Background and purpose
Immediate implant stability is a key factor for success in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur may jeopardize initial stability and osseointegration. We compared migration of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems in women with or without low systemic BMD.
Patients and methods
61 female patients with hip osteoarthritis were treated with cementless THA with anatomically designed hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems and ceramic-ceramic bearing surfaces (ABG-II). Of the 39 eligible patients between the ages of 41 and 78 years, 12 had normal systemic BMD and 27 had osteopenia or osteoporosis. According to the Dorr classification, 21 had type A bone and 18 had type B. Translational and rotational migration of the stems was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 2 years after surgery.
Patients with low systemic BMD showed higher subsidence of the femoral stem during the first 3 months after surgery than did those with normal BMD (difference = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1; p = 0.03). Low systemic BMD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1, CI: 0.006–1.0; p = 0.02), low local hip BMD (OR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.7; p = 0.005) and ageing (OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02) were risk factors for delayed translational stability. Ageing and low canal flare index were risk factors for delayed rotational stabilization (OR = 3, CI: 1.1–9; p = 0.04 and OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02, respectively). Harris hip score and WOMAC score were similar in patients with normal systemic BMD and low systemic BMD.
Low BMD, changes in intraosseous dimensions of the proximal femur, and ageing adversely affected initial stability and delayed osseointegration of cementless stems in women.
Background and purpose
Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) is a successful coating for fixation of uncemented femoral stems. There may be alternative coatings with advantages in bone remodeling and transport of bone-active substances. We investigated whether an electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite, Bonemaster (BM), might be a safe alternative in total hip arthroplasty. Our hypothesis was that the new coating would not be inferior to the conventional one.
Patients and methods
50 patients (55 hips) were included. The stem was tapered and porous-coated proximally. On top of the porous coating was either HA or BM. Patients were evaluated postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months to measure fixation by radiostereometric analysis (RSA), bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and conventional radiography. Clinical evaluation was performed with Harris hip score and Oxford hip score, both preoperatively and after 2 years.
After 2 years, the stems had subsided 0.25 (HA) and 0.28 (BM) mm and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in any direction, regarding both migration and rotation. The BM group retained significantly more bone than the HA group in Gruen zone 1 during the first 2 years. The Harris and Oxford hip scores were similar in both groups.
Electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite on an uncemented stem does not appear to be inferior to plasma-sprayed HA regarding clinical and radiological results, bone remodeling, and micromotion after 2 years follow-up.
We present the case of a patient with intraoperative femoral fracture during THA, which was repaired using cerclage fixation and insertion of an hydroxyapatite-coated cementless stem. The patient was evaluated postoperatively using radiostereometry during a 2-year course, and despite a large amount of subsidence and rotation, stabilization occurred and was maintained by 6 months. By evaluating the pattern of stem migration after intraoperative fracture, this case shows, even in the presence of instability, a successful clinical outcome can be achieved using an hydroxyapatite-coated cementless stem.
Numerous cementless femoral stem design variations are in clinical use. Because initial implant instability and micromotion are associated with aseptic loosening of the femoral component, migration analysis provides an early assessment of implant survivorship.
We determined the (1) migration pattern of the Accolade® cementless femoral stem; (2) clinical factors predisposing to stem migration; (3) self-reported patient outcomes; and (4) our current rate of aseptic stem loosening.
We retrospectively analyzed 81 femoral stems for aseptic migration using Ein-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse-femoral component analysis. Postoperatively, patients completed the WOMAC and SF-12 questionnaires. We assessed radiographic factors potentially associated with subsidence: indices of bone shape and quality, canal fill of the implant, and radiographic signs of loosening. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 29 months; range, 24–48 months).
The average subsidence at 24 months was 1.3 mm (range, 0–1.5 mm). In the first 2 years, 36% of stems subsided more than 1.5 mm. Large stem size was associated with subsidence. Radiolucent lines (> 1.5 mm in three zones) were present in 10% of stems and associated with lower questionnaire scores. The 5-year survivorship for aseptic loosening of the 367 stems was 97% with revision as end point and 95% for radiographic failure.
The high incidence of migration and stems with radiographic failure raises concerns about patient clinical function and long-term survivorship of this stem design. This migration pattern may be due to poor initial stability with a subsequent lack of osseointegration. Our results differ from radiographic findings and clinical durability of other similar cementless stem designs.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
As the number of young patients receiving total hip arthroplasty increases, bone-saving implantations facilitating possible future revision, such as the CUT femoral neck prosthesis, are gaining importance. There have been few medium-term results reported for this prosthesis, however, and its migration pattern has not been analyzed.
Patients and methods
39 consecutive CUT femoral neck prostheses were implanted in 32 patients, mean age 37 (17–58) years, with symptomatic osteoarthritis and either less than 55 years of age or with an anatomic anomaly preventing implantation of a diaphyseal stem (n = 1). Patients were followed prospectively using routine clinical examination and radiostereometric analysis (RSA) at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively and annually thereafter. This study evaluated the 5-year follow-up results.
The mean Harris hip score increased from 26 (3–51) points preoperatively to 84 (66–98), 86 (55–98), and 87 (47–98) points at 3, 12, and 60 months. 3 stems were revised: 1 after luxation following excessive subsidence due to an undersized component and 2 due to persistent strong thigh pain. 5-year survival was 95% (95% CI: 87–100). Initial migration varied widely in magnitude; median total tip migration was 0.42 mm (0.09–9.4) at 6 weeks, 0.92 mm (0.18–5.9) at 1 year, and 1.10 mm (0.13–6.4) at 5 years. Even after high initial migration, stabilization was achieved in 31 of the 35 RSA-evaluable implants. 3 prostheses showed progressive continuous migration throughout the entire follow-up period, and were considered to be loose, suggesting reduced long-term survival.
Currently, we cannot recommend the CUT femoral neck prosthesis as a routine treatment option in (young) patients requiring THA. The CUT prosthesis may not reach the 90% survival benchmark at 10 years, and the prosthesis is difficult to implant. If initial stabilization is achieved, however, aseptic loosening is unlikely. A good clinical outcome was seen in the surviving prostheses. We will continue to follow this patient group.
To determine the benefit of an extensively porous coated femoral stem in patients receiving revision total hip arthroplasty.
This study reviewed the results of 35 patients who received a revision total hip arthroplasty with extensively porous coated femoral stem between August, 1996, and December, 2002. The mean follow-up period was 77.5 months. The clinical and radiological results were evaluated by the Harris hip score and serial roentgenographic findings.
The preoperative and postoperative Harris hip score was 68.3 and 92.5, respectively. Radiographically, none of the acetabular components showed any evidence of migration, tilt, rotation, or shedding of metal particles. In addition, none of the femoral components showed evidence of subsidence, pedestal, or shedding of metal particles. Twenty-two hips had a mild stress shield and 2 hips had a moderate stress shield. The perioperative complications encountered were deep vein thrombosis (1 case), mild heterotopic ossification (4 cases), intraoperative periprosthetic fractures (1 case), and nonunion of the trochanteric osteotomy site (2 cases).
Extensively porous coated femoral stems and acetabular components produce excellent clinical and radiological results in revision total hip arthroplasty.
Revision total hip arthroplasty; Extensively porous coated femoral stem
The purpose of this study was to determine if subsidence of a tapered, proximally porous- and hydroxyapatite-coated femoral implant with immediate postoperative weight-bearing differed between men and women. Modified Harris Hip Pain and Function Scores were collected preoperatively, and six weeks and one year postoperatively. Femoral subsidence was determined at six weeks and one year after surgery. Men demonstrated significantly increased Harris Hip Function Scores at six weeks, with slightly inferior Harris Hip Pain Scores at one year. Regardless of sex, subsidence was greater at one year than at six weeks; however, men subsided significantly more at one year than women (1.7 ± 2.0 mm vs 1.0 ± 1.4 mm, p = 0.03). While it appears that this stem provided excellent early fixation in women, it is unclear if the increased subsidence in men was more related to patient-related factors of age, weight and activity level or with specific implant characteristics.
Ceramic-on-ceramic coupling is thought to be a durable alternative to metal- or alumina-on-polyethylene pairing. No evidence exists suggesting superior clinical and radiological results for hydroxyapatite-coated stems versus uncoated stems. The aim of this study is to report the performance of an alumina-on-alumina bearing cementless total hip arthroplasty and to compare stems with a tapered design with and without hydroxyapatite coating. We prospectively analysed the results of cementless tapered femoral stems (40 hydroxyapatite-coated versus 22 uncoated stems), a metal-backed fibre mesh hydroxyapatite-coated socket and alumina-on-alumina pairing. Of 75 hips studied, 62 were available for follow-up (mean of 10.5 years after surgery). The average Harris hip score was 90. Only one hydroxyapatite-coated stem was revised for aseptic loosening. One instance of non-progressive osteolysis was detected around a screw of a cup. All other components showed radiographic signs of stable ingrowth. Hydroxyapatite coating of the stem had no significant impact on the clinical or radiological results. Total hip arthroplasty with the presented implant and pairing provides a durable standard for all patients requiring hip joint replacement against which all newer generations of cementless implants should be judged.
We compared the clinical and radiographic results of two matched series of total hip arthroplasties, one with hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems, the other with a similar but porous-coated femoral stem. The prevalence of radiographic osteolysis was 16% in hips with hydroxyapatite-coated stems and 43% in hips with porous-coated femoral stems. In hips with hydroxyapatite-coated stems, osteolysis was always limited to Gruen zones 1 and 7. In contrast, distal osteolysis was present around 26% of the porous-coated stems. At 7 years, the survival-free rate of distal osteolysis was 100% in hips with hydroxyapatite-coated stems but 90% in hips with porous-coated stems (p=0.04). Circumferential hydroxyapatite coating of the femoral component reduced the occurrence of osteolysis and eliminated distal osteolysis at 5–10 years of follow-up. In addition, hydroxyapatite coating did not alter the wear rate.
Implant stability is considered vital to long-time implant survival in total hip arthroplasty (THA), since loose implants are reported to be a major cause of hip revision. There is an association between early implant micromotion and increased risk of revision. More implant-specific data are needed to establish acceptable levels of early implant movement.
Materials and methods
Thirty-five patients (36 hips) undergoing Charnley THA were followed with repeated clinical, radiographic, and radiostereometric analysis (RSA) over 5 years. Twenty-three patients attended 5 years postoperatively.
The patient group was well functioning based on the radiological and clinical evaluations. The stems constantly moved up to 5 years postoperatively, with subsidence, retroversion, and varus tilt, based on the RSA.
Continuous movement of the Charnley stem was observed up to 5 years postoperatively in a well-functioning patient group. The migration data presented herein could be useful when defining acceptable migration limits for certain types of cemented femoral stems.
RSA; Charnley; THR; Five-year follow-up; Migration pattern
Previous in vitro research on addition of antibiotics to bone cement has found no statistically significant deterioration in mechanical properties. However, no clinical studies have compared the performance of tobramycin-laden bone cement with that of standard bone cement (Simplex P).
Patients and Methods
23 patients (25 hips) were randomized to receive an Exeter (Stryker Orthopaedics) femoral stem cemented with either Simplex P (standard) or Simplex T (tobramycin-laden) cement. There were 2 years of follow-up, with scheduled radiostereometric (RSA) examinations.
All stems migrated distally and showed some degree of retroversion. No clinically significant differences in stem subsidence or retroversion were found between the Simplex T and Simplex P cement groups after 2 years. Overall subsidence was less than in previous studies, probably due to a postponed initial post-surgical examination. Rates of subsidence in both cement groups were consistent with those from previous studies of Exeter stems.
Subsidence of the femoral stem after 2 years was similar in the Simplex T (tobramycin-laden) and Simplex P (standard) groups.
Background and purpose
In contrast to early migration, the long-term migration of hydroxyapatite- (HA-) coated tibial components in TKA has been scantily reported. This randomized controlled trial investigated the long-term migration measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) of HA-coated, uncoated, and cemented tibial components in TKA.
Patients and methods
68 knees were randomized to HA-coated (n = 24), uncoated (n = 20), and cemented (n = 24) components. All knees were prospectively followed for 11–16 years, or until death or revision. RSA was used to evaluate migration at yearly intervals. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was according to the Knee Society system. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM, adjusted for age, sex, diagnosis, revisions, and BMI) was used to take into account the repeated-measurement design.
The present study involved 742 RSA analyses. The mean migration at 10 years was 1.66 mm for HA, 2.25 mm for uncoated and 0.79 mm for the cemented group (p < 0.001). The reduction of migration by HA as compared to uncoated components was most pronounced for subsidence and external rotation. 3 tibial components were revised for aseptic loosening (2 uncoated and 1 cemented), 3 for septic loosening (2 uncoated and 1 cemented), and 1 for instability (HA-coated). 2 of these cases were revised for secondary loosening after a period of stability: 1 case of osteolysis and 1 case of late infection. There were no statistically significant differences between the fixation groups regarding clinical or radiographic scores.
HA reduces migration of uncemented tibial components. This beneficial effect lasts for more than 10 years. Cemented components showed the lowest migration. Longitudinal follow-up of TKA with RSA allows early detection of secondary loosening.
It is unclear whether it is best to use high-viscosity or low-viscosity cement for fixation of total hip replacement (THR) femoral components. This study examines the influence of cement viscosity on the migration of the Exeter femoral component using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). Simplex, CMW1 and CMW3 G cements were examined in a total of 46 patients over a 12-month period. The overall pattern of migration for all cohorts was one of subsidence and rotation into valgus. There was no significant difference in any aspect of migration between the groups. In vitro studies demonstrate that low-viscosity cement forms a more stable bone-cement interface. Several groups have examined the in vivo effect of cement viscosity on stem longevity with conflicting results. For a polished, tapered implant that is designed to subside, cement viscosity does not influence the 1-year migration, and it is therefore unlikely to affect long-term outcome.
Background and purpose Periprosthetic bone loss after uncemented femoral hip revision is a matter of concern. We have used a proximally porous- and hydroxyapatite-coated prosthesis (Bi-Metric) in revision since 1989 and now we report the bone changes. This prosthesis is intended to distribute the forces more evenly and to avoid proximal femoral unloading.
Methods 22 patients were unilaterally reoperated because of aseptic loosening. Only patients with a healthy contralateral hip were included. Mean age at revision was 69 (55–80) years. Bone defects were graded by Gustilo-Pasternak and Endo-Klinik classifications. Clinical assessment was performed with Harris hip score. We used radiographs and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate migration, femoral remodeling, and bone mineral density after 72 (30–158) months.
Results The mean Harris hip score was 74 (30–100) points at follow-up. Mild thigh discomfort was present in 1 patient and moderate thigh pain in 3 patients. There was no loosening or subsidence. Osteolysis seen at revision had diminished in 19 of the 22 hips at follow-up. We noted a large reduction in bone mineral density. It was most pronounced in Gruen regions 1, 2, 6, and 7.
Interpretation Revision with this stem is a reliable procedure; however, we noted a large degree of proximal bone loss that could lead to later mechanical complications or fractures.
The ZMR® porous stem is a modular cylindrical porous-coated femoral stem for revision THA. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of this stem at midterm followup. We prospectively reviewed 69 patients (72 femoral revisions) treated with the stem. The indication for revision was aseptic loosening in 61 (85%), periprosthetic fractures in five (7%), infection in three (4%), dislocation in two (3%), and fractured stem in one (1%). Minimum followup was 60 months (mean, 85 months; range, 60–114 months). The survival rate with revision for any reason as an end point was 93.8%. Mean preoperative Harris hip score was 39 points, and mean Harris hip score at last followup was 72 points. Four (5.5%) stems required rerevision, two (2.8%) for loosening, one (1.4%) for fracture at the modular junction, and one (1.4%) for infection. Subsidence occurred in eight (11%) patients, in the range of 5 to 25 mm. Two (2.89%) of the stems that subsided were symptomatic and progressive. The ZMR® porous stem is a versatile system that offers a reliable fixation and an off-the-shelf solution for a multitude of femoral reconstruction challenges.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Compromised rheumatic bone is a potential risk factor for mechanical complications in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) in cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increased rates of intra-operative fractures, component migration and (early) aseptic loosening are to be expected. Despite this, cementless THA is performed in cases of RA.
A literature search on cementless THA in RA was performed in EMBASE (1993–2011), Medline (1966–2011) and the Cochrane Library. A systematic review was conducted with a special emphasis on mechanical complications.
Twenty-three case series and five studies of implant registries were included. Acetabular fractures and/or migration of the cup were reported in 9 out of 22 studies of the cup. Proximal femoral fractures and/or subsidence of the stem were reported in 14 out of 20 studies of the stem. Six studies compared failure rates of uncemented and cemented components due to aseptic loosening. The overall failure rate ratio (uncemented/cemented) for the cup was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.14–2.60) and for the stem 0.71 (95% CI: 0.06–8.55), both favoring uncemented fixation. The failure rates in case series without a control group were compared to the NICE criteria (failure rate/1). The overall failure rate for the cup was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.50–1.88) and for the stem 0.79 (95% CI: 0.44–1.41). Failure rates of aseptic loosening of higher than 1 (favoring cemented fixation) were reported in 6 out of 26 studies of the cup and in 2 out of 25 studies of the stem. In all these studies, the inferior implant designs were blamed, and not the type of fixation or the quality of the bone.
Despite substantial rates of mechanical stem complications, no evidence was found to establish that cementless components perform less well than cemented components. The results justify the use of cementless THA in RA patients.
Rheumatoid arthritis; Total hip arthroplasty; Cementless; Uncemented; Review
We describe the clinical and radiological long-term outcomes of 77 primary total hip replacements in 69 patients using the fully hydroxyapatite-coated JRI (Furlong) total hip replacement. The total cases followed up were 77 hips, performed at a mean duration of 11 years and 2 months. Twelve hips could not be followed up for various reasons, which are discussed in the results section. The mean Harris hip score was 89. Seventeen acetabular cups were revised for aseptic loosening. Only one femoral stem was revised, for fracture. By Engh’s criteria there were a further two unstable cups with no symptoms, and all femoral stems were stable. Kaplan–Meier survivorship analysis revealed a survival of 98.8% for the femoral stem, 78.7% for the acetabular cup, and a combined survival of 77.8% for both components. Our findings suggest that the JRI (Furlong) hip gives a durable femoral stem implant fixation, whereas the prosthesis–bone interface achieved with the acetabular component is questionable.
We report on a prospective series of 201 primary uncemented total hip arthroplasties with a Bicontact prosthesis at a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. The mean Harris hip score improved from 41 before surgery to 89 at final follow-up. Two femoral stems, one each for infection and fracture, and 12 cups were revised. The mean number of years to revision post-primary surgery was 8.7 years (six months to 16 years). The cumulative survival of the prosthesis was 95.42% for any cause at ten years and 93.57% at 12 years. Survivorship for aseptic loosening of the femoral stem was 100%. In our series, the Bicontact uncemented total hip arthroplasty stem without hydroxyapatite coating showed excellent survival and the cup survival was comparable to other leading series.
Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
A femoral implant with a modular sleeve and stem has been designed to allow independent and complete metaphyseal-diaphyseal fit and fill as well as independent rotation to accommodate anteversion at the time of THA.
In a prospective study we asked whether such a modular femoral sleeve and stem implant used during THA could provide (1) high long-term survivorship; (2) radiographically stable implants without radiolucencies, stress shielding, or osteolysis; and (3) high clinical scores in patients 15 to 20 years after a primary THA.
Patients and Methods
We prospectively evaluated 31 hips that underwent a primary THA using a modular femoral component for clinical outcome (Harris hip score) and radiographic outcome (implant stability, femoral loosening, osteolysis and stress shielding) at a minimum followup of 15 years (mean, 17 years; range, 15–20.2 years).
There were no femoral revisions for aseptic loosening; all hips had radiographic evidence of bone ingrowth. Two well-ingrown components were revised for late hematogenous infection. Some degree of proximal femoral disuse atrophy from stress shielding occurred in 23 hips (74%) but was nonprogressive and did not result in any failures or complications. Femoral osteolysis occurred in 18 hips (58%), but we cannot definitively determine whether or not the modular junction contributed to this.
These data suggest this modular femoral stem can provide long-term survivorship with no cases of aseptic loosening at 15 to 20 years after primary THA. However, it may be prudent when using this femoral stem to consider an articulation with an alternative bearing or, if the modularity is not needed to address femoral anteversion and metaphyseal-diaphyseal mismatch, to consider a nonmodular femoral stem.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Today, dislocated femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a cemented hip arthroplasty. However, cementing of the femoral component may lead to adverse effects and even death. Uncemented stems may lower these risks and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating may enhance integration, but prosthetic stability and clinical outcome in patients with osteoporotic bone have not been fully explored. We therefore studied fixation and clinical outcome in patients who had had a femoral neck fracture and who had received a fully HA-coated stem prosthesis.
Patients and methods
50 patients with a dislocated femoral neck fracture were operated with the fully HA-coated Corail total or hemiarthroplasty. 38 patients, mean age 81 (70–96) years, were followed for 24 months with conventional radiographs, RSA, DEXA, and for clinical outcome.
31 of the 38 implants moved statistically significantly up to 3 months, mainly distally, mean 2.7 mm (max. 20 mm (SD 4.3)), and rotated into retroversion mean 3.3º (–1.8 to 17) (SD 4.3) and then appeared to stabilize. Distal stem migration was more pronounced if the stem was deemed to be too small. There was no correlation between BMD and stem migration. The migration did not result in any clinically adverse effects.
The fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem migrates during the first 3 months, but clinical outcome appears to be good, without any adverse events.
Between December 1996 and April 2003, 26 consecutive femoral component revisions in 24 patients were performed with an extensively hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stem. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and two patients died of unrelated causes. Of the 22 femoral revisions in 20 patients, there was a 0% incidence of mechanical loosening at average follow-up of 3.2 years (2–6.3 years). The Harris Hip Score improved from 59 (36 to 83) to 95 (84 to 100) postoperatively (p < 0.001). Rate of revision was 18.2% (4.5% for sepsis, 9.1% for instability, and 4.5% for polyethelene wear). All 22 femoral components had evidence of bone ingrowth. The extensively coated hydroxyapatite stem in this series produced excellent clinical results with a low incidence of thigh pain (4.5%) and severe stress shielding (4.5%).
total hip arthroplasty; femoral revision; hydroxyapatite coating
Management of bone loss is a challenge in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A retrospective review was performed to study the use of uncemented distal locked prosthesis in cases with proximal femoral bone loss.
Materials and Methods:
Uncemented stems with distal interlocking were used in 65 hips during revision THAs with 38 hips having Paprosky IIIB/IV defects between January 1998 and February 2004. There were 48 males and 17 females in the study with an average age of 53 years (range 30-80 years). Radiographic and clinical outcome evaluation using the Harris hip score (HHS) were performed.
An improvement in HHS (mean: 33 points) was observed at final followup (mean: 9 years). Regeneration of proximal bone stock was observed without signs of loosening or subsidence and none of the stems were revised. Three patients developed recurrent dislocation while one had a stem subsidence of 1cm following removal of interlocking bolts.
Uncemented distal locked prosthesis provide adequate stability in revision THA, aiding the reconstruction of bony deficiencies while avoiding the disadvantages of fully porous or cemented implants.
Distal locked prosthesis; femoral bone loss; revision hip arthroplasty; uncemented revision total hip arthroplasty
This trial was designed to evaluate the impact of physical characteristics such as body mass index, body weight and height on distal stem migration of a cementless femoral component, as the influence of obesity on the outcome of THA is still debated in literature and conflicting results have been found.
In this retrospective cohort study, migration patterns for 102 implants were analysed using the Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA-FCA, femoral component analysis). In all cases the Vision 2000 stem was implanted and combined with the Duraloc acetabular component (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana).
The mean follow-up was 93 months. EBRA-FCA evaluations revealed a mean subsidence of 1.38 mm after two years, 2.06 mm after five and 2.24 mm after seven years. Five stems loosened aseptically. Correlation between increased migration over the whole period and aseptic loosening was highly significant (p < 0.001). Surgical technique had a significant influence on migration and stem stability (p = 0.002) but physical patient characteristics such as body weight over 75 kg and height over 165 cm also significantly influenced stem subsidence towards progressive migration (p = 0.001, p < 0.001). However, a high BMI did not trigger progressive stem migration (p = 0.87). Being of the male gender raised the odds for increased migration (p = 0.03).
Physical characteristics such as body weight and height showed significant influence on migration patterns of this cementless femoral component. The operating surgeon should be aware that body weight above 75 kg and height over 165 cm may trigger increased stem migration and the surgeon should aim to fit these prostheses as tightly as possible. However this study demonstrates that a high BMI does not trigger progressive stem migration. Further investigations are needed to confirm our findings.
Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
Femoral stems with reduced stiffness have the potential of decreasing stress shielding and could be an alternative in revision surgery when restoration of bone stock is required. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients (40 stems) with a central core of cobalt-chromium surrounded by a polymer and an outer titanium mesh layer containing a proximal coating of hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate; 30 of the 38 patients (32 hips) had a minimum 2-year followup. We impacted morselized allograft around the stem in 28 of 32 revisions. Repeated radiostereometric examinations showed medial, distal, and posterior migration (median, 0.21 mm, 0.17 mm, and 0.96 mm, respectively) of the femoral head center for up to 6 months followed by stabilization. Measurements of bone mineral density in the seven Gruen zones at 6 months revealed either a decrease (down to a median of 3%), no change, or a slight increase (up to 5%) followed by a further increase up to 2 years in three of the regions (2, 3, and 5). Conventional radiography at 2 years demonstrated graft remodeling and incomplete radiolucent lines in 19 hips, mainly in Regions 1 and 7. Two hips were reoperated on as a result of dislocation, but none of the stems had been revised.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Proximal cementless fixation using anatomic stems reportedly increases femoral fit and avoids stress-shielding. However, thigh pain was reported with the early stem designs. Therefore, a new anatomic cementless stem design was based on an average three-dimensional metaphyseal femoral shape. However, it is unclear whether this stem reduces the incidence of thigh pain.
We asked whether this stem design was associated with a low incidence of thigh pain and provided durable fixation and high function.
One hundred seventy-one patients (176 THAs) who had the anatomic proximal hydroxyapatite-coated stem implanted were reviewed. Eleven (6%) patients were lost to followup and 34 (20%) died without revision surgery. We used the Harris hip score (HHS) to assess pain and function. We evaluated femoral stem fixation and stability with the score of Engh et al. and also calculated a 10-year survival analysis. We assessed 126 patients (131 hips) at a mean followup of 10 years (range, 8–11 years)
At last followup, two patients described slight thigh pain that did not limit their physical activities. All stems appeared radiographically stable and one stem was graded nonintegrated but stable. Five patients had revision surgery: one on the femoral side (for posttraumatic fracture) and four on the acetabular side. Considering stem revision for aseptic loosening as the end point, survivorship was 100% (range, 95.4%–99.9%) at 10 years.
This anatomic cementless design using only metaphyseal fixation with a wide mediolateral flare, a sagittal curvature, and torsion, allowed durable proximal stem stability and fixation.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.