Protein kinase C βII (PKCβII) levels increase in the myocardium of patients with end-stage heart failure (HF). Also targeted over-expression of PKCβII in the myocardium of mice leads to dilated cardiomyopathy associated with inflammation, fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction. These reports suggest a deleterious role of PKCβII in HF development. Using a post-myocardial infarction (MI) model of heart failure in rats, we determined the benefit of chronic inhibition of PKCβII on the progression of heart failure over a period of 6 weeks after the onset of symptoms and the cellular basis for these effects. Four weeks after MI, rats with HF signs that were treated for 6 weeks with the PKCβII selective inhibitor (βIIV5-3 conjugated to TAT47-57 alone) (3mg/kg/day) showed improved fractional shortening (from 21% to 35%) compared to control (TAT47-57 alone). Formalin-fixed mid-ventricle tissue sections stained with picrosirius red, hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue dyes exhibited a 150% decrease in collagen deposition, a two-fold decrease in inflammation and a 30% reduction in mast cell degranulation, respectively, in rat hearts treated with the selective PKCβII inhibitor. Further, a 90% decrease in active TGFβ1 and a significant reduction in SMAD2/3 phosphorylation indicated that the selective inhibition of PKCβII attenuates cardiac remodeling mediated by the TGF-SMAD signaling pathway. Therefore, sustained selective inhibition of PKCβII in a post-MI HF rat model improves cardiac function and is associated with inhibition of pathological myocardial remodeling.
Protein kinase; PKCβII inhibitor peptide; cardiac remodeling; heart failure; myocardial infarction; mast cells, myocardial fibrosis; inflammation
Elevated protein kinase C βII (PKCβII) expression develops during heart failure and yet the role of this isoform in modulating contractile function remains controversial. The present study examines the impact of agonist-induced PKCβII activation on contractile function in adult cardiac myocytes. Diminished contractile function develops in response to low dose phenylephrine (PHE, 100 nM) in controls, while function is preserved in response to PHE in PKCβII-expressing myocytes. PHE also caused PKCβII translocation and a punctate distribution pattern in myocytes expressing this isoform. The preserved contractile function and translocation responses to PHE are blocked by the inhibitor, LY379196 (30 nM) in PKCβII-expressing myocytes. Further analysis showed downstream protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylation and phosphatase activation are associated with the LY379196-sensitive contractile response. PHE also triggered a complex pattern of end-target phosphorylation in PKCβII-expressing myocytes. These patterns are consistent with bifurcated activation of downstream signaling activity by PKCβII.
Angiogenesis is critical in the progression of prostate cancer. However, the interplay between the proliferation kinetics of tumor endothelial cells (angiogenesis) and tumor cells has not been investigated. Also, protein kinase C (PKC) regulates various aspects of tumor cell growth but its role in prostate cancer has not been investigated in detail. Here, we found that the proliferation rates of endothelial and tumor cells oscillate asynchronously during the growth of human prostate cancer xenografts. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that PKCβII was activated during increased angiogenesis and that PKCβII plays a key role in the proliferation of endothelial cells and tumor cells in human prostate cancer; treatment with a PKCβII-selective inhibitor, βIIV5-3, reduced angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. We also find a unique effect of PKCβII inhibition on normalizing pericentrin (a protein regulating cytokinesis), especially in endothelial cells as well as in tumor cells. PKCβII inhibition reduced the level and mislocalization of pericentrin and normalized microtubule organization in the tumor endothelial cells. Although pericentrin has been known to be upregulated in epithelial cells of prostate cancers, its level in tumor endothelium has not been studied in detail. We found that pericentrin is upregulated in human tumor endothelium compared with endothelium adjacent to normal glands in tissues from prostate cancer patients. Our results suggest that a PKCβII inhibitor such as βIIV5-3 may be used to reduce prostate cancer growth by targeting both angiogenesis and tumor cell growth.
Încreasing evidence demonstrates that protein kinase C βII (PKCβII) promotes colon carcinogenesis. We previously reported that colonic PKCβII is induced during colon carcinogenesis in rodents and humans, and that elevated expression of PKCβII in the colon of transgenic mice enhances colon carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that PKCβII represses transforming growth factor β receptor type II (TGFβRII) expression and reduces sensitivity to TGF-β–mediated growth inhibition in intestinal epithelial cells. Transgenic PKCβII mice exhibit hyperproliferation, enhanced colon carcinogenesis, and marked repression of TGFβRII expression. Chemopreventive dietary ω-3 fatty acids inhibit colonic PKCβII activity in vivo and block PKCβII-mediated hyperproliferation, enhanced carcinogenesis, and repression of TGFβRII expression in the colonic epithelium of transgenic PKCβII mice. These data indicate that dietary ω-3 fatty acids prevent colon cancer, at least in part, through inhibition of colonic PKCβII signaling and restoration of TGF-β responsiveness.
protein kinase C; colon carcinogenesis; ω-3 fatty acids; transforming growth factor β; hyperproliferation
Many viruses take advantage of receptor-mediated endocytosis in order to enter target cells. We have utilized influenza virus and Semliki Forest virus (SFV) to define a role for protein kinase C βII (PKCβII) in endocytic trafficking. We show that specific PKC inhibitors prevent influenza virus infection, suggesting a role for classical isoforms of PKC. We also examined virus entry in cells overexpressing dominant-negative forms of PKCα and -β. Cells expressing a phosphorylation-deficient form of PKCβII (T500V), but not an equivalent mutant form of PKCα, inhibited successful influenza virus entry—with the virus accumulating in late endosomes. SFV, however, believed to enter cells from the early endosome, was unaffected by PKCβII T500V expression. We also examined the trafficking of two cellular ligands, transferrin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). PKCβII T500V expression specifically blocked EGF receptor trafficking and degradation, without affecting transferrin receptor recycling. As with influenza virus, in PKCβII kinase-dead cells, EGF receptor was trapped in a late endosome compartment. Our findings suggest that PKCβII is an important regulator of a late endosomal sorting event needed for influenza virus entry and infection.
Significant up-regulation of the protein kinase CβII (PKCβII) develops during heart failure and yet divergent functional outcomes are reported in animal models. The goal here is to investigate PKCβII modulation of contractile function and gain insights into downstream targets in adult cardiac myocytes. Increased PKCβII protein expression and phosphorylation developed after gene transfer into adult myocytes while expression remained undetectable in controls. The PKCβII was distributed in a perinuclear pattern and this expression resulted in diminished rates and amplitude of shortening and re-lengthening compared to controls and myocytes expressing dominant negative PKCβII (PKCβDN). Similar decreases were observed in the Ca2+ transient and the Ca2+ decay rate slowed in response to caffeine in PKCβII-expressing myocytes. Parallel phosphorylation studies indicated PKCβII targets phosphatase activity to reduce phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation at residue Thr17 (pThr17-PLB). The PKCβ inhibitor, LY379196 (LY) restored pThr17-PLB to control levels. In contrast, myofilament protein phosphorylation was enhanced by PKCβII expression, and individually, LY and the phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A each failed to block this response. Further work showed PKCβII increased Ca2+- activated, calmodulin-dependent kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) expression and enhanced both CaMKIIδ and protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of both signaling targets also was resistant to acute inhibition by LY. These later results provide evidence PKCβII modulates contractile function via intermediate downstream pathway(s) in cardiac myocytes.
Protein kinase C; cardiac myocyte; contractile function; gene transfer
The aim of this study was to examine the endothelial distribution and activity of selected PKC isoforms in coronary vessels with respect to their functional impact on endothelial permeability under the experimental conditions relevant to diabetes.
Methods and Results
En face immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant increase of PKCβII and decrease of PKCδ expression in coronary arterial endothelium of Zucker diabetic rats. To test whether changes in PKC expression alter endothelial barrier properties, we measured the transcellular electric resistance in human coronary microvascular endothelial monolayers and found that either PKCβII overexpression or PKCδ inhibition disrupted the cell–cell adhesive barrier. Three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy revealed that hyperpermeability was caused by altered PKC activity in association with distinct translocation of PKCβII to the cell–cell junction and PKCδ localization to the cytosol. Further analyses in fractionated endothelial lysates confirmed the differential redistribution of these isozymes. Additionally, FRET analysis of PKC subcellular dynamics demonstrated a high PKCβII activity at the cell surface and junction, whereas PKCδ activity is concentrated in intracellular membrane organelles.
Taken together, these data suggest that PKCβII and PKCδ counter-regulate coronary endothelial barrier properties by targeting distinctive subcellular sites. Imbalanced PKCβII/PKCδ expression and activity may contribute to endothelial hyperpermeability and coronary dysfunction in diabetes.
diabetes; inflammation; permeability; protein kinase; FRET
Colon cancer develops over a period of 10 to 15 years, providing a window of opportunity for chemoprevention and early intervention. However, few molecular targets for effective colon cancer chemoprevention have been characterized and validated. Protein kinase CβII (PKCβII) plays a requisite role in the initiation of colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical mouse model by promoting proliferation and increased β-catenin accumulation. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PKCβII is an effective target for colon cancer chemoprevention using enzastaurin (LY317615), a PKCβ-selective inhibitor, in a mouse model of colon carcinogenesis. We find that enzastaurin potently reduces azoxymethane-induced colon tumor initiation and progression by inhibiting PKCβII-mediated tumor cell proliferation and β-catenin accumulation. Biochemically, enzastaurin reduces expression of the PKCβII- and β-catenin/T-cell factor–regulated genes PKCβII, cyclooxygenase II, and vascular endothelial growth factor, three genes implicated in colon carcinogenesis. Our results show that enzastaurin is an effective chemopreventive agent in a mouse model of sporadic colon cancer that significantly reduces both tumor initiation and progression by inhibiting expression of proproliferative genes. Thus, PKCβII is an important target for colon cancer chemoprevention and the PKCβ-selective inhibitor enzastaurin may represent an effective chemopreventive agent in patients at high risk for colon cancer.
The priming of eosinophils by cytokines leading to augmented response to chemoattractants and degranulating stimuli is a characteristic feature of eosinophils in the course of allergic inflammation and asthma. Actin reorganization and integrin activation are implicated in eosinophil priming by GM-CSF but their molecular mechanism of action is unknown. In this regard, we investigated the role of L-plastin, an eosinophil phosphoprotein which we identified from eosinophil proteome analysis. Phosphoproteomic analysis demonstrated the upregulation of phosphorylated L-plastin after eosinophil stimulation with GM-CSF. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated a complex formation of phosphorylated L-plastin with Protein Kinase C βII (PKCβII), GM-CSF receptor α chain, and two actin associated proteins, paxilin and cofilin. Inhibition of PKCβII with 4,5-bis (4-fluoroanilino)phtalimide or PKCβII specific siRNA blocked GM-CSF induced phosphorylation of L-plastin. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis also showed an upregulation of αMβ2 integrin which was sensitive to PKCβII inhibition. In chemotaxis assay, GM-CSF treatment allowed eosinophils to respond to lower concentrations of eotaxin which was abrogated by the above mentioned PKCβII inhibitors. Similarly, inhibition of PKCβII blocked GM-CSF induced priming for degranulation as assessed by release of ECP and EPX in response to eotaxin. Importantly, eosinophil stimulation with a synthetic L-plastin peptide (residues 2–19) phosphorylated on Ser5 upregulated αMβ2 integrin expression and increased eosinophil migration in response to eotaxin independent of GM-CSF stimulation. Our results establish a causative role for PKCβII and L-plastin in linking GM-CSF-induced eosinophil priming for chemotaxis and degranulation to signaling events associated with integrin activation via induction of PKCβII -mediated L-plastin phosphorylation.
Eosinophils; Cytokines; Signal Transduction; Priming
The ubiquitous enzyme Protein Kinase C (PKC) has been linked to the pathogenesis of vascular injury, but the cell-specific and discrete functions of the βII isoform have yet to be discovered in this setting. Our previous findings demonstrated significantly increased PKCβII in the membrane fraction of injured femoral arteries in wild type (WT) mice and revealed reduction of neointimal expansion in PKCβ-/- mice after acute vascular injury. As PKCβ-/- mice are globally devoid of PKCβ, we established novel transgenic (Tg) mice to test the hypothesis that the action of PKCβII specifically in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) mediates the formation of neointimal lesions in response to arterial injury.
Tg mice expressing SM22α promoter-targeted mouse carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant PKCβII were produced using standard techniques, subjected to femoral artery injury and compared with littermate controls. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) were isolated from wild-type (WT) and Tg mice and exposed to a prototypic stimulus, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Multiple strategies were employed in vivo and in vitro to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying the specific effects of SMC PKCβII in neointimal expansion.
In vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrated that PKCβII activity in SMCs was critical for neointimal expansion in response to arterial injury, at least in part via regulation of ERK1/2, Egr-1 and induction of MMP-9.
These data identify the SMC-specific regulatory role of PKCβII in neointimal expansion in response to acute arterial injury, and suggest that targeted inactivation of PKCβII may be beneficial in limiting restenosis via suppression of the neointima-mediating effects of Egr-1 and MMP-9.
arterial injury; transgenic mouse; mutant PKCβII; signal transduction; SMC
We previously demonstrated that elevated expression of either protein kinase CβII (PKCβII) or PKCι/λ enhances colon carcinogenesis in mice. Here we use novel bi-transgenic mice to determine the relative importance of PKCβII and PKCι/λ in colon carcinogenesis in two complimentary models of colon cancer in vivo. Bi-transgenic mice over-expressing PKCβII and constitutively active PKCι (PKCβII/caPKCι) or kinase-deficient, dominant negative PKCι (PKCβII/kdPKCι) in the colon exhibit a similar increase in colon tumor incidence, tumor size and tumor burden in response to azoxymethane (AOM) when compared to non-transgenic littermates. However, PKCβII/kdPKCι mice develop predominantly benign colonic adenomas whereas PKCβII/caPKCι mice develop malignant carcinomas. In contrast, PKCβ deficient (PKCβ−/−) mice fail to develop tumors even in the presence of caPKCι. Our previous data indicated that PKCβII drives tumorigenesis and proliferation by activating β-catenin/Apc signaling. Consistent with this conclusion, genetic deletion of PKCβ has no effect on spontaneous tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ mice. In contrast, tissue-specific knock out of PKCλ significantly suppresses intestinal tumor formation in APCmin/+ mice. Our data demonstrate that PKCβII and PKCι/λ serve distinct, non-overlapping functions in colon carcinogenesis. PKCβII is required for AOM-induced tumorigenesis, but is dispensable for tumor formation in ApcMin/+ mice. PKCι/λ promotes tumor progression in both AOM- and APCmin/+-induced tumorigenesis. Thus PKCβII and PKCι, whose expression is elevated in both rodent and human colon tumors, collaborate to drive colon tumor formation and progression, respectively.
colon carcinogenesis; transgenic mice; β-catenin; proliferation; Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc); intestinal tumorigenesis
Functional adipocyte glucose disposal is a key component of global glucose homeostasis. PKCβII is involved in rat skeletal muscle cell ISGT. Western blot analysis and Real-Time PCR revealed 3T3-L1 cells developmentally regulated PKCβ splicing such that PKCβI was downregulated and PKCβII was upregulated during the course of differentiation. An initial glucose uptake screen using PKC inhibitor LY379196 pointed to a PKC isozyme other than PKCζ mediating 3T3-L1 adipocyte ISGT. Subsequent use of PKCβII inhibitor CGP53353 pointed to a role for PKCβII in ISGT. Western blot analysis showed that CGP53353 specifically inhibited phosphorylation of PKCβII Serine 660. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence demonstrated that PKCβII regulates GLUT4 translocation. Further western blot, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation analysis reveal that PKCβII inhibition does not affect mTORC2 activity yet abrogates phosphorylation of Akt Serine 473. PKCβII regulates GLUT4 translocation by regulating Akt phosphorylation and thus activity.
PKCβII; GLUT4; Akt; mTORC2
The DNA binding activity of FUS (also known as TLS), a nuclear pro-oncogene involved in multiple translocations, is regulated by BCR-ABL in a protein kinase CβII (PKCβII)-dependent manner. We show here that in normal myeloid progenitor cells FUS, although not visibly ubiquitinated, undergoes proteasome-dependent degradation, whereas in BCR-ABL-expressing cells, degradation is suppressed by PKCβII phosphorylation. Replacement of serine 256 with the phosphomimetic aspartic acid prevents proteasome-dependent proteolysis of FUS, while the serine-256-to-alanine FUS mutant is unstable and susceptible to degradation. Ectopic expression of the phosphomimetic S256D FUS mutant in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-treated 32Dcl3 cells induces massive apoptosis and inhibits the differentiation of the cells escaping cell death, while the degradation-prone S256A mutant has no effect on either survival or differentiation. FUS proteolysis is induced by c-Jun, is suppressed by BCR-ABL or Jun kinase 1, and does not depend on c-Jun transactivation potential, ubiquitination, or its interaction with Jun kinase 1. In addition, c-Jun-induced FUS proteasome-dependent degradation is enhanced by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 and depends on the formation of a FUS-Jun-hnRNP A1-containing complex and on lack of PKCβII phosphorylation at serine 256 but not on FUS ubiquitination. Thus, novel mechanisms appear to be involved in the degradation of FUS in normal myeloid cells; moreover, the ability of the BCR-ABL oncoprotein to suppress FUS degradation by the induction of posttranslational modifications might contribute to the phenotype of BCR-ABL-expressing hematopoietic cells.
New strategies in the therapy for malignant diseases depend on a targeted influence on signal transduction pathways that regulate proliferation, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis by the activation of serine/threonine kinases. Enzastaurin (LY317615.HCl), a selective inhibitor of protein kinase Cβ (PKCβ), is one of these new drugs and causes inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Pemetrexed, a multitarget inhibitor of folate pathways, is broadly active in a wide variety of solid tumors. Therefore, the effect of enzastaurin and the combination treatment with pemetrexed was analyzed when applied to the drug-sensitive ovarian cancer cell line HEY and various subclones with drug resistance against cisplatin, etoposide, docetaxel, and paclitaxel, as well as pemetrexed, and gemcitabine. In these novel chemoresistant subclones, the expression of the enzastaurin targets PKCβII and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) was analyzed. Exposition to enzastaurin showed various inhibitory effects on phosphorylated forms of GSK3β and the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Cell proliferation experiments identified the cell line-specific half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of enzastaurin and a synergistic inhibitory effect by cotreatment with the antifolate pemetrexed. Induction of apoptosis by enzastaurin treatment was investigated by Cell Death Detection ELISA and immunoblot analyses. Simultaneous treatment with pemetrexed resulted in an enhanced inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis even in partial enzastaurin-resistant cells. Therefore, the combinational effect of enzastaurin and pemetrexed can have promise in clinical application to overcome the fast-growing development of resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer.
Activation of PKCβII is associated with the response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), though its role, either pathogenic or protective, has not been determined. In a murine model of single-lung I/R, evidence linking PKCβ to maladaptive responses is shown in the following studies. Homozygous PKCβ-null mice and WT mice fed the PKCβ inhibitor ruboxistaurin subjected to I/R displayed increased survival compared with controls. In PKCβ-null mice, phosphorylation of extracellular signal–regulated protein kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2), JNK, and p38 MAPK was suppressed in I/R. Expression of the immediate early gene, early growth response-1 (Egr-1), and its downstream target genes was significantly increased in WT mice in I/R, particularly in mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), whereas this expression was attenuated in PKCβ-null mice or WT mice fed ruboxistaurin. In vitro, hypoxia/reoxygenation-mediated induction of Egr-1 in MPs was suppressed by inhibition of PKCβ, ERK1/2, and JNK, but not by inhibition of p38 MAPK. These findings elucidate key roles for PKCβII activation in I/R by coordinated activation of MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK) and Egr-1.
Insulin stimulates phosphorylation cascades, including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase (PDK1), Akt, and protein kinase C (PKC). Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), a PKCβII substrate, could link the effects of insulin to insulin-stimulated glucose transport (ISGT) via phosphorylation of its effector domain since MARCKS has a role in cytoskeletal rearrangements.
We examined phosphoPKCβII after insulin treatment of L6 myocytes, and cytosolic and membrane phosphoMARCKS, MARCKS and phospholipase D1 in cells pretreated with LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), CG53353 (PKCβII inhibitor) or W13 (calmodulin inhibitor), PI3K, PKCβII and calmodulin inhibitors, respectively, before insulin treatment, using western blots. ISGT was examined after cells had been treated with inhibitors, small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) for MARCKS, or transfection with MARCKS mutated at a PKC site. MARCKS, PKCβII, GLUT4 and insulin receptor were immunoblotted in subcellular fractions with F-actin antibody immunoprecipitates to demonstrate changes following insulin treatment. GLUT4 membrane insertion was followed after insulin with or without CG53353.
Insulin increased phosphoPKCβII(Ser660 and Thr641); LY294002 blocked this, indicating its activation by PI3K. Insulin treatment increased cytosolic phosphoMARCKS, decreased membrane MARCKS and increased membrane phospholipase D1 (PLD1), a protein regulating glucose transporter vesicle fusion resulted. PhosphoMARCKS was attenuated by CG53353 or MARCKS siRNA. MARCKS siRNA blocked ISGT. Association of PKCβII and GLUT4 with membrane F-actin was enhanced by insulin, as was that of cytosolic and membrane MARCKS. ISGT was attenuated in myocytes transfected with mutated MARCKS (Ser152Ala), whereas overproduction of wild-type MARCKS enhanced ISGT. CG53353 blocked insertion of GLUT4 into membranes of insulin treated cells.
The results suggest that PKCβII is involved in mediating downstream steps of ISGT through MARCKS phosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodelling.
F-actin; Glucose transporter 4; Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake; L6 myocytes; MARCKS; Phospholipase D1; PKCβ
GNAQ mutations at codon 209 have been recently identified in approximately 50% of uveal melanomas (UM) and are reported to be oncogenic through activating the MAPK/Erk1/2 pathway. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a component of signaling from GNAQ to Erk1/2. Inhibition of PKC might regulate GNAQ mutation-induced Erk1/2 activation, resulting in growth inhibition of UM cells carrying GNAQ mutations. UM cells carrying wild type or mutant GNAQ were treated with the PKC inhibitor enzastaurin. Effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and signaling events were evaluated. Enzastaurin downregulated the expression of several PKC isoforms including PKCβII PKCθ, PKCε and/or their phosphorylation in GNAQ mutated cells. Downregulation of these PKC isoforms in GNAQ mutated cells by shRNA resulted in reduced viability. Enzastaurin exhibited greater antiproliferative effect on GNAQ mutant cells than wild type cells through induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis. Enzastaurin-induced G1 arrest was associated with inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation, downregulation of cyclin D1, and accumulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. Furthermore, enzastaurin reduced the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and survivin in GNAQ mutant cells. Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation with a MEK specific inhibitor enhanced the sensitivity of GNAQ wild type cells to enzastaurin, accompanied by p27Kip1 accumulation and/or inhibition of enzastaurin-induced survivin and Bcl-2 upregulation. PKC inhibitors such as enzastaurin have activity against UM cells carrying GNAQ mutations through inhibition of the PKC/Erk1/2 pathway and induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis. Inhibition of the PKC pathway provides a basis for clinical investigation in patients with UM.
We showed previously that protein kinase C (PKC) is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes by murine alveolar (AMø) and peritoneal macrophages (PMø), and that such phagocytosis is markedly lower in AMø compared to PMø. In this study, we examined the roles of individual PKC isoforms in phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes by these two Mø populations. By immunoblotting, AMø expressed equivalent PKC η but lower amounts of other isoforms (α, βI, βII, δ, ε, μ, ζ), with the greatest difference in βII expression. A requirement for PKCβII for phagocytosis was demonstrated collectively by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced depletion of PKC βII, by dose-response to PKC inhibitor Ro-32-0432, and by use of PKC βII myristylated peptide as a blocker. Exposure of PMø to phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes specifically induced translocation of PKC βII and other isoforms to membranes and cytoskeleton. Both AMø and PMø expressed functional PS receptor, blockade of which inhibited PKC βII translocation. Our results indicate that murine tissue Mø require PKC βII for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, which differs from the PKC isoform requirement previously described in Mø phagocytosis of other particles, and imply that a crucial action of the PS receptor in this process is PKC βII activation.
Phosphorylation of the adaptor protein p66shc is essential for p66shc-mediated oxidative stress. We investigated the role of the reducing protein/DNA repair enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1) in modulating protein kinase CβII (PKCβII)-mediated p66shc phosphorylation in cultured endothelial cells and PKC-mediated vasoconstriction of arteries.
Methods and results
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)induced p66shc phosphorylation at serine 36 residue and PKCβII phosphorylation in mouse endothelial cells. Adenoviral overexpression of APE1 resulted in reduction of oxLDL-induced p66shc and PKCβII phosphorylation. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which stimulates PKCs, induced p66shc phosphorylation and this was inhibited by a selective PKCβII inhibitor. Adenoviral overexpression of PKCβII also increased p66shc phosphorylation. Overexpression of APE1 suppressed PMA-induced p66shc phosphorylation. Moreover, PMA-induced p66shc phosphorylation was augmented in cells in which APE1 was knocked down. PMA increased cytoplasmic APE1 expression, compared with the basal condition, suggesting the role of cytoplasmic APE1 against p66shc phosphorylation. Finally, vasoconstriction induced by phorbol-12,13, dibutylrate, another PKC agonist, was partially inhibited by transduction of Tat-APE1 into arteries.
APE1 suppresses oxLDL-induced p66shc activation in endothelial cells by inhibiting PKCβII-mediated serine phosphorylation of p66shc, and mitigates vasoconstriction induced by activation of PKC.
p66shc; Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1; Oxidized LDL; Protein kinase C; Endothelial cells
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a new member of the IL-1 cytokine family. The objectives of present study are to assess whether IL-33 can protect cardiomyocytes from anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R)-induced injury and the mechanism involved in the protection.
Cardiomyocytes derived from either wild type or JNK1−/− mice were challenged with an A/R with or without IL-33. Myocyte apoptosis was assessed by measuring caspase 3 activity, fragmented DNA and TUNEL staining. In addition, cardiomyocyte oxidative stress was assessed by measuring DHR123 oxidation; PKCβII and JNK phosphorylation were assessed with Western blot.
Challenge of cardiomyocytes with an A/R resulted in cardiomyocyte oxidative stress, PKCβII and JNK phosphorylation, and myocyte apoptosis. Treatment of the cardiomyocytes with IL-33 attenuated the A/R-induced myocyte oxidative stress, prevented PKCβII and JNK phosphorylation and attenuated the A/R-induced myocyte apoptosis. The protective effect of the IL-33 did not show in cardiac myocytes with siRNA specific to PKCβII or myocytes deficient in JNK1. Inhibition of PKCβII prevented the A/R-induced JNK phosphorylation, but inhibition of JNK1 showed no effect on A/R-induced PKCβII phosphorylation.
Our results indicate that IL-33 prevents the A/R-induced myocyte apoptosis through inhibition of PKCβ/JNK pathway.
Protein kinase C (PKC) activation contributes to proliferation and angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma (EOC/PPC). A multi-institutional phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PKCβ inhibitor enzastaurin in persistent or recurrent EOC/PPC and to explore potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers.
Eligible women with measurable platinum-sensitive and resistant EOC/PPC were treated with continuous administration of oral enzastaurin until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. A two-stage sequential design was used to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) ≥ 6-months, tumor response, and toxicity. Translational studies included sequencing of the TP53, PTEN, PIK3CA and PKCβII genes for somatic mutations, quantitative PCR assays for AKT2 and PTEN copy number alterations, and measurement of circulating VEGF-A plasma levels.
Among 27 eligible and evaluable patients, 3 women with PFS ≥ 6-months (11%) and 2 women with partial responses (7%) were observed. One of them achieved a durable response and remains on the study. No grade 4 adverse events were observed. Most common grade 3 adverse events were constitutional (4) and gastrointestinal (3). Mutations in the TP53 gene and abnormal copy number in the PTEN gene were common (56% and 48% of cases, respectively).
Enzastaurin was tolerable but had insufficient activity to proceed with the second stage of accrual. However, 1 patient has been progression-free for 44 months. No association between a biomarker and response to enzastaurin has been found.
Exploratory analysis suggested an association between survival and PTEN copy number losses.
Enzastaurin; ovarian cancer; VEGF PKCβ; TP53; PTEN; PIK3CA; AKT2
Impaired cardiovascular function in diabetes is partially attributed to pathological overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cardiovascular tissues. We examined whether the hyperglycemia-induced increased expression of iNOS is protein kinase C-β2 (PKCβ2) dependent and whether selective inhibition of PKCβ reduces iNOS expression and corrects abnormal hemodynamic function in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Cardiomyocytes and aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from nondiabetic rats were cultured in low (5.5 mmol/l) or high (25 mmol/l) glucose or mannitol (19.5 mmol/l mannitol + 5.5 mmol/l glucose) conditions in the presence of a selective PKCβ inhibitor, LY333531 (20 nmol/l). Further, the in vivo effects of PKCβ inhibition on iNOS-mediated cardiovascular abnormalities were tested in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Exposure of cardiomyocytes to high glucose activated PKCβ2 and increased iNOS expression that was prevented by LY333531. Similarly, treatment of VSMC with LY333531 prevented high glucose–induced activation of nuclear factor κB, extracellular signal–related kinase, and iNOS overexpression. Suppression of PKCβ2 expression by small interference RNA decreased high-glucose–induced nuclear factor κB and extracellular signal–related kinase activation and iNOS expression in VSMC. Administration of LY333531 (1 mg/kg/day) decreased iNOS expression and formation of peroxynitrite in the heart and superior mesenteric arteries and corrected the cardiovascular abnormalities in STZ-induced diabetic rats, an action that was also observed with a selective iNOS inhibitor, L-NIL.
Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of PKCβ2 may be a useful approach for correcting abnormal hemodynamics in diabetes by preventing iNOS mediated nitrosative stress.
Protein kinase C (PKC) family members are allosterically activated following membrane recruitment by specific membrane-targeting modules. Conventional PKC isozymes are recruited to membranes by two such modules: a C1 domain, which binds diacylglycerol (DAG), and a C2 domain, which is a Ca2+-triggered phospholipid-binding module. In contrast, novel PKC isozymes respond only to DAG, despite the presence of a C2 domain. Here, we address the molecular mechanism of membrane recruitment of the novel isozyme PKCδ. We show that PKCδ and a conventional isozyme, PKCβII, bind membranes with comparable affinities. However, dissection of the contribution of individual domains to this binding revealed that, although the C2 domain is a major determinant in driving the interaction of PKCβII with membranes, the C2 domain of PKCδ does not bind membranes. Instead, the C1B domain is the determinant that drives the interaction of PKCδ with membranes. The C2 domain also does not play any detectable role in the activity or subcellular location of PKCδ in cells; in vivo imaging studies revealed that deletion of the C2 domain does not affect the stimulus-dependent translocation or activity of PKCδ. Thus, the increased affinity of the C1 domain of PKCδ allows this isozyme to respond to DAG alone, whereas conventional PKC isozymes require the coordinated action of Ca2+ binding to the C2 domain and DAG binding to the C1 domain for activation.
Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are the paradigmatic effectors of lipid signaling. PKCs translocate to cell membranes and are allosterically activated upon binding of the lipid diacylglycerol to their C1A and C1B domains. The crystal structure of full-length protein kinase C βII was determined at 4.0 Å, revealing the conformation of an unexpected intermediate in the activation pathway. Here, the kinase active site is accessible to substrate, yet the conformation of the active site corresponds to a low-activity state because the ATP-binding side-chain of Phe629 of the conserved NFD motif is displaced. The C1B domain clamps the NFD helix in a low activity conformation, which is reversed upon membrane binding. A low resolution solution structure of the closed conformation of PKCβII was derived from small angle x-ray scattering. Together, these results show how PKCβII is allosterically in two steps, with the second step defining a novel protein kinase regulatory mechanism.
Neural tube defects (NTDs) in infants of diabetic mothers are associated with increased protein kinase C β2 (PKCβ2) activity and programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the neuroepithelium during early embryogenesis. Apoptosis in diabetic embryopathy is triggered by caspase8, an initiator caspase which activates a cascade of molecular events involving members of the caspase and Bcl-2 families, such as caspase3 and Bid, as well as Cytochrome C. Whether PKCβ2 regulates caspase8-induced apoptosis remains to be addressed.
Mouse embryos at embryonic (E) day 8.5 (E8.5) were cultured in a high concentration of glucose (22 mM) and treated with PKCβ2 inhibitor (50 nM) for 48 hours. The embryonic development and NTDs were examined. Apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Changes in activation of apoptotic factors were assessed using Western blot assay.
Inhibition of PKCβ2 significantly reduced NTD rate to the similar level as in euglycemic control (8.3 mM). Activation of caspase8, as indicated with a cleaved form, was significantly lower than that in the hyperglycemic group (p<0.05), and similar to that in euglycemic control. Similar results were also observed for Cytochrome C, caspase3, and Bid (p<0.05).
PKCβ2 mediates the effect of maternal hyperglycemia on embryonic NTDs in diabetic embryopathy by influencing a caspase8-regulated apoptotic pathway.
caspase8; diabetic embryopathy; neural tube defect; caspase; hyperglycemia; protein kinase C