While joint arthroplasty improves the functional ability of persons with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA), the long-term effects of surgical intervention on body mass have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine if a reduction in body mass index (BMI) was present following unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to an age-matched healthy control group who did not have surgery.
One hundred and six adults with unilateral, end-stage knee OA and thirty-one persons without knee pain participated in the prospective longitudinal study. Subjects with OA underwent primary unilateral TKA and received post-operative out-patient physical therapy. Height, weight, quadriceps strength and self-perceived functional ability were measured at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up.
There was a significant interaction effect between body mass over time and subject group (P = 0.017). BMI showed a significant increase over 2 years for the surgical group (P < 0.001), but not for the control group (P = 0.842). Sixty-six percent of the persons in the surgical group gained weight over the 2 years with an average weight gain of 6.4 kg, or 14 pounds, 2 years after their initial physical therapy visit. Educational level, marital status, income level and activity level prior to surgery were not related to post-surgical weight gain.
The majority of subjects gain weight after surgery and this cannot be attributed to the effects of aging. Weight gain after TKA should be treated as an independent concern and management of orthopedic impairments will not result in weight loss. Post-operative care should include access to nutrition or weight management professionals in addition to medical and physical therapy services.
Osteoarthritis; Knee; Arthroplasty; Weight gain; Outcomes assessment
Do gender and age affect knee arthroplasty outcomes? In a cohort of patients who underwent primary or revision TKA between 1996 and 2004 and responded to a followup questionnaire 2 and 5 years after arthroplasty, we investigated the impact of gender and age on the prevalence of moderate or severe post-TKA knee pain (primary TKA: 2 years, 5290; 5 years, 2602; revision TKA: 2 years, 1109; 5 years, 505). Moderate-severe pain was higher in women than men after primary TKA at 2 and 5 years (9% versus 6.6% and 7.9% versus 6.5%) and post-revision TKA at 2 and 5 years (28.6% versus 22% and 28.9% versus 18.3%). More women compared to men and fewer patients between 61 and 70 years (versus patients ≤ 60) had moderate-severe pain 2 years after primary TKA adjusting for gender, age, and preoperative pain severity. In the post-revision TKA group, the odds of moderate-severe pain were lower in patients older than 80 years (versus those ≤ 60) at 2 years and higher in patients with moderate-severe preoperative pain at 2 and 5 years postoperatively, after adjustment for gender, age, and preoperative pain severity. We conclude female gender, younger age, and worse preoperative pain predict greater risk of moderate-severe pain postoperatively in patients with primary and revision TKA.
Level of Evidence: Level II, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
To compare the clinical outcome and complications following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, and to identify diabetes-related risk factors for negative outcomes.
Materials and Methods
222 primary TKAs in patients with diabetes were evaluated using Knee Society scores and Hospital for Special Surgery score. Postoperative complications were reviewed retrospectively. The mean follow-up was 53.2 months. The effect of diabetesrelated factors and comparison with a matched control group were analyzed statistically.
Significant improvements were noted in all the scores after TKA (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in clinical sores between the diabetic and non-diabetic patients. In multivariate analysis associating age, gender and body mass index with pain and knee score at the latest follow-up, the average knee scores in normal and overweight group were found to be significantly higher than those in the obese group. The diabetic patients had an increased overall incidence of postoperative complications (17.6%) compared with the control group (8.1%) (p < 0.05). Particularly, the rate of wound complications such as skin necrosis, bulla formation or erythema with drainage was higher in the diabetic group (p < 0.05). Diabetes-related factors did not influence the incidence of complications. Associated diseases were the only significant risk factors correlated with wound complications and meniscal bearing dislodgement.
Patients with diabetes can benefit from TKA, even though diabetic patients are at an increased risk for overall postoperative and wound complications. Preoperative factors such as obesity and associated diseases may adversely affect the clinical outcome of TKA in diabetic patients.
Diabetes mellitus; total knee arthroplasty; clinical outcome; complication; risk factor
Patellar crepitus (PC) is reported in up to 14% of subjects implanted with cruciate-substituting total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Numerous etiologies of PC have been proposed.
We determined when painful PC typically occurs postoperatively and compared patients undergoing primary TKA who developed painful PC requiring subsequent surgery with a matched group without this complication to identify clinical, radiographic, and surgical variables associated with this complication.
From the databases of two institutions (greater than 4000 TKAs), we identified 60 patients who required surgery for painful PC from 2002 to 2008. This group was then compared with an identified control group of 60 TKA subjects without PC who were matched for the key variables of age, gender, and body mass index to determine clinical, radiographic, and surgical factors associated with the development of PC.
The mean time to presentation of PC was 10.9 months. The incidence of PC correlated with a greater number of previous knee surgeries, decreased patellar component size, decreased composite patellar thickness, shorter preoperative and postoperative patellar tendon length, increased posterior femoral condylar offset, use of smaller femoral components and thicker tibial polyethylene inserts, and placement of the femoral component in a flexed posture.
Many of the factors associated with an increased incidence of postoperative PC such as shortened patellar tendon length, use of smaller patellar components, decreased patellar composite thickness, and increased posterior femoral condylar offset may all increase quadriceps tendon contact forces against the superior aspect of the intercondylar box, increasing the risk of fibrosynovial proliferation and entrapment within the intercondylar region of the femoral component. Based on these findings, the authors recommend use of larger patellar components when possible, avoid oversection of the patella or increasing posterior femoral condylar offset, and advising patients preoperatively who have had previous knee surgery or demonstrate a shortened patellar tendon length of an increased risk of development of postoperative patellar crepitus.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The evidence linking body mass index (BMI) to severe OA shows a strong association in the knee. There are limited data exploring the effect of BMI on the risk of joint arthroplasty in a healthy population with long periods of follow up. We compared the self-reported BMI at age 20, measured BMI at baseline, year 5 and year 10 with the year 19 risk of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a well-described, population based cohort of healthy women. A total of 733 women attended the 19th year visit, of whom 31 underwent TKA and 676 were used as a control group after 26 were removed for having hip arthoplasty.
Using logistic regression, an increase in 1 unit of BMI at baseline was associated with a 10.5% increased risk of TKA (p = 0.017) and at year 5 the increased risk is 8.6% (p = 0.042). When adjusted for baseline age and smoking, baseline BMI was the only significant predictor of TKA at 10.0% with p = 0.024. There was no significant association at 10 years or for change in BMI over time.
In this prospective, population based study, BMI predicted the risk of TKA for OA. The risk was greatest at baseline when the patients were in middle age suggesting that this is the most important time to target weight reduction interventions.
Knee; Arthroplasty; Risk; BMI
When unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) failure occurs, a revision procedure to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often necessary. We compared the long-term results of this procedure to primary TKA and evaluated whether they are clinically comparable. Twenty-one patients underwent UKA conversion to TKA between 1991 and 2000. The results of these patients were compared to the group of 28 primary TKA patients with the same age, sex and operation time point. The long-term outcomes were evaluated using clinical and radiological analysis. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 10.5 years. The UKA revision patients were more dissatisfied, as measured by the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) scale (0–100 mm) compared to the primary TKA patients (pain 18.1/7.8; p = 0.014; stiffness 25.7/14.4, p = 0.024; physical function 19.0/14.8, p = 0.62). Two patients were revised twice in the UKA revision group. There was one revision in the primary TKA group (p = 0.39). Improvement in range of motion (ROM) was better in the TKA patients compared to the UKA revision patients (8.2°/–2.6°, p = 0.0001). We suggest that UKA conversion to TKA is associated with poorer clinical outcome as compared to primary TKA.
Background and purpose
Resurfacing of the patella during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often recommended based on higher revision rates in non-resurfaced knees. As many of these revisions are insertions of a patella component due to pain, and since only patients with a non-resurfaced patella have the option of secondary resurfacing, we do not really know whether these patients have more pain and poorer function. The main purpose of the present paper was therefore to assess pain and function at least 2 years after surgery for unrevised primary non-resurfaced and resurfaced TKA, and secondary among prosthesis brands.
Information needed to calculate subscales from the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) was collected in a questionnaire given to 972 osteoarthritis patients with intact primary TKAs that had been reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Pain and satisfaction on visual analog scales and improvement in EQ-5D index score ΔEQ-5D) were also used as outcomes. Outcomes were measured on a scale from 0 to 100 units (worst to best). To estimate differences in mean scores, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for possible confounders.
We did not observe any differences between resurfacing and non-resurfacing in any outcome, with estimated differences of ≤ 1.4 units and p-values of > 0.4. There was, however, a tendency of better results for the NexGen implant as compared to the reference brand AGC for symptoms (difference = 4.9, p = 0.05), pain (VAS) (difference = 8.3, p = 0.004), and satisfaction (VAS) (difference = 7.9, p = 0.02). However, none of these differences reached the stated level of minimal perceptible clinical difference.
Resurfacing of the patella has no clinical effect on pain and function after TKA. Differences between the brands investigated were small and they were assumed to be of minor importance.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether functional performance and self-report outcomes are related to body mass index (BMI) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesized that higher BMIs would negatively affect functional performance as assessed by the timed up-and-go test, stair climbing test, 6-minute walk test, and self-report questionnaires. A total of 140 patients with BMIs ranging from 21.2 to 40.0 kg/m2 were followed over the first 6 months after unilateral TKA. Hierarchical linear regression was used to evaluate the impact of BMI on functional performance at 1, 3, and 6 months after TKA, while taking into account preoperative functional performance. There were no meaningful relationships between BMI and functional performance in the subacute (1 and 3 months) and intermediate (6-month) stages of recovery.
total knee arthroplasty; body mass index; obesity; functional performance
The amount of blood loss in a primary cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) seems to vary in different reported studies. We carried out a prospective study to determine the factors affecting the peri-operative blood loss, hidden blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in a primary cemented total knee arthroplasty. The factors analysed were gender, diagnosis, tourniquet time and body mass index (BMI). We included a total of 66 consecutive patients who underwent primary TKA by a single surgeon (A.M). There was significantly more peri-operative blood loss in male patients than in females (p=0.001, Student’s t test). The patients with rheumatoid arthritis did not show any statistical difference in peri-operative blood loss compared with that in patients with osteoarthritis. The tourniquet time and the surgical time showed a positive correlation with peri-operative blood loss. The BMI did not show any correlation with peri-operative blood loss. The incidence of blood transfusion was significantly higher in patients with rheumatoid knees as their pre-operative haemoglobin value was low. The amount of hidden blood loss in our series was 38%. We concluded that gender and tourniquet time plays a role in blood loss in TKA, but diagnosis (advanced osteoarthritis [OA] or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) does not. The blood transfusion depends on both pre-operative haemoglobin value and intra-operative blood loss. The post-operative transfusion trigger can be brought to 8.0 g% in a haemodynamically stable patient.
Routine patellar resurfacing performed at the time of knee arthroplasty is controversial, with some evidence of utility in both TKA (tricompartmental) and bicompartmental knee arthroplasty. However, whether one approach results in better implant survival remains unclear.
We asked whether (1) routine patellar resurfacing in TKAs resulted in lower cumulative revision rates compared to bicompartmental knee arthroplasties, (2) patella-friendly implants resulted in lower cumulative revision rates than earlier designs, and (3) bicompartmental knee arthroplasties revised to TKAs had higher cumulative revision rates than primary TKAs.
Patients and Methods
From a community-based joint registry, we identified 8135 patients treated with 9530 cemented, all-polyethylene patella TKAs and 627 bicompartmental knee arthroplasties without patellar resurfacing. We compared age, gender, year of index procedure, diagnosis, cruciate status, revision, and revision reason.
TKAs had a lower cumulative revision rate for patella-only revision than bicompartmental knee arthroplasties (0.8% versus 4.8%). Adjusting for age, bicompartmental knee arthroplasties were 6.9 times more likely to undergo patellar revision than TKAs. There was no difference in the cumulative revision rate for patella-only revisions between patella-friendly and earlier designs. The cumulative revision rate for any second revision after a patella-only revision was 12.7% for bicompartmental knee arthroplasties while that for primary TKAs was 6.3%.
Bicompartmental knee arthroplasties had higher revision rates than TKAs. Femoral component design did not influence the cumulative revision rate. Secondary patella resurfacing in a bicompartmental knee arthroplasty carried an increased revision risk compared to resurfacing at the time of index TKA. To reduce the probability of reoperation for patellofemoral problems, our data suggest the patella should be resurfaced at the time of index surgery.
Level of Evidence
Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Background and purpose
Despite concerns regarding a higher risk of revision, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) continues to be used as an alternative to total knee arthroplasty (TKA). There are, however, limited data on the subsequent outcome when a UKA is revised. We examined the survivorship for primary UKA procedures that have been revised.
We used data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) to analyze the survivorship of 1,948 revisions of primary UKA reported to the Registry between September 1999 and December 2008. This was compared to the results of revisions of primary TKA reported during the same period where both the femoral and tibial components were revised. The Kaplan-Meier method for modeling survivorship was used.
When a primary UKA was revised to another UKA (both major and minor revisions), it had a cumulative per cent revision (CPR) of 28 and 30 at 3 years, respectively. The CPR at 3 years when a UKA was converted to a TKA was 10. This is similar to the 3-year CPR (12) found earlier for primary TKA where both the femoral and tibial components were revised.
When a UKA requires revision, the best outcome is achieved when it is converted to a TKA. This procedure does, however, have a major risk of re-revision, which is similar to the risk of re-revision of a primary TKA that has had both the femoral and tibial components revised.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of persons who underwent simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to subjects who underwent unilateral TKA and a healthy control group. Fifteen subjects who underwent primary bilateral TKA and 15 sex, age, and body mass index-matched subjects who underwent primary unilateral TKA were observed prospectively for 2 years. Subjects in both surgical groups showed significant improvement in Knee Outcome Scores, Short Form 36 physical component scores, Timed Up and Go, and stair-climbing tasks (P ≤ .004). No differences in final outcomes were found between surgical groups. In addition, most 2-year clinical measures were no different between the surgical and control groups. Subjects medically appropriate for bilateral TKA should be afforded this option.
bilateral; knee; arthroplasty; outcomes; function
Arthritis is a leading cause of disability in the United States. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has become the gold standard to manage the pain and disability associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Although more than 400 000 primary TKA surgeries are performed each year in the United States, not all individuals with knee OA elect to undergo the procedure. No clear consensus exists on criteria to determine who should undergo TKA. The purpose of this study was to determine which clinical factors will predict the decision to undergo TKA in individuals with end-stage knee OA. Knowledge of these factors will aid in clinical decision making for the timing of TKA.
Functional data from one hundred twenty persons with end-stage knee OA were obtained through a database. All of the individuals complained of knee pain during daily activities and had radiographic evidence of OA. Functional and clinical tests, collectively referred to as the Delaware Osteoarthritis Profile, were completed by a physical therapist. This profile consisted of measuring height, weight, quadriceps strength and active knee range of motion, while functional mobility was assessed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and the Stair Climbing Task (SCT). Self-perceived functional ability was measured using the activities of daily living subscale of the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS-ADLS). A logistic regression model was used to identify variables predictive of TKA use.
Forty subjects (33%) underwent TKA within two years of evaluation. These subjects were significantly older and had significantly slower TUG and SCT times (p < 0.05). Persons that underwent TKA were also significantly weaker, had lower self-reported function and had less knee extension than persons who did not undergo TKA. No differences between groups were seen for BMI, gender, knee flexion ROM and unilateral versus bilateral joint disease. Using backward regression, age, knee extension ROM and KOS-ADLS together significantly predicted whether or not a person would undergo TKA (p ≤ 0.001, R2 = 0.403).
Younger patients with full knee ROM who have a higher self-perception of function are less likely to undergo TKA. Physicians and clinicians should be aware that potentially modifiable factors, such as knee ROM can be addressed to potentially postpone the need for TKA.
Recent studies question an effect of gender on outcome of primary TKA. We questioned whether the results of revision TKA were affected by gender. We separated 67 revision TKAs by gender and preoperative diagnosis into four groups (arthrofibrosis, infection, instability, and wear and loosening). Each revision TKA was individually matched by age and gender to two primary TKAs. Postoperative Knee Society pain and function scores after revision TKA were lower than for primary TKA for both females and males. However, postoperative Knee Society pain and function scores were similar in males and females. Postoperative pain and function scores were lower for all revision groups compared with primary TKA, except for pain and function scores after revision for instability. Postoperative pain and function scores were higher for instability and wear or loosening than for arthrofibrosis. Our data suggest the results of revision TKA are affected by preoperative diagnosis but not gender.
Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective matched cohort study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Computer navigation assistance in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) results in consistently accurate alignment of prostheses. We aimed to compare the outcome of computer-navigated and conventional TKA and to analyse the radiologically malaligned knees. We analysed 637 primary TKA, carried out by a single surgeon, over five consecutive years and divided them into two cohorts: group 1 = STA (standard instrumentation) and group 2 = CAS (computer-assisted surgery). There was no significant difference between the average Oxford Knee Scores (OKS) of the two groups at any time from one to five years. However, the malaligned TKA at three years had a worse OKS. At medium term there is no difference in clinical outcome measures that can be attributed to the surgeon having used computer-assisted navigation for TKA. But group 1, having a higher proportion of malaligned TKA, might show worsening of OKS at long term.
The primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to compare knee-specific outcomes (stiffness, pain, function) between patellar retention and resurfacing up to 10 years after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Secondarily, we compared re-operation rates.
38 subjects with non-inflammatory arthritis were randomized at primary TKA surgery to receive patellar resurfacing (n = 21; Resurfaced group) or to retain their native patella (n = 17; Non-resurfaced group). Evaluations were performed preoperatively, one, five and 10 years postoperatively by an evaluator who was blinded to group allocation. Self-reported knee-specific stiffness, pain and function, the primary outcomes, were measured by the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Revision rate was determined at each evaluation and through hospital record review.
30 (88%) and 23 (72%) of available subjects completed the five and 10-year review respectively. Knee-specific scores continued to improve for both groups over the 10-years, despite diminishing overall health with no significant group differences seen. All revisions occurred within five years of surgery (three Non-resurfaced subjects; one Resurfaced subject) (p = 0.31). Two revisions in the Non-resurfaced group were due to persistent anterior knee pain.
We found no differences in knee-specific results between groups at 5–10 years postoperatively. The Non-resurfaced group had two revisions due to anterior knee pain similar to rates reported in other studies. Knee-specific results provide useful postoperative information and should be used in future studies comparing patellar management strategies.
Total Knee Arthroplasty; Patellar Resurfacing; Revision; Patient-Reported Outcomes; Recovery
Surgery is indicated for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) when conservative measures are unsuccessful. High tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are surgical options intended to relieve knee OA pain and dysfunction. The choice of surgical intervention is dependent on several factors such as disease location, patient age, comorbidities, and activity levels. Regardless of surgical treatment, complications such as infection, loosening or lysis, periprosthetic fracture, and postoperative pain are known risks and are indications for revision surgery. The clinical and economic implications for revision surgery are underappreciated. Over 55,000 revision surgeries were performed in 2010 in the US, with 48% of these revisions in patients under 65 years. Total costs associated with each revision TKA surgery have been estimated to be in excess of $49,000. The current annual economic burden of revision knee OA surgery is $2.7 billion for hospital charges alone. By 2030, assuming a 5-fold increase in the number of revision procedures, this economic burden will exceed $13 billion annually. It is appealing to envision a therapy that could delay or obviate the need for arthroplasty. From an actuarial standpoint, this would have the theoretical downstream effect of substantially reducing the number of revision procedures. Although no known therapies currently meet these criteria, such a breakthrough would have a tremendous impact in lessening the clinical and economic burden of knee OA revision surgery.
arthroplasty; knee; osteoarthritis; revision
Low-contact-stress (LCS) mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ; previously: DePuy, Warsawa, USA) provides excellent functional results and wear rates in long-term follow-up analyses. Radiological analysis shows radiolucent lines (RLL) appearing immediately or two years after primary implantation, indicative of poor seat. Investigations proved RLL to be more frequent in uncemented TKA, resulting in a consensus to cement the tibial plateau, but their association with clinical findings and patients discomfort and knee pain is still unknown.
553 patients with 566 low-contact-stress (LCS) total knee prostheses were screened for continuous moderate knee pain. We compared tibial stress shielding classified by Ewald in patients suffering from pain with a matched, pain-free control group on blinded X-rays. We hypothesized a positive correlation between pain and radiolucency and higher frequency of such radiolucent lines in the most medial and most lateral zones of the tibial plateau.
Twenty-eight patients suffered from knee pain in total. Radiolucencies were detected in 27 of these cases and in six out of 28 matched controls without knee pain. We could demonstrate a significant correlation of knee pain and radiolucencies, which appeared significantly more frequently in the outermost zones of the tibial plateau.
Our findings suggest that radiolucent lines, representing poor implant seat, about the tibial plateau are associated with knee pain in LCS patients. Radiolucencies are observed more often in noncemented LCS, and cementing the tibial plateau might improve implant seat and reduce both radiolucent lines and associated knee pain.
Arthroplasty; low-contact-stress; mobile-bearing; radiolucent lines; knee pain
Pain is the primary indication for both primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however, most arthroplasty outcome measures do not take pain into account.
To document the prospective pain experience following TKA, with subjective pain-specific questionnaires to determine if comorbidities, preoperative pain or preoperative pain catastrophizing scores are predictive of long-term pain outcomes.
Fifty-five patients with a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee, who were scheduled to undergo TKA, were asked to fill out the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) preoperatively and at three, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Comorbidities were extracted from the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre health information system.
The overall response rate (return of completed questionnaires) was 84%. There was a significant decrease in the MPQ scores (P<0.05) postoperatively. PCS scores did not change over time. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the number of comorbidities per patient predicted the presence of pain postoperatively, as documented by the numerical rating subscale of the MPQ at 24 months (P<0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curves for pre-operative PCS and rumination subscale scores predicted the presence of pain, as measured by the Pain Rating Index subscale of the MPQ at 24 months (P<0.05). Preoperative PCS scores and comorbidities were significantly higher in the persistent pain group (P<0.05).
The number of comorbidities predicted the presence of pain at 24 months follow-up and, for the first time, preoperative PCS scores were shown to predict chronic postoperative pain. This may enable the identification of knee arthroplasty patients at risk for persistent postoperative pain, thus allowing for efficient administration of preoperative interventions to improve arthroplasty outcomes.
Catastrophizing; Comorbidity; Helplessness; Knee; Osteoarthritis; Outcomes; Pain; Rumination; Surgery; Total knee arthroplasty
To assess the association of specific comorbidities with periprosthetic fractures after primary total knee replacement (TKA)
We used the prospectively collected data in the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry from 1989-2008 on all patients who had undergone primary TKA. The outcome of interest was postoperative periprosthetic fractures during the follow-up. Main predictors of interest were comorbidities grouped from the validated Deyo-Charlson index. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class, operative diagnosis and implant fixation. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
We included 17,633 primary TKAs with a mean follow-up of 6.3 years. The mean age was 68 years, 55% were women and mean BMI was 31. There were 188 postoperative periprosthetic fractures on postoperative day one or later; 162 fractures (86%) occurred postoperative day 90 day or later. In multivariable analyses that simultaneously adjusted for all comorbidities and other variables (age, gender, BMI, ASA, operative diagnosis, cement status), two conditions were significantly associated with increased hazard of postoperative periprosthetic fractures: peptic ulcer disease, hazard ratio of 1.87 (95% confidence interval:1.28, 2.75; p=0.0014); and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hazard ratio of 1.62 (95% confidence interval:1.10, 2.40; p=0.02).
Peptic ulcer disease and COPD are associated with higher risk of periprosthetic fractures after primary TKA. This may be related to the disease or their treatments, which needs further study. Identification of specific risk factor may allow for implementation of intervention strategies to reduce this risk.
Total knee arthroplasty; total knee replacement; periprosthetic fracture; predictors; risk factors; comorbidity; Primary TKA
Early mechanical dysfunction of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a challenging problem in terms of causality and solutions. The current strategy in our department is to perform a complete TKA revision rather than the less invasive partial procedures when a clear mechanical cause of failure has been found. In this investigation, we assessed 21 patients who underwent complete TKA revision in 2003–2004 in our institution within the first two years following the index TKA. Various clinical presentations included pain, stiffness, instability, and femoro-patellar signs. These corresponded to implant size, position, and fixation issues. The IKS knee score/function significantly increased from 47/47 to 85/78 at follow-up (six months minimum). Compared to the data in the literature, this systematic full revision seems to be a reasonable approach. This attitude takes advantage of the modularity of the implants for allowing perioperative adjustments of position, fixation, and constraint. Based on the results of our study, we propose a list of six mechanical pitfalls to be evaluated in the case of early dysfunction: frontal misalignment, sagittal overstuffing or malpositioning, axial malrotation, poor bone fixation, inappropriate constraint or ligamentous balance, and inappropriate level of the joint space.
The Kaiser Permanente National Total Joint Replacement Registry (TJRR) is a national level database designed as a postmarket surveillance system for elective total hip and knee replacement. As of March 31, 2007, the TJRR recorded 16,945 primary total hip arthroplasties (THA), 2144 revisions (11.2%); and 30,815 total knee arthroplasties (TKA), 1794 revisions (5.5%). Statistically significant findings include: older age and higher American Society of Anesthesiology risk scores for revision THAs. Osteoarthritis is the most common diagnosis for THA and TKA, and aseptic loosening and instability are most common in revision THAs and TKAs. The TJRR has provided a mechanism for recalls, identified patients at risk for early revisions and changed practice by providing feedback to physicians.
Infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a devastating complication, and two-stage reimplantation has evolved as an effective treatment option. This study was undertaken to compare the clinical results and radiological changes associated with static or mobile cement spacer placement for the treatment of infected TKA. Between July 2000 and February 2007, 36 consecutive patients were treated by two-stage reimplantation using antibiotic-impregnated cement spacers (AICS) for infected TKAs. Static spacers were used in 20 knees and mobile spacers in 16 knees. Clinical outcomes included success rates of TKR revisions, ranges of motion (ROM), and Hospital for Special Surgery knee scores (HSS), pain and function scores of the Knee Society (KS), joint exposure methods, and bone loss. In this study, mobile spacers provided better ranges of motion and functional knee scores without concomitant increases in infection rate and bone loss in the initial and mid-term periods.
Deep infection remains one of the most devastating and costly complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The risk of deep infection after revision TKA is reportedly greater than that for primary TKA; however, we do not know the exact incidence of infection after revision TKA.
We determined the incidence of infection after revision, the type of microorganisms involved and TKA, and the potential risk factors for this infection.
We retrospectively reviewed 475 patients (476 knees) with 499 TKA revisions performed between March 1998 and December 2005. Of the 476 knees, 91 (19%) were revised for infection and 385 (81%) were revised for aseptic failure. Preoperative history, results of physical examinations, laboratory and radiographic results, joint fluid aspiration results along with analysis of intraoperative findings were all considered to make an assessment of septic versus aseptic failure modes. Patients were followed for a minimum of 25 months (mean, 65 months; range, 25–159 months).
Deep infection developed in 44 of the 476 knees (9%). The infection rate was higher in patients undergoing revision for infection than in patients with aseptic revisions: 21% (23 of 91) and 5% (21 of 385), respectively. Revision for infection, higher Charlson index, and diagnosis other than osteoarthritis at the time of primary TKA predicted infection of the revision. The risk of infection for patients undergoing TKA revisions was 10-fold higher than for patients undergoing primary TKA at our institution.
Infection of primary TKA is the most important risk factor for subsequent infection of TKA revisions.
Level of Evidence
Level III, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Both primary total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty relieve pain, restore function, and increase mobility. Despite these successes, there is controversy as to whether THA or TKA provides greater or similar improvement. We therefore compared primary THA and TKA patient results in terms of (1) willingness to have surgery again; (2) WOMAC change score; (3) whether expectations were met; and (4) satisfaction. Patients undergoing primary THA were more willing to undergo their surgery again (THA 96%, TKA 89%), demonstrated greater WOMAC change scores, more frequently reported their expectations were met (THA 78%, TKA 70%), and expressed greater overall satisfaction (THA 89%, TKA 81%). In addition, patients undergoing THA expressed higher satisfaction with pain reduction while performing activities (ie, walking, stairs, and sitting/lying) and their ability to perform daily activities (ie, stairs, transportation, getting up, lying in bed, and light domestic duties) when compared with patients undergoing TKA. Our data suggest primary THA offers superior short-term outcomes when compared with primary TKA.
Level of Evidence: Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.