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1.  Formalization, Annotation and Analysis of Diverse Drug and Probe Screening Assay Datasets Using the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49198.
Huge amounts of high-throughput screening (HTS) data for probe and drug development projects are being generated in the pharmaceutical industry and more recently in the public sector. The resulting experimental datasets are increasingly being disseminated via publically accessible repositories. However, existing repositories lack sufficient metadata to describe the experiments and are often difficult to navigate by non-experts. The lack of standardized descriptions and semantics of biological assays and screening results hinder targeted data retrieval, integration, aggregation, and analyses across different HTS datasets, for example to infer mechanisms of action of small molecule perturbagens. To address these limitations, we created the BioAssay Ontology (BAO). BAO has been developed with a focus on data integration and analysis enabling the classification of assays and screening results by concepts that relate to format, assay design, technology, target, and endpoint. Previously, we reported on the higher-level design of BAO and on the semantic querying capabilities offered by the ontology-indexed triple store of HTS data. Here, we report on our detailed design, annotation pipeline, substantially enlarged annotation knowledgebase, and analysis results. We used BAO to annotate assays from the largest public HTS data repository, PubChem, and demonstrate its utility to categorize and analyze diverse HTS results from numerous experiments. BAO is publically available from the NCBO BioPortal at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1533. BAO provides controlled terminology and uniform scope to report probe and drug discovery screening assays and results. BAO leverages description logic to formalize the domain knowledge and facilitate the semantic integration with diverse other resources. As a consequence, BAO offers the potential to infer new knowledge from a corpus of assay results, for example molecular mechanisms of action of perturbagens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049198
PMCID: PMC3498356  PMID: 23155465
2.  BioAssay Ontology (BAO): a semantic description of bioassays and high-throughput screening results 
BMC Bioinformatics  2011;12:257.
Background
High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the main strategies to identify novel entry points for the development of small molecule chemical probes and drugs and is now commonly accessible to public sector research. Large amounts of data generated in HTS campaigns are submitted to public repositories such as PubChem, which is growing at an exponential rate. The diversity and quantity of available HTS assays and screening results pose enormous challenges to organizing, standardizing, integrating, and analyzing the datasets and thus to maximize the scientific and ultimately the public health impact of the huge investments made to implement public sector HTS capabilities. Novel approaches to organize, standardize and access HTS data are required to address these challenges.
Results
We developed the first ontology to describe HTS experiments and screening results using expressive description logic. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO) serves as a foundation for the standardization of HTS assays and data and as a semantic knowledge model. In this paper we show important examples of formalizing HTS domain knowledge and we point out the advantages of this approach. The ontology is available online at the NCBO bioportal http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/44531.
Conclusions
After a large manual curation effort, we loaded BAO-mapped data triples into a RDF database store and used a reasoner in several case studies to demonstrate the benefits of formalized domain knowledge representation in BAO. The examples illustrate semantic querying capabilities where BAO enables the retrieval of inferred search results that are relevant to a given query, but are not explicitly defined. BAO thus opens new functionality for annotating, querying, and analyzing HTS datasets and the potential for discovering new knowledge by means of inference.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-12-257
PMCID: PMC3149580  PMID: 21702939
3.  PubChem BioAssay: 2014 update 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(Database issue):D1075-D1082.
PubChem’s BioAssay database (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for archiving biological tests of small molecules generated through high-throughput screening experiments, medicinal chemistry studies, chemical biology research and drug discovery programs. In addition, the BioAssay database contains data from high-throughput RNA interference screening aimed at identifying critical genes responsible for a biological process or disease condition. The mission of PubChem is to serve the community by providing free and easy access to all deposited data. To this end, PubChem BioAssay is integrated into the National Center for Biotechnology Information retrieval system, making them searchable by Entrez queries and cross-linked to other biomedical information archived at National Center for Biotechnology Information. Moreover, PubChem BioAssay provides web-based and programmatic tools allowing users to search, access and analyze bioassay test results and metadata. In this work, we provide an update for the PubChem BioAssay resource, such as information content growth, new developments supporting data integration and search, and the recently deployed PubChem Upload to streamline chemical structure and bioassay submissions.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt978
PMCID: PMC3965008  PMID: 24198245
4.  Evolving BioAssay Ontology (BAO): modularization, integration and applications 
Journal of Biomedical Semantics  2014;5(Suppl 1):S5.
The lack of established standards to describe and annotate biological assays and screening outcomes in the domain of drug and chemical probe discovery is a severe limitation to utilize public and proprietary drug screening data to their maximum potential. We have created the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project (http://bioassayontology.org) to develop common reference metadata terms and definitions required for describing relevant information of low-and high-throughput drug and probe screening assays and results. The main objectives of BAO are to enable effective integration, aggregation, retrieval, and analyses of drug screening data. Since we first released BAO on the BioPortal in 2010 we have considerably expanded and enhanced BAO and we have applied the ontology in several internal and external collaborative projects, for example the BioAssay Research Database (BARD). We describe the evolution of BAO with a design that enables modeling complex assays including profile and panel assays such as those in the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS). One of the critical questions in evolving BAO is the following: how can we provide a way to efficiently reuse and share among various research projects specific parts of our ontologies without violating the integrity of the ontology and without creating redundancies. This paper provides a comprehensive answer to this question with a description of a methodology for ontology modularization using a layered architecture. Our modularization approach defines several distinct BAO components and separates internal from external modules and domain-level from structural components. This approach facilitates the generation/extraction of derived ontologies (or perspectives) that can suit particular use cases or software applications. We describe the evolution of BAO related to its formal structures, engineering approaches, and content to enable modeling of complex assays and integration with other ontologies and datasets.
doi:10.1186/2041-1480-5-S1-S5
PMCID: PMC4108877  PMID: 25093074
5.  The Text-mining based PubChem Bioassay neighboring analysis 
BMC Bioinformatics  2010;11:549.
Background
In recent years, the number of High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays deposited in PubChem has grown quickly. As a result, the volume of both the structured information (i.e. molecular structure, bioactivities) and the unstructured information (such as descriptions of bioassay experiments), has been increasing exponentially. As a result, it has become even more demanding and challenging to efficiently assemble the bioactivity data by mining the huge amount of information to identify and interpret the relationships among the diversified bioassay experiments. In this work, we propose a text-mining based approach for bioassay neighboring analysis from the unstructured text descriptions contained in the PubChem BioAssay database.
Results
The neighboring analysis is achieved by evaluating the cosine scores of each bioassay pair and fraction of overlaps among the human-curated neighbors. Our results from the cosine score distribution analysis and assay neighbor clustering analysis on all PubChem bioassays suggest that strong correlations among the bioassays can be identified from their conceptual relevance. A comparison with other existing assay neighboring methods suggests that the text-mining based bioassay neighboring approach provides meaningful linkages among the PubChem bioassays, and complements the existing methods by identifying additional relationships among the bioassay entries.
Conclusions
The text-mining based bioassay neighboring analysis is efficient for correlating bioassays and studying different aspects of a biological process, which are otherwise difficult to achieve by existing neighboring procedures due to the lack of specific annotations and structured information. It is suggested that the text-mining based bioassay neighboring analysis can be used as a standalone or as a complementary tool for the PubChem bioassay neighboring process to enable efficient integration of assay results and generate hypotheses for the discovery of bioactivities of the tested reagents.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-11-549
PMCID: PMC3098095  PMID: 21059237
6.  A Java API for working with PubChem datasets 
Bioinformatics  2011;27(5):741-742.
Summary: PubChem is a public repository of chemical structures and associated biological activities. The PubChem BioAssay database contains assay descriptions, conditions and readouts and biological screening results that have been submitted by the biomedical research community. The PubChem web site and Power User Gateway (PUG) web service allow users to interact with the data and raw files are available via FTP.
These resources are helpful to many but there can also be great benefit by using a software API to manipulate the data. Here, we describe a Java API with entity objects mapped to the PubChem Schema and with wrapper functions for calling the NCBI eUtilities and PubChem PUG web services. PubChem BioAssays and associated chemical compounds can then be queried and manipulated in a local relational database. Features include chemical structure searching and generation and display of curve fits from stored dose–response experiments, something that is not yet available within PubChem itself. The aim is to provide researchers with a fast, consistent, queryable local resource from which to manipulate PubChem BioAssays in a database agnostic manner. It is not intended as an end user tool but to provide a platform for further automation and tools development.
Availability: http://code.google.com/p/pubchemdb
Contact: southern@scripps.edu
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btq715
PMCID: PMC3105478  PMID: 21216779
7.  PubChem's BioAssay Database 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(Database issue):D400-D412.
PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for biological activity data of small molecules and RNAi reagents. The mission of PubChem is to deliver free and easy access to all deposited data, and to provide intuitive data analysis tools. The PubChem BioAssay database currently contains 500 000 descriptions of assay protocols, covering 5000 protein targets, 30 000 gene targets and providing over 130 million bioactivity outcomes. PubChem's bioassay data are integrated into the NCBI Entrez information retrieval system, thus making PubChem data searchable and accessible by Entrez queries. Also, as a repository, PubChem constantly optimizes and develops its deposition system answering many demands of both high- and low-volume depositors. The PubChem information platform allows users to search, review and download bioassay description and data. The PubChem platform also enables researchers to collect, compare and analyze biological test results through web-based and programmatic tools. In this work, we provide an update for the PubChem BioAssay resource, including information content growth, data model extension and new developments of data submission, retrieval, analysis and download tools.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1132
PMCID: PMC3245056  PMID: 22140110
8.  An overview of the PubChem BioAssay resource 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;38(Database issue):D255-D266.
The PubChem BioAssay database (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for biological activities of small molecules and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) hosted by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). It archives experimental descriptions of assays and biological test results and makes the information freely accessible to the public. A PubChem BioAssay data entry includes an assay description, a summary and detailed test results. Each assay record is linked to the molecular target, whenever possible, and is cross-referenced to other National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database records. ‘Related BioAssays’ are identified by examining the assay target relationship and activity profile of commonly tested compounds. A key goal of PubChem BioAssay is to make the biological activity information easily accessible through the NCBI information retrieval system-Entrez, and various web-based PubChem services. An integrated suite of data analysis tools are available to optimize the utility of the chemical structure and biological activity information within PubChem, enabling researchers to aggregate, compare and analyze biological test results contributed by multiple organizations. In this work, we describe the PubChem BioAssay database, including data model, bioassay deposition and utilities that PubChem provides for searching, downloading and analyzing the biological activity information contained therein.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp965
PMCID: PMC2808922  PMID: 19933261
9.  GPCR ontology: development and application of a G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology knowledge framework 
Bioinformatics  2013;29(24):3211-3219.
Motivation: Novel tools need to be developed to help scientists analyze large amounts of available screening data with the goal to identify entry points for the development of novel chemical probes and drugs. As the largest class of drug targets, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remain of particular interest and are pursued by numerous academic and industrial research projects.
Results: We report the first GPCR ontology to facilitate integration and aggregation of GPCR-targeting drugs and demonstrate its application to classify and analyze a large subset of the PubChem database. The GPCR ontology, based on previously reported BioAssay Ontology, depicts available pharmacological, biochemical and physiological profiles of GPCRs and their ligands. The novelty of the GPCR ontology lies in the use of diverse experimental datasets linked by a model to formally define these concepts. Using a reasoning system, GPCR ontology offers potential for knowledge-based classification of individuals (such as small molecules) as a function of the data.
Availability: The GPCR ontology is available at http://www.bioassayontology.org/bao_gpcr and the National Center for Biomedical Ontologies Web site.
Contact: sschurer@med.miami.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btt565
PMCID: PMC3842764  PMID: 24078711
10.  Investigating the correlations among the chemical structures, bioactivity profiles and molecular targets of small molecules 
Bioinformatics  2010;26(22):2881-2888.
Motivation: Most of the previous data mining studies based on the NCI-60 dataset, due to its intrinsic cell-based nature, can hardly provide insights into the molecular targets for screened compounds. On the other hand, the abundant information of the compound–target associations in PubChem can offer extensive experimental evidence of molecular targets for tested compounds. Therefore, by taking advantages of the data from both public repositories, one may investigate the correlations between the bioactivity profiles of small molecules from the NCI-60 dataset (cellular level) and their patterns of interactions with relevant protein targets from PubChem (molecular level) simultaneously.
Results: We investigated a set of 37 small molecules by providing links among their bioactivity profiles, protein targets and chemical structures. Hierarchical clustering of compounds was carried out based on their bioactivity profiles. We found that compounds were clustered into groups with similar mode of actions, which strongly correlated with chemical structures. Furthermore, we observed that compounds similar in bioactivity profiles also shared similar patterns of interactions with relevant protein targets, especially when chemical structures were related. The current work presents a new strategy for combining and data mining the NCI-60 dataset and PubChem. This analysis shows that bioactivity profile comparison can provide insights into the mode of actions at the molecular level, thus will facilitate the knowledge-based discovery of novel compounds with desired pharmacological properties.
Availability: The bioactivity profiling data and the target annotation information are publicly available in the PubChem BioAssay database (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubchem/Bioassay/).
Contact: ywang@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; bryant@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btq550
PMCID: PMC2971579  PMID: 20947527
11.  Exploiting PubChem for Virtual Screening 
Expert opinion on drug discovery  2010;5(12):1205-1220.
Importance of the field
PubChem is a public molecular information repository, a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiative. The PubChem database holds over 27 million records of unique chemical structures of compounds (CID) derived from nearly 70 million substance depositions (SID), and contains more than 449,000 bioassay records with over thousands of in vitro biochemical and cell-based screening bioassays established, with targeting more than 7000 proteins and genes linking to over 1.8 million of substances.
Areas covered in this review
This review builds on recent PubChem-related computational chemistry research reported by other authors while providing readers with an overview of the PubChem database, focusing on its increasing role in cheminformatics, virtual screening and toxicity prediction modeling.
What the reader will gain
These publicly available datasets in PubChem provide great opportunities for scientists to perform cheminformatics and virtual screening research for computer-aided drug design. However, the high volume and complexity of the datasets, in particular the bioassay-associated false positives/negatives and highly imbalanced datasets in PubChem, also creates major challenges. Several approaches regarding the modeling of PubChem datasets and development of virtual screening models for bioactivity and toxicity predictions are also reviewed.
Take home message
Novel data-mining cheminformatics tools and virtual screening algorithms are being developed and used to retrieve, annotate and analyze the large-scale and highly complex PubChem biological screening data for drug design.
doi:10.1517/17460441.2010.524924
PMCID: PMC3117665  PMID: 21691435
PubChem; cheminformatics; data-mining; virtual screening; toxicity; polypharmacology
12.  Effects of multiple conformers per compound upon 3-D similarity search and bioassay data analysis 
Background
To improve the utility of PubChem, a public repository containing biological activities of small molecules, the PubChem3D project adds computationally-derived three-dimensional (3-D) descriptions to the small-molecule records contained in the PubChem Compound database and provides various search and analysis tools that exploit 3-D molecular similarity. Therefore, the efficient use of PubChem3D resources requires an understanding of the statistical and biological meaning of computed 3-D molecular similarity scores between molecules.
Results
The present study investigated effects of employing multiple conformers per compound upon the 3-D similarity scores between ten thousand randomly selected biologically-tested compounds (10-K set) and between non-inactive compounds in a given biological assay (156-K set). When the “best-conformer-pair” approach, in which a 3-D similarity score between two compounds is represented by the greatest similarity score among all possible conformer pairs arising from a compound pair, was employed with ten diverse conformers per compound, the average 3-D similarity scores for the 10-K set increased by 0.11, 0.09, 0.15, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.18 for STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt, respectively, relative to the corresponding averages computed using a single conformer per compound. Interestingly, the best-conformer-pair approach also increased the average 3-D similarity scores for the non-inactive–non-inactive (NN) pairs for a given assay, by comparable amounts to those for the random compound pairs, although some assays showed a pronounced increase in the per-assay NN-pair 3-D similarity scores, compared to the average increase for the random compound pairs.
Conclusion
These results suggest that the use of ten diverse conformers per compound in PubChem bioassay data analysis using 3-D molecular similarity is not expected to increase the separation of non-inactive from random and inactive spaces “on average”, although some assays show a noticeable separation between the non-inactive and random spaces when multiple conformers are used for each compound. The present study is a critical next step to understand effects of conformational diversity of the molecules upon the 3-D molecular similarity and its application to biological activity data analysis in PubChem. The results of this study may be helpful to build search and analysis tools that exploit 3-D molecular similarity between compounds archived in PubChem and other molecular libraries in a more efficient way.
doi:10.1186/1758-2946-4-28
PMCID: PMC3537644  PMID: 23134593
13.  PubChem: a public information system for analyzing bioactivities of small molecules 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(Web Server issue):W623-W633.
PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for biological properties of small molecules hosted by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem BioAssay database currently contains biological test results for more than 700 000 compounds. The goal of PubChem is to make this information easily accessible to biomedical researchers. In this work, we present a set of web servers to facilitate and optimize the utility of biological activity information within PubChem. These web-based services provide tools for rapid data retrieval, integration and comparison of biological screening results, exploratory structure–activity analysis, and target selectivity examination. This article reviews these bioactivity analysis tools and discusses their uses. Most of the tools described in this work can be directly accessed at http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assay/. URLs for accessing other tools described in this work are specified individually.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp456
PMCID: PMC2703903  PMID: 19498078
14.  PubChemSR: A search and retrieval tool for PubChem 
Background
Recent years have seen an explosion in the amount of publicly available chemical and related biological information. A significant step has been the emergence of PubChem, which contains property information for millions of chemical structures, and acts as a repository of compounds and bioassay screening data for the NIH Roadmap. There is a strong need for tools designed for scientists that permit easy download and use of these data. We present one such tool, PubChemSR.
Implementation
PubChemSR (Search and Retrieve) is a freely available desktop application written for Windows using Microsoft .NET that is designed to assist scientists in search, retrieval and organization of chemical and biological data from the PubChem database. It employs SOAP web services made available by NCBI for extraction of information from PubChem.
Results and Discussion
The program supports a wide range of searching techniques, including queries based on assay or compound keywords and chemical substructures. Results can be examined individually or downloaded and exported in batch for use in other programs such as Microsoft Excel. We believe that PubChemSR makes it straightforward for researchers to utilize the chemical, biological and screening data available in PubChem. We present several examples of how it can be used.
doi:10.1186/1752-153X-2-11
PMCID: PMC2413227  PMID: 18482452
15.  A novel method for mining highly imbalanced high-throughput screening data in PubChem 
Bioinformatics  2009;25(24):3310-3316.
Motivation: The comprehensive information of small molecules and their biological activities in PubChem brings great opportunities for academic researchers. However, mining high-throughput screening (HTS) assay data remains a great challenge given the very large data volume and the highly imbalanced nature with only small number of active compounds compared to inactive compounds. Therefore, there is currently a need for better strategies to work with HTS assay data. Moreover, as luciferase-based HTS technology is frequently exploited in the assays deposited in PubChem, constructing a computational model to distinguish and filter out potential interference compounds for these assays is another motivation.
Results: We used the granular support vector machines (SVMs) repetitive under sampling method (GSVM-RU) to construct an SVM from luciferase inhibition bioassay data that the imbalance ratio of active/inactive is high (1/377). The best model recognized the active and inactive compounds at the accuracies of 86.60% and 88.89 with a total accuracy of 87.74%, by cross-validation test and blind test. These results demonstrate the robustness of the model in handling the intrinsic imbalance problem in HTS data and it can be used as a virtual screening tool to identify potential interference compounds in luciferase-based HTS experiments. Additionally, this method has also proved computationally efficient by greatly reducing the computational cost and can be easily adopted in the analysis of HTS data for other biological systems.
Availability: Data are publicly available in PubChem with AIDs of 773, 1006 and 1379.
Contact: ywang@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; bryant@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btp589
PMCID: PMC2788930  PMID: 19825798
16.  PubChem3D: a new resource for scientists 
Background
PubChem is an open repository for small molecules and their experimental biological activity. PubChem integrates and provides search, retrieval, visualization, analysis, and programmatic access tools in an effort to maximize the utility of contributed information. There are many diverse chemical structures with similar biological efficacies against targets available in PubChem that are difficult to interrelate using traditional 2-D similarity methods. A new layer called PubChem3D is added to PubChem to assist in this analysis.
Description
PubChem generates a 3-D conformer model description for 92.3% of all records in the PubChem Compound database (when considering the parent compound of salts). Each of these conformer models is sampled to remove redundancy, guaranteeing a minimum (non-hydrogen atom pair-wise) RMSD between conformers. A diverse conformer ordering gives a maximal description of the conformational diversity of a molecule when only a subset of available conformers is used. A pre-computed search per compound record gives immediate access to a set of 3-D similar compounds (called "Similar Conformers") in PubChem and their respective superpositions. Systematic augmentation of PubChem resources to include a 3-D layer provides users with new capabilities to search, subset, visualize, analyze, and download data.
A series of retrospective studies help to demonstrate important connections between chemical structures and their biological function that are not obvious using 2-D similarity but are readily apparent by 3-D similarity.
Conclusions
The addition of PubChem3D to the existing contents of PubChem is a considerable achievement, given the scope, scale, and the fact that the resource is publicly accessible and free. With the ability to uncover latent structure-activity relationships of chemical structures, while complementing 2-D similarity analysis approaches, PubChem3D represents a new resource for scientists to exploit when exploring the biological annotations in PubChem.
doi:10.1186/1758-2946-3-32
PMCID: PMC3269824  PMID: 21933373
17.  What is the Likelihood of an Active Compound to Be Promiscuous? Systematic Assessment of Compound Promiscuity on the Basis of PubChem Confirmatory Bioassay Data 
The AAPS Journal  2013;15(3):808-815.
Compound promiscuity refers to the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets, which represents the origin of polypharmacology. Promiscuity is thought to be a widespread characteristic of pharmaceutically relevant compounds. Yet, the degree of promiscuity among active compounds from different sources remains uncertain. Here, we report a thorough analysis of compound promiscuity on the basis of more than 1,000 PubChem confirmatory bioassays, which yields an upper-limit assessment of promiscuity among active compounds. Because most PubChem compounds have been tested in large numbers of assays, data sparseness has not been a limiting factor for the current analysis. We have determined that there is an overall likelihood of ∼50% of an active PubChem compound to interact with two or more targets. The probability to interact with more than five targets is reduced to 7.6%. On average, an active PubChem compound was found to interact with ∼2.5 targets. Moreover, if only activities consistently detected in all assays available for a given target were considered, this ratio was further reduced to ∼2.3 targets per compound. For comparison, we have also analyzed high-confidence activity data from ChEMBL, the major public repository of compounds from medicinal chemistry, and determined that an active ChEMBL compound interacted on average with only ∼1.5 targets. Taken together, our results indicate that the degree of compound promiscuity is lower than often assumed.
doi:10.1208/s12248-013-9488-0
PMCID: PMC3691425  PMID: 23605807
active compounds; activity measurements; compound promiscuity; confirmatory assays; polypharmacology; screening data; targets
18.  Virtual screening of bioassay data 
Background
There are three main problems associated with the virtual screening of bioassay data. The first is access to freely-available curated data, the second is the number of false positives that occur in the physical primary screening process, and finally the data is highly-imbalanced with a low ratio of Active compounds to Inactive compounds. This paper first discusses these three problems and then a selection of Weka cost-sensitive classifiers (Naive Bayes, SVM, C4.5 and Random Forest) are applied to a variety of bioassay datasets.
Results
Pharmaceutical bioassay data is not readily available to the academic community. The data held at PubChem is not curated and there is a lack of detailed cross-referencing between Primary and Confirmatory screening assays. With regard to the number of false positives that occur in the primary screening process, the analysis carried out has been shallow due to the lack of cross-referencing mentioned above. In six cases found, the average percentage of false positives from the High-Throughput Primary screen is quite high at 64%. For the cost-sensitive classification, Weka's implementations of the Support Vector Machine and C4.5 decision tree learner have performed relatively well. It was also found, that the setting of the Weka cost matrix is dependent on the base classifier used and not solely on the ratio of class imbalance.
Conclusions
Understandably, pharmaceutical data is hard to obtain. However, it would be beneficial to both the pharmaceutical industry and to academics for curated primary screening and corresponding confirmatory data to be provided. Two benefits could be gained by employing virtual screening techniques to bioassay data. First, by reducing the search space of compounds to be screened and secondly, by analysing the false positives that occur in the primary screening process, the technology may be improved. The number of false positives arising from primary screening leads to the issue of whether this type of data should be used for virtual screening. Care when using Weka's cost-sensitive classifiers is needed - across the board misclassification costs based on class ratios should not be used when comparing differing classifiers for the same dataset.
doi:10.1186/1758-2946-1-21
PMCID: PMC2820499  PMID: 20150999
19.  Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation 
PeerJ  2014;2:e524.
Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers.
doi:10.7717/peerj.524
PMCID: PMC4137659  PMID: 25165633
Bioassay; Ontology; Machine learning; Natural language processing; Bayesian; Semantic curation
20.  Mining basic active structures from a large-scale database 
Background
The Pubchem Database is a large-scale resource for chemical information, containing millions of chemical compound activities derived by high-throughput screening (HTS). The ability to extract characteristic substructures from such enormous amounts of data is steadily growing in importance. Compounds with shared basic active structures (BASs) exhibiting G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activity and repeated dose toxicity have been mined from small datasets. However, the mining process employed was not applicable to large datasets owing to a large imbalance between the numbers of active and inactive compounds. In most datasets, one active compound will appear for every 1000 inactive compounds. Most mining techniques work well only when these numbers are similar.
Results
This difficulty was overcome by sampling an equal number of active and inactive compounds. The sampling process was repeated to maintain the structural diversity of the inactive compounds. An interactive KNIME workflow that enabled effective sampling and data cleaning processes was created. The application of the cascade model and subsequent structural refinement yielded the BAS candidates. Repeated sampling increased the ratio of active compounds containing these substructures. Three samplings were deemed adequate to identify all of the meaningful BASs. BASs expressing similar structures were grouped to give the final set of BASs. This method was applied to HIV integrase and protease inhibitor activities in the MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR) database and to procaspase-3 activators in the PubChem BioAssay database, yielding 14, 12, and 18 BASs, respectively.
Conclusions
The proposed mining scheme successfully extracted meaningful substructures from large datasets of chemical structures. The resulting BASs were deemed reasonable by an experienced medicinal chemist. The mining itself requires about 3 days to extract BASs with a given physiological activity. Thus, the method described herein is an effective way to analyze large HTS databases.
doi:10.1186/1758-2946-5-15
PMCID: PMC3618305  PMID: 23497729
21.  A Specific Mechanism for Non-Specific Activation in Reporter-Gene Assays 
ACS chemical biology  2008;3(8):463-470.
The importance of bioluminescence in enabling a broad range of high-throughput screening (HTS) assay formats is evidenced by widespread use in industry and academia. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which reporter enzyme activity can be modulated by small molecules is critical to the interpretation of HTS data. In this Perspective, we provide evidence for stabilization of luciferase by inhibitors in cell-based luciferase reporter-gene assays resulting in the counterintuitive phenomenon of signal activation. These data were derived from our analysis of luciferase inhibitor compound structures and their prevalence in the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository using 100 HTS experiments available in PubChem. Accordingly, we found an enrichment of luciferase inhibitors in luciferase reporter-gene activation assays but not in assays using other reporters. In addition, for several luciferase inhibitor chemotypes, we measured reporter stabilization and signal activation in cells that paralleled the inhibition determined using purified luciferase to provide further experimental support for these contrasting effects.
doi:10.1021/cb8000793
PMCID: PMC2729322  PMID: 18590332
22.  Firefly luciferase in chemical biology: A compendium of inhibitors, mechanistic evaluation of chemotypes, and suggested use as a reporter 
Chemistry & biology  2012;19(8):1060-1072.
SUMMARY
Firefly luciferase (FLuc) is frequently used as a reporter in high-throughput screening assays owing to the exceptional sensitivity, dynamic range, and rapid measurement that bioluminescence affords. However, interaction of small molecules with FLuc has, to some extent, confounded its use in chemical biology and drug discovery. To identify and characterize chemotypes interacting with FLuc, we determined potency values for 360,864 compounds, found in the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository, available in PubChem. FLuc inhibitory activity was observed for 12% of this library with discernible SAR. Characterization of 151 inhibitors demonstrated a variety of inhibition modes including FLuc-catalyzed formation of multisubstrate-adduct enzyme inhibitor complexes. As in some cell-based FLuc reporter assays compounds acting as FLuc inhibitors yield paradoxical luminescence increases, data on compounds acquired from FLuc-dependent assays requires careful analysis as described in this report.
doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2012.07.015
PMCID: PMC3449281  PMID: 22921073
profiling; PubChem; luciferase; quantitative high-throughput screening; qHTS; firefly luciferase; reporter-gene assays; adenylate forming enzymes
23.  PubChem3D: Biologically relevant 3-D similarity 
Background
The use of 3-D similarity techniques in the analysis of biological data and virtual screening is pervasive, but what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity value? Can one find statistically significant separation between "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces? These questions are explored using 734,486 biologically tested chemical structures, 1,389 biological assay data sets, and six different 3-D similarity types utilized by PubChem analysis tools.
Results
The similarity value distributions of 269.7 billion unique conformer pairs from 734,486 biologically tested compounds (all-against-all) from PubChem were utilized to help work towards an answer to the question: what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity score? The average and standard deviation for the six similarity measures STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt were 0.54 ± 0.10, 0.07 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.13, 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.18 ± 0.06, and 0.59 ± 0.14, respectively. Considering that this random distribution of biologically tested compounds was constructed using a single theoretical conformer per compound (the "default" conformer provided by PubChem), further study may be necessary using multiple diverse conformers per compound; however, given the breadth of the compound set, the single conformer per compound results may still apply to the case of multi-conformer per compound 3-D similarity value distributions. As such, this work is a critical step, covering a very wide corpus of chemical structures and biological assays, creating a statistical framework to build upon.
The second part of this study explored the question of whether it was possible to realize a statistically meaningful 3-D similarity value separation between reputed biological assay "inactives" and "actives". Using the terminology of noninactive-noninactive (NN) pairs and the noninactive-inactive (NI) pairs to represent comparison of the "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces, respectively, each of the 1,389 biological assays was examined by their 3-D similarity score differences between the NN and NI pairs and analyzed across all assays and by assay category types. While a consistent trend of separation was observed, this result was not statistically unambiguous after considering the respective standard deviations. While not all "actives" in a biological assay are amenable to this type of analysis, e.g., due to different mechanisms of action or binding configurations, the ambiguous separation may also be due to employing a single conformer per compound in this study. With that said, there were a subset of biological assays where a clear separation between the NN and NI pairs found. In addition, use of combo Tanimoto (ComboT) alone, independent of superposition optimization type, appears to be the most efficient 3-D score type in identifying these cases.
Conclusion
This study provides a statistical guideline for analyzing biological assay data in terms of 3-D similarity and PubChem structure-activity analysis tools. When using a single conformer per compound, a relatively small number of assays appear to be able to separate "active/active" space from "active/inactive" space.
doi:10.1186/1758-2946-3-26
PMCID: PMC3223603  PMID: 21781288
24.  Developing and validating predictive decision tree models from mining chemical structural fingerprints and high–throughput screening data in PubChem 
BMC Bioinformatics  2008;9:401.
Background
Recent advances in high-throughput screening (HTS) techniques and readily available compound libraries generated using combinatorial chemistry or derived from natural products enable the testing of millions of compounds in a matter of days. Due to the amount of information produced by HTS assays, it is a very challenging task to mine the HTS data for potential interest in drug development research. Computational approaches for the analysis of HTS results face great challenges due to the large quantity of information and significant amounts of erroneous data produced.
Results
In this study, Decision Trees (DT) based models were developed to discriminate compound bioactivities by using their chemical structure fingerprints provided in the PubChem system . The DT models were examined for filtering biological activity data contained in four assays deposited in the PubChem Bioassay Database including assays tested for 5HT1a agonists, antagonists, and HIV-1 RT-RNase H inhibitors. The 10-fold Cross Validation (CV) sensitivity, specificity and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) for the models are 57.2~80.5%, 97.3~99.0%, 0.4~0.5 respectively. A further evaluation was also performed for DT models built for two independent bioassays, where inhibitors for the same HIV RNase target were screened using different compound libraries, this experiment yields enrichment factor of 4.4 and 9.7.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that the designed DT models can be used as a virtual screening technique as well as a complement to traditional approaches for hits selection.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-9-401
PMCID: PMC2572623  PMID: 18817552
25.  PubChem3D: Similar conformers 
Background
PubChem is a free and open public resource for the biological activities of small molecules. With many tens of millions of both chemical structures and biological test results, PubChem is a sizeable system with an uneven degree of available information. Some chemical structures in PubChem include a great deal of biological annotation, while others have little to none. To help users, PubChem pre-computes "neighboring" relationships to relate similar chemical structures, which may have similar biological function. In this work, we introduce a "Similar Conformers" neighboring relationship to identify compounds with similar 3-D shape and similar 3-D orientation of functional groups typically used to define pharmacophore features.
Results
The first two diverse 3-D conformers of 26.1 million PubChem Compound records were compared to each other, using a shape Tanimoto (ST) of 0.8 or greater and a color Tanimoto (CT) of 0.5 or greater, yielding 8.16 billion conformer neighbor pairs and 6.62 billion compound neighbor pairs, with an average of 253 "Similar Conformers" compound neighbors per compound. Comparing the 3-D neighboring relationship to the corresponding 2-D neighboring relationship ("Similar Compounds") for molecules such as caffeine, aspirin, and morphine, one finds unique sets of related chemical structures, providing additional significant biological annotation. The PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship is also shown to be able to group a set of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), despite limited PubChem 2-D similarity.
In a study of 4,218 chemical structures of biomedical interest, consisting of many known drugs, using more diverse conformers per compound results in more 3-D compound neighbors per compound; however, the overlap of the compound neighbor lists per conformer also increasingly resemble each other, being 38% identical at three conformers and 68% at ten conformers. Perhaps surprising is that the average count of conformer neighbors per conformer increases rather slowly as a function of diverse conformers considered, with only a 70% increase for a ten times growth in conformers per compound (a 68-fold increase in the conformer pairs considered).
Neighboring 3-D conformers on the scale performed, if implemented naively, is an intractable problem using a modest sized compute cluster. Methodology developed in this work relies on a series of filters to prevent performing 3-D superposition optimization, when it can be determined that two conformers cannot possibly be a neighbor. Most filters are based on Tanimoto equation volume constraints, avoiding incompatible conformers; however, others consider preliminary superposition between conformers using reference shapes.
Conclusion
The "Similar Conformers" 3-D neighboring relationship locates similar small molecules of biological interest that may go unnoticed when using traditional 2-D chemical structure graph-based methods, making it complementary to such methodologies. The computational cost of 3-D similarity methodology on a wide scale, such as PubChem contents, is a considerable issue to overcome. Using a series of efficient filters, an effective throughput rate of more than 150,000 conformers per second per processor core was achieved, more than two orders of magnitude faster than without filtering.
doi:10.1186/1758-2946-3-13
PMCID: PMC3120778  PMID: 21554721

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