Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that can colonize the nasal cavity, skin, intestine, and oral cavity as a commensal bacterium. gp340, also known as DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1), is associated with epithelial differentiation and innate immunity. In the oral cavity, gp340 induces salivary aggregation with several oral bacteria and promotes bacterial adhesion to tissues such as the teeth and mucosa. S. aureus is often isolated from the oral cavity, but the mechanism underlying its persistence in the oral cavity remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the interaction between S. aureus and gp340 and found that S. aureus interacts with saliva- and gp340-coated resin. We then identified the S. aureus factor(s) responsible for binding to gp340. The cell surface protein SasA, which is rich in basic amino acids (BR domain) at the N terminus, was responsible for binding to gp340. Inactivation of the sasA gene resulted in a significant decrease in S. aureus binding to gp340-coated resin. Also, recombinant SasA protein (rSasA) showed binding affinity to gp340, which was inhibited by the addition of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that rSasA significantly bound to the NeuAcα(2-3)Galβ(1-4)GlcNAc structure. These results indicate that SasA is responsible for binding to gp340 via the N-acetylneuraminic acid moiety.
Salivary scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein gp340 aggregates streptococci and other bacteria as part of the host innate defense system at mucosal surfaces. In this article, we have investigated the properties of fluid-phase gp340 and hydroxylapatite surface-adsorbed gp340 in aggregation and adherence, respectively, of viridans group streptococci (e.g., Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans), non-viridans group streptococci (e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus suis), and oral Actinomyces. Fluid-phase gp340 and surface-phase gp340 bioforms were differentially recognized by streptococci, which formed three phenotypic groupings according to their modes of interaction with gp340. Group I streptococci were aggregated by and adhered to gp340, and group II streptococci preferentially adhered to surface-bound gp340, while group III streptococci were preferentially aggregated by gp340. Each species of Streptococcus tested was found to contain strains representative of at least two of these gp340 interaction groupings. The gp340 interaction modes I to III and sugar specificities of gp340 binding strains coincided for several species. Many gp340 interactions were sialidase sensitive, and each of the interaction modes (I to III) for S. gordonii was correlated with a variant of sialic acid specificity. Adherence of S. gordonii DL1 (Challis) to surface-bound gp340 was dependent upon expression of the sialic acid binding adhesin Hsa. However, aggregation of cells by fluid-phase gp340 was independent of Hsa and involved SspA and SspB (antigen I/II family) polypeptides. Conversely, both gp340-mediated aggregation and adherence of S. mutans NG8 involved antigen I/II polypeptide. Deletion of the mga virulence regulator gene in S. pyogenes resulted in increased cell aggregation by gp340. These results suggest that salivary gp340 recognizes different bacterial receptors according to whether gp340 is present in the fluid phase or surface bound. This phase-associated differential recognition by gp340 of streptococcal species of different levels of virulence and diverse origins may mediate alternative host responses to commensal or pathogenic bacterial phenotypes.
Saliva is a potentially important barrier against respiratory viral infection but its mechanism of action is not well studied.
We tested the antiviral activities of whole saliva, specific salivary gland secretions, and purified salivary proteins against strains of influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro.
Whole saliva or parotid or submandibular/sublingual secretions from healthy donors inhibited IAV based on hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization assays. This differs from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for which only submandibular/sublingual secretions are reported to be inhibitory. Among purified salivary proteins, MUC5B, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein 340 (salivary gp-340), histatins, and human neutrophil defensins (HNPs) inhibited IAV at the concentrations present in whole saliva. In contrast, some abundant salivary proteins (acidic proline-rich proteins and amylase) had no activity, nor did several other less abundant salivary proteins with known activity against HIV (e.g. thrombospondin or serum leukocyte protease inhibitor). Whole saliva and MUC5B did not inhibit neuraminidase activity of IAV and viral neutralizing and aggregating activity of MUC5B was potentiated by the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Hence, MUC5B inhibits IAV by presenting a sialic acid ligand for the viral hemagglutinin. The mechanism of action of histatins requires further study.
These findings indicate that saliva represents an important initial barrier to IAV infection and underline the complexity of host defense activity of oral secretions. Of interest, antiviral activity of saliva against IAV and HIV differs in terms of specific glandular secretions and proteins that are inhibitory.
histatins; innate immunity; MUC5B
Proteins in human saliva are thought to modulate bacterial colonization of the oral cavity. Yet, information is sparse on how salivary proteins interact with systemic pathogens that transiently or permanently colonize the oral environment. Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that frequently colonizes the oral cavity and can cause respiratory disease in hospitalized patients at risk. Here, we investigated salivary protein binding to this organism upon exposure to saliva as a first step toward understanding the mechanism by which the organism can colonize the oral cavity of vulnerable patients. By using fluorescently labeled saliva and proteomic techniques, we demonstrated selective binding of major salivary components by S. aureus to include DMBT1gp-340, mucin-7, secretory component, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, S100-A9, and lysozyme C. Biofilm-grown S. aureus strains bound fewer salivary components than in the planctonic state, particularly less salivary immunoglobulins. A corresponding adhesive component on the S. aureus surface responsible for binding salivary immunoglobulins was identified as staphylococcal protein A (SpA). However, SpA did not mediate binding of nonimmunoglobulin components, including mucin-7, indicating the involvement of additional bacterial surface adhesive components. These findings demonstrate that a limited number of salivary proteins, many of which are associated with various aspects of host defense, selectively bind to S. aureus and lead us to propose a possible role of saliva in colonization of the human mouth by this pathogen.
Streptococcus gordonii colonizes multiple sites within the human oral cavity. This colonization depends upon the initial interactions of streptococcal adhesins with host receptors. The adhesins that bind salivary agglutinin glycoprotein (gp340) and human cell surface receptors include the antigen I/II (AgI/II) family polypeptides SspA and SspB and a sialic acid-binding surface protein designated Hsa or GspB. In this study we determined the relative functions of the AgI/II polypeptides and Hsa in interactions of S. gordonii DL1 (Challis) with host receptors. For an isogenic mutant with the sspA and sspB genes deleted the levels of adhesion to surface-immobilized gp340 were reduced 40%, while deletion of the hsa gene alone resulted in >80% inhibition of bacterial cell adhesion to gp340. Adhesion of S. gordonii DL1 cells to gp340 was sialidase sensitive, verifying that Hsa has a major role in mediating sialic acid-specific adhesion to gp340. Conversely, aggregation of S. gordonii cells by fluid-phase gp340 was not affected by deletion of hsa but was eliminated by deletion of the sspA and sspB genes. Deletion of the AgI/II polypeptide genes had no measurable effect on hsa mRNA levels or Hsa surface protein expression, and deletion of hsa did not affect AgI/II polypeptide expression. Further analysis of mutant phenotypes showed that the Hsa and AgI/II proteins mediated adhesion of S. gordonii DL1 to human HEp-2 epithelial cells. Hsa was also a principal streptococcal cell surface component promoting adhesion of human platelets to immobilized streptococci, but Hsa and AgI/II polypeptides acted in concert in mediating streptococcal cell-platelet aggregation. The results suggest that Hsa directs primary adhesion events for S. gordonii DL1 (Challis) with immobilized gp340, epithelial cells, and platelets. AgI/II polypeptides direct gp340-mediated aggregation, facilitate multimodal interactions necessary for platelet aggregation, and modulate S. gordonii-host engagements into biologically productive phenomena.
The saliva proteome includes host defense factors and specific bacterial-binding proteins that modulate microbial growth and colonization of tooth surface in the oral cavity. A multidimensional mass spectrometry approach identified the major host-derived salivary proteins which interacted with Streptococcus mutans (strain UA159), the primary microorganism associated with the pathogenesis of dental caries. Two abundant host proteins were found to tightly bind to S. mutans cells, common salivary protein-1 (CSP-1) and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1, also known as salivary agglutinin or gp340). In contrast to gp340, limited functional information is available on CSP-1. The sequence of CSP-1 shares 38.1% similarity with rat CSP-1. Recombinant CSP-1 (rCSP-1) protein did not cause aggregation of S. mutans cells and was devoid of any significant biocidal activity (2.5 to 10 μg/ml). However, S. mutans cells exposed to rCSP-1 (10 μg/ml) in saliva displayed enhanced adherence to experimental salivary pellicle and to glucans in the pellicle formed on hydroxyapatite surfaces. Thus, our data demonstrate that the host salivary protein CSP-1 binds to S. mutans cells and may influence the initial colonization of this pathogenic bacterium onto tooth surface.
Common Salivary Protein-1; Human Saliva; Saliva-Microbial Interaction; Affinity and Lectin Chromatography; Mass Spectrometry
The tear film is a complex mixture of secreted fluid, ions, proteins, glycoproteins, and lipids that lubricates and protects the ocular surface. Recently, several antimicrobial peptides have been described in the tear fluid. In this study, we describe the presence of the large secreted glycoprotein gp340 in the tear film. Western blot analysis showed that gp340 is abundant in secreted tears and in the lacrimal glands. Lesser amounts of gp340 were detected in the cornea and conjunctiva. Consistent with Western blot data, reverse transcription-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR showed that gp340 transcripts were abundant in lacrimal gland tissue and were also present in the cornea and conjunctiva. Immunohistochemistry localized gp340 to the acinar cells of the lacrimal gland and the deeper layers of the conjunctival epithelium. gp340 was not detected in conjunctival goblet cells. In the cornea, gp340 was present only in a peripheral band of basal epithelial cells, suggesting that gp340 may play a role in the cycle of corneal epithelial renewal. To determine if tear film gp340 may function as a bacterial agglutinin as it does in saliva, tears were incubated with streptococcal cells and the formation of bacterial aggregates was monitored. Addition of tears to late-exponential-phase Streptococcus mutans cells resulted in time- and dose-dependent aggregation of the bacteria. Furthermore, Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of cell-associated gp340 in isolated bacterial aggregates. The ocular pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also aggregated when incubated with tears. These results suggest that gp340 is a normal component of the tear film and that the glycoprotein may function as a bacterial agglutinin.
Bacterial adhesion is an important determinant of colonization and infection, including dental caries. The salivary scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein gp-340, which mediates adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (implicated in caries), harbours three major size variants, designated gp-340 I to III, each specific to an individual saliva. Here we have examined the association of the gp-340 I to III polymorphisms with caries experience and adhesion of S. mutans.
A case-referent study was performed in 12-year-old Swedish children with high (n = 19) or low (n = 19) caries experiences. We measured the gp-340 I to III saliva phenotypes and correlated those with multiple outcome measures for caries experience and saliva adhesion of S. mutans using the partial least squares (PLS) multivariate projection technique. In addition, we used traditional statistics and 2-year caries increment to verify the established PLS associations, and bacterial adhesion to purified gp-340 I to III proteins to support possible mechanisms.
All except one subject were typed as gp-340 I to III (10, 23 and 4, respectively). The gp-340 I phenotype correlated positively with caries experience (VIP = 1.37) and saliva adhesion of S. mutans Ingbritt (VIP = 1.47). The gp-340 II and III phenotypes tended to behave in the opposite way. Moreover, the gp-340 I phenotype tended to show an increased 2-year caries increment compared to phenotypes II/III. Purified gp-340 I protein mediated markedly higher adhesion of S. mutans strains Ingbritt and NG8 and Lactococcus lactis expressing AgI/II adhesins (SpaP or PAc) compared to gp-340 II and III proteins. In addition, the gp-340 I protein appeared over represented in subjects positive for Db, an allelic acidic PRP variant associated with caries, and subjects positive for both gp-340 I and Db tended to experience more caries than those negative for both proteins.
Gp-340 I behaves as a caries susceptibility protein.
Adhesive systems have enabled clinicians to preserve more tooth structure by changing cavity designs. However, because of the polymerization shrinkage adhesive systems are not capable of totally prohibiting the gap formation between the cavity and restorative material of composite resin leading to colonization of oral microorganisms from saliva. One possible solution for this serious problem is to use dental materials with antibacterial properties. So the development of such agents has initiated for successful restorations. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial activities of two dentin bonding systems: Clearfil protect bond (CPB) and prime & bond NT using agar well technique and tooth cavity model.
Materials and Methods:
CPB and prime and bond NT (PBNT) were evaluated in this study using agar well technique and tooth cavity model. In the agar well technique, the materials were filled in the wells of Muller-Hinton agar plates inoculated with Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449M and the diameter of inhibition zones produced around the materials were measured after 24 h of incubation. For the tooth cavity model test, 3 cavities (of diameter - 1 mm and depth - 2 mm) were prepared in the flat occlusal dentin of human extracted molar. After sterilization, the teeth were left in the culture of broth of S. mutans at 37°C for 72 h for allowing bacteria to invade the cavity for 72 h. The dentin bonding systems were applied separately to each of the two infected cavities, and the third cavity was not applied and used as control. After sealing the occlusal surfaces, the teeth were kept in sterile physiological saline at 37°C for 72 h. The standardized amounts of dentin chips (120 + 5 mg) were obtained from the cavity walls, and the numbers of bacteria recovered were determined. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney’s U-tests.
The primer of CPB and PBNT produced similar inhibition zones (P > 0.05), but the bonding resin of CPB did not produce any inhibition. When tested by the tooth cavity model technique, the application of CPB resulted in significantly less bacterial recovery than the PBNT (P < 0.05), demonstrating substantial antibacterial effects.
The CPB that employs the antibacterial primer containing methacryloxydodecyl pyridinium bromide, was effective in inactivating the bacteria in the cavity compared to little antibacterial activity shown by PBNT. The tooth cavity mode test used in the present study is a reliable method to evaluate the antibacterial effects of dentin bonding agents simulating clinical situations.
Agar well technique; dentin bonding systems; dentin primers; Streptococcus mutans; tooth cavity model
Glycoprotein 340 (gp340), an innate immunity molecule is secreted luminally by monolayered epithelia and associated glands within the human oral cavity. Gp340 contains 14 scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) domains, two CUB (C1r/C1s Uegf Bmp1) domains and one zona - pellucida (ZP) domain. Oral streptococci are known to adhere to the tooth immobilized gp340 via its surface protein Antigen I/II (AgI/II), which is considered to be the critical first step in pathogenesis that eventually results in colonization and infection. In order to decipher the interactions between gp340's domains and oral streptococcal AgI/II domains, we undertook to express human gp340's first SRCR domain (SRCR1) and the first three tandem SRCR domains (SRCR123) in Drosophila S2 cells. While our initial attempts with human codons did not produce optimal results, codon-optimization for expression in Drosophila S2 cells and usage of inducible/secretory Drosophila Expression System (DES) pMT/BiP/V5-HisA vector greatly enhanced the expression of the SRCR domains. Here we report the successful cloning, expression, and purification of the SRCR domains of gp340. Recognition of expressed SRCRs by the conformational dependent gp340 antibody indicate that these domains are appropriately folded and furthermore, surface plasmon resonance studies confirmed functional adherence of the SRCR domains to AgI/II.
Lactobacillus species can contribute positively to general and oral health and are frequently acquired by breastfeeding in infancy. The present study aimed to identify oral lactobacilli in breast and formula-fed 4 month-old infants and to evaluate potential probiotic properties of the dominant Lactobacillus species detected. Saliva and oral swab samples were collected from 133 infants who were enrolled in a longitudinal study (n=240) examining the effect of a new infant formula on child growth and development. Saliva was cultured and Lactobacillus isolates were identified from 16S rRNA gene sequences. Five L. gasseri isolates that differed in 16S rRNA sequence were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of selected oral bacteria and for adhesion to oral tissues. Oral swab samples were analyzed by qPCR for Lactobacillus gasseri.
43 (32.3%) infants were breastfed and 90 (67.7%) were formula-fed with either a standard formula (43 out of 90) or formula supplemented with a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction (47 out of 90). Lactobacilli were cultured from saliva of 34.1% breastfed infants, but only in 4.7% of the standard and 9.3% of the MFGM supplemented formula-fed infants. L. gasseri was the most prevalent (88% of Lactobacillus positive infants) of six Lactobacillus species detected. L. gasseri isolates inhibited Streptococcus mutans binding to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite, and inhibited growth of S. mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces oris, Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum in a concentration dependent fashion. L. gasseri isolates bound to parotid and submandibular saliva, salivary gp340 and MUC7, and purified MFGM, and adhered to epithelial cells. L. gasseri was detected by qPCR in 29.7% of the oral swabs. Breastfed infants had significantly higher mean DNA levels of L. gasseri (2.14 pg/uL) than infants fed the standard (0.363 pg/uL) or MFGM (0.697 pg/uL) formula.
Lactobacilli colonized the oral cavity of breastfed infants significantly more frequently than formula-fed infants. The dominant Lactobacillus was L. gasseri, which was detected at higher levels in breastfed than formula-fed infants and displayed probiotic traits in vitro.
Lactobacillus; L.gasseri; Growth; Adhesion; Gp340; Breastfed infants
Members of the antigen I/II family of cell surface proteins are highly conserved, multifunctional adhesins that mediate interactions of oral streptococci with other oral bacteria, with cell matrix proteins (e.g., type I collagen), and with salivary glycoproteins, e.g., gp340. The interaction of gp340 (formerly designated salivary agglutinin) with Streptococcus mutans requires an alanine-rich repetitive domain (A region) of antigen I/II that is highly conserved in all members of this family of proteins. In this report, we show that the A regions from the two Streptococcus gordonii M5 antigen I/II proteins (SspA and SspB) interact differently with the salivary gp340 glycoprotein and appear to be structurally distinct. Recombinant polypeptides encompassing the A region of SspA or from a highly related S. mutans antigen I/II protein (SpaP) competitively inhibited the interaction of gp340 with intact S. gordonii and S. mutans cells, respectively. In contrast, an A region polypeptide from SspB was inactive, and furthermore, it did not bind to purified gp340 in vitro. Circular dichroism spectra suggested that all three polypeptides were highly α-helical and may form coiled-coil structures. However, the A region of SspB underwent a conformational change and exhibited reduced α-helical structure at pH 8.5, whereas the A region polypeptides from SspA and SpaP were relatively stable under these conditions. Melt curves also indicated that at physiological pH, the A region of SspB lost α-helical structure more rapidly than that of SspA or SpaP when the temperature was increased from 10 to 40°C. Furthermore, the SspB A region polypeptide denatured completely at a temperature that was 7 to 9°C lower than that required for the A region polypeptide of SspA or SpaP. The full-length SspB protein and the three A region peptides migrated in native gel electrophoresis and column chromatography with apparent molecular masses that were approximately 2- to 2.5-fold greater than their predicted molecular masses. However, sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation data showed that the A region peptides sedimented as monomers, suggesting that the peptides may form nonglobular intramolecular coiled-coil structures under the experimental conditions used. Taken together, our results suggest that the A region of SspB is less stable than the corresponding A regions of SspA and SpaP and that this structural difference may explain, at least in part, the functional variation observed in their interactions with salivary gp340.
•Largely protein showed the ability to bind through hydrophobic interactions, yet some also bind according to their charges.•The hydrophobic surfaces showed the closest match to the known bound mucosal pellicle.•Salivary protein binding to particles was improved in some samples when incubated with transglutaminase.
The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein.
In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface.
Saliva; Proteins; Pellicle; Hydrophobic; Transglutaminase
The streptococcal antigen I/II (AgI/II)-family polypeptides are cell wall-anchored adhesins expressed by most indigenous oral streptococci. Proteins sharing 30–40% overall amino acid sequence similarities with AgI/II-family proteins are also expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes. The S. pyogenes M28_Spy1325 polypeptide (designated AspA) displays an AgI/II primary structure, with alanine-rich (A) and proline-rich (P) repeats flanking a V region that is projected distal from the cell. In this study it is shown that AspA from serotype M28 S. pyogenes, when expressed on surrogate host Lactococcus lactis, confers binding to immobilized salivary agglutinin gp-340. This binding was blocked by antibodies to the AspA-VP region. In contrast, the N-terminal region of AspA was deficient in binding fluid-phase gp-340, and L. lactis cells expressing AspA were not agglutinated by gp-340. Deletion of the aspA gene from two different M28 strains of S. pyogenes abrogated their abilities to form biofilms on saliva-coated surfaces. In each mutant strain, biofilm formation was restored by trans complementation of the aspA deletion. In addition, expression of AspA protein on the surface of L. lactis conferred biofilm-forming ability. Taken collectively, the results provide evidence that AspA is a biofilm-associated adhesin that may function in host colonization by S. pyogenes.
Virulent biofilms are responsible for a range of infections, including oral diseases. All biofilms harbor a microbial-derived extracellular-matrix. The exopolysaccharides (EPS) formed on tooth-pellicle and bacterial surfaces provide binding sites for microorganisms; eventually the accumulated EPS enmeshes microbial cells. The metabolic activity of the bacteria within this matrix leads to acidification of the milieu. We explored the mechanisms through which the Streptococcus mutans-produced EPS-matrix modulates the three-dimensional (3D) architecture and the population shifts during morphogenesis of biofilms on a saliva-coated-apatitic surface using a mixed-bacterial species system. Concomitantly, we examined whether the matrix influences the development of pH-microenvironments within intact-biofilms using a novel 3D in situ pH-mapping technique. Data reveal that the production of the EPS-matrix helps to create spatial heterogeneities by forming an intricate network of exopolysaccharide-enmeshed bacterial-islets (microcolonies) through localized cell-to-matrix interactions. This complex 3D architecture creates compartmentalized acidic and EPS-rich microenvironments throughout the biofilm, which triggers the dominance of pathogenic S. mutans within a mixed-species system. The establishment of a 3D-matrix and EPS-enmeshed microcolonies were largely mediated by the S. mutans gtfB/gtfC genes, expression of which was enhanced in the presence of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis. Acidic pockets were found only in the interiors of bacterial-islets that are protected by EPS, which impedes rapid neutralization by buffer (pH 7.0). As a result, regions of low pH (<5.5) were detected at specific locations along the surface of attachment. Resistance to chlorhexidine was enhanced in cells within EPS-microcolony complexes compared to those outside such structures within the biofilm. Our results illustrate the critical interaction between matrix architecture and pH heterogeneity in the 3D environment. The formation of structured acidic-microenvironments in close proximity to the apatite-surface is an essential factor associated with virulence in cariogenic-biofilms. These observations may have relevance beyond the mouth, as matrix is inherent to all biofilms.
Virulent biofilms formed on surfaces are associated with many human infections. The disease dental caries, expressed as cavities, is a prime example of the consequences arising from interactions between bacteria and sugars on tooth-surfaces. When Streptococcus mutans metabolize sugars, they produce a glue-like polymer termed glucan, helping them to adhere firmly to teeth. Glucan is also formed on bacterial surfaces in the mouth, and will accumulate and enmesh additional microorganisms creating the gelatinous formation known as dental plaque-biofilm. We found unique islets of bacteria within these biofilms, particularly close to the tooth-surface, providing safe havens in which bacteria thrive and produce acids that erode teeth. One intriguing mystery is why acids accumulate on the tooth-surface when there is an abundance of neutral-pH saliva surrounding the teeth. We found that bacterial-islets are particularly protected by glucan, which retards neutralization. We noticed that, within biofilms, the interiors of these islets are acidic, where only acid-tolerant bacteria can prosper, ensuring continued localized acid production. Our study demonstrates that construction of biofilms mediated by glucans forms complex 3D architectures, creating a variety of acidic-microenvironments that are essential for virulence expression. These results may aid in the development of enhanced methods to modulate biofilm formation.
It has recently been shown that human salivary glands constitutively express CD14, an important molecule in innate immunity, and that a soluble form of CD14 is secreted in saliva. The concentration of CD14 in parotid (a serous gland) saliva was comparable to that in normal serum and 10-fold the amount in whole saliva, although the physiological function of saliva CD14 remained unclear. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a periodontopathic bacterium and is able to invade oral epithelial cells. The present study showed that upon exposure to live A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 for 2 h, human oral epithelial HSC-2 cells produced interleukin-8 (IL-8) for a further 24 h and whole saliva augmented the production induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4. Parotid saliva showed a more pronounced effect on the production of IL-8 than whole saliva. Neither saliva preparation itself had IL-8-inducing activity. Parotid saliva exhibited antibacterial activity against a low concentration of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4, but recombinant CD14 did not show the activity. The internalization of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 into HSC-2 cells was inhibited by cytochalasin B, indicating that the process was actin dependent, and depletion of CD14 from parotid saliva inhibited the invasion and, as a consequence, inhibited production of IL-8. Furthermore, human recombinant CD14 augmented invasion and IL-8 production. These results suggest that saliva CD14 promoted the invasion of oral epithelial cells by A. actinomycetemcomitans and consequently augmented the production of IL-8, playing an important role in innate immunity in the oral cavity.
Oral streptococci play a large role in dental biofilm formation, and several types interact as early colonizers with the enamel salivary pellicle to form the primary biofilm, as well as to incorporate other bacteria on tooth surfaces. Interactions of surface molecules of individual streptococci with the salivary pellicle on the tooth surface have an influence on the etiological properties of an oral biofilm. To elucidate the molecular interactions of streptococci with salivary components, binding between surface protein (SspB and PAg) peptides of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sobrinus were investigated by utilizing BIAcore biosensor technology. The analogous peptide [change of T at position 400 to K in SspB(390-402), resulting in the SspB(390-T400K-402) peptide] from S. gordonii showed the greatest response for binding to salivary components and inhibited the binding of Streptococcus sanguis by more than 50% in a competitive inhibition assay in a comparison with other SspB and PAg peptides. This peptide also bound to the high-molecular-weight protein complex of salivary components and the agglutinin (gp340/DMBT1) peptide (scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain peptide 2 [SRCRP 2]). In addition, the SspB(390-T400K-402) peptide was visualized by two surface positive charges in connection with the positively charged residues, in which lysine was a key residue for binding. Therefore, the region containing lysine may have binding activity in S. gordonii and S. sanguis, and the SRCRP 2 region may function as a receptor for the binding. These findings may provide useful information regarding the molecular mechanism of early biofilm formation by streptococci on tooth surfaces.
Titanium implants in the oral cavity are covered with a saliva-derived pellicle to which early colonizing microorganisms such as Streptococcus oralis can bind. The protein profiles of salivary pellicles on titanium have not been well characterized and the proteins of importance for binding are thus unknown. Biofilm bacteria exhibit different phenotypes from their planktonic counterparts and contact with salivary proteins may be one factor contributing to the induction of changes in physiology. We have characterized salivary pellicles from titanium surfaces and investigated how contact with uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces affects metabolic activity in adherent cells of S. oralis.
Salivary pellicles on smooth titanium surfaces were desorbed and these, as well as purified human saliva, were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. A parallel plate flow-cell model was used to study binding of a fresh isolate of S. oralis to uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces. Metabolic activity was assessed using the BacLight CTC Vitality Kit and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Experiments were carried out in triplicate and the results analyzed using Student’s t-test or ANOVA.
Secretory IgA, α-amylase and cystatins were identified as dominant proteins in the salivary pellicles. Selective adsorption of proteins was demonstrated by the enrichment of prolactin-inducible protein and absence of zinc-α2-glycoprotein relative to saliva. Adherence of S. oralis to titanium led to an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the population after 2 hours. In the presence of a salivary pellicle, this effect was enhanced and sustained over the following 22 hour period.
We have shown that adherence to smooth titanium surfaces under flow causes an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the early oral colonizer S. oralis, most likely as part of an adaptation to the biofilm mode of life. The effect was enhanced by a salivary pellicle containing sIgA, α-amylase, cystatins and prolactin-inducible protein which was, for the first time, identified as an abundant component of salivary pellicles on titanium. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the effect of surface contact on metabolic activity as well as to identify the salivary proteins responsible for enhancing the effect.
Bacteria; Microbial biofilm; Dental implant; Streptococci
Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major
causative agent of human dental caries. S. mutans binds to
saliva-coated tooth surfaces, and previous studies suggested that
fimbriae may play a role in the initial bacterial adherence to salivary
components. The objectives of this study were to establish the ability
of an S. mutans fimbria preparation to bind to
saliva-coated surfaces and determine the specific salivary components
that facilitate binding with fimbriae. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA) established that the S. mutans fimbria
preparation bound to components of whole saliva. Sodium dodecyl
sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot
techniques were used to separate components of whole saliva and
determine fimbria binding. SDS-PAGE separated 15 major protein bands
from saliva samples, and Western blot analysis indicated significant
binding of the S. mutans fimbria preparation to a 52-kDa
salivary protein. The major fimbria-binding salivary protein was
isolated by preparative electrophoresis. The ability of the S.
mutans fimbria preparation to bind to the purified salivary
protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Incubation of
the purified salivary protein with the S. mutans fimbria
preparation significantly neutralized binding of the salivary
protein-fimbria complex to saliva-coated surfaces. The salivary
protein, whole saliva, and commercial amylase reacted similarly with
antiamylase antibody in immunoblots. A purified 65-kDa fimbrial protein
was demonstrated to bind to both saliva and amylase. These data
indicated that the S. mutans fimbria preparation and a
purified fimbrial protein bound to whole-saliva-coated surfaces and
that amylase is the major salivary component involved in the binding.
Saliva contains a number of proteins and glycoproteins that protect oral tissues, but little is known about the role of human saliva in innate immunity. Here we showed that human major salivary gland cells constitutively expressed a bacterial pattern recognition receptor, CD14, by immunohistochemistry. Human salivary gland cells in culture express CD14 mRNA and a 55-kDa CD14 protein in, but not on the cells, and secrete a soluble form with the same molecular mass. Human whole saliva contains a 55-kDa CD14, and the concentration of parotid saliva was 10-fold higher than whole saliva, which is comparable to that of serum CD14. Levels of CD14 in unstimulated whole and parotid saliva were unchanged before and after a meal and between unstimulated and stimulated saliva, indicating that saliva CD14 is constitutively secreted into the oral cavity. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein was below the detectable level. The saliva CD14 is functionally active in that it mediated the activation of CD14-lacking intestinal epithelial cells by LPS in a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner. These results suggested that saliva CD14 is important for the maintenance of oral health and possibly intestinal homeostasis.
Infection of adherent primary monocytes with HIV-1Ba-L is significantly suppressed in the presence of human saliva. By reverse transcriptase (RT) levels, saliva, although present for only 1 h during monocyte viral exposure, inhibited HIV-1 infectivity for 3 wk after infection, whereas human plasma and synovial fluid failed to inhibit HIV-1 infectivity. Antiviral activity was identified in the saliva soluble fraction, and to determine the factor(s) responsible, individual saliva proteins were examined. Of those proteins examined, only secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) was found to possess anti-HIV-1 activity at physiological concentrations. SLPI anti-HIV-1 activity was dose dependent, with maximal inhibition at 1-10 micrograms/ml (> 90% inhibition of RT activity). SLPI also partially inhibited HIV-1IIIB infection in proliferating human T cells. SLPI appears to target a host cell-associated molecule, since no interaction with viral proteins could be demonstrated. However, SLPI anti-HIV-1 activity was not due to direct interaction with or downregulation of the CD4 antigen. Partial depletion of SLPI in whole saliva resulted in decreased anti-HIV-1 activity of saliva. These data indicate that SLPI has antiretroviral activity and may contribute to the important antiviral activity of saliva associated with the infrequent oral transmission of HIV-1.
The human oral cavity is home to a large and diverse community of viruses that have yet to be characterized in patients with periodontal disease. We recruited and sampled saliva and oral biofilm from a cohort of humans either periodontally healthy or with mild or significant periodontal disease to discern whether there are differences in viral communities that reflect their oral health status. We found communities of viruses inhabiting saliva and the subgingival and supragingival biofilms of each subject that were composed largely of bacteriophage. While there were homologous viruses common to different subjects and biogeographic sites, for most of the subjects, virome compositions were significantly associated with the oral sites from which they were derived. The largest distinctions between virome compositions were found when comparing the subgingival and supragingival biofilms to those of planktonic saliva. Differences in virome composition were significantly associated with oral health status for both subgingival and supragingival biofilm viruses but not for salivary viruses. Among the differences identified in virome compositions was a significant expansion of myoviruses in subgingival biofilm, suggesting that periodontal disease favors lytic phage. We also characterized the bacterial communities in each subject at each biogeographic site by using the V3 hypervariable segment of the 16S rRNA and did not identify distinctions between oral health and disease similar to those found in viral communities. The significantly altered ecology of viruses of oral biofilm in subjects with periodontal disease compared to that of relatively periodontally healthy ones suggests that viruses may serve as useful indicators of oral health status.
Little is known about the role or the constituents of viruses as members of the human microbiome. We investigated the composition of human oral viral communities in a group of relatively periodontally healthy subjects or significant periodontitis to determine whether health status may be associated with differences in viruses. We found that most of the viruses present were predators of bacteria. The viruses inhabiting dental plaque were significantly different on the basis of oral health status, while those present in saliva were not. Dental plaque viruses in periodontitis were predicted to be significantly more likely to kill their bacterial hosts than those found in healthy mouths. Because oral diseases such as periodontitis have been shown to have altered bacterial communities, we believe that viruses and their role as drivers of ecosystem diversity are important contributors to the human oral microbiome in health and disease states.
This investigation examined the ability of cells of Bacteroides melaninogenicus subsp. asaccharolyticus 381 to adhere to surfaces that might be important for its initial colonization of the mouth and its subsequent colonization in periodontal pockets. Of 48 asaccharolytic strains of B. melaninogenicus, 47 agglutinated human erythrocytes, whereas none of 20 fermentative strains, which included reference cultures of the subspecies intermedius and melaninogenicus, were active. Electron microscopy indicated that both asaccharolytic and fermentative strains possessed pili; hence, the presence of pili did not correlate with the hemagglutinating activities of B. melaninogenicus strains. Both asaccharolytic and fermentative B. melaninogenicus strains suspended in phosphate-buffered saline adhered in high numbers to buccal epithelial cells and to the surfaces of several gram-positive bacteria tested, including Actinomyces viscosus, A. naeslundii, A. israelii, Streptococcus sanguis, and S. mitis. B. melaninogenicus subsp. asaccharolyticus 381 also attached, but in comparatively low numbers, to untreated and to saliva-treated hydroxyapatite. Addition of clarified whole saliva to suspensions of strain 381 almost completely eliminated adherence to buccal epithelial cells and to hydroxyapatite surfaces, but saliva had no detectable effect on attachment to gram-positive plaque bacteria. Both fermentative and nonfermentative strains of B. melaninogenicus also attached in high numbers to crevicular epithelial cells derived from human periodontal pockets, but normal human serum strongly inhibited attachment. Serum also inhibited attachment of strain 381 to saliva- and serum-treated hydroxyapatite, but it had little effect upon attachment to gram-positive bacteria. These observations suggested that salivary and serum components would strongly inhibit the attachment of B. melaninogenicus cells to several oral surfaces, but not to the surfaces of certain gram-positive bacteria commonly present in human dental plaque. This was confirmed by an in vivo experiment in which streptomycin-labeled cells of B. melaninogenicus 381-R were introduced into the mouths of two volunteers. After 10 min, several hundred-fold higher numbers of the organism were recovered from preformed bacterial plaque present on teeth than from clean tooth surfaces or from the buccal mucosa and tongue dorsum. High numbers of B. melaninogenicus cells were also recovered from preformed plaque after 150 min, but virtually no cells of the organism were recovered from the other surfaces studied. These data suggest that the presence of dental plaque containing Actinomyces and other gram-positive bacteria may be essential for the attachment and colonization of B. melaninogenicus cells after their initial introduction into the mouth. Similarly, the presence of subgingival plaque containing gram-positive bacteria may be necessary for its secondary colonization in periodontal pockets.
Saliva, the most available and non–invasive biofluid of the human body, permanently ‘bathes’ the oral cavity and is
trying to cope with an ever–changing milieu. The oral cavity, a very complex and unique milieu due to its dual function, is the only
place in the body where the mineralized tissue is exposed to the external environment in which there are complex interactions between
various surfaces: host soft and hard tissues, food, air, and microorganisms. Saliva includes a large number of inorganic and organic
compounds, which act as a ‘mirror of the body's health.’ In addition to its other functions, saliva could constitute
the first line of defense against oxidative stress. Due to its composition and functions, saliva could have a significant role in
controlling and/or modulating oxidative damages in the oral cavity. As a diagnostic fluid, saliva offers distinctive advantages over
Furthermore, saliva may provide a cost–effective approach for the screening of large populations. Gland–specific saliva can be used for
diagnosis of pathology specific to one of the major salivary glands. Whole saliva, however, is most frequently used for diagnosis of
As we enter the era of genomic medicine, sialochemistry will play an increasingly important role in the early detection, the
monitoring and progression of the systemic and oral diseases. We reviewed the current data within literature and of our research
concerning clinical potential of the saliva.
saliva; diagnosis; systemic diseases; oral diseases; sialochemistry
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are rarely acquired via an oral route in adults. Previous studies have shown that human whole saliva inhibits HIV infection in vitro, and multiple factors present in human saliva have been shown to contribute to this antiviral activity. Despite the widespread use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques as models for HIV pathogenesis and transmission, few studies have monitored SIV in the oral cavity of infected rhesus macaques and evaluated the viral inhibitory capacity of macaque saliva. Utilizing a cohort of rhesus macaques infected with SIVMac251, we monitored virus levels and genotypic diversity in the saliva throughout the course of the disease; findings were similar to previous observations in HIV-infected humans. An in vitro infectivity assay was utilized to measure inhibition of HIV/SIV infection by normal human and rhesus macaque whole saliva. Both human and macaque saliva were capable of inhibiting HIV and SIV infection. The inhibitory capacity of saliva samples collected from a cohort of animals postinfection with SIV increased over the course of disease, coincident with the development of SIV-specific antibodies in the saliva. These findings suggest that both innate and adaptive factors contribute to inhibition of SIV by whole macaque saliva. This work also demonstrates that SIV-infected rhesus macaques provide a relevant model to examine the innate and adaptive immune responses that inhibit HIV/SIV in the oral cavity.