Lithium, a drug commonly used to treat mood disorders, and the psychostimulant methamphetamine are both capable of altering circadian rhythmicity. Although the actions of lithium on the circadian system are thought to occur through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), the mechanism by which methamphetamine alters circadian rhythms is unknown. We tested the effects of concurrent methamphetamine and lithium treatment on the circadian wheel-running behavior of mice. Methamphetamine alone lengthened both the active duration and the free-running period of locomotor activity in animals housed in constant conditions. Administering lithium enhanced the period-lengthening effects of methamphetamine in animals housed in constant darkness. This effect was even more pronounced when animals were housed in constant light. Lithium increased both methamphetamine intake and serum levels of methamphetamine, possibly contributing to the effects on circadian behavior. We also tested the effect of methamphetamine in mutant mice possessing only one allele for Gsk3β. These animals, when treated with methamphetamine, responded like wild-type mice treated with a combination of methamphetamine and lithium, displaying long, free-running rhythms. These data, together with many others in the literature, point to a complicated interaction between the circadian system and the development and possible treatment of psychopathologies such as bipolar disorder and drug addiction.
circadian rhythms; glycogen synthase kinase-3β; lithium; methamphetamine; mouse
We have previously demonstrated that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is capable of promoting Coxsackie B3 (CB3)-induced myocarditis in genetically resistant B10.A mice. Because LPS is known to increase production of various cytokines, we tested CB3-infected, LPS-treated mice for the presence of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We found significantly increased amounts of both cytokines in the sera of CB3/LPS-treated mice compared with animals treated only with LPS. We also found immunohistochemical evidence for local production of these cytokines in the cardiac tissue of CB3/LPS-treated mice. Treatment with IL-1 or TNF alone promoted CB3-induced autoimmune myocarditis in resistant B10.A mice. Myocarditis was also observed when uninfected mice were immunized with syngeneic heart extract in the presence of IL-1 or TNF.
In addition to immune cells, many other cell types are known to produce cytokines. Cultured normal mouse gallbladder epithelial cells, used as a model system for gallbladder epithelium, were examined for their ability to express the mRNA of various cytokines and chemokines in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The synthesis and secretion of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) protein by these cells was also measured.
Untreated mouse gallbladder cells expressed mRNA for TNF-α, RANTES, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Upon treatment with lipopolysaccharide, these cells now produced mRNA for Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and showed increased expression of TNF-α and MIP-2 mRNA. Untreated mouse gallbladder cells did not synthesize TNF-α protein; however, they did synthesize and secrete TNF-α upon treatment with lipopolysaccharide.
Cells were treated with lipopolysaccharides from 3 strains of bacteria. Qualitative and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, using cytokine or chemokine-specific primers, was used to measure mRNA levels of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, KC, RANTES, MCP-1, and MIP-2. TNF-α protein was measured by immunoassays.
This research demonstrates that gallbladder epithelial cells in response to lipopolysaccharide exposure can alter their cytokine and chemokine RNA expression pattern and can synthesize and secrete TNFα protein. This suggests a mechanism whereby gallbladder epithelial cells in vivo may mediate gallbladder secretory function, inflammation and diseases in an autocrine/paracrine fashion by producing and secreting cytokines and/or chemokines during sepsis.
We investigated whether pretreatment with geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a potent heat shock protein (HSP) inducer, could inhibit proinflammatory cytokine liberation and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophages. The levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) released from murine macrophage RAW 264 cells were increased dose- and time-dependently following treatment with LPS (1 µg/ml). GGA (80 µM) treatment 2 h before LPS addition significantly suppressed TNF-α and NO productions at 12 h and 24 h after LPS, respectively, indicating that GGA inhibits activation of macrophages. However, replacement by fresh culture medium before LPS treatment abolished the inhibitory effect of GGA on NO production in LPS-treated cells. Furthermore, GGA inhibited both HSP70 and inducible NO synthase expressions induced by LPS treatment despite an HSP inducer. When it was examined whether GGA interacts with LPS and/or affects expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 on the cell surface, GGA inhibited the binding of LPS to the cell surface, while GGA did not affect TLR4 and CD14 expressions. These results indicate that GGA suppresses the binding of LPS to the cell surface of macrophages, resulting in inhibiting signal transduction downstream of TLR4.
Geranylgeranylacetone; lipopolysaccharide; nitric oxide; tumor necrosis factor-α; macrophage
The purpose of these studies was to examine the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Injection of mice with cisplatin (20 mg/kg) led to severe renal failure. The expression of cytokines, chemokines, and ICAM-1 in kidney was measured by ribonuclease protection assays and RT-PCR. We found significant upregulation of TNF-α, TGF-β, RANTES, MIP-2, MCP-1, TCA3, IL-1β, and ICAM-1 in kidneys from cisplatin-treated animals. In addition, serum, kidney, and urine levels of TNF-α measured by ELISA were increased by cisplatin. Inhibitors of TNF-α production (GM6001, pentoxifylline) and TNF-α Ab’s reduced serum and kidney TNF-α protein levels and also blunted the cisplatin-induced increases in TNF-α, TGF-β, RANTES, MIP-2, MCP-1, and IL-1β, but not ICAM-1, mRNA. In addition, the TNF-α inhibitors also ameliorated cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and reduced cisplatin-induced structural damage. Likewise, TNF-α–deficient mice were resistant to cisplatin nephrotoxicity. These results indicate cisplatin nephrotoxicity is characterized by activation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. TNF-α appears to play a central role in the activation of this cytokine response and also in the pathogenesis of cisplatin renal injury.
The pro-inflammatory potential of β-hairpin peptide hydrogels (MAX1 and MAX8) was assessed in vitro by measuring the cellular response of J774 mouse peritoneal macrophages cultured on the hydrogel surfaces. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the level of TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, secreted by cells cultured on the gel surfaces. Both bulk and thin films of gels did not elicit TNF-α secretion from the macrophages. In addition, live/dead assays employing laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and phase-contrast light micrographs show the hydrogel surfaces are non-cytotoxic toward the macrophages and allow the cells to adopt healthy morphologies. When macrophages were activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known bacterial pathogen that activates an innate immune response, an increase in the TNF-α titers by two orders of magnitude was observed. On LPS induction, macrophages displayed a decrease in cell density, enlarged nuclei, and an increase in cytoplasmic granularity, all characteristics of activated macrophages indicating that the cells are still capable of reacting to insult. The data presented herein indicate that MAX1 and MAX8 gels do not elicit macrophage activation in vitro and suggest that these materials are excellent candidates for in vivo assessment in appropriate animal models.
Hydrogel; Peptide; Self-assembly; Tissue engineering; Macrophage; Immunogenicity
The attachment of bacteria to macrophages is mediated by different ligands and receptors and induces various intracellular molecular responses. In the present study, induction of cytokines and chemokines, especially granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), was examined, following bacterial attachment, with regard to the ligand-receptor systems involved. Attachment of Legionella pneumophila or Salmonella typhimurium to cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages increased the steady-state levels of cellular mRNAs for the cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and GM-CSF as well as the chemokines MIP-1beta, MIP-2, and KC. However, when macrophages were treated with alpha-methyl-D-mannoside (alphaMM), a competitor of glycopeptide ligands, induction of cytokine mRNAs was inhibited, but the levels of chemokine mRNAs were not. Pretreatment of the bacteria with fresh mouse serum enhanced the level of GM-CSF mRNA but not the level of MIP-2 mRNA. In addition, serum treatment reduced the inhibitory effect of alphaMM on GM-CSF mRNA. These results indicate that bacterial attachment increases the steady-state levels of the cytokine and chemokine mRNAs tested by at least two distinct receptor-ligand systems, namely, one linked to cytokine induction and involving mannose or other sugar residues and the other linked to chemokine induction and relatively alphaMM insensitive. Furthermore, opsonization with serum engages other pathways in the cytokine response which are relatively independent of the alphaMM-sensitive system. Regarding bacterial surface ligands involved in cytokine mRNA induction, evidence is presented that the flagellum may be important in stimulating cytokine GM-CSF message but not chemokine MIP-2 message. Analysis of cytokine GM-CSF and chemokine MIP-2 signaling pathways with protein kinase inhibitors revealed the involvement of calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase in GM-CSF but not MIP-2 mRNA induction, adding further evidence that several distinct receptor systems are engaged during the process of bacterial attachment and induction of cytokines and chemokines, such as GM-CSF and MIP-2, respectively.
Endotoxic reactions induced in mice by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were examined. Mice showed a dose-dependent hypothermia after intravenous TNF injection which was similar to a reaction to lipopolysaccharide injection. Plasma glucose levels were decreased, and plasma lactate levels were increased. Blood hematocrit levels were increased after TNF injection. No interleukin-1 activity was detected in the plasma of TNF-treated animals. The number of leukocytes was reduced 30 min after TNF injection and returned to normal within 24 h. Thus, the data demonstrate that the pathophysiological effects induced by TNF were similar to the effects induced by bacterial endotoxin. Since lipopolysaccharide is a very potent agent for eliciting TNF release from activated macrophages, these results suggest that TNF could act as an endogenous mediator of endotoxin effects.
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease associated with increased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Triptolide is a compound originally purified from T. wilfordii Hook F. and has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of triptolide on the global gene expression patterns of macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that LPS stimulation resulted in >5-fold increase in expression of 117 genes, and triptolide caused a >50% inhibition in 47 of the LPS-inducible 117 genes. A large portion of the genes that were strongly induced by LPS and significantly inhibited by triptolide were pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Interestingly, LPS also induced the expression of micro-RNA-155 (miR-155) precursor, BIC, which was inhibited by triptolide. Confirming the cDNA array results, we demonstrated that triptolide blocked the induction of these pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as miR-155 in a dose-dependent manner. Profound inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was observed at concentrations as low as 10–50 nM. However, triptolide neither inhibited the phosphorylation or degradation of IκBα after LPS stimulation, nor affected the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Surprisingly, we found that triptolide not only inhibited NF-κB-regulated reporter transcription, but also dramatically blocked the activity of other transcription factors. Our study offers a plausible explanation of the therapeutic mechanism of T. wilfordii Hook F.
Inflammation; cytokines; transcription; Chinese medicine; rheumatoid arthritis; Tripterygium wilfordii
Constitutive expression of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is characteristic of malignant ovarian surface epithelium. We investigated the hypothesis that this autocrine action of TNF-α generates and sustains a network of other mediators that promote peritoneal cancer growth and spread. When compared with two ovarian cancer cell lines that did not make TNF-α, constitutive production of TNF-α was associated with greater release of the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12, the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF), and the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). TNF-α production was associated also with increased peritoneal dissemination when the ovarian cancer cells were xenografted. We next used RNA interference to generate stable knockdown of TNF-α in ovarian cancer cells. Production of CCL2, CXCL12, VEGF, IL-6, and MIF was decreased significantly in these cells compared with wild-type or mock-transfected cells, but in vitro growth rates were unaltered. Tumor growth and dissemination in vivo were significantly reduced when stable knockdown of TNF-α was achieved. Tumors derived from TNF-α knockdown cells were noninvasive and well circumscribed and showed high levels of apoptosis, even in the smallest deposits. This was reflected in reduced vascularization of TNF-α knockdown tumors. Furthermore, culture supernatants from such cells failed to stimulate endothelial cell growth in vitro. We conclude that autocrine production of TNF-α by ovarian cancer cells stimulates a constitutive network of other cytokines, angiogenic factors, and chemokines that may act in an autocrine/paracrine manner to promote colonization of the peritoneum and neovascularization of developing tumor deposits.
The ability of drugs of abuse to cause dependence can be viewed as a form of neural plasticity. Recently, we have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increases dopamine uptake and inhibits methamphetamine-induced dependence. Moreover, we have identified a novel molecule ‘shati’ in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with methamphetamine using the PCR-select cDNA subtraction method and clarified that it is involved in the development of methamphetamine dependence: Treatment with the shati antisense oligonucleotide (shati-AS), which inhibits the expression of shati mRNA, enhanced the methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, sensitization, and conditioned place preference. Further, blockage of shati mRNA by shati-AS potentiated the methamphetamine-induced increase of dopamine overflow and the methamphetamine-induced decrease in dopamine uptake in the nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, treatment with shati-AS also inhibited expression of TNF-α. Transfection of the vector containing shati cDNA into PC12 cells, dramatically induced the expression of shati and TNF-α mRNA, accelerated dopamine uptake, and inhibited the methamphetamine-induced decrease in dopamine uptake. These effects were blocked by neutralizing TNF-α. These results suggest that the functional roles of shati in methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes are mediated through the induction of TNF-α expression which inhibits the methamphetamine-induced increase of dopamine overflow and decrease in dopamine uptake.
Shati; methamphetamine; dependence; tumor necrosis factor-α; dopamine; uptake; nucleus accumbens; anti-addictive.
Although rates of methamphetamine use continue to increase throughout the United States, little is known about the individuals who sell methamphetamine at the street level. This exploratory study examined the prevalence and correlates of drug-dealing behavior in a sample of 404 heterosexually-identified methamphetamine users who were participants in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, CA. Twenty-nine percent of participants (N = 116) reported “dealing” methamphetamine in the past two months. In a multivariate logistic regression, methamphetamine dealing was associated with being male (OR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.16 – 3.39), younger age (OR = 1.87 per year; 95% CI 1.10 – 3.17), more frequent use of methamphetamine (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.59 – 4.57), injecting methamphetamine (OR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.79 – 5.37), and higher hostility scores (OR = 1.07 per unit increase; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.13). These characteristics, particularly intensity of drug use and hostility, may be associated with greater resistance to drug treatment and lower success in treatment programs.
The effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on the regulation of macrophage-specific colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) gene expression have been studied in HL-60 cells during monocytic differentiation. CSF-1 transcripts were undetectable in uninduced HL-60 cells, reached maximal levels by 3 h of exposure to TNF, and returned to that of control cells by 24 h. Transcriptional run-on analysis demonstrated that exposure to TNF stimulated the rate of CSF-1 gene transcription by 6.4-fold. The combination of a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, and TNF increased levels of CSF-1 mRNA compared with treatment by TNF alone. We also studied the signal transduction mechanisms responsible for regulating TNF-induced CSF-1 mRNA levels. Both 4-bromophenacyl bromide and quinacrine, inhibitors of phospholipase A2 activity, blocked TNF-induced increases in CSF-1 transcripts in a concentration-dependent manner, while caffeic acid and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, had no detectable effect on induction of CSF-1 RNA. PGE2 or dibutyryl cAMP treatment of HL-60 cells in the presence of TNF blocked the expression of CSF-1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the increase in CSF-1 RNA observed during TNF treatment is regulated, at least in part, by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, and that PGE2 and cAMP regulate transcriptional activation of the CSF-1 gene by TNF.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common human cancers worldwide. In SCC, tumour development is accompanied by an immune response that leads to massive tumour infiltration by inflammatory cells, and consequently, local and systemic production of cytokines, chemokines and other mediators. Studies in both humans and animal models indicate that imbalances in these inflammatory mediators are associated with cancer development.
We used a multistage model of SCC to examine the involvement of elastase (ELA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TGF-β and TNF-α), and neutrophils and macrophages in tumour development. ELA and MPO activity and NO, IL-10, IL −17, TNF-α and TGF-β levels were increased in the precancerous microenvironment.
ELA and MPO activity and NO, IL-10, IL −17, TNF-α and TGF-β levels were increased in the precancerous microenvironment. Significantly higher levels of IL-6 and lower levels of IL-10 were detected at 4 weeks following 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) treatment. Similar levels of IL-13 were detected in the precancerous microenvironment compared with control tissue. We identified significant increases in the number of GR-1+ neutrophils and F4/80+/GR-1- infiltrating cells in tissues at 4 and 8 weeks following treatment and a higher percentage of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) expressing both GR-1 and F4/80, an activated phenotype, at 16 weeks. We found a significant correlation between levels of IL-10, IL-17, ELA, and activated TAMs and the lesions. Additionally, neutrophil infiltrate was positively correlated with MPO and NO levels in the lesions.
Our results indicate an imbalance of inflammatory mediators in precancerous SCC caused by neutrophils and macrophages and culminating in pro-tumour local tissue alterations.
Elastase; Nitric oxide; Myeloperoxidase; Inflammatory cells; Cytokines
Adiponectin is an adipokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which adiponectin suppresses macrophage function are not well understood. Treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages with adiponectin for 18 h decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production. Here we demonstrate that globular adiponectin (gAcrp) initially increased TNF-α expression in RAW264.7 macrophages; this TNF-α then contributed to increased expression of interleukin-10, which in turn was required for the development of tolerance to subsequent LPS exposure. gAcrp-mediated increases in TNF-α mRNA accumulation were associated with increased TNF-α promoter activity. gAcrp increased the DNA binding activity of both Egr-1 and NFκB; mutation of either the Egr-1 or NFκB binding sites in the TNF-α promoter decreased gAcrp-stimulated promoter activity. Further, co-transfection with either dominant negative Egr-1 or the IκB super-repressor prevented gAcrp-stimulated TNF-α promoter activity. gAcrp also increased Egr-1 promoter activity, mRNA accumulation, and DNA binding activity. Inhibition of ERK1/2 with U0126 potently suppressed gAcrp-stimulated Egr-1 promoter activity, as well as TNF-α promoter activity. In summary, these data demonstrate that adiponectin initially increases TNF-α production by macrophages via ERK1/2→Egr-1 and NFκB-dependent mechanisms; these increases in TNF-α in turn lead to increased expression of interleukin-10 and an eventual dampening of LPS-mediated cytokine production in macrophages.
The immune balance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a disease characterized by TH1 dominance, treated by the preferred combined anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and methotrexate (MTX) therapy was evaluated by assessing the chemokine and cytokine receptors as well as apoptosis induction. A meta-analysis of combined therapy by TNF blockers and MTX in 15 RA patients, MTX monotherapy in 20 RA patients, and 11 diagnosed but untreated RA patients was performed by assessing several immune markers in the whole lymphocyte population, as well as in specific CD4 cells, by both flow cytometry and image analysis. A significant downregulation of CXCR3 and IL-12 receptors (both TH1 markers) and a significant increase in the chemokine receptor CCR4 and, to a lesser extent, IL-4R (both TH2 markers) were found; a particularly marked increase was found in patients treated by combined therapy. This phenomenon was pronounced in CD4 cells and was accompanied by a high proportion of apoptotic cells. The therapeutic effect of MTX and TNF blockers may be due to apoptosis induction in lymphocytes infiltrating from the inflammation site and restoring the TH1/TH2 balance.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a very potent inducer of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression from monocytes and macrophages. Another inflammatory cytokine, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), can potentiate the effects of LPS, but the mechanism is not thoroughly understood. Previous reports emphasized the ability of IFN-γ to upregulate CD14 expression (the receptor for LPS), and nearly all studies have utilized sequential stimulation with IFN-γ followed by LPS to exploit this phenomenon. This study demonstrates that IFN-γ can upregulate the effect of LPS at the level of transcription. Human monoblastic Mono-Mac-6 cells produced up to threefold-greater levels of TNF-α when simultaneously stimulated with LPS and IFN-γ compared to treatment with LPS alone. RNase protection studies showed a similar increase in RNA beginning as early as within 30 min. The synthesis of TNF-α mRNA in IFN-γ- and LPS-treated Mono-Mac-6 cells was also temporally prolonged even though the message turnover rate was identical to that seen in LPS stimulated cells. The modulatory effect of IFN-γ may be mediated by Jak2.
Tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta (TNF-alpha and TNF-beta) are multifaceted polypeptide cytokines which may mediate some of the significant changes in cellular homeostasis which accompany the invasion of the mammalian host by viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Although it is well established that bacterial lipopolysaccharide is a potent inducer of TNF-alpha, there is still very little known of the types of agents which can trigger the production of TNFs in mononuclear leukocytes. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring TNF-alpha and TNF-beta, we examined the capacity of various T-lymphocyte and beta-lymphocyte mitogens as well as microbial components to stimulate production of these cytokines in culture. The mitogens phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen induced production of both TNF-alpha and TNF-beta, while whole-killed Staphylococcus aureus and Bordetella pertussis, like lipopolysaccharide, were potent inducers of TNF-alpha but failed to stimulate TNF-beta production. TNF-alpha production was detectable within 1 h after stimulation, while TNF-beta production was not detected until after 8 h of culture. The bacterial products tetanus toxoid, purified protein derivative, pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertussis toxin were all able to induce TNF-alpha and TNF-beta production. Disrupted (frozen-thawed) Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes were also potent inducers of TNF-alpha and TNF-beta. The results demonstrated that a wide variety of microbial components are inducers of TNF-alpha. Some may not only be more effective than lipopolysaccharide but can also induce TNF-beta production. Furthermore, evidence is presented showing that TNF-beta but not TNF-alpha production correlates with lymphoproliferation.
Histopathological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is caused by microbial-driven infiltration of leukocytes to the maternal-fetal interface resulting in adverse neonatal outcomes in a subset of pregnancies. The role of placental villus macrophages (i.e. Hofbauer cells, HBCs) in the pathophysiology of HCA is unelucidated.
Method of study
The number of HBCs in human term placental villi in HCA and control groups was compared using immunohistochemistry. Levels of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) expression were measured in primary cultures of syncytioytrophoblasts (SCTs) and fibroblasts (FIBs) treated with bacterial compounds [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan] and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) using ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR.
Immunohistochemistry revealed a focal increase in HBCs in HCA. Treatment of FIBs with LPS, IL-1β, and TNF-α significantly increased MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. Conversely, MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels were virtually undetectable in treated and untreated SCTs.
These results demonstrate cell-type-specific regulation of MCP-1 expression in human placenta. A model is presented in which bacterial products and inflammatory cytokines initiate a fibroblast-driven cytokine cascade resulting in recruitment of fetal monocytes to placenta which focally increases levels of HBCs in pregnancies complicated by HCA.
Chorioamnionitis; fetal macrophages; Hofbauer cells; monocyte chemotactic protein-1; placenta
The expression of various cell surface molecules and the production of certain cytokines are important mechanisms by which dendritic cells (DC) are able to bias immune responses. This paper describes the effects of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on DC phenotype and function. TNF-α treatment resulted in upregulation of MHC class II and CD86 in the absence of increased cell surface CD40 and CD80 or the production of IL-12. Additionally TNF-α treated cells were able to bias T cell responses towards an anti-inflammatory profile. On a note of caution this tolerogenic phenotype of the DC was not stable upon subsequent TLR-4 ligation as a 4 hour pulse of the TNF-α treated DC with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in the restoration of IL-12 production and an enhancement of their T cell stimulatory capacity which resulted in an increased IFN-γ production. However, TNF-α treated DC, when administered in vivo, were shown to ameliorate disease in collagen induced arthritis, an experimental model of inflammatory joint disease. Mice receiving TNF-α treated DC but not LPS matured DC had a delayed onset, and significantly reduced severity, of arthritis. Disease suppression was associated with reduced levels of collagen specific IgG2a and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration into affected joints. In summary the treatment of DC with TNF-α generates an antigen presenting cell with a phenotype that can reduce the pro-inflammatory response and direct the immune system towards a disease modifying, anti-inflammatory state.
We have previously reported that pretreatment with carrageenan (CAR) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production in and lethality for mice. Whole blood cultured in vitro was used to show that CAR pretreatment results in about a 200-fold increase in LPS-induced TNF-α production. CAR by itself did not induce TNF-α production. However, CAR-treated cultured medium sensitized whole blood to make more LPS-induced TNF than did saline-treated cultured medium in vitro. It was also demonstrated that CAR pretreatment increases TNF-α mRNA levels of both blood cells and peritoneal exudate cells, but not of bone marrow cells. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages are TNF-α-producing cells in CAR-treated mice. In CAR-treated mice, TNF-α was seen early after LPS injection in leukocytes in hepatic sinusoids and on the surfaces of endothelial cells. TNF-α was also detected late after LPS injection in hepatocytes which become edematous. These results suggest that CAR primes leukocytes to produce TNF-α in response to LPS and that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver injury.
The levels of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), in coeliac disease were studied by immunohistochemistry. Jejunal biopsy specimens from patients with untreated disease, (n = 11), treated disease (n = 9), and normal controls, (n = 11) were stained to detect IL-6, TNF-alpha, CD45 (pan-leukocyte), and CD68 (macrophage surface antigen). Positive cells were identified in the epithelium (per 100 enterocytes) and in the lamina propria (per unit area). There was a significant increase in median IL-6 and TNF-alpha staining in both the lamina propria and the epithelium of untreated coeliac disease patients (lamina propria, 16.2 and 13.0 respectively; epithelium, 0.86 and 1.21, all p < 0.05) when compared with treated coeliac disease patients (lamina propria; 6.0 and 6.2, epithelium; 0.60 and 0.60) and controls (lamina propria; 6.5 and 7.5, epithelium; 0.58 and 0.60). A significant increase in the number of CD45 positive cells was found in the untreated coeliac disease lamina propria and epithelium (p < 0.05) but this was accompanied by a significant rise in CD68 positive cells in the lamina propria only (p < 0.05). Increased IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the lamina propria and epithelium of patients with untreated coeliac disease further supports their role in the immune pathogenesis of this disorder.
importance of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the
pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis has remained uncertain because of
the paucity of clinical features associated with excessive levels of
this cytokine. Increased levels of soluble TNF receptors (TNF-R), which
are known to inhibit TNF-α activity, were recently described in the
lungs of subjects with sarcoidosis. We hypothesised that TNF-α
bioactivity may be inhibited in sarcoidosis by the presence of TNF-R. A
study was therefore undertaken to investigate for the first time the
relationship between soluble receptors and TNF-α bioactivity in the
lungs of subjects with sarcoidosis.
macrophages (AMs) from 16 subjects with histologically proven
sarcoidosis and 13 healthy controls were cultured in the presence and
absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The subjects with sarcoidosis were
grouped by radiological assessment into stage I (n = 6) and stage
II/III (n = 10). The cell culture supernatants and bronchoalveolar
lavage (BAL) fluid were assayed for TNF bioactivity using the WEHI 164 clone 13 assay. Immunoreactive (bound and free) TNF-α and free TNF-Rs
(p55 and p75) were determined by ELISA.
TNF-α was undetectable in the BAL fluid of all the subjects with
sarcoidosis and most of the healthy controls. However, there was
significantly more immunoreactive TNF-α in the BAL fluid from
subjects with sarcoidosis than from the controls (median values
0.304 ng/ml and 0.004 ng/ml, respectively, 95% CI 0.076to 0.455, p<0.001). The levels of both p55 and p75 in the BAL fluid were higher
in both sarcoidosis groups than in the controls (p<0.0005 and
p<0.001, respectively). In LPS stimulated AM supernatants reduced
TNF-α bioactivity was seen in subjects with stage I sarcoidosis compared with those with stage II/III disease and healthy controls (median 0.333 ng/ml vs 1.362 ng/ml and 2.385 ng/ml, respectively, p<0.01). This contrasted with increased p55 levels in the AM
supernatants derived from subjects with stage I sarcoidosis compared
with those with stage II/III disease and healthy controls (median
0.449 ng/ml vs 0.058 ng/ml and 0.078 ng/ml, respectively, p<0.01).
The levels of p75 were increased in unstimulated AM cultures in
subjects with stage II/III disease compared with those with stage I
disease and healthy controls (median 0.326 ng/ml vs 0.064 ng/ml and
0.102 ng/ml, p<0.05).
results indicate that TNF-α bioactivity may be inhibited by increased
soluble TNF-R in the lungs of subjects with sarcoidosis, and this
inhibition may be greater in patients with stage I sarcoidosis than in
those with stage II/III disease. This may represent a homeostatic
mechanism which protects the lung from excessive TNF production
characteristic of chronic inflammation.
Inflammatory cytokines may influence both labile anger and depression. Both psychiatric conditions can occur during interferon-alpha (IFN–α) based treatments. Evidence also indicates a central nervous system role for TNF-α, whose expression may be increased by IFN-α. A polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF-α has been associated with various inflammatory illnesses. We therefore hypothesized that this TNF-α polymorphism would influence susceptibility to psychiatric symptoms during IFN-α therapy.
105 patients with hepatitis C, initially without active major depression (MDD), were treated with IFN-α and then prospectively monitored using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI), the Anger Irritability and Assault Questionnaire, and circulating TNF-α levels. The A-308G polymorphism (rs1800629) was determined using the 5′-nuclease assay. Repeated-measure mixed-effect analyses compared changes in symptoms over time.
BDI increased during IFN-α therapy (F = 6.2; p<0.001), with 27% developing MDD. The TNF-α A allele was associated with worsened labile anger (F = 2.5; p<0.05) and fatigue (F = 2.9; p<0.05) during treatment, but not with major depression incidence (X2 = 0.0; p=0.99) or increased BDI (F = 1.2; p=0.31). Labile anger was not predicted by the serotonin transporter polymorphism (F = 0.8; p=0.59).
During treatment with an exogenous cytokine, vulnerability to worsening labile anger -- distinct from major depression -- is associated with genetic variability in TNF-α. This has implications both for patients being treated with IFN-α, as well as our understanding of genetic vulnerability for different subtypes of dysphoric and mood disorders.
Cytokine; inflammation; genetic; polymorphism; anger
San Diego County, California, is a major distribution center for methamphetamine entering the U.S. from Mexico. All available indicators suggest that the use and abuse of methamphetamine increased between 2001 and 2005. Drug treatment admissions for primary methamphetamine use accounted for 49% of all drug treatment admissions in 2005, up from 37% in 2001, with trends showing smaller proportions of female and Hispanic users and a larger proportion of methamphetamine smokers (vs. inhalation or injection). Increases in prevalence of methamphetamine use were documented among arrestees as well; by 2005, 51% of female and 21% of juvenile arrestees tested positive for methamphetamine The proportion of emergency department visits involving illicit drugs in which methamphetamine was reported increased from 32% in 2004 to 40% in 2005, although this change was not statistically significant, and methamphetamine-related deaths increased 48% between 2001 and 2005. Data from non-federal drug seizures in San Diego County documented an increase from 21 % of all drug items analyzed in 2001 to 32% in 2005 In summary, methamphetamine remains the drug of utmost concern in San Diego. The availability of multiple data sources is imperative for constructing valid characterizations of trends in methamphetamine use and abuse and its affect on health.
drug treatment; epidemiology; indicators; methamphetamine; San Diego