PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (602969)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  A customized protocol to assess bone quality in the metacarpal head, metacarpal shaft and distal radius: a high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography precision study 
Background
High Resolution-Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (HR-pQCT) is an emerging technology for evaluation of bone quality in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). However, there are limitations with standard HR-pQCT imaging protocols for examination of regions of bone commonly affected in RA. We developed a customized protocol for evaluation of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microstructure at the metacarpal head (MH), metacarpal shaft (MS) and ultra-ultra-distal (UUD) radius; three sites commonly affected in RA. The purpose was to evaluate short-term measurement precision for bone density and microstructure at these sites.
Methods
12 non-RA participants, individuals likely to have no pre-existing bone damage, consented to participate [8 females, aged 23 to 71 y [median (IQR): 44 (28) y]. The custom protocol includes more comfortable/stable positioning and adapted cortical segmentation and direct transformation analysis methods. Dominant arm MH, MS and UUD radius scans were completed on day one; repeated twice (with repositioning) three to seven days later. Short-term precision for repeated measures was explored using intraclass correlational coefficient (ICC), mean coefficient of variation (CV%), root mean square coefficient of variation (RMSCV%) and least significant change (LSC%95).
Results
Bone density and microstructure precision was excellent: ICCs varied from 0.88 (MH2 trabecular number) to .99 (MS3 polar moment of inertia); CV% varied from < 1 (MS2 vBMD) to 6 (MS3 marrow space diameter); RMSCV% varied from < 1 (MH2 full bone vBMD) to 7 (MS3 marrow space diameter); and LSC% 95varied from 2 (MS2 full bone vBMD to 21 (MS3 marrow space diameter). Cortical porosity measures were the exception; RMSCV% varying from 19 (MS3) to 42 (UUD). No scans were stopped for discomfort. 5% (5/104) were repeated due to motion during imaging. 8% (8/104) of final images had motion artifact graded > 3 on 5 point scale.
Conclusion
In our facility, this custom protocol extends the potential for in vivo HR-pQCT imaging to assess, with high precision, regional differences in bone quality at three sites commonly affected in RA. Our methods are easy to adopt and we recommend other users of HR-pQCT consider this protocol for further evaluations of its precision and feasibility in their imaging facilities.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-367
PMCID: PMC3877978  PMID: 24364867
HR-pQCT; Bone microstructure; Volumetric bone mineral density; Precision; Metacarpal head; Metacarpal shaft; Ultra-ultra-distal radius; Early rheumatoid arthritis
2.  The high bone mass phenotype is characterised by a combined cortical and trabecular bone phenotype: Findings from a pQCT case–control study☆ 
Bone  2013;52(1):380-388.
High bone mass (HBM), detected in 0.2% of DXA scans, is characterised by a mild skeletal dysplasia largely unexplained by known genetic mutations. We conducted the first systematic assessment of the skeletal phenotype in unexplained HBM using pQCT in our unique HBM population identified from screening routine UK NHS DXA scans.
pQCT measurements from the mid and distal tibia and radius in 98 HBM cases were compared with (i) 65 family controls (constituting unaffected relatives and spouses), and (ii) 692 general population controls.
HBM cases had substantially greater trabecular density at the distal tibia (340 [320, 359] mg/cm3), compared to both family (294 [276, 312]) and population controls (290 [281, 299]) (p < 0.001 for both, adjusted for age, gender, weight, height, alcohol, smoking, malignancy, menopause, steroid and estrogen replacement use). Similar results were obtained at the distal radius. Greater cortical bone mineral density (cBMD) was observed in HBM cases, both at the midtibia and radius (adjusted p < 0.001). Total bone area (TBA) was higher in HBM cases, at the distal and mid tibia and radius (adjusted p < 0.05 versus family controls), suggesting greater periosteal apposition. Cortical thickness was increased at the mid tibia and radius (adjusted p < 0.001), implying reduced endosteal expansion. Together, these changes resulted in greater predicted cortical strength (strength strain index [SSI]) in both tibia and radius (p < 0.001). We then examined relationships with age; tibial cBMD remained constant with increasing age amongst HBM cases (adjusted β − 0.01 [− 0.02, 0.01], p = 0.41), but declined in family controls (− 0.05 [− 0.03, − 0.07], p < 0.001) interaction p = 0.002; age-related changes in tibial trabecular BMD, CBA and SSI were also divergent. In contrast, at the radius HBM cases and controls showed parallel age-related declines in cBMD and trabecular BMD.
HBM is characterised by increased trabecular BMD and by alterations in cortical bone density and structure, leading to substantial increments in predicted cortical bone strength. In contrast to the radius, neither trabecular nor cortical BMD declined with age in the tibia of HBM cases, suggesting attenuation of age-related bone loss in weight-bearing limbs contributes to the observed bone phenotype.
Highlights
► High Bone Mass (HBM) is characterised by increased bone size, cortical BMD, cortical thickness and increased strength strain index. ► In HBM, trabecular density is also increased at both the distal radius and tibia. ► Tibial cortical and trabecular BMD decline with age in controls, but not in HBM implying attenuation of age-related loss. ► Similar differences in age-related bone loss are not seen at the radius, suggesting a possible interaction with weight-bearing.
doi:10.1016/j.bone.2012.10.021
PMCID: PMC3526774  PMID: 23103330
HBM, high bone mass; NHS, National Health Service; pQCT, peripheral quantitative computed tomography; OA, osteoarthritis; L1, 1st lumbar vertebra; cBMD, cortical bone mineral density; tBMD, trabecular bone mineral density; TBA, total bone area; CBA, cortical bone area; SSI, strength strain index; SD, standard deviation; PVE, partial volume effect; High bone mass; pQCT; Cortical; Trabecular; Age; BMD
3.  Abnormal Microarchitecture and Reduced Stiffness at the Radius and Tibia in Postmenopausal Women With Fractures 
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research  2010;25(12):2572-2581.
Measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been shown to predict fracture risk. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) yields additional information about volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture, and strength that may increase understanding of fracture susceptibility. Women with (n = 68) and without (n = 101) a history of postmenopausal fragility fracture had aBMD measured by DXA and trabecular and cortical vBMD and trabecular microarchitecture of the radius and tibia measured by HR-pQCT. Finite-element analysis (FEA) of HR-pQCT scans was performed to estimate bone stiffness. DXA T-scores were similar in women with and without fracture at the spine, hip, and one-third radius but lower in patients with fracture at the ultradistal radius (p < .01). At the radius fracture, patients had lower total density, cortical thickness, trabecular density, number, thickness, higher trabecular separation and network heterogeneity (p < .0001 to .04). At the tibia, total, cortical, and trabecular density and cortical and trabecular thickness were lower in fracture patients (p < .0001 to .03). The differences between groups were greater at the radius than at the tibia for inner trabecular density, number, trabecular separation, and network heterogeneity (p < .01 to .05). Stiffness was reduced in fracture patients, more markedly at the radius (41% to 44%) than at the tibia (15% to 20%). Women with fractures had reduced vBMD, microarchitectural deterioration, and decreased strength. These differences were more prominent at the radius than at the tibia. HR-pQCT and FEA measurements of peripheral sites are associated with fracture prevalence and may increase understanding of the role of microarchitectural deterioration in fracture susceptibility. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.152
PMCID: PMC3149820  PMID: 20564238
MICROARCHITECTURE; STIFFNESS; FRACTURE; OSTEOPOROSIS; POSTMENOPAUSAL
4.  High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography Can Assess Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Human Distal Tibial Bone 
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is a newly developed in vivo clinical imaging modality. It can assess the 3D microstructure of cortical and trabecular bone at the distal radius and tibia and is suitable as an input for microstructural finite element (µFE) analysis to evaluate bone's mechanical competence. In order for microstructural and image-based µFE analyses to become standard clinical tools, validation with a current gold standard, namely, high-resolution micro-computed tomography (µCT), is required. Microstructural measurements of 19 human cadaveric distal tibiae were performed for the registered HR-pQCT and µCT images, respectively. Next, whole bone stiffness, trabecular bone stiffness, and elastic moduli of cubic subvolumes of trabecular bone in both HR-pQCT and µCT images were determined by µFE analysis. The standard HR-pQCT patient protocol measurements, derived bone volume fraction (BV/TVd), trabecular number (Tb.N*), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp), and cortical thickness (Ct.Th), as well as the voxel-based direct measurements, BV/TV, Tb.N*, Tb.Th*, Tb.Sp*, Ct.Th, bone surface-to-volume ratio (BS/BV), structure model index (SMI), and connectivity density (Conn.D), correlated well with their respective gold standards, and both contributed to µFE-predicted mechanical properties in either single or multiple linear regressions. The mechanical measurements, although overestimated by HR-pQCT, correlated highly with their gold standards. Moreover, elastic moduli of cubic subvolumes of trabecular bone predicted whole bone or trabecular bone stiffness in distal tibia. We conclude that microstructural measurements and mechanical parameters of distal tibia can be efficiently derived from HR-pQCT images and provide additional information regarding bone fragility. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
doi:10.1359/jbmr.090822
PMCID: PMC3130204  PMID: 19775199
bone microstructure; bone stiffness; finite element model; high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography; micro-computed tomography
5.  Bone Density, Geometry, Microstructure and Stiffness: Relationships Between Peripheral and Central Skeletal Sites Assessed by DXA, HR-pQCT, and cQCT in Premenopausal Women 
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is a new in vivo imaging technique for assessing three-dimensional microstructure of cortical and trabecular bone at the distal radius and tibia. No studies have investigated the extent to which measurements of the peripheral skeleton by HR-pQCT reflect those of the spine and hip, where the most serious fractures occur. To address this research question, we performed dual energy absorptiometry (DXA), central QCT (cQCT), HR-pQCT, and image-based finite element analyses in 69 premenopausal women to evaluate relationships among cortical and trabecular bone density, geometry, microstructure, and stiffness of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, distal radius and distal tibia. Significant correlations were found between stiffness of the two peripheral sites (r=0.86), two central sites (r=0.49), and between peripheral and central skeletal sites (r=0.56-0.70). These associations were partially explained by significant correlations in areal BMD (aBMD), volumetric BMD (vBMD), and cross-sectional area (CSA) between the multiple skeletal sites. For prediction of proximal femoral stiffness, vBMD (r=0.75) and stiffness (r=0.69) of the distal tibia by HR-pQCT were comparable to direct measurements of the proximal femur: aBMD of hip by DXA (r=0.70) and vBMD of hip by cQCT (r=0.64). For prediction of vertebral stiffness, trabecular vBMD (r=0.58) and stiffness (r=0.70) of distal radius by HR-pQCT were comparable to direct measurements of lumbar spine: aBMD by DXA (r=0.78) and vBMD by cQCT (r=0.67). Our results suggest that bone density, microstructural and mechanical properties measured by HR-pQCT of the distal radius and tibia reflect mechanical competence of the central skeleton.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.111
PMCID: PMC3128822  PMID: 20499344
high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography; finite element analysis; lumbar spine; proximal femur; distal radius; distal tibia
6.  A Longitudinal HR-pQCT Study of Alendronate Treatment in Postmenopausal Women With Low Bone Density: Relations Among Density, Cortical and Trabecular Microarchitecture, Biomechanics, and Bone Turnover 
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research  2010;25(12):2558-2571.
The goal of this study was to characterize longitudinal changes in bone microarchitecture and function in women treated with an established antifracture therapeutic. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 53 early postmenopausal women with low bone density (age = 56 ± 4 years; femoral neck T-score = −1.5 ± 0.6) were monitored by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) for 24 months following randomization to alendronate (ALN) or placebo (PBO) treatment groups. Subjects underwent annual HR-pQCT imaging of the distal radius and tibia, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and determination of biochemical markers of bone turnover (BSAP and uNTx). In addition to bone density and microarchitecture assessment, regional analysis, cortical porosity quantification, and micro-finite-element analysis were performed. After 24 months of treatment, at the distal tibia but not the radius, HR-pQCT measures showed significant improvements over baseline in the ALN group, particularly densitometric measures in the cortical and trabecular compartments and endocortical geometry (cortical thickness and area, medullary area) (p < .05). Cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the tibia alone showed a significant difference between treatment groups after 24 months (p < .05); however, regionally, significant differences in Tb.vBMD, Tb.N, and Ct.Th were found for the lateral quadrant of the radius (p < .05). Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the biomechanical response to ALN in the radius and tibia was specifically associated with changes in trabecular microarchitecture (|ρ| = 0.51 to 0.80, p < .05), whereas PBO progression of bone loss was associated with a broad range of changes in density, geometry, and microarchitecture (|ρ| = 0.56 to 0.89, p < .05). Baseline cortical geometry and porosity measures best predicted ALN-induced change in biomechanics at both sites (ρ > 0.48, p < .05). These findings suggest a more pronounced response to ALN in the tibia than in the radius, driven by trabecular and endocortical changes. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.157
PMCID: PMC3179276  PMID: 20564242
HR-pQCT; MICRO–COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; BONE STRUCTURE; BIOMECHANICS; OSTEOPOROSIS; ALENDRONATE
7.  Abnormal Microarchitecture and Reduced Stiffness at the Radius and Tibia in Postmenopausal Women With Fractures 
Measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been shown to predict fracture risk. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) yields additional information about volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture, and strength that may increase understanding of fracture susceptibility. Women with (n = 68) and without (n = 101) a history of postmenopausal fragility fracture had aBMD measured by DXA and trabecular and cortical vBMD and trabecular microarchitecture of the radius and tibia measured by HR-pQCT. Finite-element analysis (FEA) of HR-pQCT scans was performed to estimate bone stiffness. DXA T-scores were similar in women with and without fracture at the spine, hip, and one-third radius but lower in patients with fracture at the ultradistal radius (p <.01). At the radius fracture, patients had lower total density, cortical thickness, trabecular density, number, thickness, higher trabecular separation and network heterogeneity (p <.0001 to .04). At the tibia, total, cortical, and trabecular density and cortical and trabecular thickness were lower in fracture patients (p <.0001 to .03). The differences between groups were greater at the radius than at the tibia for inner trabecular density, number, trabecular separation, and network heterogeneity (p <.01 to .05). Stiffness was reduced in fracture patients, more markedly at the radius (41% to 44%) than at the tibia (15% to 20%). Women with fractures had reduced vBMD, microarchitectural deterioration, and decreased strength. These differences were more prominent at the radius than at the tibia. HR-pQCT and FEA measurements of peripheral sites are associated with fracture prevalence and may increase understanding of the role of microarchitectural deterioration in fracture susceptibility.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.152
PMCID: PMC3149820  PMID: 20564238
MICROARCHITECTURE; STIFFNESS; FRACTURE; OSTEOPOROSIS; POSTMENOPAUSAL
8.  Influence of Polymorphisms in the RANKL/RANK/OPG Signaling Pathway on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Bone Geometry at the Forearm in Men 
Calcified Tissue International  2011;89(6):446-455.
We sought to determine the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RANKL, RANK, and OPG on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone geometry at the radius in men. Pairwise tag SNPs (r2 ≥ 0.8) for RANKL (n = 8), RANK (n = 44), and OPG (n = 22) and five SNPs near RANKL and OPG strongly associated with areal BMD in genomewide association studies were previously genotyped in men aged 40–79 years in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Here, these SNPs were analyzed in a subsample of men (n = 589) who had peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) performed at the distal (4%) and mid-shaft (50%) radius. Estimated parameters were total and trabecular vBMD (mg/mm3) and cross-sectional area (mm2) at the 4% site and cortical vBMD (mg/mm3); total, cortical, and medullary area (mm2); cortical thickness (mm); and stress strain index (SSI) (mm3) at the 50% site. We identified 12 OPG SNPs associated with vBMD and/or geometric parameters, including rs10505348 associated with total vBMD (β [95% CI] = 9.35 [2.12–16.58], P = 0.011), cortical vBMD (β [95% CI] = 5.62 [2.10–9.14], P = 0.002), cortical thickness (β [95% CI] = 0.08 [0.03–0.13], P = 0.002), and medullary area (β [95% CI] = −2.90 [−4.94 to −0.86], P = 0.005) and rs2073618 associated with cortical vBMD (β [95% CI] = −4.30 [−7.78 to −0.82], P = 0.015) and cortical thickness (β [95% CI] = −0.08 [−0.13 to −0.03], P = 0.001). Three RANK SNPs were associated with vBMD, including rs12956925 associated with trabecular vBMD (β [95% CI] = −7.58 [−14.01 to −1.15], P = 0.021). There were five RANK SNPs associated with geometric parameters, including rs8083511 associated with distal radius cross-sectional area (β [95% CI] = 8.90 [0.92–16.88], P = 0.029). No significant association was observed between RANKL SNPs and pQCT parameters. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in OPG and RANK influences radius vBMD and geometry in men.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00223-011-9532-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00223-011-9532-y
PMCID: PMC3215872  PMID: 21964949
Osteoporosis; Genetic association; Genetic polymorphism; Male; QCT
9.  Microstructural Parameters of Bone Evaluated Using HR-pQCT Correlate with the DXA-Derived Cortical Index and the Trabecular Bone Score in a Cohort of Randomly Selected Premenopausal Women 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88946.
Background
Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women.
Methods
Randomly selected women between 20–40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia.
Results
Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m2). The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798). The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone.
Conclusion
This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone. Whether these indexes are suitable for better predictions of the fracture risk deserves further investigation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088946
PMCID: PMC3923873  PMID: 24551194
10.  Fracture risk in children with a forearm injury is associated with volumetric bone density and cortical area (by peripheral QCT) and areal bone density (by DXA) 
Osteoporosis International  2010;22(2):607-616.
Summary
Children who sustain a forearm fracture when injured have lower bone density throughout their skeleton, and have a smaller cortical area and a lower strength index in their radius. Odds ratios per SD decrease in bone characteristics measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were similar (1.28 to 1.41).
Introduction
Forearm fractures are common in children. Bone strength is affected by bone mineral density (BMD) and bone geometry, including cross-sectional dimensions and distribution of mineral. Our objective was to identify bone characteristics that differed between children who sustained a forearm fracture compared to those who did not fracture when injured.
Methods
Children (5–16 years) with a forearm fracture (cases, n=224) and injured controls without fracture (n=200) were enrolled 28±8 days following injury. Peripheral QCT scans of the radius (4% and 20% sites) were obtained to measure volumetric BMD (vBMD) of total, trabecular and cortical bone compartments, and bone geometry (area, cortical thickness, and strength strain index [SSI]). DXA scans (forearm, spine, and hip) were obtained to measure areal BMD (aBMD) and bone area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to assess screening performance of bone measurements.
Results
At the 4% pQCT site, total vBMD, but not trabecular vBMD or bone area, was lower (−3.4%; p= 0.02) in cases than controls. At the 20% site, cases had lower cortical vBMD (−0.9%), cortical area (−2.8%), and SSI (−4.6%) (p<0.05). aBMD, but not bone area, at the 1/3 radius, spine, and hip were 2.7–3.3% lower for cases (p< 0.01). Odds ratios per 1 SD decrease in bone measures (1.28–1.41) and areas under the ROC curves (0.56–0.59) were similar for all bone measures.
Conclusions
Low vBMD, aBMD, cortical area, and SSI of the distal radius were associated with an increased fracture risk. Interventions to increase these characteristics are needed to help reduce forearm fracture occurrence.
doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1333-z
PMCID: PMC3298088  PMID: 20571770
Bone densitometry; Epidemiology; Fracture; Orthopedics; Pediatrics; QCT
11.  Bone microarchitecture in ankylosing spondylitis and the association with bone mineral density, fractures, and syndesmophytes 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2013;15(6):R179.
Introduction
Osteoporosis of the axial skeleton is a known complication of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but bone loss affecting the peripheral skeleton is less studied. This study on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture in AS was conducted to compare peripheral vBMD in AS patients with that in healthy controls, to study vBMD in axial compared with peripheral bone, and to explore the relation between vertebral fractures, spinal osteoproliferation, and peripheral bone microarchitecture and density.
Methods
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) of ultradistal radius and tibia and QCT and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of lumbar spine were performed in 69 male AS patients (NY criteria). Spinal radiographs were assessed for vertebral fractures and syndesmophyte formation (mSASSS). The HRpQCT measurements were compared with the measurements of healthy controls.
Results
The AS patients had lower cortical vBMD in radius (P = 0.004) and lower trabecular vBMD in tibia (P = 0.033), than did the controls. Strong correlations were found between trabecular vBMD in lumbar spine, radius (rS = 0.762; P < 0.001), and tibia (rS = 0.712; P < 0.001).
When compared with age-matched AS controls, patients with vertebral fractures had lower lumbar cortical vBMD (-22%; P = 0.019), lower cortical cross-sectional area in radius (-28.3%; P = 0.001) and tibia (-24.0%; P = 0.013), and thinner cortical bone in radius (-28.3%; P = 0.001) and tibia (-26.9%; P = 0.016).
mSASSS correlated negatively with trabecular vBMD in lumbar spine (rS = -0.620; P < 0.001), radius (rS = -0.400; p = 0.001) and tibia (rS = -0.475; p < 0.001) and also with trabecular thickness in radius (rS = -0.528; P < 0.001) and tibia (rS = -0.488; P < 0.001).
Adjusted for age, syndesmophytes were significantly associated with decreasing trabecular vBMD, but increasing cortical vBMD in lumbar spine, but not with increasing cortical thickness or density in peripheral bone. Estimated lumbar vBMD by DXA correlated with trabecular vBMD measured by QCT (rS = 0.636; P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Lumbar osteoporosis, syndesmophytes, and vertebral fractures were associated with both lower vBMD and deteriorated microarchitecture in peripheral bone. The results indicate that trabecular bone loss is general, whereas osteoproliferation is local in AS.
doi:10.1186/ar4368
PMCID: PMC3978766  PMID: 24517240
12.  High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography Can Assess Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Human Distal Tibial Bone 
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is a newly developed in vivo clinical imaging modality. It can assess the 3D microstructure of cortical and trabecular bone at the distal radius and tibia and is suitable as an input for microstructural finite element (µFE) analysis to evaluate bone’s mechanical competence. In order for microstructural and image-based µFE analyses to become standard clinical tools, validation with a current gold standard, namely, high-resolution micro-computed tomography (µCT), is required. Microstructural measurements of 19 human cadaveric distal tibiae were performed for the registered HR-pQCT and µCT images, respectively. Next, whole bone stiffness, trabecular bone stiffness, and elastic moduli of cubic subvolumes of trabecular bone in both HR-pQCT and µCT images were determined by µFE analysis. The standard HR-pQCT patient protocol measurements, derived bone volume fraction (BV/TVd), trabecular number (Tb.N*), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp), and cortical thickness (Ct.Th), as well as the voxel-based direct measurements, BV/TV, Tb.N*, Tb.Th*, Tb.Sp*, Ct.Th, bone surface-to-volume ratio (BS/BV), structure model index (SMI), and connectivity density (Conn.D), correlated well with their respective gold standards, and both contributed to µFE-predicted mechanical properties in either single or multiple linear regressions. The mechanical measurements, although overestimated by HR-pQCT, correlated highly with their gold standards. Moreover, elastic moduli of cubic subvolumes of trabecular bone predicted whole bone or trabecular bone stiffness in distal tibia. We conclude that microstructural measurements and mechanical parameters of distal tibia can be efficiently derived from HR-pQCT images and provide additional information regarding bone fragility.
doi:10.1359/jbmr.090822
PMCID: PMC3130204  PMID: 19775199
BONE MICROSTRUCTURE; BONE STIFFNESS; FINITE ELEMENT MODEL; HIGH-RESOLUTION PERIPHERAL QUANTITATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; MICRO-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
13.  Bone mass and geometry of the tibia and the radius of master sprinters, middle and long distance runners, race-walkers and sedentary control participants: A pQCT study 
Bone  2009;45(1):91-97.
Mechanical loading is thought to be a determinant of bone mass and geometry. Both ground reaction forces and tibial strains increase with running speed. This study investigates the hypothesis that surrogates of bone strength in male and female master sprinters, middle and long distance runners and race-walkers vary according to discipline-specific mechanical loading from sedentary controls.
Bone scans were obtained by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) from the tibia and from the radius in 106 sprinters, 52 middle distance runners, 93 long distance runners and 49 race-walkers who were competing at master championships, and who were aged between 35 and 94 years. Seventy-five age-matched, sedentary people served as control group.
Most athletes of this study had started to practice their athletic discipline after the age of 20, but the current training regime had typically been maintained for more than a decade. As hypothesised, tibia diaphyseal bone mineral content (vBMC), cortical area and polar moment of resistance were largest in sprinters, followed in descending order by middle and long distance runners, race-walkers and controls. When compared to control people, the differences in these measures were always > 13% in male and > 23% in female sprinters (p < 0.001). Similarly, the periosteal circumference in the tibia shaft was larger in male and female sprinters by 4% and 8%, respectively, compared to controls (p < 0.001). Epiphyseal group differences were predominantly found for trabecular vBMC in both male and female sprinters, who had 15% and 18% larger values, respectively, than controls (p < 0.001). In contrast, a reverse pattern was found for cortical vBMD in the tibia, and only few group differences of lower magnitude were found between athletes and control people for the radius.
In conclusion, tibial bone strength indicators seemed to be related to exercise-specific peak forces, whilst cortical density was inversely related to running distance. These results may be explained in two, non-exclusive ways. Firstly, greater skeletal size may allow larger muscle forces and power to be exerted, and thus bias towards engagement in athletics. Secondly, musculoskeletal forces related to running can induce skeletal adaptation and thus enhance bone strength.
doi:10.1016/j.bone.2009.03.660
PMCID: PMC2832729  PMID: 19332164
Veteran athletes; Track and field runners; Race-walking; Bone strength; Volumetric bone mineral density; Exercise
14.  Bone Mass and Strength in Older Men With Type 2 Diabetes: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study 
The effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on bone volumetric density, bone geometry, and estimates of bone strength are not well established. We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to compare tibial and radial bone volumetric density (vBMD, mg/cm3), total (ToA, mm2) and cortical (CoA, mm2) bone area and estimates of bone compressive and bending strength in a subset (n = 1171) of men (≥65 years of age) who participated in the multisite Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Analysis of covariance–adjusted bone data for clinic site, age, and limb length (model 1) and further adjusted for body weight (model 2) were used to compare data between participants with (n = 190) and without (n = 981) T2DM. At both the distal tibia and radius, patients with T2DM had greater bone vBMD (+2% to +4%, model 1, p < .05) and a smaller bone area (ToA −1% to −4%, model 2, p < .05). The higher vBMD compensated for lower bone area, resulting in no differences in estimated compressive bone strength at the distal trabecular bone regions. At the mostly cortical bone midshaft sites of the radius and tibia, men with T2DM had lower ToA (−1% to −3%, p < .05), resulting in lower bone bending strength at both sites after adjusting for body weight (−2% to −5%, p < .05) despite the lack of difference in cortical vBMD at these sites. These data demonstrate that older men with T2DM have bone strength that is low relative to body weight at the cortical-rich midshaft of the radius despite no difference in cortical vBMD. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
doi:10.1359/jbmr.090725
PMCID: PMC3153385  PMID: 19594301
bone geometry; osteoporosis; peripheral quantitative computed tomography; diabetes mellitus
15.  Correlates of Trabecular and Cortical Volumetric Bone Mineral Density of the Radius and Tibia in Older Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study 
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research  2009;25(5):1017-1028.
Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can estimate volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and distinguish trabecular from cortical bone. Few comprehensive studies have examined correlates of vBMD in older men. This study evaluated the impact of demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and medical factors on vBMD in 1172 men aged 69 to 97 years and enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to measure vBMD of the radius and tibia. The multivariable linear regression models explained up to 10% of the variance in trabecular vBMD and up to 9% of the variance in cortical vBMD. Age was not correlated with radial trabecular vBMD. Correlates associated with both cortical and trabecular vBMD were age (−), caffeine intake (−), total calcium intake (+), nontrauma fracture (−), and hypertension (+). Higher body weight was related to greater trabecular vBMD and lower cortical vBMD. Height (−), education (+), diabetes with thiazolidinedione (TZD) use (+), rheumatoid arthritis (+), using arms to stand from a chair (−), and antiandrogen use (−) were associated only with trabecular vBMD. Factors associated only with cortical vBMD included clinic site (−), androgen use (+), grip strength (+), past smoker (−), and time to complete five chair stands (−). Certain correlates of trabecular and cortical vBMD differed among older men. An ascertainment of potential risk factors associated with trabecular and cortical vBMD may lead to better understanding and preventive efforts for osteoporosis in men. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.6
PMCID: PMC3153367  PMID: 20200975
osteoporosis; vBMD; pQCT; radius; tibia
16.  Individual Trabeculae Segmentation (ITS)–Based Morphological Analysis of High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography Images Detects Abnormal Trabecular Plate and Rod Microarchitecture in Premenopausal Women With Idiopathic Osteoporosis 
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research  2010;25(7):1496-1505.
Idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) in premenopausal women is a poorly understood entity in which otherwise healthy women have low-trauma fracture or very low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we applied individual trabeculae segmentation (ITS)–based morphological analysis to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) images of the distal radius and distal tibia to gain greater insight into skeletal microarchitecture in premenopausal women with IOP. HR-pQCT scans were performed for 26 normal control individuals and 31 women with IOP. A cubic subvolume was extracted from the trabecular bone compartment and subjected to ITS-based analysis. Three Young's moduli and three shear moduli were calculated by micro–finite element (µFE) analysis. ITS-based morphological analysis of HR-pQCT images detected significantly decreased trabecular plate and rod bone volume fraction and number, decreased axial bone volume fraction in the longitudinal axis, increased rod length, and decreased rod-to-rod, plate-to-rod, and plate-to-plate junction densities at the distal radius and distal tibia in women with IOP. However, trabecular plate and rod thickness did not differ. A more rod-like trabecular microstructure was found in the distal radius, but not in the distal tibia. Most ITS measurements contributed significantly to the elastic moduli of trabecular bone independent of bone volume fraction (BV/TV). At a fixed BV/TV, plate-like trabeculae contributed positively to the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. The results suggest that ITS-based morphological analysis of HR-pQCT images is a sensitive and promising clinical tool for the investigation of trabecular bone microstructure in human studies of osteoporosis. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.50
PMCID: PMC3131618  PMID: 20200967
bone microstructure; high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography; individual trabeculae segmentation; trabecular plate/rod
17.  Sport-specific association between exercise loading and the density, geometry, and microstructure of weight-bearing bone in young adult men 
Osteoporosis International  2012;24(5):1613-1622.
Summary
In this population-based study of 24-year-old men, we have investigated the association between sport-specific exercise loading and different bone parameters. We reveal that the association between exercise loading and bone parameters is sport-specific, indicating that nonspecific resistance exercise does not impact bone density, geometry, or microstructure in young men.
Introduction
In this cross-sectional study, the association between nonspecific resistive exercise and areal and volumetric bone density, bone geometry, or bone microstructure was investigated in young adult men.
Methods
A total of 184 male athletes, 24.0 ± 0.6 years of age (mean ± SD), representing nonspecific resistive exercise and soccer (proportion of recreational athletes, 93.4 and 7.7 %, respectively), and 177 nonathletic age-matched controls were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Radius and tibia were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the diaphysis and by three-dimensional pQCT at the metaphysis.
Results
Men in the nonspecific resistive exercise group had higher grip strength(9.1 % or 0.4 SD) and higher lean mass(5.6 % or 0.5 SD) than those in the nonathletic group(p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, men who participated in nonspecific resistive exercise did not have higher bone density or a more favorable bone microstructure or geometry than their nonathletic referents. In contrast, men playing soccer had higher areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the femoral neck (19.5 % or 1.2 SD) and lumbar spine (12.6 % or 1.0 SD), as well as larger cortical cross-sectional area (16.4 % or 1.1 SD) and higher trabecular bone volume fraction (14.5 % or 0.9 SD), as a result of increased trabecular number (8.7 % or 0.6 SD) and thickness (5.7 % or 0.4 SD) at the tibia than men in the nonathletic group(p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Weight-bearing exercise with impacts from varying directions (playing soccer) is associated with aBMD and volumetric BMD, cortical bone geometry, as well as trabecular microstructure of weight-bearing bone. Nonspecific recreational resistance exercise does not appear to be a strong determinant of bone density, geometry, or microstructure in young adult men.
doi:10.1007/s00198-012-2142-3
PMCID: PMC3627855  PMID: 23011682
Bone geometry; Bone microstructure; Bone mineral density; Exercise; Men
18.  Individual Trabecula Segmentation (ITS)-Based Morphological Analyses and Micro Finite Element Analysis of HR-pQCT Images Discriminate Postmenopausal Fragility Fractures Independent of DXA Measurements 
Osteoporosis is typically diagnosed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Emerging technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), may increase the diagnostic accuracy of DXA and enhance our mechanistic understanding of decreased bone strength in osteoporosis. Women with (n=68) and without (n=101) a history of postmenopausal fragility fracture had aBMD measured by DXA, trabecular plate and rod microarchitecture measured by HR-pQCT image-based individual trabeculae segmentation (ITS) analysis, and whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness by micro finite element analysis (μFEA) of HR-pQCT images at the radius and tibia. DXA T-scores were similar in women with and without fractures at the spine, hip and 1/3 radius, but lower in fracture subjects at the ultradistal radius. Trabecular microarchitecture of fracture subjects was characterized by preferential reductions in trabecular plate bone volume, number, and connectivity over rod trabecular parameters, loss of axially aligned trabeculae, and a more rod-like trabecular network. In addition, decreased thickness and size of trabecular plates were observed at the tibia. The differences between groups were greater at the radius than the tibia for plate number, rod bone volume fraction and number and plate-rod and rod-rod junction densities. Most differences between groups remained after adjustment for T-score by DXA. At a fixed bone volume fraction, trabecular plate volume, number and connectivity were directly associated with bone stiffness. In contrast, rod volume, number and connectivity were inversely associated with bone stiffness. In summary, HR-pQCT-based ITS and μFEA measurements discriminate fracture status in postmenopausal women independent of DXA measurements. Moreover, these results suggest that preferential loss of plate-like trabeculae contribute to lower trabecular bone and whole bone stiffness in women with fractures. We conclude that HR-pQCT-based ITS and μFEA measurements increase our understanding of the microstructural pathogenesis of fragility fracture in postmenopausal women.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.562
PMCID: PMC3290758  PMID: 22072446
bone micarchitecture; high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography; individual trabecula segmentation; trabecular plate/rod; fragility fractures
19.  Individual Trabeculae Segmentation (ITS)–Based Morphological Analysis of High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography Images Detects Abnormal Trabecular Plate and Rod Microarchitecture in Premenopausal Women With Idiopathic Osteoporosis 
Idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) in premenopausal women is a poorly understood entity in which otherwise healthy women have low-trauma fracture or very low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we applied individual trabeculae segmentation (ITS)–based morphological analysis to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) images of the distal radius and distal tibia to gain greater insight into skeletal microarchitecture in premenopausal women with IOP. HR-pQCT scans were performed for 26 normal control individuals and 31 women with IOP. A cubic subvolume was extracted from the trabecular bone compartment and subjected to ITS-based analysis. Three Young’s moduli and three shear moduli were calculated by micro–finite element (μFE) analysis. ITS-based morphological analysis of HR-pQCT images detected significantly decreased trabecular plate and rod bone volume fraction and number, decreased axial bone volume fraction in the longitudinal axis, increased rod length, and decreased rod-to-rod, plate-to-rod, and plate-to-plate junction densities at the distal radius and distal tibia in women with IOP. However, trabecular plate and rod thickness did not differ. A more rod-like trabecular microstructure was found in the distal radius, but not in the distal tibia. Most ITS measurements contributed significantly to the elastic moduli of trabecular bone independent of bone volume fraction (BV/TV). At a fixed BV/TV, plate-like trabeculae contributed positively to the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. The results suggest that ITS-based morphological analysis of HR-pQCT images is a sensitive and promising clinical tool for the investigation of trabecular bone microstructure in human studies of osteoporosis.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.50
PMCID: PMC3131618  PMID: 20200967
BONE MICROSTRUCTURE; HIGH-RESOLUTION PERIPHERAL QUANTITATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; INDIVIDUAL TRABECULAE SEGMENTATION; TRABECULAR PLATE/ROD
20.  Genetic Determinants of Trabecular and Cortical Volumetric Bone Mineral Densities and Bone Microstructure 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(2):e1003247.
Most previous genetic epidemiology studies within the field of osteoporosis have focused on the genetics of the complex trait areal bone mineral density (aBMD), not being able to differentiate genetic determinants of cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD), trabecular vBMD, and bone microstructural traits. The objective of this study was to separately identify genetic determinants of these bone traits as analysed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Separate GWA meta-analyses for cortical and trabecular vBMDs were performed. The cortical vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 5,878) followed by replication (n = 1,052) identified genetic variants in four separate loci reaching genome-wide significance (RANKL, rs1021188, p = 3.6×10−14; LOC285735, rs271170, p = 2.7×10−12; OPG, rs7839059, p = 1.2×10−10; and ESR1/C6orf97, rs6909279, p = 1.1×10−9). The trabecular vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 2,500) followed by replication (n = 1,022) identified one locus reaching genome-wide significance (FMN2/GREM2, rs9287237, p = 1.9×10−9). High-resolution pQCT analyses, giving information about bone microstructure, were available in a subset of the GOOD cohort (n = 729). rs1021188 was significantly associated with cortical porosity while rs9287237 was significantly associated with trabecular bone fraction. The genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus was associated with fracture risk in the MrOS Sweden cohort (HR per extra T allele 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.93) and GREM2 expression in human osteoblasts. In conclusion, five genetic loci associated with trabecular or cortical vBMD were identified. Two of these (FMN2/GREM2 and LOC285735) are novel bone-related loci, while the other three have previously been reported to be associated with aBMD. The genetic variants associated with cortical and trabecular bone parameters differed, underscoring the complexity of the genetics of bone parameters. We propose that a genetic variant in the RANKL locus influences cortical vBMD, at least partly, via effects on cortical porosity, and that a genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus influences GREM2 expression in osteoblasts and thereby trabecular number and thickness as well as fracture risk.
Author Summary
Osteoporosis is a common highly heritable skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and deteriorated bone microstructure, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. Most previous genetic epidemiology studies have focused on the genetics of the complex trait BMD, not being able to separate genetic determinants of the trabecular and cortical bone compartments and bone microstructure. The trabecular and cortical BMDs can be analysed separately by computed tomography. Therefore, we performed separate genome-wide association studies for trabecular and cortical BMDs, demonstrating that the genetic determinants of cortical and trabecular BMDs differ. Genetic variants in the RANKL, LOC285735, OPG, and ESR1 loci were associated with cortical BMD, while a genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus was associated with trabecular BMD. Two of these are novel bone-related loci. Follow-up analyses of bone microstructure demonstrated that a genetic variant in the RANKL locus is associated with cortical porosity and that the FMN2/GREM2 locus is associated with trabecular number and thickness. We propose that a genetic variant in the RANKL locus influences cortical BMD via effects on cortical porosity, and that a genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus influences trabecular BMD and fracture risk via effects on both trabecular number and thickness.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003247
PMCID: PMC3578773  PMID: 23437003
21.  Evidence for Enhanced Characterization of Cortical Bone Using Novel pQCT Shape Software 
Journal of Clinical Densitometry  2010;13(3):247-255.
Bone shape, mass, structural geometry, and material properties determine bone strength. This study describes novel software that uses peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) images to quantify cortical bone shape and investigates whether the combination of shape-sensitive and manufacturer's software enhances the characterization of tibiae from contrasting populations. Existing tibial pQCT scans (4% and 50% sites) from Gambian (n = 38) and British (n = 38) women were used. Bone mass, cross-sectional area (CSA), and geometry were determined using manufacturer's software; cross-sectional shape was quantified using shape-sensitive software. At 4% site, Gambian women had lower total bone mineral content (BMC: −15.4%), CSA (−13.4%), and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD: −19%), but higher cortical subcortical BMD (6.1%). At 50% site, Gambian women had lower cortical BMC (−7.6%), cortical CSA (−12.6%), and mean cortical thickness (−15.0%), but higher cortical BMD (4.9%) and endosteal circumference (8.0%). Shape-sensitive software supported the finding that Gambian women had larger tibial endosteal circumference (9.8%), thinner mean cortical thickness (−26.5%) but smaller periosteal circumference (−5.6%). Shape-sensitive software revealed that Gambian women had tibiae with shorter maximum width (−7.6%) and thinner cortices (−22% to −41.2%) and more closely resembled a circle or ellipse. Significant differences remained after adjusting for age, height, and weight. In conclusion, shape-sensitive software enhanced the characterization of tibiae in 2 contrasting groups of women.
doi:10.1016/j.jocd.2010.05.005
PMCID: PMC2935963  PMID: 20670880
pQCT; tibia; bone shape; Gambia; young women
22.  The Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D with Bone Density, Geometry and Indices of Bone Strength in Caucasian and African Ancestry Men 
Purpose
There are limited data on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and bone measures in men of African ancestry. To better understand racial differences in vitamin D status and bone health a cross-sectional study among 446 Caucasian men in the US and 496 men of African ancestry in Tobago (aged ≥65 years) was conducted.
Methods
Serum 25(OH)D (liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry) was measured and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans were administered. Bone measures estimated included trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone geometry (cross-sectional area and cortical thickness), and polar and axial strength strain indices (SSIp and SSIx).
Results
Men of African ancestry had higher 25(OH)D than Caucasians (34.7 vs. 27.6 ng/ml, p<0.01). Among Caucasians, 25(OH)D was positively (p trend <0.05) associated with cortical vBMD, total BMC, cortical thickness, SSIp and SSIx at the distal radius after adjustment for potential confounders. Similar patterns were observed at the distal tibia. In contrast, in men of African ancestry, there was an inverse association (p trend<0.05) between 25(OH)D and cross-sectional area, and SSIx. Race modified (p for interaction<0.05) the association between 25(OH)D and total BMC, cross-sectional area, SSIp, SSIx, and trabecular vBMD of the radius. In men of African ancestry, there was evidence of a threshold effect (at approximately 18 ng/ml) for 25(OH)D on tibial total BMC and cortical thickness.
Conclusions
More studies are needed to better comprehend these race differences for 25(OH)D and bone density, geometry and indices of bone strength.
doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1481-1
PMCID: PMC3539808  PMID: 21104232
25(OH)D; pQCT; men; radius; tibia; vBMD
23.  Age- and Gender-Related Differences in the Geometric Properties and Biomechanical Significance of Intracortical Porosity in the Distal Radius and Tibia 
Cortical bone contributes the majority of overall bone mass and bears the bulk of axial loads in the peripheral skeleton. Bone metabolic disorders often are manifested by cortical microstructural changes via osteonal remodeling and endocortical trabecularization. The goal of this study was to characterize intracortical porosity in a cross-sectional patient cohort using novel quantitative computational methods applied to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) images of the distal radius and tibia. The distal radius and tibia of 151 subjects (57 male, 94 female; 47 ± 16 years of age, range 20 to 78 years) were imaged using HR-pQCT. Intracortical porosity (Ct.Po) was calculated as the pore volume normalized by the sum of the pore and cortical bone volume. Micro–finite element analysis (µFE) was used to simulate 1% uniaxial compression for two scenarios per data set: (1) the original structure and (2) the structure with intracortical porosity artificially occluded. Differential biomechanical indices for stiffness (ΔK), modulus (ΔE), failure load (ΔF), and cortical load fraction (ΔCt.LF) were calculated as the difference between original and occluded values. Regression analysis revealed that cortical porosity, as depicted by HR-pQCT, exhibited moderate but significant age-related dependence for both male and female cohorts (radius ρ = 0.7; tibia ρ = 0.5; p < .001). In contrast, standard cortical metrics (Ct.Th, Ct.Ar, and Ct.vBMD) were more weakly correlated or not significantly correlated with age in this population. Furthermore, differential µFE analysis revealed that the biomechanical deficit (ΔK) associated with cortical porosity was significantly higher for postmenopausal women than for premenopausal women (p < .001). Finally, porosity-related measures provided the only significant decade-wise discrimination in the radius for females in their fifties versus females in their sixties (p < .01). Several important conclusions can be drawn from these results. Age-related differences in cortical porosity, as detected by HR-pQCT, are more pronounced than differences in standard cortical metrics. The biomechanical significance of these structural differences increases with age for men and women and provides discriminatory information for menopause-related bone quality effects. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
doi:10.1359/jbmr.091104
PMCID: PMC3153365  PMID: 19888900
HR-PQCT; cortical bone; cortical porosity; osteoporosis; Micro-computed tomography
24.  Characterization of Low Bone Mass in Young Patients with Thalassemia by DXA, pQCT and Markers of Bone Turnover 
Bone  2011;48(6):1305-1312.
Previous reports using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) suggest that up to 70% of adults with thalassemia major (Thal) have low bone mass. However, few studies have controlled for body size and pubertal delay, variables known to affect bone mass in this population. In this study, bone mineral content and areal density (BMC, aBMD) of the spine and whole body were assessed by DXA, and volumetric BMD and cortical geometries of the distal tibia by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in subjects with Thal (n=25, 11 male, 10 to 30 yrs) and local controls (n=34, 15 male, 7 to 30 yrs). Z-scores for bone outcomes were calculated from reference data from a large sample of healthy children and young adults. Fasting blood and urine were collected, pubertal status determined by self-assessment and dietary intake and physical activity assessed by written questionnaires. Subjects with Thal were similar in age, but had lower height, weight and lean mass index Z-scores (all p<0.001) compared to controls. DXA aBMD was significantly lower in Thal compared to controls at all sites. Adult Thal subjects (>18 yrs, n=11) had lower tibial trabecular vBMD (p=0.03), cortical area, cortical BMC, cortical thickness, periosteal circumference and section modulus Z-scores (all p<0.01) compared to controls. Cortical area, cortical BMC, cortical thickness, and periosteal circumference Z-scores (p=0.02) were significantly lower in young Thal (≤18 yrs, n=14) compared to controls. In separate multivariate models, tibial cortical area, BMC, and thickness and spine aBMD and whole body BMC Z-scores remained lower in Thal compared to controls after adjustment for gender, lean mass and/or growth deficits (all p<0.01). Tanner stage was not predictive in these models. Osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, was significantly reduced in Thal compared to controls after adjusting for age, puberty and whole body BMC (p=0.029). In summary, we have found evidence of skeletal deficits that cannot be dismissed as an artifact of small bone size or delayed maturity alone. Given that reduced bone density and strength are associated with increased risk of fracture, therapies focused on increasing bone formation and bone size in younger patients are worthy of further evaluation.
doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.03.765
PMCID: PMC3095710  PMID: 21443975
25.  Lower peak bone mass and abnormal trabecular and cortical microarchitecture in young men infected with HIV early in life 
AIDS (London, England)  2014;28(3):345-353.
Introduction
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) early in life may interfere with acquisition of peak bone mass, thereby increasing fracture risk in adulthood.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional study of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in 30 HIV-infected African–American or Hispanic Tanner stage 5 men aged 20–25 on ART (15 perinatally infected and 15 infected during adolescence) and 15 HIV-uninfected controls.
Results
HIV-infected men were similar in age and BMI, but were more likely to be African–American (P = 0.01) than uninfected men. DXA-derived areal bone mineral density (aBMD) Z-scores were 0.4–1.2 lower in HIV-infected men at the spine, hip, and radius (all P < 0.05). At the radius and tibia, total and trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD), and cortical and trabecular thickness were between 6 and 19% lower in HIV-infected than uninfected men (P <0.05). HIV-infected men had dramatic deficiencies in plate-related parameters by individual trabeculae segmentation (ITS) analyses and 14–17% lower bone stiffness by finite element analysis revealed. Differences in most HR-pQCT parameters remained significant after adjustment for race/ethnicity. No DXA or HR-pQCT parameters differed between men infected perinatally or during adolescence.
Conclusion
At an age by which young men have typically acquired peak bone mass, HIV-infected men on ART have lower BMD, markedly abnormal trabecular plate and cortical microarchitecture, and decreased whole bone stiffness, whether infected perinatally or during adolescence. Reduced bone strength in young adults infected with HIV early in life may place them at higher risk for fractures as they age.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000070
PMCID: PMC4019223  PMID: 24072196
bone microarchitecture; bone mineral density; bone strength; high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography; peak bone mass; perinatal HIV infection

Results 1-25 (602969)