There have been many attempts to find an objective phenotype by Sasang constitutional types (SCTs) on an anatomical, physiological, and psychological basis, but there has been no research on total nasal resistance (TNR) among SCTs.
We assessed the value of the TNR in the SCTs classified by an integrated diagnostic model. Included in the study were 1,346 individuals (701 males, 645 females) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). The TNR was measured by active anterior rhinomanometry (AAR) at transnasal pressures of 100 and 150 Pascal (Pa).
The average TNR was 0.186 ± 0.004 Pa/cm3/second at 100 Pa in the Tae-eum (TE), 0.193 ± 0.007 in the So-eum (SE), and 0.208 ± 0.005 in the So-yang (SY) types. Under condition of 150 Pa the TE type had a TNR value of 0.217 ± 0.004, the SE type was 0.230 ± 0.008, and the SY type was 0.243 ± 0.005. Higher values of TNR were more likely to be reported in the SY type at 100 Pa and 150 Pa. In the stratified analysis by sex, the SY type in males and females tended to have higher TNR value than the TE and SE types at transnasal pressure of both 100 Pa and 150 Pa.
These results provide new approaches to understand the functional characteristics among the SCTs in terms of nasal physiology. Further studies are required to clarify contributing factors for such a difference.
Sasang constitutional types; Total nasal resistance; Active anterior rhinomanometry; Transnasal pressure; Tae-eum type; So-eum type; So-yang type
How to manage the impact of free-ranging cats on native wildlife is a polarizing issue. Conservation biologists largely support domestic cat euthanasia to mitigate impacts of free-ranging cat predation on small animal populations. Above all else, animal welfare activists support the humane treatment of free-ranging cats, objecting to euthanasia. Clearly, this issue of how to control free-ranging cat predation on small animals is value laden, and both positions must be considered and comprehended to promote effective conservation. Here, two gaps in the free-ranging cat—small-animal conservation literature are addressed. First, the importance of understanding the processes of domestication and evolution and how each relates to felid behavioral ecology is discussed. The leading hypothesis to explain domestication of wildcats (Felis silvestris) relates to their behavioral ecology as a solitary predator, which made them suited for pest control in early agricultural villages of the Old World. The relationship humans once had with cats, however, has changed because today domesticated cats are usually household pets. As a result, concerns of conservation biologists may relate to cats as predators, but cat welfare proponents come from the position of assuming responsibility for free-ranging household pets (and their feral offspring). Thus, the perceptions of pet owners and other members of the general public provide an important context that frames the relationship between free-ranging cats and small animal conservation. The second part of this paper assesses the effects of an information-based conservation approach on shifting student’s perception of a local Trap–Neuter–Return (TNR) program in introductory core science classes at the University of North Texas (UNT). UNT students are (knowingly or unknowingly) regularly in close proximity to a TNR program on campus that supports cat houses and feeding stations. A survey design implementing a tailored-information approach was used to communicate what TNR programs are, their goals, and the “conservationist” view of TNR programs. We gauged favorability of student responses to the goals of TNR programs prior to and after exposure to tailored information on conservation concerns related to free-ranging cats. Although these results are from a preliminary study, we suggest that an information-based approach may only be marginally effective at shifting perceptions about the conservation implications of free-ranging cats. Our position is that small animal conservation in Western societies occurs in the context of pet ownership, thus broader approaches that promote ecological understanding via environmental education are more likely to be successful than information-based approaches.
TNR; Political ecology; Small animal conservation; Free-ranging cats; Domestication; Ethnobiology
To study the relationship between oncogenesis by v-src and normal cellular signalling pathways, we determined the effects of v-src on 3T3-TNR9 cells, a Swiss 3T3 variant which does not respond mitogenically to tumor promoters such as 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). We found that src was unable to transform these variant cells, whether the oncogene was introduced by infection with a murine retrovirus vector or by transfection with plasmid DNA. 3T3-TNR9 cells were not inherently resistant to transformation, since infection with similar recombinant retroviruses containing either v-ras or v-abl did induce transformation. Further analysis of Swiss 3T3 and 3T3-TNR9 cell populations infected with the v-src-containing retrovirus revealed that although the amount of v-src DNA in each was approximately the same, the level of the v-src message and protein and the overall level of phosphotyrosine expressed in the infected variants was much less than in infected parental cells. Cotransfection experiments using separate v-src and neo plasmids revealed a decrease in the number of G418-resistant colonies when transfections of TNR9 cells occurred in the presence of the src-containing plasmid, suggesting a growth inhibitory effect of v-src on 3T3-TNR9 cells, as has also been found for TPA itself. Since v-src cannot transform this variant cell line, which does not respond mitogenically to the protein kinase C agonist TPA, we suggest that src makes use of the protein kinase C pathway as part of its signalling activities.
The repair protein 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine glycosylase (OGG1) initiates base excision repair (BER) in mammalian cells by removing the oxidized base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) from DNA. Interestingly, OGG1 has been implicated in somatic expansion of the trinucleotide repeat (TNR) sequence CAG/CTG. Furthermore, a ‘toxic oxidation cycle’ has been proposed for age-dependent expansion in somatic cells. In this cycle, duplex TNR DNA is (1) oxidized by endogenous species; (2) BER is initiated by OGG1 and the DNA is further processed by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1); (3) a stem-loop hairpin forms during strand-displacement synthesis by polymerase β (pol β); (4) the hairpin is ligated and (5) incorporated into duplex DNA to generate an expanded CAG/CTG region. This expanded region is again subject to oxidation and the cycle continues. We reported previously that the hairpin adopted by TNR repeats contains a hot spot for oxidation. This finding prompted us to examine the possibility that the generation of a hairpin during a BER event exacerbates the toxic oxidation cycle due to accumulation of damage. Therefore, in this work we used mixed-sequence and TNR substrates containing a site-specific 8-oxoG lesion to define the kinetic parameters of human OGG1 (hOGG1) activity on duplex and hairpin substrates. We report that hOGG1 activity on TNR duplexes is indistinguishable from a mixed-sequence control. Thus, BER is initiated on TNR sequences as readily as non-repetitive DNA in order to start the toxic oxidation cycle. However, we find that for hairpin substrates hOGG1 has reduced affinity and excises 8-oxoG at a significantly slower rate as compared to duplexes. Therefore, 8-oxoG is expected to accumulate in the hairpin intermediate. This damage-containing hairpin can then be incorporated into duplex, resulting in an expanded TNR tract that now contains an oxidative lesion. Thus, the cycle restarts and the DNA can incrementally expand.
OGG1; trinucleotide repeat expansion; toxic oxidation cycle
This retrospective study investigated the usefulness of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) after interventional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Between March 2007 and November 2010, 31 patients (24 men, 7 women; mean age, 61.8 ± 11.0 years) with 45 lesions underwent PET/CT within 1 month after interventional therapy for HCC. Twenty-six patients with 40 lesions underwent transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), two patients with 2 lesions underwent radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and three patients with 3 lesions underwent percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT). Patients with a history of previous interventional therapy were excluded. Visual analysis was graded as positive when FDG was observed as an eccentric, nodular, or infiltrative pattern, and negative in case of isometabolic, hypometabolic, or rim-shaped uptake. For quantitative analysis, the standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured by region of interest technique. Maximum SUV (SUVmax) was assessed, and the ratio of SUVmax of tumor to mean SUV of normal liver (TNR) was calculated. The patients were divided into two groups, with and without residual tumor, based on 6-month clinical follow-up with serum alpha-fetoprotein and contrast-enhanced abdominal CT.
Of the 45 lesions, 24 were classified in the residual tumor group and the other 21 lesions in the no residual tumor group. No residual tumor was detected after RFA or PEIT. By visual analysis, the respective values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 87.5, 71.4, 77.8, 83.3, and 80.0 %. However, there were no significant differences in the SUVmax and TNR between the two groups.
It is suggested that FDG PET/CT may play a role in the evaluation of early treatment response after interventional therapy for HCC. The results indicate that FDG PET/CT visual analysis may be more useful than quantitative analysis. Further prospective studies with a large number of patients and established protocol are needed to substantiate our results.
F-18 FDG; PET/CT; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Interventional therapy; Locoregional therapy; Response
Previous studies using SAGE (the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment) and COGA (the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets reported several risk loci for alcohol dependence (AD), which have not yet been well replicated independently or confirmed by functional studies. We combined these two data sets, now publicly available, to increase the study power, in order to identify replicable, functional, and significant risk regions for AD. A total of 4116 subjects (1409 European-American (EA) cases with AD, 1518 EA controls, 681 African-American (AA) cases, and 508 AA controls) underwent association analysis. An additional 443 subjects underwent expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Genome-wide association analysis was performed in EAs to identify significant risk genes. All available markers in the genome-wide significant risk genes were tested in AAs for associations with AD, and in six HapMap populations and two European samples for associations with gene expression levels. We identified a unique genome-wide significant gene—KIAA0040—that was enriched with many replicable risk SNPs for AD, all of which had significant cis-acting regulatory effects. The distributions of −log(p) values for SNP-disease and SNP-expression associations for all markers in the TNN–KIAA0040 region were consistent across EAs, AAs, and five HapMap populations (0.369⩽r⩽0.824; 2.8 × 10−9⩽p⩽0.032). The most significant SNPs in these populations were in high LD, concentrating in KIAA0040. Finally, expression of KIAA0040 was significantly (1.2 × 10−11⩽p⩽1.5 × 10−6) associated with the expression of numerous genes in the neurotransmitter systems or metabolic pathways previously associated with AD. We concluded that KIAA0040 might harbor a causal variant for AD and thus might directly contribute to risk for this disorder. KIAA0040 might also contribute to the risk of AD via neurotransmitter systems or metabolic pathways that have previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of AD. Alternatively, KIAA0040 might regulate the risk via some interactions with flanking genes TNN and TNR. TNN is involved in neurite outgrowth and cell migration in hippocampal explants, and TNR is an extracellular matrix protein expressed primarily in the central nervous system.
risk region; alcohol dependence; cis-eQTL; GWAS; alcohol & alcoholism; neurogenetics; addiction & substance abuse; biological psychiatry; GWAScis-eQTL; risk region
To determine the retinal thickness (RT), after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, for an idiopathic macular hole (MH) or an epiretinal membrane (ERM). Also, to investigate the effect of a dissociated optic nerve fiber layer (DONFL) appearance on RT.
A non-randomized, retrospective chart review was performed for 159 patients who had successful closure of a MH, with (n = 148), or without (n = 11), ILM peeling. Also studied were 117 patients who had successful removal of an ERM, with (n = 104), or without (n = 13), ILM peeling. The RT of the nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study areas was measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In the MH-with-ILM peeling and ERM-with-ILM peeling groups, the RT of the operated eyes was compared to the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. The inner temporal/inner nasal ratio (TNR) was used to assess the effect of ILM peeling on RT. The effects of DONFL appearance on RT were evaluated in only the MH-with-ILM peeling group.
In the MH-with-ILM peeling group, the central, inner nasal, and outer nasal areas of the retina of operated eyes were significantly thicker than the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. In addition, the inner temporal, outer temporal, and inner superior retina was significantly thinner than in the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. Similar findings were observed regardless of the presence of a DONFL appearance. In the ERM-with-ILM peeling group, the retina of operated eyes was significantly thicker in all areas, except the inner and outer temporal areas. In the MH-with-ILM peeling group, the TNR was 0.86 in operated eyes, and 0.96 in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). In the ERM-with-ILM peeling group, the TNR was 0.84 in operated eyes, and 0.95 in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). TNR in operated eyes of the MH-without-ILM peeling group was 0.98, which was significantly greater than that of the MH-with-ILM peeling group (P < 0.001). TNR in the operated eyes of the ERM-without-ILM peeling group was 0.98, which was significantly greater than that of ERM-with-ILM peeling group (P < 0.001).
The thinning of the temporal retina and thickening of the nasal retina after ILM peeling does not appear to be disease-specific. In addition, changes in RT after ILM peeling are not related to the presence of a DONFL appearance.
epiretinal membrane; macular hole; optical coherence tomography; retinal thickness; internal limiting membrane
The aim of present study was to define a normal range of total nasal airflow resistance in the healthy population of Chattisgarh. This study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical College Raipur, Chattisgarh over 93 healthy adults. A proper otolaryngology examination was done prior to the study and all the subjects were free from any type upper respiratory tract infection. This was the main inclusion criteria for the present study. All the subjects were distributed according to age and sex. Active Anterior Rhinomanometry is the best recommended method for evaluating the objective assessment of nasal airflow resistance; it was preferred for the assessment of total nasal airway resistance in present study also. The present study concluded that the mean value of total nasal airway resistance was 0.21 at 150 Pa pressure. However the range of total nasal airway resistance was from 0.142 to 0.34 Pa/cm3/s at the same pressure. The present study presents the normal range and mean value of total nasal airway resistance for the healthy adult population of Chattisgarh. Total nasal airway resistance is independent of age and sex.
Total nasal airflow resistance; Active anterior rhinomanometry; Chattisgarh
The feedback-inhibited form of Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase regulates the activity of the TnrA transcription factor through a protein-protein interaction that prevents TnrA from binding to DNA. Five mutants containing feedback-resistant glutamine synthetases (E65G, S66P, M68I, H195Y, and P318S) were isolated by screening for colonies capable of cross-feeding Gln− cells. In vitro enzymatic assays revealed that the mutant enzymes had increased resistance to inhibition by glutamine, AMP, and methionine sulfoximine. The mutant proteins had a variety of enzymatic alterations that included changes in the levels of enzymatic activity and in substrate Km values. Constitutive expression of TnrA- and GlnR-regulated genes was seen in all five mutants. In gel mobility shift assays, the E65G and S66P enzymes were unable to inhibit TnrA DNA binding, while the other three mutant proteins (M68I, H195Y, and P318S) showed partial inhibition of TnrA DNA binding. A homology model of B. subtilis glutamine synthetase revealed that the five mutated amino acid residues are located in the enzyme active site. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that glutamine and AMP bind at the active site to bring about feedback inhibition of glutamine synthetase.
Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) are of interest in genetics because they are used as markers for tracing genotype–phenotype relations and because they are directly involved in numerous human genetic diseases. In this study, we searched the human genome reference sequence and annotated exons (exome) for the presence of uninterrupted triplet repeat tracts composed of six or more repeated units. A list of 32 448 TNRs and 878 TNR-containing genes was generated and is provided herein. We found that some triplet repeats, specifically CNG, are overrepresented, while CTT, ATC, AAC and AAT are underrepresented in exons. This observation suggests that the occurrence of TNRs in exons is not random, but undergoes positive or negative selective pressure. Additionally, TNR types strongly determine their localization in mRNA sections (ORF, UTRs). Most genes containing exon-overrepresented TNRs are associated with gene ontology-defined functions. Surprisingly, many groups of genes that contain TNR types coding for different homo-amino acid tracts associate with the same transcription-related GO categories. We propose that TNRs have potential to be functional genetic elements and that their variation may be involved in the regulation of many common phenotypes; as such, TNR polymorphisms should be considered a priority in association studies.
TNR-CFTR, discovered as a splice variant of CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator), is distributed in different tissues such as human and rat kidney, trachea, lungs etc and is a functional chloride channel. In Kidneys, our findings show TNR-CFTR to have an unique distribution pattern with low levels of expression in renal cortex and high levels of expression in renal medulla. As shown by us previously, TNR-CFTR mRNA lacks 145 bp corresponding to segments of exons 13 and 14. This deletion causes a frame shift mutation leading to reading of a premature termination codon in exon 14. Premature termination of translation produces a functional half molecule of CFTR; TNR-CFTR. Our analysis of TNR mRNA has shown that the putative alternatively spliced intron has in its 5′ and 3′ conserved element CT and AC, respectively, that can be recognized by snRNAs U11 and U12. With these findings, we hypothesize that TNR-CFTR mRNA alternative splicing is probably mediate by splicing pathways utilizing U11 and U12 snRNAs. In this study, we have determined sequences of snRNAs U11 and U12 derived from rat kidney, which show significant homology to human U11 and U12 snRNAs. We show that there is significantly lower expression of U11 and U12 snRNAs in renal cortex compared to renal medulla in both humans and rats. This renal pattern of distribution of U11 and U12 snRNAs in both humans and rats closely follows distribution pattern of renal TNR-CFTR. Further, we have shown that blocking U11 and/or U12 mRNAs, by using antisense probes transfected in Immortalized Rat Proximal Tubule Cell line (IRPTC), decreases TNR-CFTR mRNA expression but not wild-type CFTR mRNA expression. Our results suggest that expression of U11 and/or U12 snRNAs is important for non-conventional alternative splicing process that gives rise to mRNA transcript coding for TNR-CFTR.
CFTR; TNR-CFTR; Kidney; Small Nuclear RNA; Splicing and mRNA
Nasal obstruction is the principal symptom that drives patients with rhinosinus disease to seek medical treatment. However, patient perception of obstruction often bears little relationship to actual measured physical obstruction of airflow. This lack of an objective clinical tool hinders effective diagnosis and treatment. Previous work has suggested that the perception of nasal patency may involve nasal trigeminal activation by cool inspiratory airflow; we attempt to derive clinically relevant variables following this phenomenon.
Prospective healthy cohort.
Twenty-two healthy subjects rated unilateral nasal patency in controlled room air using a visual analog scale, followed by rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry and butanol lateralization thresholds (BLT). Each subject then immediately underwent a CT scan, enabling the construction of a “real-time” computational fluid dynamics (CFD) nasal airway model, which was used to simulate nasal mucosa heat loss during steady resting breathing.
Among all measured and computed variables, only CFD-simulated peak heat loss posterior to the nasal vestibule significantly correlated with patency ratings (r=−0.46, p<0.01). Linear discriminant analysis predicted patency categories with 89% success rate, with BLT and rhinomanometric nasal resistance being two additional significant variables. As validation, CFD simulated nasal resistance significantly correlated with rhinomanometrically measured resistance (r=0.41, p<0.01).
These results reveal that our noses are sensing patency via a mechanism involving localized peak nasal mucosal cooling. The analysis provides a strong rationale for combining the individualized CFD with other objective and neurological measures to create a novel clinical tool to diagnose nasal obstruction and to predict and evaluate treatment outcomes.
Nasal congestion; nasal obstruction; TRPM8; nasal cooling; cool perception; nasal trigeminal sensitivity
Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive.The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.
The cell line TNR9 (E. Butler-Gralla and H. R. Herschman, J. Cell. Physiol. 107:59-67, 1981) in a Swiss 3T3 cell variant that expresses protein kinase C (PKC) but is mitogenically nonresponsive to the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). We have found that PKCs purified from variant and parental cells are identical as judged by kinase activity, protease mapping, and column chromatography. We analyzed cellular levels and subcellular location of PKC in TPA-treated 3T3 and TNR9 cells via immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled protein and assay of immune-complex PKC kinase activity. TNR9 cells grew to higher densities than parental 3T3 cells. TNR9 cells at maximal density did not down regulate PKC in response to long-term TPA treatment. We compared the 80-kilodalton (kDa) PKC substrate phosphorylation in 3T3 and TNR9 cells by using two-dimensional gels and found that TNR9 cells treated with TPA for 30 min contained only 10 to 15% as much 32Pi associated with the 80-kDa as did parental cells. The TNR9 80-kDa substrate was present at reduced levels compared with the parental-cell 80-kDa substrate as judged by immunoblot and silver staining. Thus, the loss of mitogenic responsiveness to TPA in TNR9 cells is accompanied by resistance to TPA-mediated down regulation of PKC and reduced phosphosubstrate levels.
Pharmacotherapy is a critical adjunct to smoking cessation therapy. Little is known about relative preferences for these agents among smokers in primary care settings.
In the context of a population-based clinical trial, we identified 750 smokers in primary care practices and independent of their stage of change offered them a free treatment course of either bupropion or transdermal nicotine replacement (TNR). Smokers opting for pharmacotherapy completed standardized contraindication screens that were reviewed by the patient's primary care physician.
Most participants (67%) requested pharmacotherapy. Use of pharmacotherapy was positively associated with higher nicotine dependence and readiness to quit. Of the smokers requesting pharmacotherapy, 51% requested bupropion and 49% requested TNR. Choice of bupropion was related to no history of heart disease and no previous use of bupropion. Although potential contraindications to treatments were identified for 21.7% of bupropion and 6.6% or TNR recipients, physicians rarely felt that these potential contraindications precluded the use of these agents.
When cost is removed as a barrier, a large proportion of rural smokers are eager to use smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, especially agents that they have not tried before. Although some comorbid conditions and concurrent drug therapies were considered contraindications, particularly to bupropion, physicians rarely considered these clinically significant risks enough to deny pharmacotherapy.
tobacco; smoking cessation; pharmacotherapy preference; nicotine replacement; bupropion
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is a disease characterized by a collapse of the pharyngeal airway resulting in repeated episodes of airflow
cessation, oxygen desaturation, and sleep disruption. It is a common disorder affecting at least 2-4% of the adult population. The role
of nasal resistance in the pathogenesis of sleep disordered breathing and sleep apnoea has not been completely clarified. Aim of the present
study was to establish whether nasal resistance and nasal volumes, measured by means of Active Anterior Rhinomanometry and Acoustic
Rhinometry together with Muco-Ciliary Transport time play a positive predictive role in the evaluation of Obstructive sleep apnoea
syndrome patients before running a nocturnal polysomnographic recording. A retrospective study was performed analysing 223 patients
referred for suspected Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. All patients were submitted to complete otorhinolaryngological evaluation and
underwent nocturnal polysomnography. On the basis of polysomnographic data analysis, the apnoea-hypopnoea index and snoring index,
patients were classified into two groups: Group 1 (110/223 patients) with a diagnosis of mild-moderate Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
(apnoea-hypopnoea index < 30) and Group 2 (113/223 patients) affected by snoring without associated hypoxaemia/hypercapnia. A control
group of 76 subjects, not complaining of sleep disorders and free from nasal symptoms was also selected. The results showed, in all the
snoring and Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients, total nasal resistance and increased Muco-Ciliary Transport time compared to
standard values. Furthermore, the apnoea-hypopnoea index was significantly higher in patients with higher nasal resistence and significantly
different between the groups. These results allow us to propose the simultaneous evaluation of nasal functions by Active Anterior
Rhinomanometry, Acoustic Rhinometry, and Muco-Ciliary Transport time in the selection of patients undergoing polysomnography.
Sleep respiratory disorders; Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; Nasal functionality tests; Polysomnography
Septal deviation is the chief cause of chronic nasal obstruction. In order to treat such cases, nasal septoplasty surgery is usually performed based on patient complaints and a surgeon's examination, both of which are subjective. This study aims at using the objective parameters of acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry to evaluate the effectiveness of septoplasty surgery.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective study was performed in 30 candidate patients for septoplasty surgery. Acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry tests were performed on all patients both before and 3 months after the operation. The symptom recovery rate was recorded according to the patient's statements and anterior rhinoscopic examinations 3 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using a t-test and chi-square tests in a SPSS package.
A total of 26 of 30 patients returned for a post–procedure follow-up examination after 3 months. Patients were aged from 18 to 32 years (average, 25 years). In total 69.2% (18 patients) were satisfied with the results of the procedure. In addition, rhinomanometry resulted in a decrease in general nasal resistance if patients used decongestants (P=0.03). However, the decrease was not significant before the use of decongestants (P=0.12). Furthermore, according to the results from acoustic rhinomanometry, there was an increase in the nasal cross-sectional area on both the narrow and wide sides after the operation (P<0.05), although this increase was not so notable in the narrower side after using decongestants. There was, however, no significant relationship between the results from the objective tests and the patient's symptoms or clinical examinations (P>0.05).
The findings of this study show that although the objective tests confirm an improvement in general nasal resistance and an increase in the nasal cross-sectional area after surgery, no unambiguous relationship between the patient's symptoms and the clinical examinations is observed. Therefore, such objective tests do not prove to be sufficient diagnostic criteria for the effectiveness of septoplasty.
Acoustic rhinometry; Nasal airway obstruction; Nasal septum; Rhinomanometry
BACKGROUND--Although the nose and the bronchi are both involved in the process of regulating respiratory heat exchange, thermal changes may precipitate airway obstruction during exercise but rarely cause nasal obstruction in patients with rhinitis. The cause of the different response of the nose and bronchial tree has hardly been investigated. This study was performed to assess the response of the nose during exercise in the presence of rhinitis, asthma, and in normal controls. METHODS--Ten healthy subjects (group 1), 15 patients with asthma and rhinitis (group 2), 10 with rhinitis only (group 3), and 11 with asthma only (group 4) were included in the study. Exercise was performed on a bicycle ergometer for six minutes, reaching a heart rate of 80% of predicted. Bronchial and nasal responses were measured by forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and posterior rhinomanometry, respectively. A drop in the FEV1 of 20% or more was considered a positive exercise induced asthma challenge test. RESULTS--Heart rate and ventilation increased by a similar proportion in the four groups. The FEV1 significantly decreased in asthmatic patients (groups 2 and 4) but it did not change in healthy subjects (group 1) or in those with rhinitis (group 3). Thirteen asthmatic patients developed exercise induced asthma. Nasal patency increased with exercise by a similar proportion in all groups, and no differences were detected between those with rhinitis (groups 2 and 3) and those without (groups 1 and 4). Nasal patency had returned to basal values at 25 minutes after completion of exercise in the four groups. The nose of patients with exercise induced asthma, however, remained significantly more patent than in patients without exercise induced asthma between 10 and 30 minutes after exercise. CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that the nose responds differently from the bronchi during exercise induced airway obstruction: whereas the bronchial tree responds by becoming narrowed, the nose becomes more patent. These findings suggest that the mechanisms regulating the response of the nose to exercise are different from those involved in the response of the bronchial tree.
We prepared an allergen challenge chamber (ACC) which facilitates quantitative pollen challenge at any time, and, so, the acquisition of objective data. The aim of this study was to evaluate peak nasal inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) as an endpoint during allergen challenge and compare this with rhinomanometry (Rhino) and acoustic rhinometry (AR).
The study was conducted in November, which is not in pollen season. Subjects were exposed to Japanese cedar pollen at a concentration of 50,000 counts/m3in ACC for 120 minutes each day for 2 days. Subject recorded nasal symptoms before challenge and every 15 minutes after challenge initiation. Nasal symptoms (sneezing frequency, nasal blowing frequency, nasal obstruction) were recorded before challenge and every 15 minutes after challenge initiation. For the evaluation of nasal obstruction, we used visual analog scales (VASs); subjects marked a site on a 10-cm line corresponding to the symptom severity on which absence of symptoms was designated as 0 and worst imaginable symptom as 10. PIFR was measured using an In-check flow meter and nasal resistance was measured using Rhino. The cross-sectional area in the nasal cavity was also measured using AR before and after challenge as an indicator of nasal obstruction.
When the volunteers with cedar pollinosis were exposed to cedar pollen in ACC, pollinosis symptoms were induced significantly. Changes in the 3 symptoms (sneezing frequency, nose-blowing frequency, nasal obstruction) were investigated before and after challenges on 2 consecutive days. No significant symptoms were induced on the first day of challenge in the non-pollen season. However, each of the 3 symptoms became more severe with second day of challenge, and a significant increase was seen in cumulative values by the second day. In terms of the allergen challenge test, we found a significant correlation between nasal obstruction symptom (VAS) and PIFR, but not AR and Rhino.
PIFR after allergen challenge is more sensitive than AR or Rhino in detecting nasal obstruction using the allergen challenge chamber.
In the phenomenon of trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion, an important interplay exists between DNA damage repair of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and non-canonical structure formation. We show that TNR DNA adapts its structure to accommodate 8-oxoG. Using chemical probe analysis, we find that CAG repeats composing the stem-loop arm of a three-way junction alter the population of structures in response to 8-oxoG by positioning the lesion at or near the loop. Furthermore, we find that oligonucleotides composed of odd-numbered repeat sequences, which form populations of two structures, will also alter their structure to place 8-oxoG in the loop. However, sequences with an even number of repeats do not display this behavior. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry indicates that when the lesion is located within the loop, there are no significant changes to the thermodynamic parameters as compared to the DNA lacking 8-oxoG. This contrasts with the enthalpic destabilization observed when 8-oxoG is base paired to C and indicates that positioning 8-oxoG in the loop avoids the thermodynamic penalty associated with 8-oxoG base pairing. Since formation of stem-loop hairpins is proposed to facilitate TNR expansion, these results highlight the importance of defining the structural consequences of DNA damage.
Genomic regions containing trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) are highly unstable, as the repeated sequences exhibit a high rate of mutational change, in which they undergo either a contraction or an expansion of repeat numbers. Although expansion of TNRs is associated with several human genetic diseases, the expansion mechanism is poorly understood. Extensive studies in model organisms have indicated that instability of TNRs occurs by several mechanisms, including replication slippage, DNA repair and recombination. In all models, the formation of secondary structures by disease-associated TNRs is a critical step in the mutation process. In this report, we demonstrate that TNRs and inverted repeats (IRs) both of which have the potential to form secondary structures in vivo, increase spontaneous unequal sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in vegetatively growing yeast cells. Our results also show that TNR-mediated SCE events are independent of RAD50, MRE11 and RAD51, whereas IR-stimulated SCEs are dependent on the RAD52 epistasis-group genes. We propose that many TNR expansion mutations occur by SCE.
Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) occur throughout the genome and their expansion has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington’s Disease. TNRs have been studied using both oligonucleotides and plasmids; however, less is know about how repetitive DNA responds to genomic packaging. Here, we investigate the behavior of CAG/CTG repeats incorporated into nucleosome core particles, the most basic unit of chromatin packaging. To assess the general interaction between CAG/CTG repeats and the histone core, we determined the efficiency with which various TNR-containing DNA substrates form nucleosomes, revealing that even short CAG/CTG tracts are robust incorporators. However, presence of the Huntingtin gene flanking sequence (htt) decreases incorporation. Enzymatic and chemical probing revealed repositioning of the DNA in the nucleosome as the number of CAG/CTG repeats increased, regardless of the flanking sequence. Notably, the periodicity of the repeat tract remained unchanged as a function of length and is consistently 10.7 base pairs per helical turn. In contrast, the periodicity of the non-repetitive flanking sequence varies, and is smaller than the repeat tract at ~10.0–10.5 base pairs per turn. Furthermore, while the CAG/CTG repeats remain as canonical duplex in the nucleosome, nucleosome formation causes kinking in a secondary repeat tract in the htt gene, comprised of CCG/CGG repeats. This work highlights the innate ability of CAG/CTG repeats to incorporate and to position in nucleosomes and how that behavior is modulated by the htt flanking sequence. In addition, it illuminates the differences in packaging of healthy and diseased length repeat tracts within the genome.
Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.
Two studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that the fall and recovery of nasal resistance after exercise in asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects are related to the development of bronchoconstriction after exercise. In study 1 nasal resistance (posterior rhinomanometry) and specific airway resistance (sRaw) were measured before challenge and one, five, 10 and 30 minutes after four minutes of exhausting legwork exercise in nine asthmatic subjects and nine age matched healthy subjects. One minute after exercise there was a reduction in nasal resistance of 49% (SD 15%) from baseline in the healthy subjects and of 66% (17%) in the asthmatic subjects. This response and the subsequent return of nasal resistance to baseline values did not differ significantly between the two groups despite a substantial difference in the change in sRaw, an increase of 74% (45%) in the asthmatic subjects 10 minutes after exercise, and no change in the non-asthmatic subjects. In study 2, nasal and specific airway resistances were monitored according to the same measurement protocol in six subjects with increased airway reactivity. Subjects exercised on two occasions, wearing a noseclip, once while breathing cold, dry air and once while breathing warm, humid air. The fall in nasal resistance was similar under both conditions (to 47% and 39% of baseline), through sRaw rose only after cold air inhalation (to 172% of baseline). The results indicate that the nasal response to exercise is not related to bronchial obstruction in asthmatic subjects after exercise or to the temperature or humidity of the air inspired through the mouth during exercise.
Barsoum and Varshavsky (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:5330-5334, 1983) suggest that polypeptide mitogens and the mitogenic tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulate gene amplification by related pathways. I demonstrated that TPA and the polypeptide mitogen fibroblast growth factor (FGF) both increase the frequency of cadmium-resistant variants of Swiss-Webster 3T3 cells. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is the amplification of the metallothionein gene(s). To further characterize the relationship between mitogenesis and gene amplification, I examined the ability of TPA and FGF to increase the frequency of cadmium-resistant colonies in the 3T3 variant cell line 3T3-TNR9. Unlike 3T3 cells, 3T3-TNR9 cells cannot be stimulated by TPA to divide (E. Butler-Gralla and H. R. Herschman, J. Cell. Physiol. 107:59-68, 1981). TPA does not induce an increase in cadmium-resistant colonies of the TPA-nonproliferative 3T3-TNR9, variant, in contrast to its efficacy on 3T3 cells. FGF, a potent mitogen for 3T3-TNR9 cells as well as 3T3 cells, is equally effective for 3T3-TNR9 and 3T3 cells in inducing cadmium-resistant colonies. These data suggest that the pathways of TPA-induced gene amplification and TPA-stimulated mitogenesis share a common step(s). TPA caused transient inhibition of DNA synthesis in both dividing 3T3 and 3T3-TNR9 cells, suggesting that this latter response to TPA is not sufficient to enhance gene amplification.