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1.  Assessing negative cognitive style: Development and validation of a Short-Form version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire 
► We developed a Short-Form version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ). ► The CSQ Short Form (CSQ-SF) demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability. ► Test–retest reliability was also satisfactory. ► Scores demonstrated predicted correlations with measures of depression and anxiety. ► The CSQ-SF may be a useful research tool in assessing vulnerability to depression.
The Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) is a frequently employed measure of negative cognitive style, associated with vulnerability to anxiety and depression. However, the CSQ’s length can limit its utility in research. We describe the development of a Short-Form version of the CSQ. After evaluation and modification of two pilot versions, the 8-item CSQ Short Form (CSQ-SF) was administered to a convenience sample of adults (N = 278). The CSQ-SF was found to have satisfactory internal reliability and test–retest reliability. It also exhibited construct validity by demonstrating predicted correlations with measures of depression and anxiety. Results suggest that the CSQ-SF is suitable for administration via the Internet.
PMCID: PMC3289144  PMID: 22389545
Cognitive style; Depression; Anxiety
2.  The 27-item Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised: Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability and validity in Italian-speaking subjects with chronic pain 
The Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised was developed as a tool to assess cognitive factors contributing to adaptive functioning in the presence of chronic pain. The English-language version of the questionnaire is well validated; however, translation of such questionnaires may affect their validity, among other factors. Accordingly, the authors of this study translated the Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised into Italian and conducted an extensive evaluation of the psychometric properties of the translated version of the questionnaire.
Increasing attention is being devoted to cognitive-behavioural measures to improve interventions for chronic pain.
To develop an Italian version of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised (CSQ-R), and to validate it in a study involving 345 Italian subjects with chronic pain.
The questionnaire was developed following international recommendations. The psychometric analyses included confirmatory factor analysis; reliability, assessed by internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients); and construct validity, assessed by calculating the correlations between the subscales of the CSQ-R and measures of pain (numerical rating scale), disability (Sickness Impact Profile – Roland Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale) and coping (Chronic Pain Coping Inventory) (Pearson’s correlation).
Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the CSQ-R model had an acceptable data-model fit (comparative fit index and normed fit index ≤0.90, root mean square error of approximation ≥0.08). Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory (CSQ-R 0.914 to 0.961), and the intraclass correlation coefficients were good/excellent (CSQ-R 0.850 to 0.918). As expected, the correlations with the numerical rating scale, Sickness Impact Profile – Roland Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale and Chronic Pain Coping Inventory highlighted the adaptive and maladaptive properties of most of the CSQ-R subscales.
The CSQ-R was successfully translated into Italian. The translation proved to have good factorial structure, and its psychometric properties are similar to those of the original and other adapted versions. Its use is recommended for clinical and research purposes in Italy and abroad.
PMCID: PMC4158961  PMID: 24761430
Confirmatory factor analysis; Coping Strategies Questionnaire; Cross-cultural adaptation; Reliability; Validity
3.  Reliability tests and validation tests of the client satisfaction questionnaire (CSQ-8) as an index of satisfaction with childbirth-related care among Filipino women 
Satisfaction is an important indicator of the quality of care during childbirth. Previous research found that a good environment at a health facility can increase the number of deliveries at that facility. In contrast, an unsatisfying childbirth experience could cause postpartum mental disorder. Therefore it is important to measure mothers’ satisfaction with their childbirth experiences. We tested whether the eight-item Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) provided useful information about satisfaction with childbirth-related care. The government of the Philippines promotes childbirth at health facilities, so we tested the CSQ-8 in the Philippine cities of Ormoc and Palo.
This was a cross-sectional study. We targeted multigravid mothers whose last baby had been delivered at a hospital (without complications) and whose 2nd-to-last baby had been delivered at a hospital or at home (without complications). We developed versions of the CSQ-8 in Cebuano and Waray, which are two of the six major Filipino languages. Reliability tests and validation tests were done with data from 100 Cebuano-speaking mothers and 106 Waray-speaking mothers.
Both the Cebuano and Waray versions of the CSQ-8 had high coefficients of internal-consistency reliability (greater than 0.80). Both versions were also unidimensional, which is generally consistent with the English CSQ-8 in a mental-health setting. As hypothesized, the scores for data regarding the second-to-last delivery were higher for mothers who had both their second-to-last and their last delivery in a hospital, than for mothers who had their second-to-last delivery at home and their last delivery in a hospital (Cebuano: p < 0.001, rho = 0.51, Waray: p < 0.001, rho = 0.55).
Scores on the CSQ-8 can be used as indices of general satisfaction with childbirth-related services in clinical settings. This study also exemplifies a convenient method for developing versions of the CSQ-8 in more than one language. These versions of the CSQ-8 can now be used to assess mothers’ satisfaction, so that mothers’ opinions can be taken into account in efforts to improve childbirth-related services, which could increase the proportion of deliveries in medical facilities and thus reduce maternal mortality.
PMCID: PMC3878559  PMID: 24341288
4.  Measuring cognitive vulnerability to depression: Development and validation of the cognitive style questionnaire 
Clinical psychology review  2007;28(5):824-836.
The Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) measures the cognitive vulnerability factor featured in the hopelessness theory of depression. The CSQ has been used in over 30 published studies since its inception, yet detailed information about the psychometric and validity properties of this instrument has yet to be published. In this article, we describe the development of the CSQ and review reliability and validity evidence. Findings to date using college samples, indicate that the CSQ is a reliable measure of cognitive vulnerability with a high degree of construct validity.
PMCID: PMC4090011  PMID: 18234405
5.  Cognitive styles and future depressed mood in early adulthood: The importance of global attributions 
Cognitive theories of depression suggest that beliefs of low self-worth and the tendency to attribute negative events to causes that are global (widespread rather than specific) and stable (will persist rather than change in the future) are associated with the development of depressed mood. Such theories are supported by evidence from prospective studies and have guided the development of successful treatment and prevention strategies such as CBT. However, the relative importance of different psychological constructs within cognitive theories is unknown. This is important to refine cognitive theories and develop more efficient prevention strategies.
We used prospective data from over 3500 young adults from the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort in the UK to investigate the association between cognitive style, measured by short forms of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and Cognitive Styles Questionnaire-Short Form (CSQ-SF) at age 18, and future depressed mood at age 19. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to separate cognitive style constructs.
Cognitive styles were associated with future depressed mood, independently of baseline mood, both as measured by the DAS-SF and the CSQ-SF. Of the different CSQ-SF constructs, only global attributions were associated with both baseline and future mood independently of other constructs.
The study was subject to attrition and the follow-up was relatively short (10 months).
The findings suggest that the tendency to attribute negative events specifically to global causes could be particularly important for depression. Reducing global attributions is potentially important in the prevention and treatment of depression.
PMCID: PMC4222738  PMID: 25285900
ALSPAC; Depression; Cognitive styles; Latent traits; Global attribution
6.  Construct and Criterion-Based Validity of Brief Pain Coping Scales in Persons with Chronic Knee Osteoarthritis Pain 
Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)  2012;14(2):265-275.
A recent trend in clinical practice is to adopt short screening and diagnostic self-report instruments for patients with chronic pain. Brief 2-item pain coping and beliefs measures have recently been developed and have potential to improve decision making in clinical practice. Our study examined the construct and criterion-based validity of the 2-item per scale version of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ).
We used data obtained on a community-based sample of 873 persons with chronic knee osteoarthritis pain from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a large longitudinal cohort study. Persons were administered the two-item per scale version of the CSQ. The International Classification of Functioning framework was used to select a variety of criterion-based measures for comparison to the CSQ. Spearman correlations and hierarchical regression models were used to characterize construct validity and Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves, sensitivity and specificity were used to describe criterion-based validity.
Construct validity of the CSQ scales were generally supported, with the Catastrophizing and Praying or Hoping scales demonstrating the strongest construct validity across criterion measures. Criterion-based validity for the CSQ scales varied depending on the criterion measure. The Catastrophizing and Praying or Hoping scales also had the strongest criterion-based validity with ROC curve areas as high as 0.71 (95%CI= 0.67, 0.75), p<0.001 for identifying persons with substantial physical function deficits.
The findings suggest that several of the 2-item CSQ scales demonstrate a modest level of construct validity along with fair criterion-based validity. The Catastrophizing and Praying or Hoping scales appear to hold the most promise for clinical applications and future longitudinal research.
PMCID: PMC3594566  PMID: 23240934
Pain; Coping; Disability; Function
7.  Cognitive Styles and Psychotic Experiences in a Community Sample 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80055.
In clinical populations paranoid delusions are associated with making global, stable and external attributions for negative events. Paranoia is common in community samples but it is not known whether it is associated with a similar cognitive style. This study investigates the association between cognitive style and paranoia in a large community sample of young adults.
2694 young adults (mean age 17.8, SD 4.6) from the ALSPAC cohort provided data on psychotic experiences and cognitive style. Psychotic experiences were assessed using a semi-structured interview and cognitive style was assessed using the Cognitive Styles Questionnaire-Short Form (CSQ-SF) on the same occasion. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between paranoia and CSQ-SF scores, both total and domain-related (global, stable, self, external). The role of concurrent self-reported depressive symptoms in the association was explored.
Paranoia was associated with Total CSQ-SF scores (adjusted OR 1.69 95% CI 1.29, 2.22), as well as global (OR 1.56 95% CI 1.17, 2.08), stable (OR 1.56 95% CI 1.17, 2.08) and self (OR 1.37 95% CI 1.05, 1.79) domains, only Total score and global domain associations remained after additional adjustment for self-reported depression. There was no association between paranoia and external cognitive style (OR 1.10 95% CI 0.83, 1.47).
Paranoid ideation in a community sample is associated with a global rather than an external cognitive style. An external cognitive style may be a characteristic of more severe paranoid beliefs. Further work is required to determine the role of depression in the association between cognitive style and paranoia.
PMCID: PMC3828222  PMID: 24244608
8.  Psychometric characteristics of the Spanish version of instruments to measure neck pain disability 
The NDI, COM and NPQ are evaluation instruments for disability due to NP. There was no Spanish version of NDI or COM for which psychometric characteristics were known. The objectives of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the Spanish version of the Neck Disability Index Questionnaire (NDI), and the Core Outcome Measure (COM), to validate its use in Spanish speaking patients with non-specific neck pain (NP), and to compare their psychometric characteristics with those of the Spanish version of the Northwick Pain Questionnaire (NPQ).
Translation/re-translation of the English versions of the NDI and the COM was done blindly and independently by a multidisciplinary team. The study was done in 9 primary care Centers and 12 specialty services from 9 regions in Spain, with 221 acute, subacute and chronic patients who visited their physician for NP: 54 in the pilot phase and 167 in the validation phase. Neck pain (VAS), referred pain (VAS), disability (NDI, COM and NPQ), catastrophizing (CSQ) and quality of life (SF-12) were measured on their first visit and 14 days later. Patients' self-assessment was used as the external criterion for pain and disability. In the pilot phase, patients' understanding of each item in the NDI and COM was assessed, and on day 1 test-retest reliability was estimated by giving a second NDI and COM in which the name of the questionnaires and the order of the items had been changed.
Comprehensibility of NDI and COM were good. Minutes needed to fill out the questionnaires [median, (P25, P75)]: NDI. 4 (2.2, 10.0), COM: 2.1 (1.0, 4.9). Reliability: [ICC, (95%CI)]: NDI: 0.88 (0.80, 0.93). COM: 0.85 (0.75,0.91). Sensitivity to change: Effect size for patients having worsened, not changed and improved between days 1 and 15, according to the external criterion for disability: NDI: -0.24, 0.15, 0.66; NPQ: -0.14, 0.06, 0.67; COM: 0.05, 0.19, 0.92. Validity: Results of NDI, NPQ and COM were consistent with the external criterion for disability, whereas only those from NDI were consistent with the one for pain. Correlations with VAS, CSQ and SF-12 were similar for NDI and NPQ (absolute values between 0.36 and 0.50 on day 1, between 0.38 and 0.70 on day 15), and slightly lower for COM (between 0.36 and 0.48 on day 1, and between 0.33 and 0.61 on day 15). Correlation between NDI and NPQ: r = 0.84 on day 1, r = 0.91 on day 15. Correlation between COM and NPQ: r = 0.63 on day 1, r = 0.71 on day 15.
Although most psychometric characteristics of NDI, NPQ and COM are similar, those from the latter one are worse and its use may lead to patients' evolution seeming more positive than it actually is. NDI seems to be the best instrument for measuring NP-related disability, since its results are the most consistent with patient's assessment of their own clinical status and evolution. It takes two more minutes to answer the NDI than to answer the COM, but it can be reliably filled out by the patient without assistance.
Trial Registration
Clinical Trials Register NCT00349544.
PMCID: PMC2375887  PMID: 18400084
9.  High and Low Cognitive Risk For Depression: Stability From Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood 
Cognitive therapy and research  2009;33(5):480-498.
Negative cognitive styles are an important cognitive vulnerability for depression, but stability of high cognitive risk, once developed, is unclear. The current study examined stability of cognitive vulnerability to depression in individuals at high and low cognitive risk (extreme scores on both the CSQ and DAS) over a 7-year period from late adolescence through early adulthood. Cognitive vulnerability showed high relative stability, as evidenced by the moderate to high correlation (rs = .62) between cognitive risk status at study onset and at final assessment 7 years later. Consistent with stability, subgroups were identified using growth mixture modeling, and most cognitively high-risk (62.22% for CSQ, 68.89% for DAS) and low-risk (55.05% for CSQ, 57.96% for DAS) participants showed stable trajectories of cognitive vulnerability. Despite this overall pattern of stability, small mean group changes were found, and a minority of participants showed changing trajectories, consistent with regression toward the mean. Predictors of change and implications for risk for depression in high- and low-risk individuals are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2834218  PMID: 20216920
cognitive vulnerability; depression; trajectory; stability
10.  The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index demonstrates factor, construct and longitudinal validity 
The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is a self-report measure developed to evaluate patients with shoulder pathology. While some validation has been conducted, broader analyses are indicated. This study determined aspects of cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of the SPADI.
Community volunteers (n = 129) who self-identified as having shoulder pain were enrolled. Patients were examined by a physical therapist using a standardized assessment process to insure that their pain was musculoskeletal in nature. This included examination of pain reported during active and passive shoulder motion as reported on a visual analogue pain scale. Patients completed the SPADI, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) at a baseline assessment and again 3 and 6 months later. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to assess subscale structure. Expectations regarding convergent and divergent subscales of CSQ and SIP were determined a priori and analysed using Pearson correlations. Constructed hypotheses that patients with a specific diagnosis or on pain medication would demonstrate higher SPADI scores were tested. Correlations between the observed changes recorded across different instruments were used to assess longitudinal validity.
The internal consistencies of the SPADI subscales were high (α > 0.92). Factor analysis with varimax rotation indicated that the majority of items fell into 2 factors that represent pain and disability. Two difficult functional items tended to align with pain items. Higher pain and disability was correlated to passive or negative coping strategies, i.e., praying/hoping, catastrophizing on the CSQ. The correlations between subscales of the SPADI and SIP were low with divergent subscales and low to moderate with convergent subscales. Correlations, r > 0.60, were observed between the SPADI and pain reported on a VAS pain scale during active and passive movement. The two constructed validity hypotheses (on diagnosis and use of pain medications) were both supported (p < 0.01). The SPADI demonstrated significant changes over time, but these were poorly correlated to the SIP or CSQ suggesting that these scales measure different parameters.
The SPADI is a valid measure to assess pain and disability in community-based patients reporting shoulder pain due to musculoskeletal pathology.
PMCID: PMC1382226  PMID: 16472394
11.  The Value of Pain Coping Constructs in Subcategorising Back Pain Patients according to Risk of Poor Outcome 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:898573.
Background. Subcategorising patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) could improve patient outcomes and facilitate prioritisation of treatment resources. Objective. This study aimed to develop a subcategorising method for individuals with CLBP using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire 24 (CSQ24) and to investigate the methods potential validity. Methods. 196 patients were recruited from a physiotherapy outpatients department. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires before and after treatment including the CSQ24 and a measure of pain, disability, and mood. At discharge participants also completed a global subjective outcomes scale consisting of a 6-point Likert scale. All participants received usual physiotherapy. Results. Cut-off values for the CSQ24 were calculated using triangulation of the findings from three different statistical methods. Cut-off values were identified for the Catastrophising and Cognitive Coping subscales of the CSQ24. Participants were categorised into low, medium, and high risk of a poor outcome. The cut-off values for these were ≥21 on Cognitive Coping and ≤9 on Catastrophising for low risk and ≤15 on Cognitive Coping for high risk, with all other patients being classified as being at moderate risk. Conclusion. Further validation is required before this approach can be recommended for clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC3821903  PMID: 24260746
12.  Measuring patient satisfaction: a test of construct validity. 
Quality in Health Care  1992;1(2):104-109.
OBJECTIVE--To establish the validity of two patient satisfaction questionnaires (surgery satisfaction questionnaire (SSQ) and consultation satisfaction questionnaire (CSQ)) developed for use in general practice. DESIGN--Prospective study of performance of SSQ and CSQ in patients selected for their predicted levels of satisfaction. SETTING--Avon Family Health Services Authority (FHSA); general practices in Bristol (practice A) and in Cheltenham (practice B). PATIENTS--400 patients selected by Avon FHSA who had changed practices but not their home address and whose original practice had not changed its services (group 1); 869 randomly selected patients (221 from practice A, 648 from practice B) (group 2). MAIN MEASURES--Median difference in satisfaction scores for each questionnaire between groups 1 and 2 and between subgroups of group 2 patients according to assessed level in continuity of care (< 50%, > or = 50%) in the past 12 consultations. RESULTS--272 (68.0%) patients in group 1 completed the SSQ and CSQ. 711 (81.2%) patients in group 2 (178/221 (80.5%) in practice A, 533/648(82.3%) in practice B) completed the SSQ and 374(88/106(83.0%), 286/335(85.4%)) completed the CSQ. Both questionnaires classified patients in groups 1 and 2 according to the construct of satisfaction; thus the difference in median scores for every component of satisfaction in each questionnaire was significant and occurred in the direction predicted by the construct. Each questionnaire also discriminated between patients grouped according to their assessed level of continuity of care. CONCLUSION--SSQ and CSQ are valid measures of satisfaction for these types of patients. IMPLICATIONS--Valid measures of patient satisfaction can be developed; untested instruments should no longer be used.
PMCID: PMC1054973  PMID: 10172105
13.  Responsiveness of five condition-specific and generic outcome assessment instruments for chronic pain 
Changes of health and quality-of-life in chronic conditions are mostly small and require specific and sensitive instruments. The aim of this study was to determine and compare responsiveness, i.e. the sensitivity to change of five outcome instruments for effect measurement in chronic pain.
In a prospective cohort study, 273 chronic pain patients were assessed on the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, the Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ). Responsiveness was quantified by effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM) before and after a four week in-patient interdisciplinary pain program and compared by the modified Jacknife test.
The MPI measured pain more responsively than the SF-36 (ES: 0.85 vs 0.72, p = 0.053; SRM: 0.72 vs 0.60, p = 0.027) and the pain NRS (ES: 0.85 vs 0.62, p < 0.001; SRM: 0.72 vs 0.57, p = 0.001). Similar results were found for the dimensions of role and social interference with pain. Comparison in function was limited due to divergent constructs. The responsiveness of the MPI and the SF-36 was equal for affective health but both were better than the HADS (e.g. MPI vs HADS depression: ES: 0.61 vs 0.43, p = 0.001; SF-36 vs HADS depression: ES: 0.54 vs 0.43, p = 0.004). In the "ability to control pain" coping dimension, the MPI was more responsive than the CSQ (ES: 0.46 vs 0.30, p = 0.011).
The MPI was most responsive in all comparable domains followed by the SF-36. The pain-specific MPI and the generic SF-36 can be recommended for comprehensive and specific bio-psycho-social effect measurement of health and quality-of-life in chronic pain.
PMCID: PMC2386498  PMID: 18439285
14.  Chronic pain coping styles in patients with herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes treated surgically: Considering clinical pain characteristics, degenerative changes, disability, mood disturbances, and beliefs about pain control 
Pain catastrophizing, appraisals of pain control, styles of coping, and social support have been suggested to affect functioning in patients with low back pain. We investigated the relation of chronic pain coping strategies to psychological variables and clinical data, in patients treated surgically due to lumbar disc herniation and coexisting spondylotic changes.
The average age of study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). Patients completed the Polish versions of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (PL-CPCI-42), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ-PL), and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ-PL).
In the PL-CPCI-42 results, resting, guarding and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies (3.96 SD 1.97; 3.72 SD 1.72; 3.47 SD 2.02, respectively). In the CSQ-PL domains, catastrophizing and praying/hoping were frequently used as coping strategies (3.62 SD 1.19). The mean score obtained from the BDI-PL was 11.86 SD 7.23, and 12.70 SD 5.49 from the RMDQ-PL. BPCQ-PL results indicate that the highest score was in the subscale measuring beliefs that powerful others can control pain (4.36 SD 0.97). Exercise correlated significantly with beliefs about internal control of pain (rs=0.22). We identified associations between radiating pain and guarding (p=0.038) and between sports recreation and guarding (p=0.013) and task persistence (p=0.041).
Back pain characteristics, depressive mood, disability, and beliefs about personal control of pain are related to chronic LBP coping styles. Most of the variables related to advancement of degenerative changes were not associated with coping efforts.
PMCID: PMC3891316  PMID: 24370564
disc herniation; chronic pain coping styles; CPCI-42; beliefs about pain control
15.  The Coexistence of Coping Resources and Specific Coping Styles in Stress: Evidence from Full Information Item Bifactor Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e96451.
Knowledge of coping styles is useful in clinical diagnosis and suggesting specific therapeutic interventions. However, the latent structures and relationships between different aspects of coping styles have not been fully clarified. A full information item bifactor model will be beneficial to future research.
One goal of this study is identification of the best fit statistical model of coping styles. A second goal is entails extended analyses of latent relationships among different coping styles. In general, such research should offer greater understanding of the mechanisms of coping styles and provide insights into coping with stress.
Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were administrated to officers suffering from military stress. Confirmatory Factor Analyses was performed to indentify the best fit model. A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was adopted to analyze the data. Additionally, correlations among coping styles and self-efficacy were compared using both original and bifactor models.
Results showed a bifactor model best fit the data. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied among different coping styles. All items loaded significantly on the general factor, and most items also had moderate to large loadings on specific factors. The correlation between coping styles and self-efficacy and the correlation among different coping styles changed significantly after extracting the general factor of coping stress using bifactor analysis. This was seen in changes from positive (r = 0.714, p<0.01) correlation to negative (r = −0.335, p<0.01) and also from negative (r = −0.296, p<0.01) to positive (r = 0.331, p<0.01).
Our results reveal that coping styles have a bifactor structure. They also provide direct evidence of coexisting coping resources and styles. This further clarifies that dimensions of coping styles should include coping resources and specific coping styles. This finding has implications for measurement of coping mechanisms, health maintenance, and stress reduction.
PMCID: PMC4006812  PMID: 24787952
16.  Patient-reported outcome data generated in a clinical intervention in community mental health care - psychometric properties 
BMC Psychiatry  2012;12:113.
DIALOG is an intervention to structure the communication between patient and key worker, which has been shown to improve patient outcomes in community mental health care. As part of the intervention, patients provide ratings of their subjective quality of life (SQOL) on eight Likert type items and their treatment satisfaction on three such items. This study explored the psychometric qualities of the outcome data generated in the DIALOG intervention to explore whether they may be used for evaluating treatment outcomes.
Data were taken from 271 patients who received the DIALOG intervention. All patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia or a related disorder and treated in community mental health care. For SQOL and treatment satisfaction as assessed in the DIALOG intervention, we established the internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), the convergent validity of SQOL items (correlation with Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life [MANSA]) and treatment satisfaction items (correlation with Client Satisfaction Questionnaire [CSQ]), the concurrent validity (correlations with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]) and the sensitivity to change (t-test comparing ratings of the first and last intervention). We also explored the factorial structure of the eight SQOL items.
The internal consistency of the eight SQOL items was .71 and of the three treatment satisfaction items .57. SQOL scores were correlated with the MANSA (r = .95) and PANSS scores (general psychopathology: r = −.37, positive symptoms: r = −.27, negative symptoms: r = −.27). Treatment satisfaction scores were correlated with the CSQ (r = 0.36) and the PANSS (r = −.29, -.20, -.20). SQOL and treatment satisfaction score improved significantly over time. SQOL items loaded on two meaningful factors, one capturing health and personal safety and one reflecting other life domains.
The psychometric qualities of the SQOL scores generated in DIALOG are strong. The properties of the three treatment satisfaction items may be seen as acceptable. Although DIALOG has been designed as a therapeutic intervention, it can generate outcome data on SQOL and treatment satisfaction with acceptable psychometric qualities.
PMCID: PMC3499293  PMID: 22900667
17.  Clinical effectiveness of collaborative care for depression in UK primary care (CADET): cluster randomised controlled trial 
Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of collaborative care with usual care in the management of patients with moderate to severe depression.
Design Cluster randomised controlled trial.
Setting 51 primary care practices in three primary care districts in the United Kingdom.
Participants 581 adults aged 18 years and older who met ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision) criteria for a depressive episode on the revised Clinical Interview Schedule. We excluded acutely suicidal patients and those with psychosis, or with type I or type II bipolar disorder; patients whose low mood was associated with bereavement or whose primary presenting problem was alcohol or drug abuse; and patients receiving psychological treatment for their depression by specialist mental health services. We identified potentially eligible participants by searching computerised case records in general practices for patients with depression.
Interventions Collaborative care, including depression education, drug management, behavioural activation, relapse prevention, and primary care liaison, was delivered by care managers. Collaborative care involved six to 12 contacts with participants over 14 weeks, supervised by mental health specialists. Usual care was family doctors’ standard clinical practice.
Main outcome measures Depression symptoms (patient health questionnaire 9; PHQ-9), anxiety (generalised anxiety disorder 7; GAD-7), and quality of life (short form 36 questionnaire; SF-36) at four and 12 months; satisfaction with service quality (client satisfaction questionnaire; CSQ-8) at four months.
Results 276 participants were allocated to collaborative care and 305 allocated to usual care. At four months, mean depression score was 11.1 (standard deviation 7.3) for the collaborative care group and 12.7 (6.8) for the usual care group. After adjustment for baseline depression, mean depression score was 1.33 PHQ-9 points lower (95% confidence interval 0.35 to 2.31, P=0.009) in participants receiving collaborative care than in those receiving usual care at four months, and 1.36 points lower (0.07 to 2.64, P=0.04) at 12 months. Quality of mental health but not physical health was significantly better for collaborative care than for usual care at four months, but not 12 months. Anxiety did not differ between groups. Participants receiving collaborative care were significantly more satisfied with treatment than those receiving usual care. The number needed to treat for one patient to drop below the accepted diagnostic threshold for depression on the PHQ-9 was 8.4 immediately after treatment, and 6.5 at 12 months.
Conclusions Collaborative care has persistent positive effects up to 12 months after initiation of the intervention and is preferred by patients over usual care.
Trial registration number ISRCTN32829227.
PMCID: PMC3746956  PMID: 23959152
18.  The Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ): Development of a Short Self-Report Measure of Depressogenic Attributions 
A depressogenic attributional style, i.e., internal, stable and global causal interpretations of negative events, is a stable vulnerability factor for depression. Current measures of pessimistic attributional style can be time-consuming to complete, and some are designed for specific use with student populations. We developed and validated a new short questionnaire suitable for the measurement of depressogenic attributions in clinical settings, the Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ). The 16-item DAQ, and measures of depression and related cognitive concepts were completed by three samples of depressed patients and matched controls, or depressed and non-depressed participants who had been exposed to a recent uncontrollable stressful life event (total N = 375). The DAQ had high (i) internal reliability, (ii) test-retest reliability, (iii) convergent, discriminant and construct validity. It predicted a diagnosis of major depression at 6 months after an uncontrollable stressor, over and above what could be predicted from initial depression severity. Depressed patients rated the scale as acceptable. The DAQ may be a useful short measure of depressogenic attributions, which is easy to administer, and predicts concurrent and future depression. It has possible applications as a screening measure for risk of depression, or as a treatment process measure.
PMCID: PMC3143342  PMID: 21909186
Depression; Attribution; Cognition; Questionnaire; Assessment
19.  Validation of English and Spanish-Language Versions of a Screening Questionnaire for Rheumatoid Arthritis in an Underserved Community 
The Journal of rheumatology  2008;35(8):1545-1549.
Questionnaires to screen for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been tested in groups that were primarily well educated and Caucasian. We sought to validate the RA questions of the Connective Tissue Disease Screening Questionnaire (CSQ) in ethnic minorities in an underserved community, and to test a Spanish-language version.
The Spanish-language version was developed by 2 native speakers. Consecutive English-speaking or Spanish-speaking patients in a community-based rheumatology practice completed the questionnaire. Diagnoses were confirmed by medical record review. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire for a diagnosis of RA were computed for each language version, using 2 groups as controls: patients with noninflammatory conditions, and participants recruited from the community.
The English-language version was tested in 53 patients with RA (79% ethnic minorities; mean education level 11.3 yrs), 85 rheumatology controls with noninflammatory conditions, and 82 community controls. Using 3 positive responses as indicating a positive screening test, the sensitivity of the questionnaire was 0.77, the specificity based on rheumatology controls was 0.45, and the specificity based on community controls was 0.94. The Spanish-language version was tested in 55 patients with RA (mean education level 7.8 yrs), 149 rheumatology controls, and 88 community controls. The sensitivity of the Spanish-language version was 0.87, with specificities of 0.60 and 0.97 using the rheumatology controls and community controls, respectively.
The sensitivity of the English-language version of the RA questions of the CSQ was lower in this study than in other cohorts, reflecting differences in the performance of the questions in different ethnic or socioeconomic groups. The Spanish-language version demonstrated good sensitivity, and both had excellent specificity when tested in community controls.
PMCID: PMC2727680  PMID: 18597406
20.  The importance of catastrophizing for successful pharmacological treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain 
Journal of Pain Research  2014;7:327-338.
Catastrophizing may be a negative predictor of pain-related outcomes. We evaluated the impact of catastrophizing upon success of first-line pharmacotherapy in the management of neuropathic pain (NeP) due to peripheral polyneuropathy.
Patients with confirmed NeP with NeP Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain severity score ≥4 (0–10 scale) completed the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) catastrophizing subscale at baseline. Pharmacological therapy consisting of first-line agents gabapentin, pregabalin, or a tricyclic antidepressant was initiated. Other measures examined included the Karnofsky Performance Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, EuroQol Quality of Life Health Questionnaire, and Modified Brief Pain Inventory. At 3 and 6 months, questionnaires were repeated and adverse effect reporting was completed. Outcome measures assessed were pharmacotherapy success (≥30% relief of NeP) and tolerability over 6 months of follow-up. Bivariate relationships using Pearson product-moment correlations were examined for baseline CSQ catastrophizing subscale score and the change in the NeP VAS scores and medication discontinuation.
Sixty-six patients were screened, 62 subjects participated, and 58 subjects (94%) completed the final follow-up visit. Greater catastrophizing was associated with poor pain relief response and greater likelihood of discontinuation of pharmacotherapy, reports of greater disability, and impaired quality of life. Duration of pain was negatively associated with likelihood of pharmacotherapy success.
Catastrophizing exerts maladaptive effects on outcomes with pharmacotherapy in NeP patients. Detection of catastrophizing during clinical visits when pharmacological therapy is being considered can be a predictive factor for patient outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4077695  PMID: 25028563
neuropathic pain; catastrophizing; coping; pharmacotherapy
21.  Patient feedback in revalidation: an exploratory study using the consultation satisfaction questionnaire 
The British Journal of General Practice  2011;61(591):e638-e644.
Revalidation is the UK process forthe review of doctors to ensure they are fit to practise. Revalidation will include patient feedback.
To investigate the role of patient feedback on GPs' consultations in revalidation.
Design and setting
Cross-sectional survey of patients consulting 171 GPs.
A total of 6433 patients aged 16 years or over completed the consultation satisfaction questionnaire (CSQ). Generalisability analysis was undertaken, scale scores calculated, and outliers identified using two and three standard deviations from the mean as control limits. Comments made by patients were categorised into positive, neutral, or negative.
After averaging each scale for each doctor, mean scores (standard deviation), out of a possible score of 100, were: general satisfaction 78.1 (7.2); professional care 82.1 (6.1); relationship 71.2 (7.1); perceived time 65.7 (7.6). A D-study (which enables estimation of the reliability from 0-1 of the CSQ scores for different numbers of responders for each doctor), indicated that ratings by 19 patients would achieve a generalisability coefficient of 0.80 for the combined score. Fifteen GPs had one or more scale scores below two standard deviations of the mean. Comments were more often negative for GPs with scores below two standard deviations of the mean.
Most patients of most GPs are satisfied with their experience of consultations, and ways to make patient feedback formative for these doctors is required. For a few GPs, most patients report some dissatisfaction. Patient feedback may identify doctors who need educational support and possibly remediation, but agreed questionnaire score thresholds are required, and agreement is needed on the weight to be attached to patient experience in comparison with other aspects of performance.
PMCID: PMC3177132  PMID: 22152843
certification; general practice; patient satisfaction
22.  Internet-Delivered Interpersonal Psychotherapy Versus Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults With Depressive Symptoms: Randomized Controlled Noninferiority Trial 
Face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are both effective treatments for depressive disorders, but access is limited. Online CBT interventions have demonstrated efficacy in decreasing depressive symptoms and can facilitate the dissemination of therapies among the public. However, the efficacy of Internet-delivered IPT is as yet unknown.
This study examines whether IPT is effective, noninferior to, and as feasible as CBT when delivered online to spontaneous visitors of an online therapy website.
An automated, 3-arm, fully self-guided, online noninferiority trial compared 2 new treatments (IPT: n=620; CBT: n=610) to an active control treatment (MoodGYM: n=613) over a 4-week period in the general population. Outcomes were assessed using online self-report questionnaires, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) completed immediately following treatment (posttest) and at 6-month follow-up.
Completers analyses showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms at posttest and follow-up for both CBT and IPT, and were noninferior to MoodGYM. Within-group effect sizes were medium to large for all groups. There were no differences in clinical significant change between the programs. Reliable change was shown at posttest and follow-up for all programs, with consistently higher rates for CBT. Participants allocated to IPT showed significantly lower treatment satisfaction compared to CBT and MoodGYM. There was a dropout rate of 1294/1843 (70%) at posttest, highest for MoodGYM. Intention-to-treat analyses confirmed these findings.
Despite a high dropout rate and lower satisfaction scores, this study suggests that Internet-delivered self-guided IPT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms, and may be noninferior to MoodGYM. The completion rates of IPT and CBT were higher than MoodGYM, indicating some progress in refining Internet-based self-help. Internet-delivered treatment options available for people suffering from depression now include IPT.
Trial Registration
International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 69603913; (Archived by WebCite at
PMCID: PMC3668608  PMID: 23669884
interpersonal relations; cognitive behavior therapy; depressive disorder; Internet; randomized controlled trial
23.  The cytosolic protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates cardia calsequestrin in intact cells 
The luminal SR protein CSQ2 contains phosphate on roughly half of the serines found in its C-terminus. The sequence around phosphorylation sites in CSQ2 suggest that the in vivo kinase is protein kinase CK2, even though this enzyme is thought to be present only in the cytoplasm and nucleus. To test whether CSQ2 kinase is CK2, we combined approaches that reduced CK2 activity and CSQ2 phosphorylation in intact cells. Tetrabromocinnamic acid, a specific inhibitor of CK2, inhibited both the CSQ2 kinase and CK2 in parallel across a range of concentrations. In intact primary adult rat cardiomyocytes and COS cells, 24 h of drug treatment reduced phosphorylation of overexpressed CSQ2 by 75%. Down-regulation of CK2α subunits in COS cells using siRNA, produced a 90% decrease in CK2α protein levels, and CK2-silenced COS cells exhibited a twofold reduction in CSQ2 kinase activity. Phosphorylation of CSQ2 overexpressed in CK2-silenced cells was also reduced by a factor of two. These data suggested that CSQ2 in intact cells is phosphorylated by CK2, a cytosolic kinase. When phosphorylation site mutants were analyzed in COS cells, the characteristic rough endoplasmic reticulum form of the CSQ2 glycan (GlcNAc2Man9,8) underwent phosphorylation site dependent processing such that CSQ2-nonPP (Ser to Ala mutant) and CSQ2-mimPP (Ser to Glu mutant) produced apparent lower and greater levels of ER retention, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest CK2 can phosphorylate CSQ2 co-translationally at biosynthetic sites in rough ER, a process that may result in changes in its subsequent trafficking through the secretory pathway.
PMCID: PMC4331048  PMID: 21431367
Calsequestrin; CK2; Phosphorylation; Sarcoplasmic reticulum; Kinase inhibitors; siRNA; Glycosylation; Rough ER
24.  Differences in pain, function and coping in Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroups of chronic back pain: a one-group pretest-posttest study 
Patients with non-specific back pain are not a homogeneous group but heterogeneous with regard to their bio-psycho-social impairments. This study examined a sample of 173 highly disabled patients with chronic back pain to find out how the three subgroups based on the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) differed in their response to an inpatient pain management program.
Subgroup classification was conducted by cluster analysis using MPI subscale scores at entry into the program. At program entry and at discharge after four weeks, participants completed the MPI, the MOS Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ). Pairwise analyses of the score changes of the mentioned outcomes of the three MPI subgroups were performed using the Mann-Whitney-U-test for significance.
Cluster analysis identified three MPI subgroups in this highly disabled sample: a dysfunctional, interpersonally distressed and an adaptive copers subgroup. The dysfunctional subgroup (29% of the sample) showed the highest level of depression in SF-36 mental health (33.4 ± 13.9), the interpersonally distressed subgroup (35% of the sample) a modest level of depression (46.8 ± 20.4), and the adaptive copers subgroup (32% of the sample) the lowest level of depression (57.8 ± 19.1). Significant differences in pain reduction and improvement of mental health and coping were observed across the three MPI subgroups, i.e. the effect sizes for MPI pain reduction were: 0.84 (0.44 - 1.24) for the dysfunctional subgroup, 1.22 (0.86 - 1.58) for the adaptive copers subgroup, and 0.53 (0.24 - 0.81) for the interpersonally distressed subgroup (p = 0.006 for pairwise comparison). Significant score changes between subgroups concerning activities and physical functioning could not be identified.
MPI subgroup classification showed significant differences in score changes for pain, mental health and coping. These findings underscore the importance of assessing individual differences to understand how patients adjust to chronic back pain.
PMCID: PMC3141610  PMID: 21718525
25.  Glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain as a model of persistent myofascial TMD pain? 
Archives of oral biology  2008;53(7):666-676.
Compare pain-related measures and psychosocial variables between glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain in healthy subjects (HS) and patients with persistent myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain.
47 female HS and 10 female patients with persistent myofascial TMD pain participated. The HS received an injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle to model persistent myofascial TMD pain. Participants filled out a coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ), the symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Pain intensity was assessed on an electronic visual analog scale (VAS). Pain-drawing areas, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores of unpleasantness, pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and tolerance (PPTOL) were measured. Unpaired t-tests and correlation tests were used for analyses.
The groups were significantly different when comparing the CSQ scores of control, decrease, diverting attention, increase of behavioral activities and somatization. The peak VAS pain, NRS of unpleasantness and MPQ scores were not significantly different between groups, but PPT and PPTOL were significantly lower in the TMD patients. Significant positive correlations were found in the TMD patients between peak VAS pain and CSQ catastrophizing score and SCL-90 somatization. The scores of PPTs and PPTOLs, in patients showed positive correlations with CSQ reinterpreting pain sensations scores and PPTs correlated with CSQ praying/hoping scores.
Glutamate-evoked pain responses in HS and persistent myofascial TMD pain have similar sensory-discriminative and affective-unpleasantness components but differ in psycho-social features. This study suggests that experimental designs based on glutamate injection into muscle can provide an appropriate model for elucidating persistent myofascial pain conditions.
PMCID: PMC2491493  PMID: 18313028
Orofacial pain; temporomandibular disorders; muscle pain; glutamate; trigeminal physiology; coping strategies questionnaire; catastrophizing; experimental muscle pain model

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