Salivary scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein gp340 aggregates streptococci and other bacteria as part of the host innate defense system at mucosal surfaces. In this article, we have investigated the properties of fluid-phase gp340 and hydroxylapatite surface-adsorbed gp340 in aggregation and adherence, respectively, of viridans group streptococci (e.g., Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans), non-viridans group streptococci (e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus suis), and oral Actinomyces. Fluid-phase gp340 and surface-phase gp340 bioforms were differentially recognized by streptococci, which formed three phenotypic groupings according to their modes of interaction with gp340. Group I streptococci were aggregated by and adhered to gp340, and group II streptococci preferentially adhered to surface-bound gp340, while group III streptococci were preferentially aggregated by gp340. Each species of Streptococcus tested was found to contain strains representative of at least two of these gp340 interaction groupings. The gp340 interaction modes I to III and sugar specificities of gp340 binding strains coincided for several species. Many gp340 interactions were sialidase sensitive, and each of the interaction modes (I to III) for S. gordonii was correlated with a variant of sialic acid specificity. Adherence of S. gordonii DL1 (Challis) to surface-bound gp340 was dependent upon expression of the sialic acid binding adhesin Hsa. However, aggregation of cells by fluid-phase gp340 was independent of Hsa and involved SspA and SspB (antigen I/II family) polypeptides. Conversely, both gp340-mediated aggregation and adherence of S. mutans NG8 involved antigen I/II polypeptide. Deletion of the mga virulence regulator gene in S. pyogenes resulted in increased cell aggregation by gp340. These results suggest that salivary gp340 recognizes different bacterial receptors according to whether gp340 is present in the fluid phase or surface bound. This phase-associated differential recognition by gp340 of streptococcal species of different levels of virulence and diverse origins may mediate alternative host responses to commensal or pathogenic bacterial phenotypes.
The saliva proteome includes host defense factors and specific bacterial-binding proteins that modulate microbial growth and colonization of tooth surface in the oral cavity. A multidimensional mass spectrometry approach identified the major host-derived salivary proteins which interacted with Streptococcus mutans (strain UA159), the primary microorganism associated with the pathogenesis of dental caries. Two abundant host proteins were found to tightly bind to S. mutans cells, common salivary protein-1 (CSP-1) and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1, also known as salivary agglutinin or gp340). In contrast to gp340, limited functional information is available on CSP-1. The sequence of CSP-1 shares 38.1% similarity with rat CSP-1. Recombinant CSP-1 (rCSP-1) protein did not cause aggregation of S. mutans cells and was devoid of any significant biocidal activity (2.5 to 10 μg/ml). However, S. mutans cells exposed to rCSP-1 (10 μg/ml) in saliva displayed enhanced adherence to experimental salivary pellicle and to glucans in the pellicle formed on hydroxyapatite surfaces. Thus, our data demonstrate that the host salivary protein CSP-1 binds to S. mutans cells and may influence the initial colonization of this pathogenic bacterium onto tooth surface.
Common Salivary Protein-1; Human Saliva; Saliva-Microbial Interaction; Affinity and Lectin Chromatography; Mass Spectrometry
Interspecies binding is important in the colonization of the oral cavity by bacteria. Streptococcus mutans can adhere to other plaque bacteria, such as Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus, and this adherence is enhanced by saliva. The salivary and bacterial molecules that mediate this interaction were investigated. Salivary agglutinin, a mucinlike glycoprotein known to mediate the aggregation of many oral streptococci in vitro, was found to mediate the adherence of S. mutans to S. sanguis or A. viscosus. Adherence of S. mutans to saliva- or agglutinin-coated S. sanguis and A. viscosus was inhibited by antibodies to the bacterial agglutinin receptor. Expression of the S. sanguis receptor (SSP-5) gene in Enterococcus faecalis increased adhesion of this organism to saliva- or agglutinin-coated S. sanguis and A. viscosus. This interaction could be inhibited by antibodies to the agglutinin receptor. The results suggest that salivary agglutinin can promote adherence of S. mutans to S. sanguis and A. viscosus through interactions with the agglutinin receptor on S. mutans.
Comparison of saliva-mediated aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus mutans and adhesion of these organisms to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite showed that there was no relationship between these two activities. Adsorption of salivary aggregating activity to bacteria appears to have little effect on the ability of the residual saliva to support adherence; conversely, adsorption of salivary adherence factors to hydroxyapatite does not affect aggregation. Although heating saliva significantly reduces bacterial aggregation, it has little or no effect on adherence. A comparison of aggregation and adhesion with serial dilutions of saliva demonstrated that adhesion could still be detected at 100 to 500-fold-lower concentrations of salivary protein that bacterial aggregation. These findings support the concept that aggregation and adherence involve two distinct mechanisms of microbial clearance in the oral cavity.
Saliva is a potentially important barrier against respiratory viral infection but its mechanism of action is not well studied.
We tested the antiviral activities of whole saliva, specific salivary gland secretions, and purified salivary proteins against strains of influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro.
Whole saliva or parotid or submandibular/sublingual secretions from healthy donors inhibited IAV based on hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization assays. This differs from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for which only submandibular/sublingual secretions are reported to be inhibitory. Among purified salivary proteins, MUC5B, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein 340 (salivary gp-340), histatins, and human neutrophil defensins (HNPs) inhibited IAV at the concentrations present in whole saliva. In contrast, some abundant salivary proteins (acidic proline-rich proteins and amylase) had no activity, nor did several other less abundant salivary proteins with known activity against HIV (e.g. thrombospondin or serum leukocyte protease inhibitor). Whole saliva and MUC5B did not inhibit neuraminidase activity of IAV and viral neutralizing and aggregating activity of MUC5B was potentiated by the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Hence, MUC5B inhibits IAV by presenting a sialic acid ligand for the viral hemagglutinin. The mechanism of action of histatins requires further study.
These findings indicate that saliva represents an important initial barrier to IAV infection and underline the complexity of host defense activity of oral secretions. Of interest, antiviral activity of saliva against IAV and HIV differs in terms of specific glandular secretions and proteins that are inhibitory.
histatins; innate immunity; MUC5B
Members of the antigen I/II family of cell surface proteins are highly conserved, multifunctional adhesins that mediate interactions of oral streptococci with other oral bacteria, with cell matrix proteins (e.g., type I collagen), and with salivary glycoproteins, e.g., gp340. The interaction of gp340 (formerly designated salivary agglutinin) with Streptococcus mutans requires an alanine-rich repetitive domain (A region) of antigen I/II that is highly conserved in all members of this family of proteins. In this report, we show that the A regions from the two Streptococcus gordonii M5 antigen I/II proteins (SspA and SspB) interact differently with the salivary gp340 glycoprotein and appear to be structurally distinct. Recombinant polypeptides encompassing the A region of SspA or from a highly related S. mutans antigen I/II protein (SpaP) competitively inhibited the interaction of gp340 with intact S. gordonii and S. mutans cells, respectively. In contrast, an A region polypeptide from SspB was inactive, and furthermore, it did not bind to purified gp340 in vitro. Circular dichroism spectra suggested that all three polypeptides were highly α-helical and may form coiled-coil structures. However, the A region of SspB underwent a conformational change and exhibited reduced α-helical structure at pH 8.5, whereas the A region polypeptides from SspA and SpaP were relatively stable under these conditions. Melt curves also indicated that at physiological pH, the A region of SspB lost α-helical structure more rapidly than that of SspA or SpaP when the temperature was increased from 10 to 40°C. Furthermore, the SspB A region polypeptide denatured completely at a temperature that was 7 to 9°C lower than that required for the A region polypeptide of SspA or SpaP. The full-length SspB protein and the three A region peptides migrated in native gel electrophoresis and column chromatography with apparent molecular masses that were approximately 2- to 2.5-fold greater than their predicted molecular masses. However, sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation data showed that the A region peptides sedimented as monomers, suggesting that the peptides may form nonglobular intramolecular coiled-coil structures under the experimental conditions used. Taken together, our results suggest that the A region of SspB is less stable than the corresponding A regions of SspA and SpaP and that this structural difference may explain, at least in part, the functional variation observed in their interactions with salivary gp340.
Interactions between salivary agglutinin and the adhesin P1 of Streptococcus mutans contribute to bacterial aggregation and mediate sucrose-independent adherence to tooth surfaces. We have examined biofilm formation by S. mutans UA159, and derivative strains carrying mutations affecting the localization or expression of P1, in the presence of fluid-phase or adsorbed saliva or salivary agglutinin preparations. Whole saliva- and salivary agglutinin-induced aggregation of S. mutans was adversely affected by the loss of P1 and sortase (SrtA) but not by the loss of trigger factor (RopA). Fluid-phase salivary agglutinin and, to a lesser extent, immobilized agglutinin inhibited biofilm development by S. mutans in the absence of sucrose, and whole saliva was more effective at decreasing biofilm formation than salivary agglutinin. Inhibition of biofilm development by salivary agglutinin was differently influenced by particular mutations, with the P1-deficient strain displaying a greater inhibition of biofilm development than the SrtA- or RopA-deficient strains. As expected, biofilm-forming capacities of all strains in the presence of salivary preparations were markedly enhanced in the presence of sucrose, although biofilm formation by the mutants was less efficient than that by the parental strain. Aeration strongly inhibited biofilm development, and the presence of salivary components did not restore biofilm formation in aerated conditions. The results disclose a potent ability of salivary constituents to moderate biofilm formation by S. mutans through P1-dependent and P1-independent pathways.
The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as gp340, salivary agglutinin and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1, is a 340-kDa glycoprotein expressed on mucosal surfaces and secreted into several body fluids. SALSA binds to a broad variety of microbes and endogenous ligands, such as complement factor C1q, surfactant proteins D and A, and IgA. Our search for novel ligands of SALSA by direct protein-interaction studies led to the identification of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) as a new binding partner. We observed that surface-associated SALSA activates complement via binding of MBL. On the other hand, soluble SALSA was found to inhibit Candida albicans-induced complement activation. Thus, SALSA has a dual complement activation modifying function. It activates the lectin pathway when bound to a surface and inhibits it when free in the fluid phase. These activities are mediated via a direct interaction with MBL. This suggests that SALSA could target the innate immune responses to certain microorganisms and simultaneously limit complement activation in the fluid phase.
complement regulation; gp340; lectin pathway; mannan-binding lectin; mucosal immunity; salivary agglutinin; scavenger receptor cysteine-rich
Streptococcus gordonii colonizes multiple sites within the human oral cavity. This colonization depends upon the initial interactions of streptococcal adhesins with host receptors. The adhesins that bind salivary agglutinin glycoprotein (gp340) and human cell surface receptors include the antigen I/II (AgI/II) family polypeptides SspA and SspB and a sialic acid-binding surface protein designated Hsa or GspB. In this study we determined the relative functions of the AgI/II polypeptides and Hsa in interactions of S. gordonii DL1 (Challis) with host receptors. For an isogenic mutant with the sspA and sspB genes deleted the levels of adhesion to surface-immobilized gp340 were reduced 40%, while deletion of the hsa gene alone resulted in >80% inhibition of bacterial cell adhesion to gp340. Adhesion of S. gordonii DL1 cells to gp340 was sialidase sensitive, verifying that Hsa has a major role in mediating sialic acid-specific adhesion to gp340. Conversely, aggregation of S. gordonii cells by fluid-phase gp340 was not affected by deletion of hsa but was eliminated by deletion of the sspA and sspB genes. Deletion of the AgI/II polypeptide genes had no measurable effect on hsa mRNA levels or Hsa surface protein expression, and deletion of hsa did not affect AgI/II polypeptide expression. Further analysis of mutant phenotypes showed that the Hsa and AgI/II proteins mediated adhesion of S. gordonii DL1 to human HEp-2 epithelial cells. Hsa was also a principal streptococcal cell surface component promoting adhesion of human platelets to immobilized streptococci, but Hsa and AgI/II polypeptides acted in concert in mediating streptococcal cell-platelet aggregation. The results suggest that Hsa directs primary adhesion events for S. gordonii DL1 (Challis) with immobilized gp340, epithelial cells, and platelets. AgI/II polypeptides direct gp340-mediated aggregation, facilitate multimodal interactions necessary for platelet aggregation, and modulate S. gordonii-host engagements into biologically productive phenomena.
Bacterial adhesion is an important determinant of colonization and infection, including dental caries. The salivary scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein gp-340, which mediates adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (implicated in caries), harbours three major size variants, designated gp-340 I to III, each specific to an individual saliva. Here we have examined the association of the gp-340 I to III polymorphisms with caries experience and adhesion of S. mutans.
A case-referent study was performed in 12-year-old Swedish children with high (n = 19) or low (n = 19) caries experiences. We measured the gp-340 I to III saliva phenotypes and correlated those with multiple outcome measures for caries experience and saliva adhesion of S. mutans using the partial least squares (PLS) multivariate projection technique. In addition, we used traditional statistics and 2-year caries increment to verify the established PLS associations, and bacterial adhesion to purified gp-340 I to III proteins to support possible mechanisms.
All except one subject were typed as gp-340 I to III (10, 23 and 4, respectively). The gp-340 I phenotype correlated positively with caries experience (VIP = 1.37) and saliva adhesion of S. mutans Ingbritt (VIP = 1.47). The gp-340 II and III phenotypes tended to behave in the opposite way. Moreover, the gp-340 I phenotype tended to show an increased 2-year caries increment compared to phenotypes II/III. Purified gp-340 I protein mediated markedly higher adhesion of S. mutans strains Ingbritt and NG8 and Lactococcus lactis expressing AgI/II adhesins (SpaP or PAc) compared to gp-340 II and III proteins. In addition, the gp-340 I protein appeared over represented in subjects positive for Db, an allelic acidic PRP variant associated with caries, and subjects positive for both gp-340 I and Db tended to experience more caries than those negative for both proteins.
Gp-340 I behaves as a caries susceptibility protein.
Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (DMBT1SAG), and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1GP340) are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same DMBT1 gene. All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. In addition to SRCR domains, all DMBT1s contain two CUB domains and one zona pellucida domain. The SRCR domains play a role in the function of DMBT1s, which is the binding of a broad range of pathogens including cariogenic streptococci, Helicobacter pylori and HIV. Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. The binding motif on the SRCR domains comprises an 11-mer peptide in which a few amino acids are essential for binding (GRVEVLYRGSW). Adjacent to each individual SRCR domain are glycosylation domains, where the attached carbohydrate chains play a role in the binding of influenza A virus and Helicobacter pylori. The composition of the carbohydrate chains is not only donor specific, but also varies between different organs. These data demonstrate a role for DMBT1s as pattern recognition molecules containing various peptide and carbohydrate binding motifs.
dental caries; innate immunity; mucosal protection; SRCR domains
The influence of saliva on the aggregation and adherence of Streptococcus gordonii HG 222 was studied. The aggregation was measured spectrophotometrically, and the adherence of S. gordonii to microtiter plate wells was measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system. The aggregation of HG 222 was induced primarily by mucous saliva, whereas the adherence of HG 222 to microtiter plates was mediated by both mucous and serous saliva. Fractions of submandibular saliva, obtained by gel filtration and containing low-molecular-weight mucins (MG-2), induced both bacterial aggregation and adherence. Purified MG-2 induced aggregation and promoted adherence, whereas high-molecular-weight mucins (MG-1) did not. After incubating clarified human whole saliva with HG 222, only MG-2, and not MG-1, was bound by the bacteria. Proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and proline-rich glycoprotein (PRG) promoted the adherence of HG 222. These proteins in solution bound to HG 222 but did not induce aggregation of the bacterial cells. PRPs and PRG in solution were not able to inhibit adherence to microtiter plate wells coated with the same components. Purified alpha-amylase hardly promoted adherence to microtiter plates but, in the soluble state, readily bound to HG 222. In conclusion, these results indicate that the aggregation of S. gordonii HG 222 is mediated primarily by MG-2. These mucins also promote adherence. Several other salivary components, such as PRPs and PRG, are also involved in the adherence of HG 222.
Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major
causative agent of human dental caries. S. mutans binds to
saliva-coated tooth surfaces, and previous studies suggested that
fimbriae may play a role in the initial bacterial adherence to salivary
components. The objectives of this study were to establish the ability
of an S. mutans fimbria preparation to bind to
saliva-coated surfaces and determine the specific salivary components
that facilitate binding with fimbriae. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA) established that the S. mutans fimbria
preparation bound to components of whole saliva. Sodium dodecyl
sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot
techniques were used to separate components of whole saliva and
determine fimbria binding. SDS-PAGE separated 15 major protein bands
from saliva samples, and Western blot analysis indicated significant
binding of the S. mutans fimbria preparation to a 52-kDa
salivary protein. The major fimbria-binding salivary protein was
isolated by preparative electrophoresis. The ability of the S.
mutans fimbria preparation to bind to the purified salivary
protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Incubation of
the purified salivary protein with the S. mutans fimbria
preparation significantly neutralized binding of the salivary
protein-fimbria complex to saliva-coated surfaces. The salivary
protein, whole saliva, and commercial amylase reacted similarly with
antiamylase antibody in immunoblots. A purified 65-kDa fimbrial protein
was demonstrated to bind to both saliva and amylase. These data
indicated that the S. mutans fimbria preparation and a
purified fimbrial protein bound to whole-saliva-coated surfaces and
that amylase is the major salivary component involved in the binding.
Previous studies have suggested that both secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and various nonimmunoglobulin salivary glycoproteins are capable of agglutinating a variety of bacteria. The present study was designed to compare the nature of the agglutinins for Streptococcus mutans and Salmonella typhimurium in parotid saliva and colostrum. S. mutans was aggregated by saliva and colostrum, whereas S. typhimurium was aggregated only by saliva as detected by a spectrophotometric method. The principal salivary agglutinin for both S. mutans and S. typhimurium was calcium dependent and could be desorbed in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 6.8). In contrast, the colostral agglutinin was calcium independent and not readily desorbed. The agglutinin activities of saliva and colostrum for S. mutans were additive, suggesting independent target sites on the bacterial surface. The agglutinin activity of colostrum was totally associated with sIgA as was suggested by blocking of the agglutinating activity with anti-alpha-chain serum and the absence of blocking with an antibody specific for salivary agglutinin. Interestingly, anti-alpha-chain serum removed all agglutinating activity from saliva, but not from the phosphate-buffered saline-desorbed agglutinin. Dialysis of parotid saliva against 0.1 M disodium EDTA eliminated the agglutinin blocking activity of anti-alpha-chain serum but not that of the antiagglutinin antibody. The ability of anti-alpha-chain serum to block agglutination of the EDTA-dialyzed saliva could be restored by the addition of calcium chloride, suggesting that sIgA and salivary agglutinin are associated through a calcium-mediated interaction. These results indicate that bacterial agglutinating activity of colostrum, as detected spectrophotometrically, is mediated by sIgA, and that of saliva is mainly dependent upon a calcium-dependent nonimmunoglobulin agglutinin. The agglutinating activities of sIgA and parotid agglutinin seem to be additive, and their calcium-dependent association may favor the enhancement of their respective activities.
The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein gp340 functions as part of the host innate immune defense system at mucosal surfaces. In the genital tract, its expression by cervical and vaginal epithelial cells promotes HIV trans-infection and may play a role in sexual transmission. Gp340 is an alternatively spliced product of the deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) gene. In addition to its innate immune system activity, DMBT1 demonstrates instability in multiple types of cancer and plays a role in epithelial cell differentiation. We demonstrate that monocyte derived macrophages express gp340 and HIV-1 infection is decreased when envelope cannot bind it. Inhibition of infection occurred at the level of fusion of M-, T-, and dual-tropic envelopes. Additional HIV-1 envelope binding molecules, such as dendritic cell specific ICAM-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), mannose binding lectin, and heparan sulfate, enhance the efficiency of infection of the cells that express them by increasing the local concentration of infectious virus. Our data suggest that gp340, which is expressed by macrophages in vivo, may function to enhance infection in much the same manner. Its expression on tissue macrophages and epithelial cells suggests important new opportunities for HIV-1 pathogenesis investigation and therapy.
Monocytes/Macrophages; AIDS; Cell Surface Receptors; Human
Clearance of Candida albicans from the oral cavity is thought to be mediated via specific receptor-ligand interactions between salivary constituents and the fungus. Since surfaces in the oral cavity are normally coated with a saliva-derived pellicle, specific interactions between salivary constituents and C. albicans may also contribute to adhesion of C. albicans to the oral mucosa and dental prostheses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify salivary constituents to which C. albicans is capable of binding. A solid-phase overlay assay was used in which electrophoretically separated rat and human salivary constituents bound to membrane filters were incubated with radiolabelled C. albicans cells. C. albicans adhered to a single salivary component from each host. Correlation of cell-binding activity with specific monoclonal antibody (MAb)-binding activity indicated that the constituent bound by C. albicans in human saliva was low-molecular-weight mucin (MG2) and that in rat saliva was rat submandibular gland (RSMG) mucin. Further studies showed an identical cell hybridization signal and MAb colocalization by using RSMG ductal saliva and an aqueous RSMG extract in the solid-phase overlay assay. Analysis of cell binding to the aqueous extract of RSMG fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography demonstrated that C. albicans binding was restricted to an acidic subfraction of the RSMG extract, which also bound the RSMG mucin-specific MAb. The Candida-binding fraction contained predominantly RSMG mucin glycoprotein and also a noncovalently associated, chloroform-extractable material. Furthermore, we identified two strains of C. albicans which differed severalfold in the ability to bind RSMG mucin in the overlay assay. These results suggest that C. albicans binds to only a specific subfraction of RSMG mucin and that the two C. albicans strains tested differ in the ability to bind RSMG mucin subfractions.
Resting human whole saliva inhibited acid production by glucose-stimulated, homologous plaque. The degree of inhibition of plaque acid production correlated positively with the concentration of hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) ions in saliva. Supplementation of saliva with an appropriate combination of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide resulted in a significant increase in the concentration of OSCN- ions and in more effective inhibition of plaque acid production. In most cases, the inhibition was complete when the supplements were added directly to saliva-plaque mixtures. Acid production resumed when the inhibitory effect of OSCN- was reversed by addition of thiols. Among the oral defense factors, the salivary lactoperoxidase system seems to play an important role by producing highly reactive antibacterial products (including OSCN-) which can regulate bacterial metabolism in the human mouth. The concentration of OSCN- in normal human whole saliva seems to be just below the threshold level required for plaque inhibition. Therefore, enhancement of this system in vivo may be effective in the regulation of plaque acid production.
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) major envelope glycoprotein gp340 is the subject of current efforts to develop an EBV subunit vaccine. The importance of gp340-specific humoral immunity has been highlighted by studies of natural infection in humans and gp340 immunization of experimental animals. The former studies have demonstrated the presence of gp340-specific serum antibodies which mediate EBV neutralization, complement fixation, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The latter studies have often shown a correlation between the induction of gp340-specific EBV-neutralizing antibodies and protection from virus challenge. We have used a series of bacterial beta-galactosidase-gp340 fusion proteins and overlapping synthetic peptides from the gp340 open reading frame to map the positions of B-cell epitopes within the gp340 primary amino acid sequence. The data reported here indicate the presence of B-cell epitopes within the carboxy-terminal third of the gp340 polypeptide chain. These epitopes could not be detected with a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, thereby suggesting that they are discontinuous. Affinity purification of antibodies with a gp340 fusion protein from the carboxy terminus of the gp340 polypeptide chain has been used to show that these antibodies are not EBV neutralizing in vitro. The consequences of these findings for future EBV vaccine development are considered.
Microorganisms in dental plaque live in constant association with saliva. The role of saliva in the adherence of bacteria to the teeth and the antibacterial properties of saliva have been well investigated; less interest has been shown in the possible role of saliva as a substrate for oral microorganisms. In this study it was shown that saliva can serve as a growth medium for oral Streptococcus spp. and Actinomyces viscosus. The cell production of these organisms on saliva was carbohydrate limited. The doubling times for growth on glucose-supplemented saliva (4 to 5 mmol/liter) ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 h. The availability of carbohydrate sources for the oral microflora is discussed in relation to microbial growth in the oral cavity.
Infection of adherent primary monocytes with HIV-1Ba-L is significantly suppressed in the presence of human saliva. By reverse transcriptase (RT) levels, saliva, although present for only 1 h during monocyte viral exposure, inhibited HIV-1 infectivity for 3 wk after infection, whereas human plasma and synovial fluid failed to inhibit HIV-1 infectivity. Antiviral activity was identified in the saliva soluble fraction, and to determine the factor(s) responsible, individual saliva proteins were examined. Of those proteins examined, only secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) was found to possess anti-HIV-1 activity at physiological concentrations. SLPI anti-HIV-1 activity was dose dependent, with maximal inhibition at 1-10 micrograms/ml (> 90% inhibition of RT activity). SLPI also partially inhibited HIV-1IIIB infection in proliferating human T cells. SLPI appears to target a host cell-associated molecule, since no interaction with viral proteins could be demonstrated. However, SLPI anti-HIV-1 activity was not due to direct interaction with or downregulation of the CD4 antigen. Partial depletion of SLPI in whole saliva resulted in decreased anti-HIV-1 activity of saliva. These data indicate that SLPI has antiretroviral activity and may contribute to the important antiviral activity of saliva associated with the infrequent oral transmission of HIV-1.
Fimbriae are considered important in the adherence and colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the oral cavity. It has been demonstrated that purified fimbriae bind to whole human saliva adsorbed to hydroxyapatite (HAP) beads, and the binding appears to be mediated by specific protein-protein interactions. Recently, we expressed the recombinant fimbrillin protein (r-Fim) of P. gingivalis corresponding to amino acid residues 10 to 337 of the native fimbrillin (A. Sharma, H.T. Sojar, J.-Y. Lee, and R.J. Genco, Infect. Immun. 61:3570-3573, 1993). We examined the ability of individual salivary components to promote the direct attachment of r-Fim to HAP beads. Purified r-Fim was radiolabeled with 125I and incubated with HAP beads which were coated with saliva or purified individual salivary components. Whole, parotid, and submandibular-sublingual salivas increased the binding of 125I-r-Fim to HAP beads. Submandibular-sublingual saliva was most effective in increasing the binding of 125I-r-Fim to HAP beads (1.8 times greater than that to uncoated HAP beads). The binding of 125I-r-Fim to HAP beads coated with acidic proline-rich protein 1 (PRP1) or statherin was four and two times greater, respectively, than that to uncoated HAP beads. PRP1 and statherin molecules were also found to bind 125I-r-Fim in an overlay assay. The binding of intact P. gingivalis cells to HAP beads coated with PRP1 or statherin was also enhanced, by 5.4 and 4.3 times, respectively, over that to uncoated HAP beads. The interactions of PRP1 and statherin with 125I-r-Fim were not inhibited by the addition of carbohydrates or amino acids. PRP1 and statherin in solution did not show inhibitory activity on 125I-r-Fim binding to HAP beads coated with PRP1 or statherin. These results suggest that P. gingivalis fimbriae bind strongly through protein-protein interactions to acidic proline-rich protein and statherin molecules which coat surfaces.
Adherence of radiolabeled Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to saliva-treated glass surfaces was studied under conditions which minimized bacteria-glass interactions. Treatment of glass with an alkylsilane solution decreased nonspecific bacterial adherence and enhanced adsorption of radiolabeled salivary components to these surfaces. Addition of Triton X-100 to the bacterial suspensions also reduced nonspecific adherence to siliconized glass, but did not affect adherence to salivary components attached to siliconized glass. Calcium stimulated S. mutans adherence to saliva-free glass, but inhibited adherence to saliva-treated glass. S. sanguis adherence to either saliva-free or saliva-treated glass was inhibited slightly at high calcium ion concentrations. Adherence of streptococci to saliva-treated glass exhibited saturation kinetics, and the numbers of binding sites on the experimental salivary pellicle and the affinity constants for bacteria-saliva attachment were determined. Preincubation of the streptococci with whole saliva decreased their capacity to adhere to saliva-treated glass, but not to saliva-free glass. Bacteria adherent to saliva-treated glass surfaces were readily desorbed by washing with saliva. The addition of homologous antisera, ammonium sulfate-precipitated immunoglobulins, or Fab fragments to the bacterial suspensions inhibited cell adherence to saliva-treated glass.
Attachment of Streptococcus gordonii to the acquired pellicle of the tooth surface involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins and adsorbed salivary components. To study saliva-regulated gene expression in S. gordonii, we used random arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR). Bacteria were incubated in either brain heart infusion medium or saliva. Total RNA from both conditions was purified and RAP fingerprinted and then PCR amplified with an arbitrary primer. The differentially displayed DNA fragments were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed using the BLAST search network service. Three DNA products were up-regulated. One was identified as that of the sspA and -B genes, which encode the salivary agglutinin glycoprotein-binding proteins SspA and SspB of S. gordonii; another had 79% identity with the Lactococcus lactis clpE gene, encoding a member of the Clp protease family; and the third product showed no significant homology to known genes. Five down-regulated genes were identified which encode proteins involved in bacterial metabolism. We have shown, for the first time, direct induction of sspA and -B in S. gordonii by human saliva.
Dental caries is the single most prevalent and costly infectious disease worldwide, affecting more than 90% of the population in the U.S. The development of dental cavities requires the colonization of the tooth surface by acid-producing bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans. Saliva bicarbonate constitutes the main buffering system which neutralizes the pH fall generated by the plaque bacteria during sugar metabolism. We found that the saliva pH is severely decreased in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis disease (CF). Given the close relationship between pH and caries development, we hypothesized that caries incidence might be elevated in the mouse CF model.
We induced carious lesions in CF and wildtype mice by infecting their oral cavity with S. mutans, a well-studied cariogenic bacterium. After infection, the mice were fed a high-sucrose diet for 5 weeks (diet 2000). The mice were then euthanized and their jaws removed for caries scoring and bacterial counting. A dramatic increase in caries and severity of lesions scores were apparent in CF mice compared to their wildtype littermates. The elevated incidence of carious lesions correlated with a striking increase in the S. mutans viable population in dental plaque (20-fold increase in CF vs. wildtype mice; p value<0.003; t test). We also found that the pilocarpine-stimulated saliva bicarbonate concentration was significantly reduced in CF mice (16±2 mM vs. 31±2 mM, CF and wildtype mice, respectively; p value<0.01; t test).
Considering that bicarbonate is the most important pH buffering system in saliva, and the adherence and survival of aciduric bacteria such as S. mutans are enhanced at low pH values, we speculate that the decrease in the bicarbonate content and pH buffering of the saliva is at least partially responsible for the increased severity of lesions observed in the CF mouse.
For the past two decades, salivary diagnostic approaches have been developed to monitor oral diseases such as periodontal diseases and to assess caries risk. Recently, the combination of emerging biotechnologies and salivary diagnostics has extended the range of saliva-based diagnostics from the oral cavity to the whole physiological system as most compounds found in blood are also present in saliva. Accordingly saliva can reflect the physiological state of the body, including emotional, endocrinal, nutritional and metabolic variations and provides a source for the monitoring of oral and also systemic health. This review presents the current status of saliva diagnostics and delves into their applications to the discovery of biomarkers for cancer detection and therapeutic applications. Translating scientific findings of nucleic acids, proteins and metabolites in body fluids to clinical applications is a cumbersome and challenging journey. Our research group is pursuing the biology of salivary analytes and the development of technologies in order to detect distinct biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. The avenue of saliva diagnostics incorporating transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic findings will enable us to connect salivary molecular analytes to monitor therapies, therapeutic outcomes, and finally disease progression in cancer.
saliva diagnostics; biomarker; transcriptome; proteome; therapeutic perspectives