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1.  Construction of Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Using a Wild Synthetic and QTL Mapping for Plant Morphology 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e48642.
Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are powerful QTL mapping populations that have been used to elucidate the molecular basis of interesting traits of wild species. Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid with limited genetic diversity. Capturing the genetic diversity from peanut wild relatives is an important objective in many peanut breeding programs. In this study, we used a marker-assisted backcrossing strategy to produce a population of 122 CSSLs from the cross between the wild synthetic allotetraploid (A. ipaënsis×A. duranensis)4x and the cultivated Fleur11 variety. The 122 CSSLs offered a broad coverage of the peanut genome, with target wild chromosome segments averaging 39.2 cM in length. As a demonstration of the utility of these lines, four traits were evaluated in a subset of 80 CSSLs. A total of 28 lines showed significant differences from Fleur11. The line×trait significant associations were assigned to 42 QTLs: 14 for plant growth habit, 15 for height of the main stem, 12 for plant spread and one for flower color. Among the 42 QTLs, 37 were assigned to genomic regions and three QTL positions were considered putative. One important finding arising from this QTL analysis is that peanut growth habit is a complex trait that is governed by several QTLs with different effects. The CSSL population developed in this study has proved efficient for deciphering the molecular basis of trait variations and will be useful to the peanut scientific community for future QTL mapping studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048642
PMCID: PMC3501512  PMID: 23185268
2.  A high-density genetic map of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:469.
Background
Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid species whose ancestral genomes are most likely derived from the A-genome species, A. duranensis, and the B-genome species, A. ipaensis. The very recent (several millennia) evolutionary origin of A. hypogaea has imposed a bottleneck for allelic and phenotypic diversity within the cultigen. However, wild diploid relatives are a rich source of alleles that could be used for crop improvement and their simpler genomes can be more easily analyzed while providing insight into the structure of the allotetraploid peanut genome. The objective of this research was to establish a high-density genetic map of the diploid species A. duranensis based on de novo generated EST databases. Arachis duranensis was chosen for mapping because it is the A-genome progenitor of cultivated peanut and also in order to circumvent the confounding effects of gene duplication associated with allopolyploidy in A. hypogaea.
Results
More than one million expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences generated from normalized cDNA libraries of A. duranensis were assembled into 81,116 unique transcripts. Mining this dataset, 1236 EST-SNP markers were developed between two A. duranensis accessions, PI 475887 and Grif 15036. An additional 300 SNP markers also were developed from genomic sequences representing conserved legume orthologs. Of the 1536 SNP markers, 1054 were placed on a genetic map. In addition, 598 EST-SSR markers identified in A. hypogaea assemblies were included in the map along with 37 disease resistance gene candidate (RGC) and 35 other previously published markers. In total, 1724 markers spanning 1081.3 cM over 10 linkage groups were mapped. Gene sequences that provided mapped markers were annotated using similarity searches in three different databases, and gene ontology descriptions were determined using the Medicago Gene Atlas and TAIR databases. Synteny analysis between A. duranensis, Medicago and Glycine revealed significant stretches of conserved gene clusters spread across the peanut genome. A higher level of colinearity was detected between A. duranensis and Glycine than with Medicago.
Conclusions
The first high-density, gene-based linkage map for A. duranensis was generated that can serve as a reference map for both wild and cultivated Arachis species. The markers developed here are valuable resources for the peanut, and more broadly, to the legume research community. The A-genome map will have utility for fine mapping in other peanut species and has already had application for mapping a nematode resistance gene that was introgressed into A. hypogaea from A. cardenasii.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-469
PMCID: PMC3542255  PMID: 22967170
3.  BAC libraries construction from the ancestral diploid genomes of the allotetraploid cultivated peanut 
BMC Plant Biology  2008;8:14.
Background
Cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea is an allotetraploid of recent origin, with an AABB genome. In common with many other polyploids, it seems that a severe genetic bottle-neck was imposed at the species origin, via hybridisation of two wild species and spontaneous chromosome duplication. Therefore, the study of the genome of peanut is hampered both by the crop's low genetic diversity and its polyploidy. In contrast to cultivated peanut, most wild Arachis species are diploid with high genetic diversity. The study of diploid Arachis genomes is therefore attractive, both to simplify the construction of genetic and physical maps, and for the isolation and characterization of wild alleles. The most probable wild ancestors of cultivated peanut are A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis with genome types AA and BB respectively.
Results
We constructed and characterized two large-insert libraries in Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) vector, one for each of the diploid ancestral species. The libraries (AA and BB) are respectively c. 7.4 and c. 5.3 genome equivalents with low organelle contamination and average insert sizes of 110 and 100 kb. Both libraries were used for the isolation of clones containing genetically mapped legume anchor markers (single copy genes), and resistance gene analogues.
Conclusion
These diploid BAC libraries are important tools for the isolation of wild alleles conferring resistances to biotic stresses, comparisons of orthologous regions of the AA and BB genomes with each other and with other legume species, and will facilitate the construction of a physical map.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-8-14
PMCID: PMC2254395  PMID: 18230166
4.  Identification of several small main-effect QTLs and a large number of epistatic QTLs for drought tolerance related traits in groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) 
Cultivated groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40), is a self pollinated and widely grown crop in the semi-arid regions of the world. Improvement of drought tolerance is an important area of research for groundnut breeding programmes. Therefore, for the identification of candidate QTLs for drought tolerance, a comprehensive and refined genetic map containing 191 SSR loci based on a single mapping population (TAG 24 × ICGV 86031), segregating for drought and surrogate traits was developed. Genotyping data and phenotyping data collected for more than ten drought related traits in 2–3 seasons were analyzed in detail for identification of main effect QTLs (M-QTLs) and epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) using QTL Cartographer, QTLNetwork and Genotype Matrix Mapping (GMM) programmes. A total of 105 M-QTLs with 3.48–33.36% phenotypic variation explained (PVE) were identified using QTL Cartographer, while only 65 M-QTLs with 1.3–15.01% PVE were identified using QTLNetwork. A total of 53 M-QTLs were such which were identified using both programmes. On the other hand, GMM identified 186 (8.54–44.72% PVE) and 63 (7.11–21.13% PVE), three and two loci interactions, whereas only 8 E-QTL interactions with 1.7–8.34% PVE were identified through QTLNetwork. Interestingly a number of co-localized QTLs controlling 2–9 traits were also identified. The identification of few major, many minor M-QTLs and QTL × QTL interactions during the present study confirmed the complex and quantitative nature of drought tolerance in groundnut. This study suggests deployment of modern approaches like marker-assisted recurrent selection or genomic selection instead of marker-assisted backcrossing approach for breeding for drought tolerance in groundnut.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1517-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1517-0
PMCID: PMC3057011  PMID: 21191568
Peanut; Drought tolerance; Genetic map; Molecular markers; Main-effect QTLs; Epistatic QTLs; Molecular breeding
5.  A SSR-based composite genetic linkage map for the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome 
BMC Plant Biology  2010;10:17.
Background
The construction of genetic linkage maps for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has and continues to be an important research goal to facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection in breeding. Even though a few maps have been developed, they were constructed using diploid or interspecific tetraploid populations. The most recently published intra-specific map was constructed from the cross of cultivated peanuts, in which only 135 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were sparsely populated in 22 linkage groups. The more detailed linkage map with sufficient markers is necessary to be feasible for QTL identification and marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank.
Results
Three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations were constructed from three crosses with one common female parental line Yueyou 13, a high yielding Spanish market type. The four parents were screened with 1044 primer pairs designed to amplify SSRs and 901 primer pairs produced clear PCR products. Of the 901 primer pairs, 146, 124 and 64 primer pairs (markers) were polymorphic in these populations, respectively, and used in genotyping these RIL populations. Individual linkage maps were constructed from each of the three populations and a composite map based on 93 common loci were created using JoinMap. The composite linkage maps consist of 22 composite linkage groups (LG) with 175 SSR markers (including 47 SSRs on the published AA genome maps), representing the 20 chromosomes of A. hypogaea. The total composite map length is 885.4 cM, with an average marker density of 5.8 cM. Segregation distortion in the 3 populations was 23.0%, 13.5% and 7.8% of the markers, respectively. These distorted loci tended to cluster on LG1, LG3, LG4 and LG5. There were only 15 EST-SSR markers mapped due to low polymorphism. By comparison, there were potential synteny, collinear order of some markers and conservation of collinear linkage groups among the maps and with the AA genome but not fully conservative.
Conclusion
A composite linkage map was constructed from three individual mapping populations with 175 SSR markers in 22 composite linkage groups. This composite genetic linkage map is among the first "true" tetraploid peanut maps produced. This map also consists of 47 SSRs that have been used in the published AA genome maps, and could be used in comparative mapping studies. The primers described in this study are PCR-based markers, which are easy to share for genetic mapping in peanuts. All 1044 primer pairs are provided as additional files and the three RIL populations will be made available to public upon request for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and linkage map improvement.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-17
PMCID: PMC2835713  PMID: 20105299
6.  Generation of a Multi-Locus Chicken Introgression Line to Study the Effects of Genetic Interactions on Metabolic Phenotypes in Chickens 
Most biological traits are regulated by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. By intercrossing divergent lines, it is possible to identify individual and interacting QTL involved in the genetic architecture of these traits. When the loci have been mapped, alternative strategies are needed for fine-mapping and studying the individual and interactive effects of the QTL in detail. We have previously identified, replicated, and fine mapped a four-locus QTL network that determines nearly half of the eightfold difference in body weight at 56 days of age between two divergently selected chicken lines. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first generation of a three-locus QTL introgression line in chickens. Recurrent marker-assisted backcrossing was used to simultaneously transfer QTL alleles from the low-weight selected line into the high-weight selected line. Three generations of backcrossing and one generation of intercrossing resulted in an introgression line where all three introgressed QTL and several unlinked and linked control-loci were segregating at nearly expected allele frequencies. We show how intensive selection can be applied using artificial insemination to rapidly generate a multi-locus introgression line and provide recommendations for future breeding of introgression lines. This confirmed introgression line will facilitate later detailed studies of the effects of genetic interactions on complex traits in this population, including growth, and body-composition traits.
doi:10.3389/fgene.2012.00029
PMCID: PMC3291857  PMID: 22403584
chicken; introgression; QTL; epistasis
7.  Combined detection and introgression of QTL in outbred populations 
Background
Detecting a QTL is only the first step in genetic improvement programs. When a QTL with desirable characteristics is found, e.g. in a wild or unimproved population, it may be interesting to introgress the detected QTL into the commercial population. One approach to shorten the time needed for introgression is to combine both QTL identification and introgression, into a single step. This combines the strengths of fine mapping and backcrossing and paves the way for introgression of desirable but unknown QTL into recipient animal and plant lines.
Methods
The method consisting in combining QTL mapping and gene introgression has been extended from inbred to outbred populations in which QTL allele frequencies vary both in recipient and donor lines in different scenarios and for which polygenic effects are included in order to model background genes. The effectiveness of the combined QTL detection and introgression procedure was evaluated by simulation through four backcross generations.
Results
The allele substitution effect is underestimated when the favourable QTL allele is not fixed in the donor line. This underestimation is proportional to the frequency differences of the favourable QTL allele between the lines. In most scenarios, the estimates of the QTL location are unbiased and accurate. The retained donor chromosome segment and linkage drag are similar to expected values from other published studies.
Conclusions
In general, our results show that it is possible to combine QTL detection and introgression even in outbred species. Separating QTL mapping and introgression processes is often thought to be longer and more costly. However, using a combined process saves at least one generation. With respect to the linkage drag and obligatory drag, the results of the combined detection and introgression scheme are very similar to those of traditional introgression schemes.
doi:10.1186/1297-9686-42-16
PMCID: PMC2900242  PMID: 20525260
8.  Identification of candidate genome regions controlling disease resistance in Arachis 
BMC Plant Biology  2009;9:112.
Background
Worldwide, diseases are important reducers of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) yield. Sources of resistance against many diseases are available in cultivated peanut genotypes, although often not in farmer preferred varieties. Wild species generally harbor greater levels of resistance and even apparent immunity, although the linkage of agronomically un-adapted wild alleles with wild disease resistance genes is inevitable. Marker-assisted selection has the potential to facilitate the combination of both cultivated and wild resistance loci with agronomically adapted alleles. However, in peanut there is an almost complete lack of knowledge of the regions of the Arachis genome that control disease resistance.
Results
In this work we identified candidate genome regions that control disease resistance. For this we placed candidate disease resistance genes and QTLs against late leaf spot disease on the genetic map of the A-genome of Arachis, which is based on microsatellite markers and legume anchor markers. These marker types are transferable within the genus Arachis and to other legumes respectively, enabling this map to be aligned to other Arachis maps and to maps of other legume crops including those with sequenced genomes. In total, 34 sequence-confirmed candidate disease resistance genes and five QTLs were mapped.
Conclusion
Candidate genes and QTLs were distributed on all linkage groups except for the smallest, but the distribution was not even. Groupings of candidate genes and QTLs for late leaf spot resistance were apparent on the upper region of linkage group 4 and the lower region of linkage group 2, indicating that these regions are likely to control disease resistance.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-9-112
PMCID: PMC2739205  PMID: 19698131
9.  A locally congenic backcross design in pig: a new regional fine QTL mapping approach miming congenic strains used in mouse 
BMC Genetics  2011;12:6.
Background
In previous studies, a major QTL affecting fatness and growth has been mapped to pig chromosome 1q (SSC1q) using Large White - Meishan intercrosses. A higher fat depth and a larger growth rate have been reported for the allele of MS origin. Additionally the LW allele showed partial dominance effects over the MS allele for both traits. In order to refine the QTL mapping interval, advanced backcross generations were produced. Recombinant heterozygous sires were mated to LW sows in order to progeny test the sire segregation of the QTL and refine the QTL localisation. However due to the partial dominance of the LW allele, BC scheme using LW as the receiving population was not optimal.
Results
To overcome the difficulties related to the dominance of the LW QTL allele, a population of dams locally homozygous for the MS haplotype in the QTL region, but with an overall 29/32 LW genetic background, has been set up. Progeny testing results, using these receiver dams, were much more significant than those previously obtained with LW dams, and the SSC1 QTL interval was refined to 8 cM. Considering the results obtained, a powerful experimental design for farm animals is proposed, mimicking locally genetically identical strains used in mouse for QTL fine mapping.
Conclusions
We have further characterized the fatness QTL on pig chromosome 1 and refined its map position from a 30 cM interval to a 8 cM interval, using a locally congenic BC design. We have obtained highly significant results and overcome difficulties due to the dominance of the LW allele. This design will be used to produce additional, advanced BC families to further refine this QTL localization.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-12-6
PMCID: PMC3748014  PMID: 21235745
10.  Genome Dissection of Traits Related to Domestication in Azuki Bean (Vigna angularis) and Comparison with other Warm-season Legumes 
Annals of Botany  2007;100(5):1053-1071.
Background
The objective of this study was to dissect into quantitative trait loci (QTLs) the large morphological and physiological differences between cultivated azuki bean (Vigna angularis) and a wild relative and to infer the commonalities of the QTLs for domestication-related traits across the Asian Vigna and with other warm-season legumes.
Methods
Two linkage maps, for the BC1F1 and F2 populations, respectively, from the same cross between azuki bean and V. nepalensis were developed. Using these linkage maps QTLs for 33 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. The location of mapped QTLs was compared with locations of similar QTLs in other warm-season legumes.
Key Results
QTLs were detected for seed-, pod-, stem- and leaf-related traits. Most traits were controlled by between two and nine QTLs but several traits, such as pod dehiscence, were controlled by single genes. QTLs for domestication-related traits were restricted to particular regions of the azuki bean genome, especially linkage groups 1, 2, 4, 7 and 9. Linkage groups 1 and 2 had QTLs for a suite of traits including pod size, germination, seed size and lower stem length. QTLs on linkage groups 7 and 9 were associated with upper stem length, maximum leaf size and pod and seed size. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for domestication-related traits is suggested in these regions. While some QTLs are common to azuki bean and other warm-season legumes, many are recorded for the first time in azuki bean.
Conclusions
QTLs for a large number of domestication-related traits have been mapped for the first time in azuki bean. QTLs with unexpected effect and new QTLs for traits such as seed size have been found. The results provide a foundation that will be useful for improvement of azuki bean and related legumes.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcm155
PMCID: PMC2759210  PMID: 17728336
Azuki bean; Vigna angularis var. angularis; Vigna nepalensis; wild species; QTL; microsatellite
11.  Genetic Control and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Flowering Time in Setaria (Poaceae) 
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2013;3(2):283-295.
We report the first study on the genetic control of flowering in Setaria, a panicoid grass closely related to switchgrass, and in the same subfamily as maize and sorghum. A recombinant inbred line mapping population derived from a cross between domesticated Setaria italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative Setaria viridis (green millet), was grown in eight trials with varying environmental conditions to identify a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control differences in flowering time. Many of the QTL across trials colocalize, suggesting that the genetic control of flowering in Setaria is robust across a range of photoperiod and other environmental factors. A detailed comparison of QTL for flowering in Setaria, sorghum, and maize indicates that several of the major QTL regions identified in maize and sorghum are syntenic orthologs with Setaria QTL, although the maize large effect QTL on chromosome 10 is not. Several Setaria QTL intervals had multiple LOD peaks and were composed of multiple syntenic blocks, suggesting that observed QTL represent multiple tightly linked loci. Candidate genes from flowering time pathways identified in rice and Arabidopsis were identified in Setaria QTL intervals, including those involved in the CONSTANS photoperiod pathway. However, only three of the approximately seven genes cloned for flowering time in maize colocalized with Setaria QTL. This suggests that variation in flowering time in separate grass lineages is controlled by a combination of conserved and lineage specific genes.
doi:10.1534/g3.112.005207
PMCID: PMC3564988  PMID: 23390604
Setaria; foxtail millet; QTL mapping; flowering time; comparative genomics
12.  Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Genetic Analysis of Domestication Related Traits in Mungbean (Vigna radiata) 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e41304.
The genetic differences between mungbean and its presumed wild ancestor were analyzed for domestication related traits by QTL mapping. A genetic linkage map of mungbean was constructed using 430 SSR and EST-SSR markers from mungbean and its related species, and all these markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups spanning a total of 727.6 cM. The present mungbean map is the first map where the number of linkage groups coincided with the haploid chromosome number of mungbean. In total 105 QTLs and genes for 38 domestication related traits were identified. Compared with the situation in other Vigna crops, many linkage groups have played an important role in the domestication of mungbean. In particular the QTLs with high contribution were distributed on seven out of 11 linkage groups. In addition, a large number of QTLs with small contribution were found. The accumulation of many mutations with large and/or small contribution has contributed to the differentiation between wild and cultivated mungbean. The useful QTLs for seed size, pod dehiscence and pod maturity that have not been found in other Asian Vigna species were identified in mungbean, and these QTLs may play the important role as new gene resources for other Asian Vigna species. The results provide the foundation that will be useful for improvement of mungbean and related legumes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041304
PMCID: PMC3410902  PMID: 22876284
13.  Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:548246.
The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.
doi:10.1155/2013/548246
PMCID: PMC3671283  PMID: 23766697
14.  Genetic mapping of wild introgressions into cultivated peanut: a way toward enlarging the genetic basis of a recent allotetraploid 
BMC Plant Biology  2009;9:103.
Background
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is widely used as a food and cash crop around the world. It is considered to be an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) originated from a single hybridization event between two wild diploids. The most probable hypothesis gave A. duranensis as the wild donor of the A genome and A. ipaënsis as the wild donor of the B genome. A low level of molecular polymorphism is found in cultivated germplasm and up to date few genetic linkage maps have been published. The utilization of wild germplasm in breeding programs has received little attention due to the reproductive barriers between wild and cultivated species and to the technical difficulties encountered in making large number of crosses. We report here the development of a SSR based genetic map and the analysis of genome-wide segment introgressions into the background of a cultivated variety through the utilization of a synthetic amphidiploid between A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis.
Results
Two hundred ninety eight (298) loci were mapped in 21 linkage groups (LGs), spanning a total map distance of 1843.7 cM with an average distance of 6.1 cM between adjacent markers. The level of polymorphism observed between the parent of the amphidiploid and the cultivated variety is consistent with A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis being the most probable donor of the A and B genomes respectively. The synteny analysis between the A and B genomes revealed an overall good collinearity of the homeologous LGs. The comparison with the diploid and tetraploid maps shed new light on the evolutionary forces that contributed to the divergence of the A and B genome species and raised the question of the classification of the B genome species. Structural modifications such as chromosomal segment inversions and a major translocation event prior to the tetraploidisation of the cultivated species were revealed. Marker assisted selection of BC1F1 and then BC2F1 lines carrying the desirable donor segment with the best possible return to the background of the cultivated variety provided a set of lines offering an optimal distribution of the wild introgressions.
Conclusion
The genetic map developed, allowed the synteny analysis of the A and B genomes, the comparison with diploid and tetraploid maps and the analysis of the introgression segments from the wild synthetic into the background of a cultivated variety. The material we have produced in this study should facilitate the development of advanced backcross and CSSL breeding populations for the improvement of cultivated peanut.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-9-103
PMCID: PMC3091533  PMID: 19650911
15.  Genetic dissection of the developmental behaviours of plant height in wheat under diverse water regimes 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2010;61(11):2923-2937.
Plant height (PH), a crucial trait related to yield potential in crop plants, is known to be typically quantitatively inherited. However, its full expression can be inhibited by a limited water supply. In this study, the genetic basis of the developmental behaviour of PH was assessed in a 150-line wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled haploid population (Hanxuan 10×Lumai 14) grown in 10 environments (year×site×water regime combinations) by unconditional and conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses in a mixed linear model. Genes that were expressed selectively during ontogeny were identified. No single QTL was continually active in all periods of PH growth, and QTLs with additive effects (A-QTLs) expressed in the period S1|S0 (the period from the original point to the jointing stage) formed a foundation for PH development. Additive main effects (a effects), which were mostly expressed in S1|S0, were more important than epistatic main effects (aa effects) or QTL×environment interaction (QE) effects, suggesting that S1|S0 was the most significant development period affecting PH growth. A few QTLs, such as QPh.cgb-6B.7, showed high adaptability for water-limited environments. Many QTLs, including four A-QTLs (QPh.cgb-2D.1, QPh.cgb-4B.1, QPh.cgb-4D.1, and QPh.cgb-5A.7) coincident with previously identified reduced height (Rht) genes (Rht8, Rht1, Rht2, and Rht9), interacted with more than one other QTL, indicating that the genetic architecture underlying PH development is a network of genes with additive and epistatic effects. Therefore, based on multilocus combinations in S1|S0, superior genotypes were predicted for guiding improvements in breeding for PH.
doi:10.1093/jxb/erq117
PMCID: PMC3298886  PMID: 20497970
Development; drought stress; epistasis; plant height; quantitative trait loci; Triticum aestivum L
16.  Candidate gene polymorphisms associated with salt tolerance in wild sunflower hybrids: implications for the origin of Helianthus paradoxus, a diploid hybrid species 
The New phytologist  2004;161(1):225-233.
Summary
We have studied the origin of salt adaptation in wild sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus × H. petiolaris), the precursors of the diploid hybrid species H. paradoxus, at the level of phenotypic traits and quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, we review this work and present new results on candidate gene polymorphisms.
Salt tolerance candidate genes were identified in expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of sunflower, based on homology to genes with known function, and on previous QTL results. EST polymorphisms were assayed by denaturing HPLC and for which fitness estimates in the wild genetically mapped in an interspecific BC2 were available.
Out of 11 genes studied, one mapped to a salt tolerance QTL. This EST codes for a Ca-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and stems from stress-induced root tissue of Helianthus annuus. Two additional stress-induced genes exhibited a significant fitness effect in the wild: an ER-type calcium ATPase, and a transcriptional regulator.
Our results suggest a possible adaptive role for Ca-dependent salt tolerance genes in wild sunflower hybrids. Also, transgressive segregation appears to be sufficient to explain the origin of adaptive genetic variation in hybrids.
doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00925.x
PMCID: PMC2601661  PMID: 19079642
salt tolerance; candidate gene approach; quantitative trait loci (QTL); hybridization; hybrid speciation; transgressive segregation; ecological divergence; natural selection
17.  QTL Mapping of Domestication-related Traits in Soybean (Glycine max) 
Annals of Botany  2007;100(5):1027-1038.
Background and Aims
Understanding the genetic basis underlying domestication-related traits (DRTs) is important in order to use wild germplasm efficiently for improving yield, stress tolerance and quality of crops. This study was conducted to characterize the genetic basis of DRTs in soybean (Glycine max) using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping.
Methods
A population of 96 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cultivated (ssp. max) × wild (ssp. soja) cross was used for mapping and QTL analysis. Nine DRTs were examined in 2004 and 2005. A linkage map was constructed with 282 markers by the Kosambi function, and the QTL was detected by composite interval mapping.
Key Results
The early flowering and determinate habit derived from the max parent were each controlled by one major QTL, corresponding to the major genes for maturity (e1) and determinate habit (dt1), respectively. There were only one or two significant QTLs for twinning habit, pod dehiscence, seed weight and hard seededness, which each accounted for approx. 20–50 % of the total variance. A comparison with the QTLs detected previously indicated that in pod dehiscence and hard seededness, at least one major QTL was common across different crosses, whereas no such consistent QTL existed for seed weight.
Conclusions
Most of the DRTs in soybeans were conditioned by one or two major QTLs and a number of genotype-dependent minor QTLs. The common major QTLs identified in pod dehiscence and hard seededness may have been key loci in the domestication of soybean. The evolutionary changes toward larger seed may have occurred through the accumulation of minor changes at many QTLs. Since the major QTLs for DRTs were scattered across only six of the 20 linkage groups, and since the QTLs were not clustered, introgression of useful genes from wild to cultivated soybeans can be carried out without large obstacles.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcm149
PMCID: PMC2759197  PMID: 17684023
Soybean; Glycine max; domestication related traits; QTL; hard seededness; seed size; pod dehiscence; twinning habit
18.  Construction of a potato consensus map and QTL meta-analysis offer new insights into the genetic architecture of late blight resistance and plant maturity traits 
BMC Plant Biology  2011;11:16.
Background
Integrating QTL results from independent experiments performed on related species helps to survey the genetic diversity of loci/alleles underlying complex traits, and to highlight potential targets for breeding or QTL cloning. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) late blight resistance has been thoroughly studied, generating mapping data for many Rpi-genes (R-genes to Phytophthora infestans) and QTLs (quantitative trait loci). Moreover, late blight resistance was often associated with plant maturity. To get insight into the genomic organization of late blight resistance loci as compared to maturity QTLs, a QTL meta-analysis was performed for both traits.
Results
Nineteen QTL publications for late blight resistance were considered, seven of them reported maturity QTLs. Twenty-one QTL maps and eight reference maps were compiled to construct a 2,141-marker consensus map on which QTLs were projected and clustered into meta-QTLs. The whole-genome QTL meta-analysis reduced by six-fold late blight resistance QTLs (by clustering 144 QTLs into 24 meta-QTLs), by ca. five-fold maturity QTLs (by clustering 42 QTLs into eight meta-QTLs), and by ca. two-fold QTL confidence interval mean. Late blight resistance meta-QTLs were observed on every chromosome and maturity meta-QTLs on only six chromosomes.
Conclusions
Meta-analysis helped to refine the genomic regions of interest frequently described, and provided the closest flanking markers. Meta-QTLs of late blight resistance and maturity juxtaposed along chromosomes IV, V and VIII, and overlapped on chromosomes VI and XI. The distribution of late blight resistance meta-QTLs is significantly independent from those of Rpi-genes, resistance gene analogs and defence-related loci. The anchorage of meta-QTLs to the potato genome sequence, recently publicly released, will especially improve the candidate gene selection to determine the genes underlying meta-QTLs. All mapping data are available from the Sol Genomics Network (SGN) database.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-11-16
PMCID: PMC3037844  PMID: 21247437
19.  Genetic analysis of safflower domestication 
BMC Plant Biology  2014;14:43.
Background
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an oilseed crop in the Compositae (a.k.a. Asteraceae) that is valued for its oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present an analysis of the genetic architecture of safflower domestication and compare our findings to those from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an independently domesticated oilseed crop within the same family.
We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying 24 domestication-related traits in progeny from a cross between safflower and its wild progenitor, Carthamus palaestinus Eig. Also, we compared QTL positions in safflower against those that have been previously identified in cultivated x wild sunflower crosses to identify instances of colocalization.
Results
We mapped 61 QTL, the vast majority of which (59) exhibited minor or moderate phenotypic effects. The two large-effect QTL corresponded to one each for flower color and leaf spininess. A total of 14 safflower QTL colocalized with previously reported sunflower QTL for the same traits. Of these, QTL for three traits (days to flower, achene length, and number of selfed seed) had cultivar alleles that conferred effects in the same direction in both species.
Conclusions
As has been observed in sunflower, and unlike many other crops, our results suggest that the genetics of safflower domestication is quite complex. Moreover, our comparative mapping results indicate that safflower and sunflower exhibit numerous instances of QTL colocalization, suggesting that parallel trait transitions during domestication may have been driven, at least in part, by parallel genotypic evolution at some of the same underlying genes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-14-43
PMCID: PMC3925122  PMID: 24502326
Carthamus; Domestication; Comparative genetic mapping; Helianthus; Parallel evolution; QTL analysis; Safflower; Sunflower
20.  Failure to Replicate Two Mate Preference QTLs across Multiple Strains of Drosophila pseudoobscura 
Journal of Heredity  2008;99(6):653-656.
Behavioral genetic mapping studies in model organisms predominantly use crosses originating from a single pair of inbred lines to determine the location of alleles that confer genetic variation in the trait of interest, and they often make sweeping generalizations about the genetic architecture of the trait based on these results. A previous study fine mapped mate preference variation between one pair of Drosophila pseudoobscura lines and identified 2 strong-effect behavioral quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, we replicated the previous study's mapping design to examine the extent of variation at these behavioral QTLs across 6 pairs of lines, but we were unable to detect effects of either QTL region in the pairs of lines studied. We suggest that the low-discrimination alleles at these 2 QTLs may occur at low frequency within D. pseudoobscura, although other explanations for the inconsistency are possible. These results underscore the need to examine multiple strains across a species when describing the genetic variation underlying behavioral traits.
doi:10.1093/jhered/esn069
PMCID: PMC2574947  PMID: 18728083
Drosophila; QTL mapping; sexual isolation; species discrimination
21.  Failure to replicate two mate preference QTLs across multiple strains of Drosophila pseudoobscura 
The Journal of heredity  2008;99(6):653-656.
Behavioral genetic mapping studies in model organisms predominantly use crosses originating from a single pair of inbred lines to determine the location of alleles that confer genetic variation in the trait of interest, and they often make sweeping generalizations about the genetic architecture of the trait based on these results. A previous study fine-mapped mate preference variation between one pair of Drosophila pseudoobscura lines and identified two strong-effect behavioral QTLs. Here, we replicated the previous study's mapping design to examine the extent of variation at these behavioral QTLs across six pairs of lines, but we were unable to detect effects of either QTL region in the pairs of lines studied. We suggest that the low-discrimination alleles at these two QTLs may occur at low frequency within D. pseudoobscura, although other explanations for the inconsistency are possible. These results underscore the need to examine multiple strains across a species when describing the genetic variation underlying behavioral traits.
doi:10.1093/jhered/esn069
PMCID: PMC2574947  PMID: 18728083
Drosophila; sexual isolation; species discrimination; QTL mapping
22.  Genetic basis of qualitative and quantitative resistance to powdery mildew in wheat: from consensus regions to candidate genes 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:562.
Background
Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. The objective of this study was to identify the wheat genomic regions that are involved in the control of powdery mildew resistance through a quantitative trait loci (QTL) meta-analysis approach. This meta-analysis allows the use of collected QTL data from different published studies to obtain consensus QTL across different genetic backgrounds, thus providing a better definition of the regions responsible for the trait, and the possibility to obtain molecular markers that will be suitable for marker-assisted selection.
Results
Five QTL for resistance to powdery mildew were identified under field conditions in the durum-wheat segregating population Creso × Pedroso. An integrated map was developed for the projection of resistance genes/ alleles and the QTL from the present study and the literature, and to investigate their distribution in the wheat genome. Molecular markers that correspond to candidate genes for plant responses to pathogens were also projected onto the map, particularly considering NBS-LRR and receptor-like protein kinases. More than 80 independent QTL and 51 resistance genes from 62 different mapping populations were projected onto the consensus map using the Biomercator statistical software. Twenty-four MQTL that comprised 2–6 initial QTL that had widely varying confidence intervals were found on 15 chromosomes. The co-location of the resistance QTL and genes was investigated. Moreover, from analysis of the sequences of DArT markers, 28 DArT clones mapped on wheat chromosomes have been shown to be associated with the NBS-LRR genes and positioned in the same regions as the MQTL for powdery mildew resistance.
Conclusions
The results from the present study provide a detailed analysis of the genetic basis of resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. The study of the Creso × Pedroso durum-wheat population has revealed some QTL that had not been previously identified. Furthermore, the analysis of the co-localization of resistance loci and functional markers provides a large list of candidate genes and opens up a new perspective for the fine mapping and isolation of resistance genes, and for the marker-assisted improvement of resistance in wheat.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-562
PMCID: PMC3765315  PMID: 23957646
Wheat; Powdery mildew; MQTL; Collinearity; Resistance gene
23.  QTL Analysis of High Thermotolerance with Superior and Downgraded Parental Yeast Strains Reveals New Minor QTLs and Converges on Novel Causative Alleles Involved in RNA Processing 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(8):e1003693.
Revealing QTLs with a minor effect in complex traits remains difficult. Initial strategies had limited success because of interference by major QTLs and epistasis. New strategies focused on eliminating major QTLs in subsequent mapping experiments. Since genetic analysis of superior segregants from natural diploid strains usually also reveals QTLs linked to the inferior parent, we have extended this strategy for minor QTL identification by eliminating QTLs in both parent strains and repeating the QTL mapping with pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis. We first mapped multiple QTLs responsible for high thermotolerance in a natural yeast strain, MUCL28177, compared to the laboratory strain, BY4742. Using single and bulk reciprocal hemizygosity analysis we identified MKT1 and PRP42 as causative genes in QTLs linked to the superior and inferior parent, respectively. We subsequently downgraded both parents by replacing their superior allele with the inferior allele of the other parent. QTL mapping using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis with the segregants from the cross of the downgraded parents, revealed several new QTLs. We validated the two most-strongly linked new QTLs by identifying NCS2 and SMD2 as causative genes linked to the superior downgraded parent and we found an allele-specific epistatic interaction between PRP42 and SMD2. Interestingly, the related function of PRP42 and SMD2 suggests an important role for RNA processing in high thermotolerance and underscores the relevance of analyzing minor QTLs. Our results show that identification of minor QTLs involved in complex traits can be successfully accomplished by crossing parent strains that have both been downgraded for a single QTL. This novel approach has the advantage of maintaining all relevant genetic diversity as well as enough phenotypic difference between the parent strains for the trait-of-interest and thus maximizes the chances of successfully identifying additional minor QTLs that are relevant for the phenotypic difference between the original parents.
Author Summary
Most traits of organisms are determined by an interplay of different genes interacting in a complex way. For instance, nearly all industrially-important traits of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are complex traits. We have analyzed high thermotolerance, which is important for industrial fermentations, reducing cooling costs and sustaining higher productivity. Whereas genetic analysis of complex traits has been cumbersome for many years, the development of pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis now allows successful identification of underlying genetic loci with a major effect. On the other hand, identification of loci with a minor contribution remains a challenge. We now present a methodology for identifying minor loci, which is based on the finding that the inferior parent usually also harbours superior alleles. This allowed construction for the trait of high thermotolerance of two ‘downgraded parent strains’ by replacing in each parent a superior allele by the inferior allele from the other parent. Subsequent mapping with the downgraded parents revealed new minor loci, which we validated by identifying the causative genes. Hence, our results illustrate the power of this methodology for successfully identifying minor loci determining complex traits and with a high chance of being co-responsible for the phenotypic difference between the original parents.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003693
PMCID: PMC3744412  PMID: 23966873
24.  QTL mapping for sexually dimorphic fitness-related traits in wild bighorn sheep 
Heredity  2011;108(3):256-263.
Dissecting the genetic architecture of fitness-related traits in wild populations is key to understanding evolution and the mechanisms maintaining adaptive genetic variation. We took advantage of a recently developed genetic linkage map and phenotypic information from wild pedigreed individuals from Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada, to study the genetic architecture of ecologically important traits (horn volume, length, base circumference and body mass) in bighorn sheep. In addition to estimating sex-specific and cross-sex quantitative genetic parameters, we tested for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), colocalization of QTLs between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, and sex × QTL interactions. All traits showed significant additive genetic variance and genetic correlations tended to be positive. Linkage analysis based on 241 microsatellite loci typed in 310 pedigreed animals resulted in no significant and five suggestive QTLs (four for horn dimension on chromosomes 1, 18 and 23, and one for body mass on chromosome 26) using genome-wide significance thresholds (Logarithm of odds (LOD) >3.31 and >1.88, respectively). We also confirmed the presence of a horn dimension QTL in bighorn sheep at the only position known to contain a similar QTL in domestic sheep (on chromosome 10 near the horns locus; nominal P<0.01) and highlighted a number of regions potentially containing weight-related QTLs in both species. As expected for sexually dimorphic traits involved in male–male combat, loci with sex-specific effects were detected. This study lays the foundation for future work on adaptive genetic variation and the evolutionary dynamics of sexually dimorphic traits in bighorn sheep.
doi:10.1038/hdy.2011.69
PMCID: PMC3282393  PMID: 21847139
adaptive variation; animal model; domestic sheep; Ovis aries; sexual dimorphism; sexual selection
25.  The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis 
Annals of Botany  2012;109(6):1185-1200.
Background and Aims
The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna.
Methods
Two linkage maps were developed from BC1F1 and F2 populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf.
Key Results
Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions.
Conclusions
This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcs048
PMCID: PMC3336956  PMID: 22419763
Cowpea; QTL analysis; domestication; Vigna unguiculata; evolution; yardlong bean

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