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1.  Biomarkers for Severity of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy and Outcomes in Newborns Receiving Hypothermia Therapy 
The Journal of pediatrics  2013;164(3):468-74.e1.
Objective
To evaluate serum neuronal and inflammatory biomarkers to determine whether measurements of umbilical cords at birth can stratify severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), whether serial measurements differ with hypothermia-rewarming, and whether biomarkers correlate with neurological outcomes.
Study design
This is a prospective cohort of inborn term newborns with varying degrees of HIE by neurological assessment. Neuronal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1, and inflammatory cytokines were measured in serum from umbilical artery at 6–24, 48, 72, and 78 hours of age. Neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III scales) were performed at 15–18 months.
Results
Twenty neonates had moderate (n = 17) or severe (n = 3) HIE and received hypothermia; 7 had mild HIE and were not cooled. At birth, serum GFAP and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 increased with the severity of HIE (P < .001), and serial GFAP remained elevated in neonates with moderate to severe HIE. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor were greater at 6–24 hours in moderate to severe vs mild HIE (P < .05). The serial values were unaffected by hypothermia-rewarming. Elevated GFAP, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor, interferon, and vascular endothelial growth factor at 6–24 hours were associated with abnormal neurological outcomes.
Conclusions
The severity of the hypoxic-ischemic injury can be stratified at birth because elevated neuronal biomarkers in cord serum correlated with severity of HIE and outcomes.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.10.067
PMCID: PMC4006934  PMID: 24332821
2.  Therapeutic hypothermia on neonatal transport: 4-year experience in a single NICU 
Journal of Perinatology  2009;30(5):324-329.
Objective:
Therapeutic hypothermia instituted within 6 h of birth has been shown to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in term newborns with moderate–to–severe hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The majority of infants who would benefit from cooling are born at centers that do not offer the therapy, and adding the time for transport will result in delays in therapy, that may lead to suboptimal or no neuroprotection for some patients. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of our center's experience with therapeutic hypothermia on neonatal transport.
Study Design:
Retrospective review of all cases of therapeutic hypothermia at a single neonatal intensive care unit from 2005 to 2009.
Result:
Of 50 infants with HIE treated with hypothermia, 40 were outborn and 35 were cooled on transport. The majority of patients were passively cooled by the referring clinicians, then actively cooled by our transport team. Overcooling to <32 °C occurred in 34% of patients, but there were no significant differences in admission vital signs or laboratory values between overcooled and appropriately cooled infants. The average time after birth of initiation of passive cooling was 1.4 h and active cooling was 2.7 h compared with the time of admission to our unit of 5.9 h.
Conclusion:
We discuss the important aspects of our program, including the education of referring and receiving clinicians and avoidance of overcooling.
doi:10.1038/jp.2009.168
PMCID: PMC2864418  PMID: 19847186
hypothermia; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; neontal transport; neuroprotection; birth asphyxia
3.  Cerebrovascular autoregulation and neurologic injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 
Pediatric research  2013;74(5):525-535.
Background
Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are at risk of cerebral blood flow dysregulation. Our objective was to describe the relationship between autoregulation and neurologic injury in HIE.
Methods
Neonates with HIE had autoregulation monitoring with the hemoglobin volume index (HVx) during therapeutic hypothermia, rewarming, and the first 6 h of normothermia. The 5-mmHg range of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) with best vasoreactivity (MAPOPT) was identified. The percentage of time spent with MAP below MAPOPT and deviation in MAP from MAPOPT were measured. Neonates received brain MRIs 3–7 days after treatment. MRIs were coded as no, mild, or moderate/severe injury in five regions.
Results
HVx identified MAPOPT in 79% (19/24), 77% (17/22), and 86% (18/21) of neonates during hypothermia, rewarming, and normothermia, respectively. Neonates with moderate/severe injury in paracentral gyri, white matter, basal ganglia, and thalamus spent a greater proportion of time with MAP below MAPOPT during rewarming than neonates with no or mild injury. Neonates with moderate/severe injury in paracentral gyri, basal ganglia, and thalamus had greater MAP deviation below MAPOPT during rewarming than neonates without injury.
Conclusion
Maintaining MAP within or above MAPOPT may reduce the risk of neurologic injuries in neonatal HIE.
doi:10.1038/pr.2013.132
PMCID: PMC3954983  PMID: 23942555
4.  Treatment advances in neonatal neuroprotection and neurointensive care 
Lancet neurology  2011;10(4):372-382.
Knowledge of the nature, prognosis, and ways to treat brain lesions in neonatal infants has increased remarkably. Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term infants, mirrors a progressive cascade of excito-oxidative events that unfold in the brain after an asphyxial insult. In the laboratory, this cascade can be blocked to protect brain tissue through the process of neuroprotection. However, proof of a clinical effect was lacking until the publication of three positive randomised controlled trials of moderate hypothermia for term infants with HIE. These results have greatly improved treatment prospects for babies with asphyxia and altered understanding of the theory of neuroprotection. The studies show that moderate hypothermia within 6 h of asphyxia improves survival without cerebral palsy or other disability by about 40% and reduces death or neurological disability by nearly 30%. The search is on to discover adjuvant treatments that can further enhance the effects of hypothermia.
doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70016-3
PMCID: PMC3757153  PMID: 21435600
5.  Current Controversies in Newer Therapies to Treat Birth Asphyxia 
Despite major advances in monitoring technology and knowledge of fetal and neonatal pathophysiology, neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains one of the main causes of severe adverse neurological outcome in children. Until recently, there were no therapies other than supportive measures. Over the past several years, mild hypothermia has been proven to be safe to treat HIE. Unfortunately, this neuroprotective strategy seems efficient in preventing brain injury in some asphyxiated newborns, but not in all of them. Thus, there is increasing interest to rapidly understand how to refine hypothermia therapy and add neuroprotective or neurorestorative strategies. Several promising newer treatments to treat birth asphyxia and prevent its devastating neurological consequences are currently being tested. In this paper, the physiopathology behind HIE, the currently available treatment, the potential alternatives, and the next steps before implementation of these other treatments are reviewed.
doi:10.1155/2011/848413
PMCID: PMC3228371  PMID: 22164181
6.  Evolution of Encephalopathy during Whole Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy 
The Journal of Pediatrics  2011;160(4):567-572.e3.
Objective
To examine the predictive ability of stage of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) for death or moderate/severe disability at 18 months among neonates undergoing hypothermia.
Study design
Stage of encephalopathy was evaluated at <6 hr of age, during study intervention and at discharge among 204 participants in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network Trial of whole body hypothermia for HIE. HIE was examined as a predictor of outcome by regression models.
Results
Moderate and severe HIE occurred at <6 hrs of age among 68% and 32% of 101 hypothermia group infants and 60% and 40% of 103 control group infants, respectively. At 24 and 48 hrs of study intervention, infants in the hypothermia group had less severe HIE than infants in the control group. Persistence of severe HIE at 72 hrs increased the risk of death or disability after controlling for treatment group. The discharge exam improved the predictive value of stage of HIE at < 6hrs for death/disability.
Conclusions
On serial neurological examinations, improvement in stage of HIE was associated with cooling. Persistence of severe HIE at 72 hours and an abnormal neurological exam at discharge was associated with a greater risk of death or disability.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.09.018
PMCID: PMC3299861  PMID: 22050871
Neurological examinations; neonates; clinical biomarker; death; disability
7.  Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein as a Biomarker for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Treated with Whole Body Cooling 
Objective
GFAP is specific to astrocytes in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that serum GFAP would be increased in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with whole body cooling.
Study Design
We measured GFAP at birth and daily for up to 7 days for neonates in the intensive care unit. We compared neonates with HIE treated with whole body cooling to gestational age matched controls without neurologic injury and neonates with HIE by brain abnormalities on MRI.
Results
Neonates with HIE had increased GFAP levels compared to controls. Neonates with HIE and abnormal brain imaging had elevated GFAP levels compared to neonates with HIE and normal imaging.
Conclusions
Serum GFAP levels during the first week of life were increased in neonates with HIE and were predictive of brain injury on MRI. Biomarkers like GFAP could help triage neonates with HIE to treatment, measure treatment efficacy and provide prognostic information.
doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2011.06.025
PMCID: PMC4011017  PMID: 21784396
fetal acidosis; glial fibrillary acidic protein; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; neonatal seizures; whole body cooling
8.  Changes in the PQRST Intervals and Heart Rate Variability Associated with Rewarming in Two Newborns Undergoing Hypothermia Therapy 
Neonatology  2009;96(2):93-95.
Background
Little is known about the effects of hypothermia therapy and subsequent rewarming on the PQRST intervals and heart rate variability (HRV) in term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).
Objectives
This study describes the changes in the PQRST intervals and HRV during rewarming to normal core body temperature of 2 newborns with HIE after hypothermia therapy.
Methods
Within 6 h after birth, 2 newborns with HIE were cooled to a core body temperature of 33.5°C for 72 h using a cooling blanket, followed by gradual rewarming (0.5°C per hour) until the body temperature reached 36.5°C. Custom instrumentation recorded the electrocardiogram from the leads used for clinical monitoring of vital signs. Generalized linear mixed models were calculated to estimate temperature-related changes in PQRST intervals and HRV.
Results
For every 1°C increase in body temperature, the heart rate increased by 9.2 bpm (95% CI 6.8–11.6), the QTc interval decreased by 21.6 ms (95% CI 17.3–25.9), and low and high frequency HRV decreased by 0.480 dB (95% CI 0.052–0.907) and 0.938 dB (95% CI 0.460–1.416), respectively.
Conclusions
Hypothermia-induced changes in the electrocardiogram should be monitored carefully in future studies.
doi:10.1159/000205385
PMCID: PMC2957844  PMID: 19252411
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; Hypothermia therapy; Electrocardiogram; QT interval; Heart rate variability
9.  Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy 
Opinion statement
Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in full term infants has been associated with a high risk for morbidity and mortality. The patho-physiology of brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia, noted in preclinical models, is a cascade of events resulting from excitotoxic and oxidative injury culminating in cell death. Hypothermia has been noted to be protective by inhibiting various events in the cascade of injury. Major randomized clinical trials in neonatal HIE have demonstrated reduction in death and disability and continued safety and efficacy of neuroprotection in childhood. There is now clinical and imaging evidence for hypothermia as neuroprotection. Hypothermia should be offered to term infants with either severe acidosis at birth or resuscitation needing continued ventilation and evidence of either moderate or severe encephalopathy within 6 hours of birth. The target temperature should be 33° to 34 °C and duration of cooling should be 72 hours, as per the published trials. Rewarming should be slow, at 0.5 °C per hour. Infants should have serial neurological examinations during and at the end of cooling and at discharge. Multiorgan function should be supported and hypocarbia should be avoided during ventilator therapy. If available, the amplitude integrated EEG should be obtained prior to cooling and following rewarming. All infants should have magnetic resonance brain imaging studies within 1 to 2 weeks of age. Information from the neurological examination, aEEG and MRI studies will be helpful in discussing prognosis with parents. All infants should be followed for a minimum of 18 months to evaluate growth parameters and neurodevelopment al outcome.
doi:10.1007/s11940-012-0200-y
PMCID: PMC3519960  PMID: 23007949
Therapeutic hypothermia; Neonatal encephalopathy; Term infants; Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; Pathophysiology; Neurodevelopmental outcome; Neuroprotection; Head cooling; Whole body cooling; Randomized controlled trials; Knowledge gaps; Adjuvant therapies; Treatment
10.  The Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy Model of Perinatal Ischemia 
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring at birth. Twenty five percent of neonates with HIE develop severe and permanent neuropsychological sequelae, including mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy. The outcomes of HIE are devastating and permanent, making it critical to identify and develop therapeutic strategies to reduce brain injury in newborns with HIE. To that end, the neonatal rat model for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury has been developed to model this human condition. The HIE model was first validated by Vannucci et al 1 and has since been extensively used to identify mechanisms of brain injury resulting from perinatal hypoxia-ischemia 2 and to test potential therapeutic interventions 3,4. The HIE model is a two step process and involves the ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by exposure to a hypoxic environment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligated carotid artery does not decrease because of the collateral blood flow via the circle of Willis; however with lower oxygen tension, the CBF in the ipsilateral hemisphere decreases significantly and results in unilateral ischemic injury. The use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to stain and identify ischemic brain tissue was originally developed for adult models of rodent cerebral ischemia 5, and is used to evaluate the extent of cerebral infarctin at early time points up to 72 hours after the ischemic event 6. In this video, we demonstrate the hypoxic-ischemic injury model in postnatal rat brain and the evaluation of the infarct size using TTC staining.
doi:10.3791/955
PMCID: PMC2953967  PMID: 19066530
11.  Physiologic and pharmacologic considerations for hypothermia therapy in neonates 
With mounting evidence that hypothermia is neuroprotective in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), an increasing number of centers are offering this therapy. Hypothermia is associated with a wide range of physiologic changes affecting every organ system, and awareness of these effects is essential for optimum patient management. Lowering the core temperature also alters pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of medications commonly used in asphyxiated neonates, necessitating close attention to drug efficacy and side effects. Rewarming introduces additional risks and challenges as the hypothermia-associated physiologic and pharmacologic changes are reversed. In this review we provide an organ system-based assessment of physiologic changes associated with hypothermia. We also summarize evidence from randomized controlled trials showing lack of serious adverse effects of moderate hypothermia therapy in term and near-term newborns with moderate-to-severe HIE. Finally, we review the effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism and clearance based on studies in animal models and human adults, and limited data from neonates.
doi:10.1038/jp.2010.146
PMCID: PMC3552186  PMID: 21183927
hypothermia; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; neonate; pharmacologic effect; physiology effect; rewarming
12.  Hypothermia for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Infants ≥ 36 weeks 
Early human development  2009;85(10 Suppl):S49.
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is a serious condition affecting infants which can result in death and disability. This is a summary of pathogenesis of HIE, animal studies of cooling for hypoxic and ischemic models, human hypothermia trials, and the American Academy of Pediatrics publication on hypothermia for HIE. Hypothermia for neonatal HIE is continuing to evolve as a therapy. Studies, gaps in knowledge and opportunities for research are presented herein.
doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2009.08.015
PMCID: PMC2813680  PMID: 19762176
13.  Hypocarbia and Adverse Outcome in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy 
The Journal of pediatrics  2010;158(5):752-758.e1.
Objective
To evaluate the association between early hypocarbia and 18-22 month outcome among neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).
Study design
Data from the NICHD NRN randomized controlled trial of whole body hypothermia for neonatal HIE were used for this secondary observational study. Infants (n=204) had multiple blood gases recorded from birth-12h of study intervention (hypothermia vs. intensive care alone). The relationship between hypocarbia and outcome (death/disability at 18-22 months) was evaluated by unadjusted and adjusted analyses examining minimum PCO2 and cumulative exposure to PCO2 <35 mmHg. The relationship between cumulative PCO2 <35 mmHg (calculated as the difference between 35mmHg and the sampled PCO2 multiplied by the duration of time spent <35 mmHg) and outcome was evaluated by level of exposure (none-high) using a multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustments for pH, level of encephalopathy, treatment group (± hypothermia), time to spontaneous respiration and ventilator days; results were expressed as OR and 95% confidence intervals. Alternative models of CO2 concentration were explored to account for fluctuations in CO2.
Results
Both minimum PCO2 and cumulative PCO2 <35mmHg were associated with poor outcome (P<0.05). Moreover, death/disability increased with greater cumulative exposure to PCO2 <35mmHg.
Conclusion
Hypocarbia is associated with poor outcome following HIE.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.10.019
PMCID: PMC3229432  PMID: 21146184
hypocarbia; hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; whole body hypothermia; outcome; neurodevelopmental impairment
14.  Cost-effective therapeutic hypothermia treatment device for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy 
Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%–50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors. Using a piglet model, we confirmed that our device fits the specific parameters of therapeutic hypothermia, lowering the body temperature to 33.5°C with a 1°C margin of error. After the therapeutic hypothermia treatment, warming is regulated by adjusting the amount of water added and the location of baby inside the device. Our invention uniquely limits the amount of electricity required to power and operate the device compared with current expensive and high-tech devices available in the United States. Our device costs a maximum of 40 dollars and is simple enough to be used in neonatal intensive care units in developing countries.
doi:10.2147/MDER.S39254
PMCID: PMC3540914  PMID: 23319871
therapeutic hypothermia; evaporative cooling; hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; birth asphyxia; neuroprotection
15.  Impact of therapeutic hypothermia on MRI diffusion changes in neonatal encephalopathy 
Neurology  2012;78(18):1420-1427.
Objective:
The objective of this work was to determine the impact of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on the magnitude and time course of mean diffusivity (MD) changes following hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns.
Methods:
Cerebral MRI scans of infants undergoing whole body TH for HIE from 2007 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The data were analyzed identically to a control group of newborns with HIE previously published, prior to the development of TH. Anatomic injury was defined on T1- and T2-weighted (“late”) MRI obtained after the fifth day of life. Since MD values vary regionally, the ratios of MD values for injured and normal tissue were calculated for areas of injury. Normal values were obtained from corresponding brain regions of 12 infants undergoing TH who had no injury on MRI studies.
Results:
Twenty-three of 59 infants who underwent TH and MRI displayed cerebral injury on late MRI and were included in the study. MD ratios were decreased in all injured infants within the first 7 days of life. The return of MD to normal (pseudonormalization) occurred after the tenth day as compared to 6–8 days in the control group. Infants with severest injury demonstrated greater reduction in MD, but no difference in time to pseudonormalization.
Conclusion:
TH slows the evolution of diffusion abnormalities on MRI following HIE in term infants.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318253d589
PMCID: PMC3345786  PMID: 22517107
16.  Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy 
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of brain injury in the newborn and can result in long-term devastating consequences. Perinatal hypoxia is a vital cause of long-term neurologic complications varying from mild behavioural deficits to severe seizure, mental retardation, and/or cerebral palsy in the newborn. In the mammalian developing brain, ongoing research into pathophysiological mechanism of neuronal injury and therapeutic strategy after perinatal hypoxia is still limited. With the advent of promising therapy of hypothermia in HIE, this paper reviews the pathophysiology of HIE and the future potential neuroprotective strategies for clinical potential for hypoxia sufferers.
doi:10.1155/2011/609813
PMCID: PMC3010686  PMID: 21197402
17.  Population Pharmacokinetics of Phenobarbital in Infants with Neonatal Encephalopathy treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia 
Objective
Phenobarbital is the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures. Many neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and about 40% have clinical seizures. Little is known about pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with HIE who undergo TH. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TH on phenobarbital pharmacokinetics, taking into account maturational changes.
Setting
Level 3 neonatal intensive care unit.
Patients
Infants with HIE and suspected seizures, all treated with phenobarbital. Some of these infant also received treatment with TH.
Interventions
None.
Design
A retrospective cohort study of 39 infants with HIE treated with phenobarbital (20 were treated with TH and 19 were not).
Measurements and main results
Data were collected on phenobarbital plasma concentrations on 39 subjects with HIE with or without TH. Using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital were developed with a total of 164 plasma concentrations. A one-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics. The clearance (CL) of phenobarbital was linearly related to body weight and matured with increasing age with a maturation half-life of 22.1 days. TH did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenobarbital.
Conclusions
TH does not influence the CL of phenobarbital after accounting for weight and age. Standard phenobarbital dosing is appropriate for initial treatment of seizures in neonates with HIE treated with TH.
doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31825bbbc2
PMCID: PMC3717607  PMID: 23254984
phenobarbital; pharmacokinetics; neonates; seizures; therapeutic hypothermia; neonatal encephalopathy
18.  Lessons learned during implementation of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in a regional transport program in Ontario 
Paediatrics & Child Health  2011;16(3):153-156.
BACKGROUND:
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the first intervention to consistently show improved neurological outcomes in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Since the recent introduction of TH for HIE in many centres, reviews of practices during the implementation of TH in Canada have not been published.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine if eligible neonates are being offered TH and to identify any barriers to the effective implementation of TH.
METHODS:
A retrospective review of neonates referred to a regional tertiary centre at a gestational age of 35 weeks or more with HIE was conducted.
RESULTS:
Among 41 neonates referred, 29 (71%) were eligible for TH; among eligible patients, five were moribund and excluded, and TH was initiated in 16 (67%) of the remaining 24. Reasons for not cooling in eight eligible patients included a delay in referral (n=5, median age at referral was 14 h) and a failure to recognize the severity of HIE (n=3). Among cooled patients, median times were the following: 116 min for age at referral; 80 min for time from referral to transport team arrival; and 358 min for age at initiation of cooling. Seven (44%) patients had cooling initiated after 6 h of age.
CONCLUSION:
A significant proportion of eligible patients were not offered TH, and in many cooled patients, initiation of cooling was delayed beyond the recommended 6 h. For eligible patients to benefit from TH, it is imperative that all birthing centres be made aware that TH is now widely available as an important treatment option, but also that TH is a time-sensitive therapy requiring rapid identification and referral. In the region studied, for eligible patients, referring hospitals should initiate passive cooling before arrival of the transport team. Referring hospitals should be prepared to provide early, yet safe initiation of passive cooling by having the appropriate equipment, and having staff trained in the use and monitoring of rectal temperatures.
PMCID: PMC3077305  PMID: 22379379
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; Infant; Newborn; Therapeutic hypothermia
19.  The Metabolomic Profile of Umbilical Cord Blood in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e50520.
Background
Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns can cause significant long-term neurological disability. The insult is a complex injury characterised by energy failure and disruption of cellular homeostasis, leading to mitochondrial damage. The importance of individual metabolic pathways, and their interaction in the disease process is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the metabolomic profile of umbilical cord blood samples in a carefully defined population of full-term infants with HIE.
Methods and Findings
The injury severity was defined using both the modified Sarnat score and continuous multichannel electroencephalogram. Using these classification systems, our population was divided into those with confirmed HIE (n = 31), asphyxiated infants without encephalopathy (n = 40) and matched controls (n = 71). All had umbilical cord blood drawn and biobanked at −80°C within 3 hours of delivery. A combined direct injection and LC-MS/MS assay (AbsolutIDQ p180 kit, Biocrates Life Sciences AG, Innsbruck, Austria) was used for the metabolomic analyses of the samples. Targeted metabolomic analysis showed a significant alteration between study groups in 29 metabolites from 3 distinct classes (Amino Acids, Acylcarnitines, and Glycerophospholipids). 9 of these metabolites were only significantly altered between neonates with Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and matched controls, while 14 were significantly altered in both study groups. Multivariate Discriminant Analysis models developed showed clear multifactorial metabolite associations with both asphyxia and HIE. A logistic regression model using 5 metabolites clearly delineates severity of asphyxia and classifies HIE infants with AUC = 0.92. These data describe wide-spread disruption to not only energy pathways, but also nitrogen and lipid metabolism in both asphyxia and HIE.
Conclusion
This study shows that a multi-platform targeted approach to metabolomic analyses using accurately phenotyped and meticulously biobanked samples provides insight into the pathogenesis of perinatal asphyxia. It highlights the potential for metabolomic technology to develop a diagnostic test for HIE.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050520
PMCID: PMC3515614  PMID: 23227182
20.  Predictive Value of an Early Amplitude Integrated Electroencephalogram and Neurologic Examination 
Pediatrics  2011;128(1):e112-e120.
OBJECTIVE:
To examine the predictive validity of the amplitude integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) and stage of encephalopathy among infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) eligible for therapeutic whole-body hypothermia.
DESIGN:
Neonates were eligible for this prospective study if moderate or severe HIE occurred at <6 hours and an aEEG was obtained at <9 hours of age. The primary outcome was death or moderate/severe disability at 18 months.
RESULTS:
There were 108 infants (71 with moderate HIE and 37 with severe HIE) enrolled in the study. aEEG findings were categorized as normal, with continuous normal voltage (n = 12) or discontinuous normal voltage (n = 12), or abnormal, with burst suppression (n = 22), continuous low voltage (n = 26), or flat tracing (n = 36). At 18 months, 53 infants (49%) experienced death or disability. Severe HIE and an abnormal aEEG were related to the primary outcome with univariate analysis, whereas severe HIE alone was predictive of outcome with multivariate analysis. Addition of aEEG pattern to HIE stage did not add to the predictive value of the model; the area under the curve changed from 0.72 to 0.75 (P = .19).
CONCLUSIONS:
The aEEG background pattern did not significantly enhance the value of the stage of encephalopathy at study entry in predicting death and disability among infants with HIE.
doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2036
PMCID: PMC3124102  PMID: 21669899
neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; amplitude integrated EEG
21.  Perinatal Acidosis and Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in Preterm Infants of 33 to 35 Weeks’ Gestation 
The Journal of pediatrics  2011;160(3):388-394.
Objectives
To determine the frequency of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in preterm infants of 33 to 35 weeks’ gestational age on the basis of physiological screening for perinatal acidosis and neurological assessment of encephalopathy and to correlate neurodevelopmental outcomes with brain magnetic resonance imaging findings.
Study design
This retrospective cohort study included all inborn infants of 33 to 35 weeks’ gestation admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Parkland Memorial Hospital with perinatal acidosis from October 2005 to September 2008. Their medical records were reviewed, and pertinent data were recorded.
Results
Of 1305 newborns, 2.5% (n = 33) had perinatal acidosis, and 27% (n = 9) of these had HIE (2, mild; 4, moderate; 3, severe). Persistence of metabolic acidosis on the first arterial blood gas obtained in the first hour of age was significantly associated with HIE (P < .005). Magnetic resonance imaging results were abnormal in 3 of 4 infants with moderate HIE and in both survivors with severe HIE. Death or disability occurred in no infants with mild or moderate HIE, but in all infants with severe HIE.
Conclusion
Screening criteria for HIE that use biochemical and neurological assessments as performed in term newborns can be applied to preterm infants of 33 to 35 weeks’ gestation.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.09.001
PMCID: PMC3740949  PMID: 22033298
22.  Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce T-Cell Tolerance and Protect the Preterm Brain after Global Hypoxia-Ischemia 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e73031.
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in preterm infants is a severe disease for which no curative treatment is available. Cerebral inflammation and invasion of activated peripheral immune cells have been shown to play a pivotal role in the etiology of white matter injury, which is the clinical hallmark of HIE in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to assess the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of intravenously delivered mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an ovine model of HIE. In this translational animal model, global hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was induced in instrumented preterm sheep by transient umbilical cord occlusion, which closely mimics the clinical insult. Intravenous administration of 2 x 106 MSC/kg reduced microglial proliferation, diminished loss of oligodendrocytes and reduced demyelination, as determined by histology and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), in the preterm brain after global HI. These anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of MSC were paralleled by reduced electrographic seizure activity in the ischemic preterm brain. Furthermore, we showed that MSC induced persistent peripheral T-cell tolerance in vivo and reduced invasion of T-cells into the preterm brain following global HI. These findings show in a preclinical animal model that intravenously administered MSC reduced cerebral inflammation, protected against white matter injury and established functional improvement in the preterm brain following global HI. Moreover, we provide evidence that induction of T-cell tolerance by MSC might play an important role in the neuroprotective effects of MSC in HIE. This is the first study to describe a marked neuroprotective effect of MSC in a translational animal model of HIE.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073031
PMCID: PMC3753351  PMID: 23991170
23.  Electrocardiographic and enzymatic correlations with outcome in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 
Background
Perinatal asphyxia leading to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a common problem causing multi organ dysfunction including myocardial involvement which can affect the outcome.
Objective
To evaluate the myocardial dysfunction in neonates having HIE by electrocardiographic(ECG) and cardiac enzymes (CK Total, CK-MB and Troponin I) and find out the relationship with HIE and outcome.
Design/Methods
This was a hospital based prospective study. Sixty term neonates who had suffered perinatal asphyxia and developed HIE were enrolled. Myocardial involvement was assessed by clinical, ECG, and CK Total, CK-MB and Troponin I measurements.
Results
Of 60 cases, 13(21.7%) were in mild, 27(45%) in moderate and 20(33.3%) belonged to severe,HIE. ECG was abnormal in 46 (76.7%); of these 19 (41.3%) had grade I, 13 (28.2%) grades II and III each and 1 (2.1%) with grade IV changes. Serum levels of CK Total, CK- MB and Troponin I were raised in 54 (90%), 52 (86.6%) and 48 (80%) neonates, respectively. ECG changes and enzymatic levels showed increasing abnormalities with severity of HIE, and the differences among different grades were significant (p = 0.002, 0.02, <0.001 and 0.004, respectively). Nineteen (32%) cases died during hospital stay. The non- survivors had high proportion of abnormal ECG (p = 0.024), raised levels of CK-MB (p = 0.018) and Troponin I (p = 0.008) in comparison to survivors.
Conclusions
Abnormal ECG and cardiac enzymes levels are found in HIE and can lead to poor outcome due to myocardial damage Early detection can help in better management and survival of these neonates.
doi:10.1186/1824-7288-38-33
PMCID: PMC3410800  PMID: 22823976
Perinatal asphyxia; HIE; Myocardial dysfunction
24.  Early clinical signs in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy predict an abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram at age 6 hours 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:52.
Background
An early clinical score predicting an abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) or moderate-severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) may allow rapid triage of infants for therapeutic hypothermia. We aimed to determine if early clinical examination could predict either an abnormal aEEG at age 6 hours or moderate-severe HIE presenting within 72 hours of birth.
Methods
Sixty infants ≥ 36 weeks gestational age were prospectively enrolled following suspected intrapartum hypoxia and signs of encephalopathy. Infants who were moribund, had congenital conditions that could contribute to the encephalopathy or had severe cardio-respiratory instability were excluded. Predictive values of the Thompson HIE score, modified Sarnat encephalopathy grade (MSEG) and specific individual signs at age 3–5 hours were calculated.
Results
All of the 60 infants recruited had at least one abnormal primitive reflex. Visible seizures and hypotonia at 3–5 hours were strongly associated with an abnormal 6-hour aEEG (specificity 88% and 92%, respectively), but both had a low sensitivity (47% and 33%, respectively). Overall, 52% of the infants without hypotonia at 3–5 hours had an abnormal 6-hour aEEG. Twelve of the 29 infants (41%) without decreased level of consciousness at 3–5 hours had an abnormal 6-hour aEEG (sensitivity 67%; specificity 71%). A Thompson score ≥ 7 and moderate-severe MSEG at 3–5 hours, both predicted an abnormal 6-hour aEEG (sensitivity 100 vs. 97% and specificity 67 vs. 71% respectively). Both assessments predicted moderate-severe encephalopathy within 72 hours after birth (sensitivity 90%, vs. 88%, specificity 92% vs. 100%). The 6-hour aEEG predicted moderate-severe encephalopathy within 72 hours (sensitivity 75%, specificity 100%) but with lower sensitivity (p = 0.0156) than the Thompson score (sensitivity 90%, specificity 92%). However, all infants with a normal 3- and 6-hour aEEG with moderate-severe encephalopathy within 72 hours who were not cooled had a normal 24-hour aEEG.
Conclusions
The encephalopathy assessment described by the Thompson score at age 3–5 hours is a sensitive predictor of either an abnormal 6-hour aEEG or moderate-severe encephalopathy presenting within 72 hours after birth. An early Thompson score may be useful to assist with triage and selection of infants for therapeutic hypothermia.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-52
PMCID: PMC3635928  PMID: 23574923
Asphyxia; Neonate; Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; Electroencephalogram; aEEG; Prognostic
25.  Safety and efficacy of topiramate in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia (NeoNATI) 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:144.
Background
Despite progresses in neonatal care, the mortality and the incidence of neuro-motor disability after perinatal asphyxia have failed to show substantial improvements. In countries with a high level of perinatal care, the incidence of asphyxia responsible for moderate or severe encephalopathy is still 2–3 per 1000 term newborns. Recent trials have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia, started within 6 hours after birth and protracted for 72 hours, can significantly improve survival and reduce neurologic impairment in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is not currently known whether neuroprotective drugs can further improve the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Topiramate has been proven to reduce brain injury in animal models of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, the association of mild hypothermia and topiramate treatment has never been studied in human newborns. The objective of this research project is to evaluate, through a multicenter randomized controlled trial, whether the efficacy of moderate hypothermia can be increased by concomitant topiramate treatment.
Methods/Design
Term newborns (gestational age ≥ 36 weeks and birth weight ≥ 1800 g) with precocious metabolic, clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy will be randomized, according to their EEG pattern, to receive topiramate added to standard treatment with moderate hypothermia or standard treatment alone. Topiramate will be administered at 10 mg/kg once a day for the first 3 days of life. Topiramate concentrations will be measured on serial dried blood spots. 64 participants will be recruited in the study. To evaluate the safety of topiramate administration, cardiac and respiratory parameters will be continuously monitored. Blood samplings will be performed to check renal, liver and metabolic balance. To evaluate the efficacy of topiramate, the neurologic outcome of enrolled newborns will be evaluated by serial neurologic and neuroradiologic examinations. Visual function will be evaluated by means of behavioural standardized tests.
Discussion
This pilot study will explore the possible therapeutic role of topiramate in combination with moderate hypothermia. Any favourable results of this research might open new perspectives about the reduction of cerebral damage in asphyxiated newborns.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN62175998; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01241019; EudraCT Number 2010-018627-25
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-144
PMCID: PMC3478965  PMID: 22950861
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; Therapeutic hypothermia; Topiramate

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