Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H2O2, comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored.
Abscisic acid; brassinosteroids; comet assay; copper transporters; Cu homeostasis; Cu-sensitive yeast; indole-3-acetic acid; oxidative stress; polyamines
The present paper deals with the effects of two active forms of brassinosteroids (BRs) as epibrassinosteroid (24-EBL) and homobrassinosteroid (28-HBL) on percentage germination, growth in the form of shoot length, activities of auxinase (IAAO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) in 10 day old seedlings of Brassica juncea L. (RCM 619) under field conditions. Exogenous application of 240-EBL and 28-HBL significantly ameliorate the total protein content as compared to untreated control seedlings. 10−8 M 28-HBL helps in enhancing the PPO activity very significantly, as compared to all other concentrations of EBL and HBL and also to that of untreated control. Similar trend was observed in IAAO activity. It was observed that all the concentrations of EBL were unable to enhance the APOX activity as compared to untreated control seedlings but 10−8 M HBL significantly ameliorates APOX activity. CAT and SOD activities ameliorate significantly with exogenous application of EBL and HBL. Out of two active forms of BRs, 28-HBL was more effective at germination stage in scavenging the free radicals, which are produced in greater amount during germination from basic metabolic processes, whereas 28-EBL was effective in the initial growth of seedlings in the form of increase in shoot length.
Brassinosteroids; Brassica juncea; Antioxidant enzymes; Polyphenol oxidase; Auxinase; Total Proteins
A composite cytomegalovirus-immediate early gene enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter (CAG) was utilized to generate transgenic mice that overexpress human spermidine synthase (SpdS) in order to determine the impact of elevated spermidine synthase activity on murine development and physiology. CAG-SpdS mice were viable and fertile and tissue SpdS activity was increased up to 9-fold. This increased SpdS activity did not result in a dramatic elevation of spermidine or spermine levels but did lead to a 1.5 to 2-fold reduction in tissue spermine:spermidine ratio in heart, muscle and liver tissues with the highest levels of SpdS activity. This new mouse model enabled simultaneous overexpression of SpdS and other polyamine biosynthetic enzymes by combining transgenic animals. The combined overexpression of both SpdS and spermine synthase (SpmS) in CAG-SpdS/CAG-SpmS bitransgenic mice did not impair viability or lead to overt developmental abnormalities but instead normalized the elevated tissue spermine:spermidine ratios of CAG-SpmS mice. The CAG-SpdS mice were bred to MHC-AdoMetDC mice with a >100-fold increase in cardiac S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) activity to determine if elevated dcAdoMet would facilitate greater spermidine accumulation in mice with SpdS overexpression. CAG-SpdS/MHC-AdoMetDC bitransgenic animals were produced at the expected frequency and exhibited cardiac polyamine levels comparable to MHC-AdoMetDC littermates. Taken together these results indicate that SpdS levels are not rate limiting in vivo for polyamine biosynthesis and are unlikely to exert significant regulatory effects on cellular polyamine content and function.
polyamine; aminopropyltransferase; transgenic mice; S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase; spermidine; spermine
In this work, we have studied the transcriptional profiles of polyamine biosynthetic genes and analyzed polyamine metabolic fluxes during a gradual drought acclimation response in Arabidopsis thaliana and the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. The analysis of free putrescine, spermidine and spermine titers in Arabidopsis arginine decarboxylase (adc1–3, adc2–3), spermidine synthase (spds1–2, spds2–3) and spermine synthase (spms-2) mutants during drought stress, combined with the quantitative expression of the entire polyamine biosynthetic pathway in the wild-type, has revealed a strong metabolic canalization of putrescine to spermine induced by drought. Such canalization requires spermidine synthase 1 (SPDS1) and spermine synthase (SPMS) activities and, intriguingly, does not lead to spermine accumulation but to a progressive reduction in spermidine and spermine pools in the wild-type. Our results suggest the participation of the polyamine back-conversion pathway during the drought stress response rather than the terminal catabolism of spermine. The putrescine to spermine canalization coupled to the spermine to putrescine back-conversion confers an effective polyamine recycling-loop during drought acclimation. Putrescine to spermine canalization has also been revealed in the desiccation tolerant plant C. plantagineum, which conversely to Arabidopsis, accumulates high spermine levels which associate with drought tolerance. Our results provide a new insight to the polyamine homeostasis mechanisms during drought stress acclimation in Arabidopsis and resurrection plants.
Arabidopsis; Craterostigma plantagineum; drought; polyamines; polyamine oxidase; abiotic stress
The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are ubiquitous multifunctional cations essential for cellular proliferation. One specific function of spermidine in cell growth is its role as a butylamine donor for hypusine synthesis in the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). Here, we report a novel series of mono-methylated spermidine analogs (α-MeSpd, β-MeSpd, γ-MeSpd, and ω-MeSpd) and their role in the hypusination of eIF5A and in supporting the growth of DFMO-treated DU145 cells. We also tested them as substrates and inhibitors for deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) in vitro. Of these compounds, α-MeSpd, β-MeSpd, and γ-MeSpd (but not ω-MeSpd) were substrates for DHS in vitro, while they all inhibited the enzyme reaction. As racemic mixtures, only α-MeSpd and β-MeSpd supported long-term growth (9–18 days) of spermidine-depleted DU145 cells, whereas γ-MeSpd and ω-MeSpd did not. The S-enantiomer of α-MeSpd, which supported long-term growth, was a good substrate for DHS in vitro, whereas the R isomer was not. The long-term growth of DFMO-treated cells correlated with the hypusine-modification of eIF5A by intracellular methylated spermidine analogs. These results underscore the critical requirement for hypusine modification in mammalian cell proliferation and provide new insights into the specificity of the deoxyhypusine synthase reaction.
polyamine; methylated spermidine; cell growth; deoxyhypusine synthase; hypusine; eIF5A
Polyamines, including spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd), are aliphatic cations that are reportedly synthesized by all living organisms. They exert pleiotropic effects on cells and are required for efficient nucleic acid and protein synthesis. Here, we report that the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus lacks identifiable polyamine biosynthetic genes, and consequently produces no Spm/Spd or their precursor compounds putrescine and agmatine. Moreover, while supplementing defined medium with polyamines generally enhances bacterial growth, Spm and Spd exert bactericidal effects on S. aureus at physiologic concentrations. Small colony variants specifically lacking menaquinone biosynthesis arose after prolonged Spm exposure and exhibited reduced polyamine-sensitivity. However, other respiratory-defective mutants were no less susceptible to Spm implying menaquinone itself rather than general respiration is required for full Spm-toxicity. Polyamine hypersensitivity distinguishes S. aureus from other bacteria and is exhibited by all tested strains save those belonging to the USA-300 group of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). We identified one gene within the USA-300-specific Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) encoding a Spm/Spd N-acetyltransferase that is necessary and sufficient for polyamine resistance. S. aureus encounters significant polyamine levels during infection, however the acquisition of ACME encoded speG allows USA-300 clones to circumvent polyamine-hypersensitivity, a peculiar trait of S. aureus.
Background and Aims
Brassinosteroids (BR) are a class of plant polyhydroxysteroids with diverse functions in plant growth and development. However, there is little information on the role of BRs played in the response to nutrient deficiency.
To evaluate the role of BR in the response of plants to iron (Fe) deficiency, the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on ferric reductase (FRO) activity, acidification of the rhizosphere and Fe content in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings under Fe-deficient (1 µm FeEDTA) and Fe-sufficient (50 µm FeEDTA) conditions were investigated.
There was a significant increase in FRO activity upon exposure of cucumber seedlings to an Fe-deficient medium, and the Fe deficiency-induced increase in FRO activity was substantially suppressed by EBR. In contrast, application of EBR to Fe-sufficient seedlings stimulated FRO activity. Ethylene production evoked by Fe deficiency was suppressed by EBR, while EBR induced ethylene production from Fe-sufficient seedlings. Fe contents in shoots were reduced by treatment with EBR, while Fe contents in roots were markedly increased under both Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient conditions. The reductions in Fe contents of shoots were independent of chlorophyll (CHL) contents under Fe-sufficient conditions, but they were positively correlated with CHL contents under Fe-deficient conditions. At the transcriptional level, transcripts encoding FRO (CsFRO1) and Fe transporter (CsIRT1) were increased upon exposure to the Fe-deficient medium, and the increases in transcripts were reversed by EBR.
The results demonstrate that BRs are likely to play a negative role in regulating Fe-deficiency-induced FRO, expressions of CsFRO1 and CsIRT1, as well as Fe translocation from roots to shoots.
Brassinosteroids; iron deficiency; cucumber; Cucumis sativus; ferric reductase activity; Fe translocation
Background and Aims
Variability in embryo development can influence the rate of seed maturation and seed size, which may have an impact on offspring fitness. While it is expected that embryo development will be under maternal control, more controversial hypotheses suggest that the pollen donor and the embryo itself may influence development. These latter possibilities are, however, poorly studied. Characteristics of 10-d-old embryos and seeds of wild radish (Raphanus sativus) were examined to address: (a) the effects of maternal plant and pollen donor on development; (b) the effects of earlier reproductive events (pollen tube growth and fertilization) on embryos and seeds, and the influence of embryo size on mature seed mass; (c) the effect of water stress on embryos and seeds; (d) the effect of stress on correlations of embryo and seed characteristics with earlier and later reproductive events and stages; and (e) changes in maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed characteristics during development.
Eight maternal plants (two each from four families) and four pollen donors were crossed and developing gynoecia were collected at 10 d post-pollination. Half of the maternal plants experienced water stress. Characteristics of embryos and seeds were summarized and also compared with earlier and later developmental stages.
In addition to the expected effects of the maternal plants, all embryo characters differed among pollen donors. Paternal effects varied over time, suggesting that there are windows of opportunity for pollen donors to influence embryo development. Water-stress treatment altered embryo characteristics; embryos were smaller and less developed. In addition, correlations of embryo characteristics with earlier and later stages changed dramatically with water stress.
The expected maternal effects on embryo development were observed, but there was also evidence for an early paternal role. The relative effects of these controls may change over time. Thus, there may be times in development when selection on the maternal, paternal or embryo contributions to development are more and less likely.
Raphanus sativus; embryo development; maternal effects; paternal effects; seed development; seed size; water stress; wild radish
Spermidine (SPD) is a ubiquitous polycation that is commonly distributed in living organisms. Intracellular levels of SPD are tightly regulated, and SPD controls cell proliferation and death. However, SPD undergoes oxidation in the presence of serum, producing aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonia, which exert cytotoxic effect on cells. Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to have a protective effect against oxidative stress. Upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells is considered to be beneficial in the cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that the ubiquitous polyamine, SPD, induces HO-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). SPD-induced HO-1 expression was examined by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Involvement of reactive oxygen species, serum amine oxidase, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and transcription factor Nrf2 in the induction of HO-1 by SPD was also investigated. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1 and treatment with the specific HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP exhibited a noteworthy increase of death of SPD-stimulated HUVECs. In conclusion, these results suggest that SPD induces PI3K/Akt-Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression in human endothelial cells, which may have a role in cytoprotection of the cells against oxidative stress-induced death.
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh promoted the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosephate dehydrogenase (G-3-PD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-ICDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome-c oxidase (Cyt-c OD) in seedlings. Moreover, ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint.
acetylcholine; acetylcholine esterase; DNA; lateral root; NAD; NAD-forming enzyme; protein; Raphanus sativus
Background and Aims
Plant growth regulators play an important role in seed germination. However, much of the current knowledge about their function during seed germination was obtained using orthodox seeds as model systems, and there is a paucity of information about the role of plant growth regulators during germination of recalcitrant seeds. In the present work, two endangered woody species with recalcitrant seeds, Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm), native to the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil, were used to study the mobilization of polyamines (PAs), indole-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination.
Data were sampled from embryos of O. odorifera and embryos and megagametophytes of A. angustifolia throughout the germination process. Biochemical analyses were carried out in HPLC.
During seed germination, an increase in the (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio was recorded in embryos in both species. An increase in IAA and PA levels was also observed during seed germination in both embryos, while ABA levels showed a decrease in O. odorifera and an increase in A. angustifolia embryos throughout the period studied.
The (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio could be used as a marker for germination completion. The increase in IAA levels, prior to germination, could be associated with variations in PA content. The ABA mobilization observed in the embryos could represent a greater resistance to this hormone in recalcitrant seeds, in comparison to orthodox seeds, opening a new perspective for studies on the effects of this regulator in recalcitrant seeds. The gymnosperm seed, though without a connective tissue between megagametophyte and embryo, seems to be able to maintain communication between the tissues, based on the likely transport of plant growth regulators.
Ocotea odorifera; Araucaria angustifolia; endangered species; polyamines; ABA; IAA; recalcitrant seeds; germination; embryo; megagametophyte; Angiosperm; Gymnosperm
Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop with fleshy taproots as the edible parts. Little is known about the mechanism by which radishes respond to Pb stress at the molecular level. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)–based RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during Pb stress. A total of 68,940 assembled unique transcripts including 33,337 unigenes were obtained from radish root cDNA samples. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 4,614 DEGs were detected between the two libraries of untreated (CK) and Pb-treated (Pb1000) roots. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs under Pb stress are predominately involved in defense responses in cell walls and glutathione metabolism-related processes, while downregulated DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways. The expression patterns of 22 selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. Furthermore, many candidate genes, which were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors, metal transporters and chelate compound biosynthesis related enzymes, were successfully identified in response to heavy metal Pb. Identification of potential DEGs involved in responses to Pb stress significantly reflected alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. The molecular basis of the response to Pb stress in radishes was comprehensively characterized. Useful information and new insights were provided for investigating the molecular regulation mechanism of heavy metal Pb accumulation and tolerance in root vegetable crops.
Plant aminopropyltransferases consist of a group of enzymes that transfer aminopropyl groups derived from decarboxylated S-adenosyl-methionine (dcAdoMet or dcSAM) to propylamine acceptors to produce polyamines, ubiquitous metabolites with positive charge at physiological pH. Spermidine synthase (SPDS) uses putrescine as amino acceptor to form spermidine, whereas spermine synthase (SPMS) and thermospermine synthase (TSPMS) use spermidine as acceptor to synthesize the isomers spermine and thermospermine respectively. In previous work it was shown that both SPDS1 and SPDS2 can physically interact with SPMS although no data concerning the subcellular localization was reported. Here we study the subcellular localization of these enzymes and their protein dimer complexes with gateway-based Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) binary vectors. In addition, we have characterized the molecular weight of the enzyme complexes by gel filtration chromatography with in vitro assembled recombinant enzymes and with endogenous plant protein extracts. Our data suggest that aminopropyltransferases display a dual subcellular localization both in the cytosol and nuclear enriched fractions, and they assemble preferably as dimers. The BiFC transient expression data suggest that aminopropyltransferase heterodimer complexes take place preferentially inside the nucleus.
A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction–mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another.
comparative genomics; Raphanus sativus; SNP genotyping; synteny; chromosome homoeology
Polyamines are absolute requirements for cell growth. When in excess, Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses six γ-glutamylpolyamine synthetases (GPSs) encoded by the pauA1-pauA7 genes to initiate polyamine catabolism. Recently, the pauA2 mutant was reported to lose the capability to grow on spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd) as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Although this mutant grew normally in defined minimal medium and LB broth, growth was completely abolished by the addition of Spm or Spd. These two compounds exert a bactericidal effect (Spm > Spd) on the mutants as demonstrated by MIC measurements (over 500-fold reduction) and time-killing curves. Spm toxicity in the pauA2 mutant was attenuated when the major uptake system was further deleted from the strain, suggesting cytoplasmic targets of toxicity. In addition, the synergistic effect of Spm and carbenicillin in the wild-type strain PAO1 was diminished in mutants without functional PauA2. Furthermore, Spm MIC was reduced by 8-fold when the Spm uptake system was deleted from the wild-type strain, suggesting a second target of Spm toxicity in the periplasm. Experiments were also conducted to test the hypothesis that native Spm and Spd in human serum may be sufficient to kill the pauA2 mutant. Growth of the mutant was completely inhibited by 40% (vol/vol) human serum, whereas the parental strain required 80%. Colony counts indicated that the mutant but not the parent was in fact killed by human plasma. In addition, carbenicillin MIC against the mutant was reduced by 16-fold in the presence of 20% human serum while that of the parental strain remained unchanged. Taking PauA2 as the template, sequence comparison indicates that putative PauA2 homologues are widespread in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria. In summary, this study reveals the importance of GPS in alleviation of polyamine toxicity when in excess, and it provides strong support to the feasibility of GPS as a molecular target for new antibiotic development.
The dried ripe seed of Raphanus sativus L., commonly known as radish seed (or Raphani Semen), is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat constipation, chronic tracheitis, and hypertension. The major active compounds in Raphani Semen are alkaloids, glucosinolates, brassinosteroids, and flavonoids. Fatty acids are its main nutritional contents. Raphani Semen has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and cough. So far, there is no report about the adverse/toxic effects of this herb on humans. However, Raphani Semen processed by roasting was reported to exhibit some adverse effects on mice. Additionally, erucic acid, the main fatty acid in Raphani Semen, was shown to enhance the toxicity of doxorubicin. Thus, Raphani Semen has a potential risk of causing toxicity and drug interaction. In summary, Raphani Semen is a valuable TCM herb with multiple pharmacological effects. More studies on Raphani Semen could help better understand its pharmacological mechanisms so as to provide clear scientific evidence to explain its traditional uses, to identify its therapeutic potential on other diseases, and to understand its possible harmful effects.
Enormous work has shown that polyamines are involved in a variety of physiological processes, but information is scarce on the potential of modifying disease response through genetic transformation of a polyamine biosynthetic gene.
In the present work, an apple spermidine synthase gene (MdSPDS1) was introduced into sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Anliucheng') via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calluses. Two transgenic lines (TG4 and TG9) varied in the transgene expression and cellular endogenous polyamine contents. Pinprick inoculation demonstrated that the transgenic lines were less susceptible to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the causal agent of citrus canker, than the wild type plants (WT). In addition, our data showed that upon Xac attack TG9 had significantly higher free spermine (Spm) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity when compared with the WT, concurrent with an apparent hypersensitive response and the accumulation of more H2O2. Pretreatment of TG9 leaves with guazatine acetate, an inhibitor of PAO, repressed PAO activity and reduced H2O2 accumulation, leading to more conspicuous disease symptoms than the controls when both were challenged with Xac. Moreover, mRNA levels of most of the defense-related genes involved in synthesis of pathogenesis-related protein and jasmonic acid were upregulated in TG9 than in the WT regardless of Xac infection.
Our results demonstrated that overexpression of the MdSPDS1 gene prominently lowered the sensitivity of the transgenic plants to canker. This may be, at least partially, correlated with the generation of more H2O2 due to increased production of polyamines and enhanced PAO-mediated catabolism, triggering hypersensitive response or activation of defense-related genes.
The present study deals with the effects of 24-epibrassinolide on growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzyme activities, non-enzymatic antioxidants and protein content in 30 days old leaves of Brassica juncea (var. PBR 91) under zinc metal stress in field conditions. Surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea were given pre-soaking treatments of 24-EBL (10−10, 10−8 and 10−6 M) for 8 h. Different concentrations of zinc metal in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) were added in the soil kept in experimental pots. Seeds soaked in 24-EBL for 8 h were sown in the earthern pots containing different concentrations of Zn metal. After 30 days of sowing, the plants were analyzed for growth parameters in terms of shoot length and number of leaves. Thereafter, leaves were excised and content of proteins, non-enzymatic antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC 220.127.116.11) catalase (CAT) (EC 18.104.22.168), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) (EC 22.214.171.124), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) (EC 126.96.36.199) glutathione reductase (GR) (EC 188.8.131.52), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) (EC 184.108.40.206) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) (EC 220.127.116.11)) were analyzed. It was observed that the growth of plants was inhibited under Zn metal stress. However, 24-EBL seed-presoaking treatment improved the plant growth in terms of increase in shoot length. 24-EBL also mitigated the toxicity of Zn metal by increasing the number of leaves. The activities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APOX, MDHAR and DHAR) and contents of proteins and glutathione were also enhanced in leaves of plants treated with 24-EBL alone, 10−8 M concentration being the most effective. The activities of antioxidative enzymes also increased in leaves of B. juncea plants by the application 24-EBL supplemented Zn metal solutions. Similarly, the content of proteins and glutathione increased considerably in leaves of B. juncea plants treated with 24-EBL, whereas the level of MDA content decreased in 24-EBL treated plants as compared to untreated control plants thereby revealing stress-protective properties of the brassinolide.
Antioxidative enzymes; Brassica juncea; 24-epibrassinolide; Zn toxicity
Knowledge of the in vivo physiology and metabolism of Streptococcus pneumoniae is limited, even though pneumococci rely on efficient acquisition and metabolism of the host nutrients for growth and survival. Because the nutrient-limited, hypoxic host tissues favor mixed-acid fermentation, we studied the role of the pneumococcal pyruvate formate lyase (PFL), a key enzyme in mixed-acid fermentation, which is activated posttranslationally by PFL-activating enzyme (PFL-AE). Mutations were introduced to two putative pfl genes, SPD0235 and SPD0420, and two putative pflA genes, SPD0229 and SPD1774. End-product analysis showed that there was no formate, the main end product of the reaction catalyzed by PFL, produced by mutants defective in SPD0420 and SPD1774, indicating that SPD0420 codes for PFL and SPD1774 for putative PFL-AE. Expression of SPD0420 was elevated in galactose-containing medium in anaerobiosis compared to growth in glucose, and the mutation of SPD0420 resulted in the upregulation of fba and pyk, encoding, respectively, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and pyruvate kinase, under the same conditions. In addition, an altered fatty acid composition was detected in SPD0420 and SPD1774 mutants. Mice infected intranasally with the SPD0420 and SPD1774 mutants survived significantly longer than the wild type-infected cohort, and bacteremia developed later in the mutant cohort than in the wild type-infected group. Furthermore, the numbers of CFU of the SPD0420 mutant were lower in the nasopharynx and the lungs after intranasal infection, and fewer numbers of mutant CFU than of wild-type CFU were recovered from blood specimens after intravenous infection. The results demonstrate that there is a direct link between pneumococcal fermentative metabolism and virulence.
The reproduction of a Wyoming population of Heterodera schachtii was determined for resistant trap crop radish (Raphanus sativus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) cultivars, and resistant and susceptible sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivars in a greenhouse (21 °C/16 °C) and a growth chamber study (25 °C). Oil radish cultivars also were field tested in 2000 and 2001. In the greenhouse study, reproduction was suppressed similarly by the resistant sugar beet cultivar Nematop and all trap crop cultivars (P ≤ 0.05). In the growth chamber study, the radish cultivars were superior to most of the mustard cultivars in reducing nematode populations. All trap crops showed less reproduction than Nematop (P ≤ 0.05). In both studies, Nematop and all trap crops had lower Pf than susceptible sugar beet cultivars HH50 and HM9155 (P ≤ 0.05). In field studies, Rf values of radish cultivars decreased with increasing Pi of H. schachtii (r² = 0.59 in 2000 and r² = 0.26 in 2001). In 2000, trap crop radish cv. Colonel (Rf = 0.89) reduced nematode populations more than cv. Adagio (Rf = 4.67) and cv. Rimbo (Rf = 13.23) (P ≤ 0.05) when Pi was lower than 2.5 H. schachtii eggs and J2/cm³ soil. There were no differences in reproductive factors for radish cultivars in 2001 (P ≤ 0.05); Rf ranged from 0.23 for Adagio to 1.31 for Commodore for all Pi.
Beta vulgaris; cultivar; Heterodera schachtii; management; mustard; oil radish; Raphanus sativus; reproduction; resistance; Sinapis alba; sugar beet cyst nematode; trap crop
Amine oxidases (AOs) oxidize polyamines (PAs) to aldehydes, simultaneously producing the removed amine moiety and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). AOs, which include copper-containing amine oxidases (CuAOs) and flavin-containing amine oxidases (PAOs), are stress-inducible enzymes involved in both PA homeostasis and H2O2 production. Here, we suggest that H2O2 derived from PAO-mediated PA catabolism has a role in inducing root xylem differentiation during plant stress responses, whereas its involvement in this event during plant development under physiological conditions is not suitably supported by the currently available data. Moreover, we show that spermidine (Spd) supply leads to a higher induction of cell death in wild-type (WT) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants as compared to tobacco plants over-expressing maize (Zea mays) PAO (S-ZmPAO) in the cell wall, in apparent contradiction with the already reported results obtained by the analysis of the corresponding WT and S-ZmPAO Spd-untreated plants. Considering this last observation, we propose that PAs diversely affect plant development and stress responses depending on the expression levels of AOs, which in turn may lead to different plant responses by altering the PAs/H2O2 balance.
copper amine oxidase; hydrogen peroxide; PCD; polyamine; polyamine oxidase; xylem
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and many other bacteria can utilize biogenic polyamines, including diaminopropane (DAP), putrescine (Put), cadaverine (Cad), and spermidine (Spd), as carbon and/or nitrogen sources. Transcriptome analysis in response to exogenous Put and Spd led to the identification of a list of genes encoding putative enzymes for the catabolism of polyamines. Among them, pauA1 to pauA6, pauB1 to pauB4, pauC, and pauD1 and pauD2 (polyamine utilization) encode enzymes homologous to Escherichia coli PuuABCD of the γ-glutamylation pathway in converting Put into GABA. A series of unmarked pauA mutants was constructed for growth phenotype analysis. The results revealed that it requires specific combinations of pauA knockouts to abolish utilization of different polyamines and support the importance of γ-glutamylation for polyamine catabolism in P. aeruginosa. Another finding was that the list of Spd-inducible genes overlaps almost completely with that of Put-inducible ones except the pauA3B2 operon and the bauABCD operon (β-alanine utilization). Mutation analysis led to the conclusion that pauA3B2 participate in catabolism of DAP, which is related to the aminopropyl moiety of Spd, and that bauABCD are essential for growth on β-alanine derived from DAP (or Spd) catabolism via the γ-glutamylation pathway. Measurements of the pauA3-lacZ and bauA-lacZ expression indicated that these two promoters were differentially induced by Spd, DAP, and β-alanine but showed no apparent response to Put, Cad, and GABA. Induction of the pauA3 and bauA promoters was abolished in the bauR mutant. The recombinant BauR protein was purified to demonstrate its interactions with the pauA3 and bauA regulatory regions in vitro. In summary, the present study support that the γ-glutamylation pathway for polyamine utilization is evolutionarily conserved in E. coli and Pseudomonas spp. and is further expanded in Pseudomonas to accommodate a more diverse metabolic capacity in this group of microorganisms.
Cultivars of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera cv. Adagio, Nemex, Pegletta, Renova, Siletina, Siletta Nova, and Ultimo), white mustard (Sinapis alba cv. Albatross, Emergo, Maxi, Martigena, Metex, and Serval), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum cv. Prego, Tardo), and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. Angelia) were tested for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers at 25 C and 16 hours light for 42 days after inoculation with second-stage juveniles (J2). All cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and M. javanica. The oilseed radish (cv. Nemex, Pegletta, and Renova) and white mustard (cv. Emergo) were also examined to determine the influence of Heterodera schachtii on susceptibility to Plasmodiophora brassicae as measured by incidence and severity of root galling. All cultivars were susceptible, and neither the severity nor incidence of clubroot galling was affected by H. schachtii.
buckwheat; clubroot of crucifers; Fagopyrum esculentum; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode; oilseed radish; Phacelia tanacetifolia; Plasmodiophora brassicae; Raphanus sativus; root-knot nematode; Sinapis alba; trap crop; white mustard
The zone of root hair formation of seedling radish roots, Raphanus sativus L., was studied by phase-contrast and electron microscopy. Localized dilations of the endoplasmic reticulum, which contained a moderately dense proteinaceous material, were found to be a common component of the cytoplasm in cells of the epidermis and cortex. The surfaces of these dilations were covered with polyribosomes in discrete coils commonly composed of 15 to 17 ribosomes. The function of these structures and the fate of the material accumulated in them are unknown. Their similarity to structures described in some types of animal cells is discussed.
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to Brassicaceae family and is a close relative of Brassica. This species shows a wide morphological diversity, and is an important vegetable especially in Asia. However, molecular research of radish is behind compared to that of Brassica. For example, reports on SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers are limited. Here, we designed 417 radish SSR markers from SSR-enriched genomic libraries and the cDNA data. Of the 256 SSR markers succeeded in PCR, 130 showed clear polymorphisms between two radish lines; a rat-tail radish and a Japanese cultivar, ‘Harufuku’. As a test case for evaluation of the present SSRs, we conducted two studies. First, we selected 16 SSRs to calculate polymorphism information contents (PICs) using 16 radish cultivars and four other Brassicaceae species. These markers detected 3–15 alleles (average = 9.6). PIC values ranged from 0.54 to 0.92 (average = 0.78). Second, part of the present SSRs were tested for mapping using our previously-examined mapping population. The map spanned 672.7 cM with nine linkage groups (LGs). The 21 radish SSR markers were distributed throughout the LGs. The SSR markers developed here would be informative and useful for genetic analysis in radish and its related species.
Radish; Raphanus sativus; SSR (simple sequence repeat) marker