent CCR3 and CCR2b have been shown to serve as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into blood- or tissue-derived macrophages. Therefore, we examined the expression of the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4 as RNAs or as membrane-expressed antigens in monocytes maturing into macrophages and correlated these results with the susceptibility of macrophages to HIV-1 infection, as measured by their concentrations of extracellular p24 antigen and levels of intracellular HIV DNA by quantitative PCR. There was little change in levels of CCR1, CCR2b, and CCR5 RNAs. CCR3 RNA and surface antigen were undetectable throughout maturation of adherent monocytes over 10 days. CXCR4 RNA and membrane antigen were strongly expressed in newly adherent monocytes, but their levels declined at day 7. The amounts of CCR5 RNA remained stable, but the amounts of CCR5 antigen increased from undetectable to peak levels at day 7 and then declined slightly at day 10. Levels of susceptibility to laboratory (HIV-1BaL) and clinical strains of HIV-1 showed parallel kinetics, peaking at day 7 and then decreasing at days 10 to 14. The concordance of levels of HIV DNA and p24 antigen suggested that the changes in susceptibility with monocyte maturation were at or immediately after entry and correlated well with CCR5 expression and inversely with CXCR4 expression.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry into susceptible cells involves the interaction between viral envelope glycoproteins with CD4 and a chemokine receptor (coreceptor), namely CCR5 and CXCR4. This interaction has been studied to enable the discovery of a new class of antiretroviral drugs that targets the envelope glycoprotein–coreceptor interaction. However, very few data exist regarding HIV-2 susceptibility to these coreceptor inhibitors. With this work we aimed to identify this susceptibility in order to assess the potential use of these molecules to treat HIV-2-infected patients and to further understand the molecular basis of HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein interactions with CCR5 and CXCR4. We found that CCR5-using HIV-2 isolates are readily inhibited by maraviroc, TAK-779, and PF-227153, while monoclonal antibody 2D7 shows only residual or no inhibitory effects. The anti-HIV-2 activity of CXCR4-targeted molecules reveals that SDF-1α/CXCL12 inhibited all HIV-2 tested except one, while mAb 12G5 inhibited the replication of only two isolates, showing residual inhibitory effects with all the other CXCR4-using viruses. A major conclusion from our results is that infection by HIV-2 primary isolates is readily blocked in vitro by maraviroc, at concentrations similar to those required for HIV-1. The susceptibility to maraviroc was independent of CD4+ T cell counts or clinical stage of the patient from which the virus was obtained. These findings indicate that maraviroc could constitute a reliable therapeutic alternative for HIV-2-infected patients, as long as they are infected with CCR5-using variants, and this may have direct implications for the clinical management of HIV-2-infected patients.
Genetic polymorphisms in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes influence susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disease progression, but little is known regarding the association between these allelic variations and the ability of the host to transmit virus. In this study, we show that the maternal heterozygous SDF1 genotype (SDF1 3′A/wt) is associated with perinatal transmission of HIV-1 (risk ratio [RR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 3.3) and particularly postnatal breastmilk transmission (RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 8.6). In contrast, the infant SDF1 genotype had no effect on mother-to-infant transmission. These data suggest that SDF1, which is a ligand for the T-tropic HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4, may affect the ability of a mother to transmit the virus to her infant. This suggests that a genetic polymorphism in a gene encoding a chemokine receptor ligand may be associated with increased infectivity of the index case and highlights the importance of considering transmission as well as clinical outcome in designing chemokine-based therapies for HIV-1.
Coreceptor usage of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates varies according to biological phenotype. The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are the major coreceptors that, together with CD4, govern HIV-1 entry into cells. Since CXCR4 usage determines the biological phenotype for HIV-1 isolates and is more frequent in patients with immunodeficiency, it may serve as a marker for viral virulence. This possibility prompted us to study coreceptor usage by HIV-2, known to be less pathogenic than HIV-1. We tested 11 primary HIV-2 isolates for coreceptor usage in human cell lines: U87 glioma cells, stably expressing CD4 and the chemokine receptor CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, CCR5, or CXCR4, and GHOST(3) osteosarcoma cells, coexpressing CD4 and CCR5, CXCR4, or the orphan receptor Bonzo or BOB. The indicator cells were infected by cocultivation with virus-producing peripheral blood mononuclear cells and by cell-free virus. Our results show that 10 of 11 HIV-2 isolates were able to efficiently use CCR5. In contrast, only two isolates, both from patients with advanced disease, used CXCR4 efficiently. These two isolates also promptly induced syncytia in MT-2 cells, a pattern described for HIV-1 isolates that use CXCR4. Unlike HIV-1, many of the HIV-2 isolates were promiscuous in their coreceptor usage in that they were able to use, apart from CCR5, one or more of the CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, and BOB coreceptors. Another difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2 was that the ability to replicate in MT-2 cells appeared to be a general property of HIV-2 isolates. Based on BOB mRNA expression in MT-2 cells and the ability of our panel of HIV-2 isolates to use BOB, we suggest that HIV-2 can use BOB when entering MT-2 cells. The results indicate no obvious link between viral virulence and the ability to use a multitude of coreceptors.
Both CD4 and an appropriate coreceptor are necessary for infection of cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and most strains of HIV-2. The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are the major HIV-1 coreceptors, although some virus strains can also utilize alternative coreceptors such as CCR3 to infect cells. In contrast, most if not all simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains use CCR5 as a coreceptor, and many SIV strains can use CCR5 independently of CD4. In addition, several orphan seven-transmembrane receptors which can serve as HIV-1 and SIV coreceptors have been identified. Here we report that APJ, an orphan seven-transmembrane domain receptor with homology to the angiotensin receptor family, functions as a coreceptor for a number of HIV-1 and SIV strains. APJ was expressed widely in the human brain and in NT2N neurons. APJ transcripts were also detected by reverse transcription-PCR in the CD4-positive T-cell line C8166, but not in peripheral blood leukocytes, microglia, phytohemagglutinin (PHA)- or PHA/interleukin-2-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes, or monocyte-derived macrophages. The widespread distribution of APJ in the central nervous system coupled with its use as a coreceptor by some HIV-1 strains indicates that it may play a role in neuropathogenesis.
The chemokine receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4, and possibly CCR-3, are the principal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptors, apparently interacting with HIV-1 envelope, in association with CD4. Cell lines coexpressing CD4 and these chemokine receptors were infected with a panel of seven primary HIV-2 isolates passaged in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and three laboratory HIV-2 strains passaged in T-cell lines. The CCR-5, CCR-3, and CXCR-4 coreceptors could all be used by HIV-2. The ability to use CXCR-4 represents a major difference between HIV-2 and the closely related simian immunodeficiency viruses. Most HIV-2 strains using CCR-5 could also use CCR-3, sometimes with similar efficiencies. As observed for HIV-1, the usage of CCR-5 or CCR-3 was observed principally for HIV-2 strains derived from asymptomatic individuals, while HIV-2 strains derived from AIDS patients used CXCR-4. However, there were several exceptions, and the patterns of coreceptor usage seemed more complex for HIV-2 than for HIV-1. The two T-tropic HIV-2 strains tested used CXCR-4 and not CCR-5, while T-tropic HIV-1 can generally use both. Moreover, among five primary HIV-2 strains all unable to use CXCR-4, three could replicate in CCR-5-negative PBMC, which has not been reported for HIV-1. These observations suggest that the CCR-5 coreceptor is less important for HIV-2 than for HIV-1 and indicate that HIV-2 can use other cell entry pathways and probably other coreceptors. One HIV-2 isolate replicating in normal or CCR-5-negative PBMC failed to infect CXCR-4+ cells or the U87MG-CD4 and sMAGI cell lines, which are permissive to infection by HIV-2 but not by HIV-1. This suggests the existence of several HIV-2-specific coreceptors, which are differentially expressed in cell lines and PBMC.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires both CD4 and a coreceptor to infect cells. Macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strains utilize the chemokine receptor CCR5 in conjunction with CD4 to infect cells, while T-cell-tropic (T-tropic) strains generally utilize CXCR4 as a coreceptor. Some viruses can use both CCR5 and CXCR4 for virus entry (i.e., are dual-tropic), while other chemokine receptors can be used by a subset of virus strains. Due to the genetic diversity of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and the potential for chemokine receptors other than CCR5 or CXCR4 to influence viral pathogenesis, we tested a panel of 28 HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV envelope (Env) proteins for the ability to utilize chemokine receptors, orphan receptors, and herpesvirus-encoded chemokine receptor homologs by membrane fusion and virus infection assays. While all Env proteins used either CCR5 or CXCR4 or both, several also used CCR3. Use of CCR3 was strongly dependent on its surface expression levels, with a larger number of viral Env proteins being able to utilize this coreceptor at the higher levels of surface expression. ChemR1, an orphan receptor recently shown to bind the CC chemokine I309 (and therefore renamed CCR8), was expressed in monocyte and lymphocyte cell populations and functioned as a coreceptor for diverse HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV Env proteins. Use of ChemR1/CCR8 by SIV strains was dependent in part on V3 loop sequences. The orphan receptor V28 supported Env-mediated cell-cell fusion by four T- or dual-tropic HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains. Three additional orphan receptors failed to function for any of the 28 Env proteins tested. Likewise, five of six seven-transmembrane-domain receptors encoded by herpesviruses did not support Env-mediated membrane fusion. However, the chemokine receptor US28, encoded by cytomegalovirus, did support inefficient infection by two HIV-1 strains. These findings indicate that additional chemokine receptors can function as HIV and SIV coreceptors and that surface expression levels can strongly influence coreceptor use.
Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains require either the CXCR4 or CCR5 chemokine receptor to efficiently enter cells. Blocking viral binding to these coreceptors is an attractive therapeutic target. Currently, several coreceptor antagonists are being evaluated in clinical trials that require characterization of coreceptor tropism for enrollment. In this report, we describe the development of an automated and accurate procedure for determining HIV-1 coreceptor tropism (Trofile) and its validation for routine laboratory testing. HIV-1 pseudoviruses are generated using full-length env genes derived from patient virus populations. Coreceptor tropism is determined by measuring the abilities of these pseudovirus populations to efficiently infect CD4+/U87 cells expressing either the CXCR4 or CCR5 coreceptor. Viruses exclusively and efficiently infecting CXCR4+/CD4+/U87 cells are designated X4-tropic. Conversely, viruses exclusively and efficiently infecting CCR5+/CD4+/U87 cells are designated R5-tropic. Viruses capable of infecting both CXCR4+/CD4+/U87 and CCR5+/CD4+/U87 cells are designated dual/mixed-tropic. Assay accuracy and reproducibility were established by evaluating the tropisms of well-characterized viruses and the variability among replicate results from samples tested repeatedly. The viral subtype, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus coinfection, and the plasma viral load did not affect assay performance. Minority subpopulations with alternate tropisms were reliably detected when present at 5 to 10%. The plasma viral load above which samples can be amplified efficiently in the Trofile assay is 1,000 copies per ml of plasma. Trofile has been automated for high-throughput use; it can be used to identify patients most likely to benefit from treatment regimens that include a coreceptor inhibitor and to monitor patients on treatment for the emergence of resistant virus populations that switch coreceptor tropism.
Human macrophages express chemokine receptors that act as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and are major targets for HIV-1 infection in vivo. The effects of cytokines on HIV-1 infection of macrophages and on the expression of CCR5, the principal coreceptor for macrophage-tropic viruses, have now been investigated. Expression of CCR5 on the surface of freshly isolated human monocytes was virtually undetectable by flow cytometry with the monoclonal antibody 5C7. However, after culture of monocytes for 48 h in serum-free medium, approximately 30% of the resulting macrophages expressed CCR5 and the cells were susceptible to infection by macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Addition of either macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to the cultures markedly increased both the extent of HIV-1 entry and replication as well as surface expression of CCR5. In contrast, addition of the T-helper 2 (Th2) cell-derived cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-13 prevented the expression of CCR5 induced by culture in medium alone, and IL-4 inhibited virus entry, replication, and cytopathicity under these conditions. IL-4 or IL-13 also prevented the stimulatory effects of M-CSF or GM-CSF on CCR5 expression as well as HIV-1 entry and replication. In addition, IL-4 reversed the increase in CCR5 expression induced by pretreatment of cells with M-CSF. Although IL-10 also inhibits HIV-1 replication in macrophages, it did not suppress surface CCR5 expression induced by colony-stimulating factors. These results indicate that the cytokine environment determines the susceptibility of macrophages to HIV-1 infection by various mechanisms, one of which is the regulation of HIV-1 coreceptor expression.
The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major fusion coreceptor for macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To define the structures of CCR5 that can support envelope (Env)-mediated membrane fusion, we analyzed the activity of homologs, chimeras, and mutants of human CCR5 in a sensitive gene reporter cell-cell fusion assay. Simian, but not murine, homologs of CCR5 were fully active as HIV-1 fusion coreceptors. Chimeras between CCR5 and divergent chemokine receptors demonstrated the existence of two distinct regions of CCR5 that could be utilized for Env-mediated fusion, the amino-terminal domain and the extracellular loops. Dual-tropic Env proteins were particularly sensitive to alterations in the CCR5 amino-terminal domain, suggesting that this domain may play a pivotal role in the evolution of coreceptor usage in vivo. We identified individual residues in both functional regions, Asp-11, Lys-197, and Asp-276, that contribute to coreceptor function. Deletion of a highly conserved cytoplasmic motif rendered CCR5 incapable of signaling but did not abrogate its ability to function as a coreceptor, implying the independence of fusion and G-protein-mediated chemokine receptor signaling. Finally, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody to CCR5 to assist in future studies of CCR5 expression.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor usage was determined using a phenotypic assay in plasma samples from treatment-naive women infected with subtype C virus who had CD4 cell counts below 200 cells/mm3. Of 148 women 14.9% were infected with dual/mixed (DM) virus; the remainder had R5 virus. A greater proportion of women in the lowest CD4 cell count stratum had DM virus (p=0.026); change in coreceptor use after ART exposure was uncommon. CXCR4-using HIV-1 was less common in subtype C-infected women than reported in subtype B cohorts, but was most prevalent in women with the lowest CD4 cell counts.
AIDS; HIV-1 tropism; CCR5; CXCR4; subtype C; antiretroviral therapy
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry is governed by the interaction of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) with its receptor. The HIV-1 receptor is composed of two molecules, the CD4 binding receptor and a coreceptor. The seven-membrane-spanning chemokine receptor CCR-5 is one of the coreceptors used by primary isolates of HIV-1. We demonstrate that the mouse homolog of CCR-5 (mCCR-5) does not function as an HIV-1 coreceptor. A set of chimeras of human CCR-5 and mCCR-5 was studied for Env-induced cell fusion and HIV-1 infection. Using the HIV-1ADA envelope glycoprotein in a syncytium formation assay, we show that replacement of any fragment containing extracellular domains of mCCR-5 by its human counterparts is sufficient to allow Env-induced fusion. Conversely, replacement of any fragment containing human extracellular domains by its murine counterpart did not lead to coreceptor function loss. These results show that several domains of CCR-5 participate in coreceptor function. In addition, using a panel of primary nonsyncytium-inducing and syncytium-inducing isolates that use CCR-5 or both CXCR-4 and CCR-5 as coreceptors, we show that the latter dual-tropic isolates are less tolerant to changes in CCR-5 than strains with a more restricted coreceptor use. Thus, different strains are likely to have different ways of interacting with the CCR-5 coreceptor.
Infection of CD4-positive cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires functional interaction of the viral envelope protein with a coreceptor belonging to the chemokine receptor family of seven-membrane-spanning receptors. For the majority of macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates, the physiologically relevant coreceptor is the human CCR-5 (hCCR-5) receptor. Although the murine homolog of CCR-5 (mCCR-5) is unable to mediate HIV-1 infection, chimeric hCCR-5/mCCR-5 molecules containing single extracellular domains derived from hCCR-5 are effective coreceptors for certain macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates. Here, we have sought to identify residues in hCCR-5 critical for HIV-1 infection by substitution of mCCR-5-derived residues into the context of functional chimeric hCCR-5/mCCR-5 receptor molecules. Using this strategy, we demonstrate that residues 7, 13, and 15 in the first extracellular domain and residue 180 in the third extracellular domain of CCR-5 are important for HIV-1 envelope-mediated membrane fusion. Of interest, certain substitutions, for example, at residues 184 and 185 in the third extracellular domain, have no phenotype when introduced individually but strongly inhibit hCCR-5 coreceptor function when present together. We hypothesize that these changes, which do not preclude chemokine receptor function, may inhibit a conformational transition in hCCR-5 that contributes to HIV-1 infection. Finally, we report that substitution of glycine for valine at residue 5 in CCR-5 can significantly enhance the level of envelope-dependent cell fusion by expressing cells. The diversity of the mutant phenotypes observed in this mutational analysis, combined with their wide distribution across the extracellular regions of CCR-5, emphasizes the complexity of the interaction between HIV-1 envelope and coreceptor.