The inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene and activation of the proto-oncogene are key steps in the development of human cancer. p53 and beta-catenin are examples of such genes, respectively. In the present study, our aim was to determine the role of these genes in the carcinogenesis of the gallbladder by immunohistochemistry.
Patients and Methods:
Sections from paraffin-embedded blocks of surgically resected specimens of gallbladder cancer (GBC) (80 cases), chronic cholecystitis (60 cases), and control gallbladders (10 cases) were stained with the monoclonal antibody p53, and polyclonal antibody beta-catenin. Results were scored semiquantitatively and statistical analysis performed. p53 expression was scored as percentage of the nuclei stained. Beta-catenin expression was scored as type of expression–membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear staining. Beta-catenin expression was correlated with tumor invasiveness, differentiation, and stage.
Over-expression of p53 was seen in 56.25% of GBC cases and was not seen in chronic cholecystitis or in control gallbladders. p53 expression in gallbladder cancer was significantly higher than in inflammatory or control gallbladders (P < 0.0001). p53 expression increased with increasing tumor grade (P = 0.039). Beta-catenin nuclear expression was seen in 75% cases of gallbladder cancer and in no case of chronic cholecystitis and control gallbladder. Beta-catenin nuclear expression increased with tumor depth invasiveness, and grade (P = 0.028 and P = 0.0152, respectively).
p53 and beta-catenin nuclear expression is significantly higher in GBC. p53 expression correlates with increasing tumor grade while beta-catenin nuclear expression correlates with tumor grade and depth of invasion, thus suggesting a role for these genes in tumor progression of GBC.
Beta-catenin; gallbladder cancer; p53; tumor invasiveness
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and glutathione S-transferase π (GST-π) are not only drug-resistance markers, but also prognostic markers of various cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of P-gp and GST-π in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). Tissue samples from 42 patients with GBC were immunostained. Demographic, clinical and follow-up data were collected and analyzed. The positive expression rates of P-gp and GST-π in the GBC tissues were significantly higher (76.2 and 64.3%, respectively) than that of chronic cholecystitis specimens (30 and 20%, respectively) (P=0.014 and 0.035, respectively), and correlated with the Nevin stage of GBC. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with positive expression of P-gp and GST-π showed a significantly lower 2-year survival rate (11.1 and 12%, respectively) compared with patients with negative expression (55.6 and 45.5%, respectively) (P=0.013 and 0.036, respectively). P-gp was also found to be an independent prognostic marker of 2-year survival rate by logistic regression analysis (B=−2.76, P=0.061). Results of this study suggest that P-gp is a prognostic marker of GBC and the detection of P-gp and GST-π may contribute to the prognosis of GBC and the application of chemotherapy as a therapeutic treatment.
gallbladder cancer; P-glycoprotein; glutathione S-transferase; metastasis; prognosis
AIM: To assess the expression of nuclear hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions and to determine its clinicopathological significance.
METHODS: We studied 40 patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) and a control group of 40 patients with cholelithiasis. All diagnoses of GBC and cholelithiasis were confirmed by histopathological examination after surgery. None of the patients received chemotherapy or radiotherapy before surgery. All tissue samples were fixed in 4% formalin immediately after removal and embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemical staining. The HDGF expression in the GBC and cholelithiasis specimens was examined by immunohistochemical staining. The relationship between the HDGF expression and the clinicopathological parameters of GBC was analyzed.
RESULTS: Nuclear HDGF expression was significantly higher (77.5%) in GBC than in chronic cholelithiasis (21.5%, P < 0.001). High nuclear HDGF levels were associated with histopathological subtype (P < 0.05), clinical stage (P < 0.01), and perineural invasion (P < 0.01) but not with sex, age, history of gallstones, or lymph node metastasis. A univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that positive nuclear HDGF expression was associated with decreased overall survival (P < 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that nuclear HDGF expression and lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for disease-free survival.
CONCLUSION: The expression of nuclear HDGF might be closely related to the carcinogenesis, clinical biological behaviors, and prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
Hepatoma-derived growth factor; Kaplan-Meier analysis; Gallbladder cancer; Immunohistochemistry
Inorganic arsenic is a major water pollutant and a known human carcinogen that has a suppressive influence on spermatogenesis and androgenesis in male reproductive system. However, the actual molecular events resulting in male reproductive dysfunctions from exposure to arsenic remain unclear. In this context, we evaluated the mode of action of chronic oral exposure of sodium arsenite on hypothalamo-pituitary- testicular activities in mature male albino rats.
The effect of chronic oral exposure to sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight/day) via drinking water without or with hCG (5 I.U./kg body weight/day) and oestradiol (25 micrograms oestradiol 3-benzoate suspended in 0.25 ml olive oil/rat/day) co-treatments for 6 days a week for 4 weeks (about the duration of two spermatogenic cycle) was evaluated in adult male rats. Changes in paired testicular weights, quantitative study of different varieties of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenic cycle, epididymal sperm count, circulatory concentrations of hormones (LH, FSH, testosterone and corticosterone), testicular activities of delta 5, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta 5, 3beta-HSD), 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as the levels of biogenic amines (dopamine, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) in the hypothalamus and pituitary were monitored in this study. Hormones were assayed by radioimmuno- assay or enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay and the enzymes were estimated after spectrophotometry as well as the biogenic amines by HPLC electrochemistry.
Sodium arsenite treatment resulted in: decreased paired testicular weights; epididymal sperm count; plasma LH, FSH, testosterone and testicular testosterone concentrations; and increased plasma concentration of corticosterone. Testicular enzymes such as delta 5, 3 beta-HSD, 17 beta-HSD, and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) were significantly decreased, but those of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased. A decrease in dopamine or an increase in noradrenaline and 5-HT in hypothalamus and pituitary were also noted after arsenic exposure. Histological evaluation revealed extensive degeneration of different varieties of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenic cycle in arsenic exposed rats. Administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) along with sodium arsenite partially prevented the degeneration of germ cells and enhanced paired testicular weights, epididymal sperm count, plasma and intratesticular testosterone concentrations, activities of delta 5, 3beta-HSD, 17 beta-HSD and sorbitol dehydrogenase along with diminution in the activities of ACP, ALP and LDH. Since many of the observed arsenic effects could be enhanced by oestradiol, it is suggested that arsenic might somehow acts through an estrogenic mode of action.
The results indicate that arsenic causes testicular toxicity by germ cell degeneration and inhibits androgen production in adult male rats probably by affecting pituitary gonadotrophins. Estradiol treatment has been associated with similar effects on pituitary testicular axis supporting the hypothesis that arsenite might somehow act through an estrogenic mode of action.
AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of estrogen receptor 1 (ER1) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression in primary gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) to identify new prognostic markers for this malignancy.
METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated ER1 and VEGF-A expression in 78 GBC and 78 cholelithiasis (CS) tissues. The results were correlated with clinicopathological features. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between ER1 and VEGF-A expression and patients’ prognosis. Further Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was also performed.
RESULTS: ER1 and VEGF-A expression was significantly higher in GBC compared with CS (47/78 vs 28/78, P < 0.05; 51/78 vs 33/78, P < 0.05). ER1 expression was correlated with gender (P < 0.05) and VEGF-A expression was correlated with tumor differentiation in GBC patients (P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, age and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage were factors associated with GBC prognosis (P < 0.05). Although there was no statistical difference between the expression of ER1 or VEGF-A and overall survival, the high expression of ER1 combined with VEGF-A predicted a poor prognosis for GBC patients (16.30 ± 1.87 vs 24.97 ± 2.09, log-rank P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, combined expression of ER1 and VEGF-A and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors for GBC patients (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Combined expression of ER1 and VEGF-A is a potential prognostic marker for GBC patients. Clinical detection of ER1 and VEGF-A in surgically resected GBC tissues would provide an important reference for decision-making of postoperative treatment programs.
Gallbladder carcinoma; Estrogen receptor 1; Vascular endothelial growth factor A
The prognosis of gallbladder cancer (GBC) remains poor despite recent advances in diagnostics and therapeutic strategies. Although the role of microRNAs (miRs) in GBC have not been well documented, miR-155 is known to be associated with inflammation-associated carcinogenesis in various types of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of miR-155 expression and the biological functions of miR-155 in GBC. The expression levels of miR-155 in surgically resected GBCs and gallbladders with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The relationship between the expression levels of miR-155 and clinicopathological features of GBCs was analyzed. Human GBC cell lines were transfected with miR-155 inhibitors or mimics, and the effects on proliferation and invasion were assessed. miR-155 was significantly overexpressed in GBCs when compared with that in gallbladders with PBM (P=0.007) and normal gallbladders (P=0.04). The high expression level of miR-155 in GBCs was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis (P=0.01) and a poor prognosis (P=0.02). In vitro assays showed that aberrant expression of miR-155 significantly enhanced GBC cell proliferation and invasion. In conclusion, high miR-155 expression correlates with the aggressive behavior of GBCs, and miR-155 may become a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for GBC.
gallbladder cancer; pancreaticobiliary maljunction; microRNA-155
AIM: To evaluate the impact of incidental gallbladder cancer on surgical experience.
METHODS: Between 1998 and 2008 all cases of cholecystectomy at two divisions of general surgery, one university based and one at a public hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. Gallbladder pathology was diagnosed by history, physical examination, and laboratory and imaging studies [ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT)]. Patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) were further analyzed for demographic data, and type of operation, surgical morbidity and mortality, histopathological classification, and survival. Incidental GBC was compared with suspected or preoperatively diagnosed GBC. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary endpoint was the difference in DFS between patients previously treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and those who had oncological resection as first intervention.
RESULTS: Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) were found to have GBC. The male to female ratio was 1:1.4 and the mean age was 68 years (range: 45-82 years). Preoperative diagnosis was made in 10 cases, and eight were diagnosed postoperatively. One was suspected intraoperatively and confirmed by frozen sections. The ratio between incidental and nonincidental cases was 9/19. The tumor node metastasis stage was: pTis (1), pT1a (2), pT1b (4), pT2 (6), pT3 (4), pT4 (2); five cases with stage Ia (T1 a-b); two with stage Ib (T2 N0); one with stage IIa (T3 N0); six with stage IIb (T1-T3 N1); two with stage III (T4 Nx Nx); and one with stage IV (Tx Nx Mx). Eighty-eight percent of the incidental cases were discovered at an early stage (≤ II). Preoperative diagnosis of the 19 patients with GBC was: GBC with liver invasion diagnosed by preoperative CT (nine cases), gallbladder abscess perforated into hepatic parenchyma and involving the transversal mesocolon and hepatic hilum (one case), porcelain gallbladder (one case), gallbladder adenoma (one case), and chronic cholelithiasis (eight cases). Every case, except one, with a T1b or more advanced invasion underwent IVb + V wedge liver resection and pericholedochic/hepatoduodenal lymphadenectomy. One patient with stage T1b GBC refused further surgery. Cases with Tis and T1a involvement were treated with cholecystectomy alone. One incidental case was diagnosed by intraoperative frozen section and treated with cholecystectomy alone. Six of the nine patients with incidental diagnosis reached 5-year DFS. One patient reached 38 mo survival despite a port-site recurrence 2 years after original surgery. Cases with non incidental diagnosis were more locally advanced and only two patients experienced 5-year DFS.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not affect survival if implemented properly. Reoperation should have two objectives: R0 resection and clearance of the lymph nodes.
Incidental gallbladder cancer; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Lymph nodes; Hepatic resection; Management; Outcome
Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.
Riverine Buffalo; Somatic Cell Count; Subclinical Mastitis; Indicator; Trace Minerals; Enzyme Activity
This study was performed to determine the occurrence of hypoxic hepatitis in full-term neonates after perinatal asphyxia and to correlate between the rise in enzymes and severity of asphyxia with Apgar score and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) grading of the neonates.
METHOD AND MATERIAL
This prospective case-controlled study was conducted in a tertiary-level hospital in India for a period of 12 months. The study group A comprised 70 newborns suffering from birth asphyxia, while 30 healthy neonates were included in group B (control). All biochemical parameters of liver function, ie, serum alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, serum albumin, bilirubin (total and direct), and international normalized ratio (INR), were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, and 10 in both study and control groups.
In group A, 22.8% newborns had severe (Apgar score 0–3), 47.1% had moderate (Apgar score 4–5), and 30% had mild (Apgar score 6–7) birth asphyxia at five minutes. In all, 14.28% babies were in HIE stage I, 25.73% babies were in HIE stage II, and 11.42% babies were in HIE stage III. The rest of the newborns, 48.57%, were normal. The prevalence of liver function impairment was seen in 42.85% of asphyxiated neonates. On day 1, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, PT, and INR were significantly higher, and total protein and serum albumin were significantly lower in group A than in group B. However, ALT and AST correlated well with increasing severity of HIE score. On day 3, there was a rising trend observed in the concentration of mean LDH as HIE staging of neonates progressed from stage 0 to stage III, and among various HIE stages, the difference in LDH was statistically significant.
We concluded that AST, ALT at 24 hours, and LDH at 72 hours of animation can be a utilitarian diagnostic tool to differentiate asphyxiated neonates from non-asphyxiated neonates and to discover the severity of perinatal asphyxia because of easy accessibility and feasibility of tests. The outcomes of this survey would be useful for physicians who receive neonates for whom birth details are not easily documented as most of the time the referred newborn infants lack asphyxia history either because the attendants do not know clearly the whole birth history or it was an unattended delivery, or the referring health-care professional has not been observant because of legal threats. The neurological assessment also becomes difficult and inconclusive as ventilator treatment, sedative drugs, and anticonvulsant therapy would produce an evaluation of severity of hypoxic ischemic brain disease and neurological insult difficult.
birth asphyxia; hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; hepatic dysfunction
AIM: To clarify the value of combined use of markers for the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer and prediction of its prognosis.
METHODS: Serum cancer antigens (CA)199, CA242, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CA125 levels were measured in 78 patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC), 78 patients with benign gallbladder diseases, and 78 healthy controls using electrochemiluminescence. CA199, CA242, CEA, and CA125 levels and positive rates were analyzed and evaluated pre- and post-operatively. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of GBC. Survival time analysis, including survival curves, and multivariate survival analysis of a Cox proportional hazards model was performed to evaluate independent prognostic factors.
RESULTS: Serum CA242, CA125, and CA199 levels in the GBC group were significantly higher when compared with those in the benign gallbladder disease and healthy control groups (P < 0.01). With a single tumor marker for GBC diagnosis, the sensitivity of CA199 was the highest (71.7%), with the highest specificity being in CA242 (98.7%). Diagnostic accuracy was highest with a combination of CA199, CA242, and CA125 (69.2%). CA242 could be regarded as a tumor marker of GBC infiltration in the early stage. The sensitivity of CA199 and CA242 increased with progression of GBC and advanced lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The 78 GBC patients were followed up for 6-12 mo (mean: 8 mo), during which time serum CA199, CA125, and CA242 levels in the recurrence group were significantly higher than in patients without recurrence (P < 0.01). The post-operative serum CA199, CA125, and CA242 levels in the non-recurrence group were significantly lower than those in the GBC group (P < 0.01). Multivariate survival analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model showed that cancer of the gallbladder neck and CA199 expression level were independent prognostic factors.
CONCLUSION: CA242 is a marker of GBC infiltration in the early stage. CA199 and cancer of the gallbladder neck are therapeutic and prognostic markers.
Gallbladder cancer; Tumor marker; Combined detection; Diagnosis; Prognosis
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a relatively uncommon carcinoma among gastrointestinal cancers and usually has a rather poor prognosis. The most common subtype of GBC is adenocarcinoma (AC), which accounts for about 90% of GBC. Squamous carcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (SC/ASC) are comparatively rare histopathological subtypes of GBC. The clinicopathological features and biological behaviors of SC/ASC have not been well-characterized. No molecular biomarkers are currently available for predicting the progression, metastasis, and prognosis of the SC/ASC subtype of GBC.
We examined the expression levels of CCT2 and PDIA3 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in human GBC tissue samples collected from 46 patients with SC/ASC and evaluated the clinicopathological significance of both CCT2 and PDIA3 expression in the SC/ASC subtypes of GBC by Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis. For comparison, we included specimens from 80 AC patients in our study to investigate the specificity of CCT2 and PDIA3 expression in GBC subtypes.
We found that the positive expression of CCT2 and PDIA3 was significantly associated with clinicopathological features of both SC/ASC and AC specimens, including high TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Univariate analysis revealed that the two-year survival rate was significantly lower for patients with positive expression of CCT2 and PDIA3 than for those with negative expression. Multivariate analysis also indicated that the positive expression of CCT2 and PDIA3 was negatively correlated with poor postoperative patient survival and positively correlated with high mortality.
Our study suggests that positive expression of CCT2 or PDIA3 is associated with tumor progression and the clinical behavior of gallbladder carcinoma. Therefore, CCT2 and PDIA3 could be potentially important diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for both SC/ASC and AC subtypes of GBC.
gallbladder cancer; adenocarcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; adenosquamous carcinoma; CCT2; PDIA3
Non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), severe form of diseases belonging to the spectrum of the Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is an asymptomatic disease which leads to fibrosis and finally to cirrhosis, an end stage liver disease.
To study the effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on hepatic biomarkers and various biochemical parameters in experimentally induced non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
Materials and Methods:
Male Wister rats were divided into 8 groups. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) were assayed in serum. The levels of various other biochemical parameters such as serum albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid and glucose were also estimated in experimental NASH.
The NASH group produced severe liver injury by significantly increasing the serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH compared with that of the control. However, the experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone, with quercetin and with hydroxy citric acid showed an obvious decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and LDH levels when compared with that of NASH induced group. A significant increase in the levels of albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glucose and total bilirubin was noticed in experimentally induced NASH group (group 2) when compared to rats in control group (group 1).
It could be inferred from this study that, pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid may afford protection to the liver against NASH, as evidenced by the results of this study on the levels of various biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin. Whereas from the results of hepatic marker enzymes, it is evident that optimal protection was observed after quercetin treatment against experimental NASH whereas pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid also confers protection to some extent against NASH.
Biochemical parameters; experimentally induced NASH; hydroxy citric acid; liver marker enzymes; non alcoholic steatohepatitis; pioglitazone; non alcoholic fatty liver disease; non alcoholic steatohepatitis; quercetin
Cell replacement is an emerging therapy for type 1 diabetes. Pluripotent stem cells have received a lot of attention as a potential source of transplantable β-cells, but their ability to form teratomas poses significant risks. Here, we evaluated the potential of primary mouse gall bladder epithelial cells (GBCs) as targets for ex vivo genetic reprogramming to the β-cell fate. Conditions for robust expansion and genetic transduction of primary GBCs by adenoviral vectors were developed. Using a GFP reporter for insulin, conditions for reprogramming were then optimized. Global expression analysis by RNA-sequencing was used to quantitatively compare reprogrammed GBCs (rGBCs) to true β-cells, revealing both similarities and differences. Adenoviral-mediated expression of NEUROG3, Pdx1, and MafA in GBCs resulted in robust induction of pancreatic endocrine genes, including Ins1, Ins2, Neurod1, Nkx2-2 and Isl1. Furthermore, expression of GBC-specific genes was repressed, including Sox17 and Hes1. Reprogramming was also enhanced by addition of retinoic acid and inhibition of Notch signaling. Importantly, rGBCs were able to engraft long term in vivo and remained insulin-positive for 15 weeks. We conclude that GBCs are a viable source for autologous cell replacement in diabetes, but that complete reprogramming will require further manipulations.
gall bladder; type 1 diabetes; beta cells; insulin; reprogramming
Epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) are essential manifestations of epithelial cell plasticity during tumor progression. Transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) modulates epithelial plasticity in tumor physiological contexts by inducing EMT, which is associated with the altered expression of genes. In the present study, we used DNA micro-array analysis to search for differentially expressed genes in the TGF-β1 induced gallbladder carcinoma cell line (GBC-SD cells), as compared with normal GBC-SD cells. We identified 225 differentially expressed genes, including 144 that were over-expressed and 81 that were under-expressed in the TGF-β1 induced GBC-SD cells. NT5E (CD73) is the most increased gene, while the Fc fragment of the IgG binding protein (FcGBP) is the most decreased gene. The expression patterns of these two genes in gallbladder adenocarcinoma and chronic cholecystitis tissue were consistent with the micro-array data. Immunochemistry and clinicopathological results showed that the expression of NT5E and FcGBP in gallbladder adenocarcinoma is an independent marker for evaluation of the disease progression, clinical biological behaviors and prognosis. The data from the current study indicate that differential NT5E and FcGBP expressions could be further evaluated as biomarkers for predicting survival of patients with gallbladder cancer and that NT5E and FcGBP could be promising targets in the control of gallbladder cancer progression.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00441-013-1752-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
FcGBP; Gallbladder cancer; NT5E; TGF-β1; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition
Selective approach for sending cholecystectomy specimens for histopathology results in missing discrete pathologies such as premalignant benign lesions such as porcelain gallbladder, carcinoma-in-situ, and early carcinomas. To avoid such blunders therefore, every cholecystectomy specimen should be routinely examined histologically. Unfortunately, the practice of discarding gallbladder specimen is standard in most tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan including the primary investigators’ own institution. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility or otherwise of performing histopathology in every specimen of gallbladder.
This cohort study included 220 patients with gallstones for cholecystectomy. All cases with known secondaries from gallbladder, local invasion from other viscera, traumatic rupture of gallbladder, gross malignancy of gallbladder found during surgery was excluded from the study. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in majority of cases except in those cases where anatomical distortion and dense adhesions prevented laparoscopy. All gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathology, irrespective of their gross appearance.
Over a period of two years, 220 patients with symptomatic gallstones were admitted for cholecystectomy. Most of the patients were females (88%). Ninety two per cent patients presented with upper abdominal pain of varying duration. All specimens were sent for histopathology. Two hundred and three of the specimens showed evidence chronic cholecystitis, 7 acute cholecystitis with mucocele, 3 acute cholecystitis with empyema and one chronic cholecystitis associated with poly. Six gallbladders (2.8%) showed adenocarcinoma of varying differentiation along with cholelithiasis.
The histopathological spectrum of gallbladder is extremely variable. Incidental diagnosis of carcinoma gall bladder is not rare; if the protocol of routine histopathology of all gallbladder specimens is not followed, subclinical malignancies would fail to be identified with disastrous results. We strongly recommend routine histopathology of all cholecystectomy specimens.
Gallbladder malignancy; Cholelithiasis; Cholecystectomy
Background: Diverticulum of the human gall bladder is an important but distinct anatomical entity with significant clinical implications. It is one of the rarest congenital anomalies of the gall bladder being rarely discussed in literature. This article details the morphology of the diverticula found, along with the embryological basis and clinical significance of this important anatomical and clinical entity.
Aim: To study the diverticula found, with respect to their morphology, and ascertain whether they were of congenital or acquired variety.
Setting and Designs: The present study is a retrospective study carried on hundred cadavers during undergraduate dissection, in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, and Department of Anatomy, Subharti Medical College , Meerut during a four year period i.e. 2008-2012 after obtaining necessary permission from institutional ethical committee.
Material and Methods: Hundred gall bladder specimens collected from 10% formalin fixed cadavers were studied in detail with regard to their number, position, shapes dimensions and histology.
Results: Nine, congenital (true) diverticula were found in one hundred gall bladder specimens. The diverticula were of various shapes and dimensions. They formed pouches on the luminal surface of the gall bladder. Diagnosis of congenital diverticulum was confirmed by histology.
Conclusion: In this cadaveric study, solitary diverticulum was found in nine (9%) specimens out of one hundred specimens. Association of diverticulum with non-specific prolonged ailments, acalculus cholecystitis, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, recurrent cholangitis and carcinoma of gallbladder has been reported in literature. This important anatomical as well as clinical entity poses challenges for radiologists and laparoscopic surgeons during interventional procedures and also should be differentiated from other types of congenital anomalies and pathological states of gall bladder.
Gallbladder; Diverticulum; Congenital; Solitary; Cadaveric; Morphology
Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH-5) is one of the major isoenzymes catalyzing the biochemical process of pyruvate to lactate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of serum LDH-5 and test whether this enzyme is regulated by tumor hypoxia and represents a prognostic marker in patients with Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). In this study, LDH-5 levels were detected using agarose gel electrophoresis in NHL patients (n = 266) and non-NHL controls including benign lymphadenectasis (n = 30) and healthy cohorts (n = 233). We also explored the expression of LDH-5 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α in NHL and benign controls by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Moreover, the role of LDH-5 in the progression of NHL was assessed by multivariate Cox analyses and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. Serum concentrations of LDH-5 were significantly higher in NHL patients (9.3%) than in benign patients and healthy controls (7.5% and 7.2%, respectively, P<0.01). Application of LDH-5 detection increased the sensitivity of NHL detection, identifying 53.4% of NHL patients as positive, compared with the measurement of total LDH levels (36.5% sensitivity). LDH-5 concentrations increased with clinical stage, extra-nodal site involvement, and WHO performance status of patients with NHL. Exposure to a hypoxic environment induced the expression of LDH-5 and its overexpression correlated with HIF1α cytoplasmic accumulation in NHL cells. In multivariate analyses, LDH-5 was an independent marker for progression-free survival in patients with NHL (P<0.001). Overall, the expression of LDH-5 was elevated in NHL, showing an association with tumor hypoxia and unfavorable prognosis. Thus, LDH-5 emerges as a promising prognostic predictor for NHL patients.
The symptoms of gallbladder cancer (GBC) are vague and non-specific. Therefore, GBC is often detected at an advanced or metastatic stage. The most effective treatment for GBC is surgical resection, however the majority of GBC cases are unresectable at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, numerous GBC patients undergo chemotherapy. This study reports the case of a 60-year-old female with GBC who underwent successful surgical curative resection following a single dose of the chemotherapeutic agent, S-1, twice daily for 4 weeks followed by a 14-day rest period for 36 months. S-1 is a novel orally administered drug composed of a combination of the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug, tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP) and oteracil potassium in a 1:0.4:1 molar concentration ratio. The focus of the present study was the candidate factors that affect the therapeutic efficacy of S-1-based chemotherapy. In particular, the gene expression involved in the S-1 metabolic pathway was investigated by assessing the intratumoral dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidylate synthase (TS) and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene expression. The surgical specimen exhibited high intratumoral DPD gene expression levels compared with those observed in previously reported non S-1 responsive cases of biliary tract cancer. Due to the results obtained in the current study, we hypothesize that CDHP enhanced the antitumor efficacy of 5-FU by inhibiting the excess DPD protein produced by the tumor.
gallbladder cancer; S-1; gene expression
Background. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is often misdiagnosed as gallbladder cancer (GBC). We aimed to determine the preoperative characteristics that could potentially aid in an accurate diagnosis of XGC masquerading as GBC. Methods. An analysis of patients operated upon with a preoperative diagnosis of GBC between January 2008 and December 2012 was conducted to determine the clinical and radiological features which could assist in a preoperative diagnosis of XGC. Results. Out of 77 patients who underwent radical cholecystectomy, 16 were reported as XGC on final histopathology (Group A), while 60 were GBC (Group B). The incidences of abdominal pain, cholelithiasis, choledocholithiasis, and acute cholecystitis were significantly higher in Group A, while anorexia and weight loss were higher in Group B. On CT, diffuse gallbladder wall thickening, continuous mucosal line enhancement, and submucosal hypoattenuated nodules were significant findings in Group A. CT findings on retrospect revealed at least one of these findings in 68.7% of the cases. Conclusion. Differentiating XGC from GBC is difficult, and a definitive diagnosis still necessitates a histopathological examination. An accurate preoperative diagnosis requires an integrated review of clinical and characteristic radiological features, the presence of which may help avoid radical resection and avoidable morbidity in selected cases.
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) shows a marked geographical variation in its incidence. Middle-aged and elderly women are more commonly affected. Risk factors for its development include the presence of gallstones, chronic infection and pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Controversy remains in regard to the theory of carcinogenesis from adenomyomatosis, porcelain gallbladder and adenoma of the gallbladder. The surgical strategy and prognosis after surgery for GBC differ strikingly according to T-stage. Discrimination of favorable cases, particularly T2 or T3 lesions, is useful for the selection of surgical strategies for individual patients. Although many candidate factors predicting disease progression, such as depth of subserosal invasion, horizontal tumor spread, tumor budding, dedifferentiation, Ki-67 labeling index, p53 nuclear expression, CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, mitotic counts, Laminin-5-gamma-2 chain, hypoxia-inducible factor-1a, cyclooxygenase-2 and the Hedgehog signaling pathway have been investigated, useful prognostic makers or factors have not been established. As GBC is often discovered incidentally after routine cholecystectomy and accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult, close mutual cooperation between surgeons and pathologists is essential for developing a rational surgical strategy for GBC.
Gallbladder cancer; Surgical strategy; Pathology; Prognostic factors
With the help of my colleagues, I have been conducting epidemiological studies on biliary tract cancer (BTC), including gallbladder cancer (GBC) and extrahepatic bile duct cancer (BDC), in Japan and Chile for about 19 years. Clustered areas with high mortality rates, especially for female GBC were found to correspond with places or prefectures in Japan that were famous for rice production. The roles of known risk factors, such as gallstones and cholecystitis, were examined, but no single factor was implicated in the high mortality rates for GBC in these areas. A working hypothesis, called the “rice production hypothesis” was formulated; this initial hypothesis was replaced by a new multifactorial causation hypothesis: GBC is more likely to occur in individuals with a genetic susceptibility and a past history of gallstones or cholecystitis who are exposed to geographically specific environmental factors, such as agricultural chemicals. On the basis of various analytical studies, it is concluded that a certain agricultural chemical was responsible for the occurrence of GBC. At the time of writing, no evidence has been obtained to disprove our hypothesis. We have also conducted international collaborative studies in Chile, which has the highest mortality rate for GBC in the world. Bile from Chileans was found to have a higher mutagenic activity than that from Japanese subjects; Chileans with a history of constipation or a habit of consuming red chilli pepper had a high risk of developing GBC, if they also had gallstone(s). The presence of a regional difference in p53 mutagenesis was also observed.
epidemiology; biliary tract cancer; gallbladder cancer; bile duct cancer; Japan; Chile
Forkhead box L1 (FOXL1), considered as a novel candidate tumor suppressor, suppresses proliferation and invasion in certain cancers. However, the regulation and function of FOXL1 in gallbladder cancer (GBC) remains unclear.
FOXL1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in GBC tissues and cell lines were examined by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot assay. FOXL1 expression in GBC cell lines was up-regulated by transfection with pcDNA-FOXL1. The effects of FOXL1 overexpression on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were evaluated in vitro or in vivo. In addition, the status of mediators involved in migration, invasion and apoptosis was examined using western blot after transfection with pcDNA-FOXL1.
FOXL1 was frequently downregulated in GBC tissues and cell lines. Its higher expression is associated with better prognosis, while its lower expression is correlated with advanced TNM stage and poor differentiation. FOXL1 overexpression in NOZ cells significantly suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and tumorigenicity in nude mice. FOXL1 overexpression disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential and triggered mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in NOZ cells. In addition, FOXL1 overexpression suppressed ZEB1 expression and induced E-cadherin expression in NOZ cells.
Our findings suggested that dysregulated FOXL1 is involved in tumorigenesis and progression of GBC and may serve as a predictor of clinical outcome or even a therapeutic target for patients with GBC.
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and its prognosis remains poor, with 5-year survival of approximately 5%. In this study, we analyzed the involvement of a novel proteoglycan, Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazal-like domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in the tumor progression and prognosis of human GBC.
SPOCK1 expression levels were measured in fresh samples and stored specimens of GBC and adjacent nontumor tissues. The effect of SPOCK1 on cell growth, DNA replication, migration and invasion were explored by Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation, EdU retention assay, wound healing, and transwell migration assays, flow cytometric analysis, western blotting, and in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis in nude mice.
SPOCK1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in human GBC tissues compared with those in nontumor tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that SPOCK1 levels were increased in tumors that became metastatic, compared with those that did not, which was significantly associated with histological differentiation and patients with shorter overall survival periods. Knockdown of SPOCK1 expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA transduction resulted in significant inhibition of GBC cell growth, colony formation, DNA replication, and invasion in vitro. The knockdown cells also formed smaller xenografted tumors than control GBC cells in nude mice. Overexpression of SPOCK1 had the opposite effects. In addition, SPOCK1 promoted cancer cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by regulating the expression of relevant genes. We found that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was involved in the oncogenic functions of SPOCK1 in GBC.
SPOCK1 activates PI3K/Akt signaling to block apoptosis and promote proliferation and metastasis by GBC cells in vitro and in vivo. Levels of SPOCK1 increase with the progression of human GBC. SPOCK1 acts as an oncogene and may be a prognostic factor or therapeutic target for patients with GBC.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12943-014-0276-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Gallbladder cancer; SPOCK1; Tumor progression; RNA interference; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition
Ongoing, lifelong neurogenesis maintains the neuronal population of the olfactory epithelium in the face of piecemeal neuronal turnover and restores it following wholesale loss. The molecular phenotypes corresponding to different stages along the progression from multipotent globose basal cell (GBC) progenitor to differentiated olfactory sensory neuron are poorly characterized. We used the transgenic expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and cell surface markers to FACS-isolate ΔSox2-eGFP(+) GBCs, Neurog1-eGFP(+) GBCs and immature neurons, and ΔOMP-eGFP(+) mature neurons from normal adult mice. In addition, the latter two populations were also collected 3 weeks after olfactory bulb ablation, a lesion that results in persistently elevated neurogenesis. Global profiling of mRNA from the populations indicates that all stages of neurogenesis share a cohort of >2,100 genes that are upregulated compared to sustentacular cells. A further cohort of >1,200 genes are specifically upregulated in GBCs as compared to sustentacular cells and differentiated neurons. The increased rate of neurogenesis caused by olfactory bulbectomy had little effect on the transcriptional profile of the Neurog1-eGFP(+) population. In contrast, the abbreviated lifespan of ΔOMP-eGFP(+) neurons born in the absence of the bulb correlated with substantial differences in gene expression as compared to the mature neurons of the normal epithelium. Detailed examination of the specific genes upregulated in the different progenitor populations revealed that the chromatin modifying complex proteins LSD1 and coREST were expressed sequentially in upstream ΔSox2-eGFP(+) GBCs and Neurog1-eGFP(+) GBCs/immature neurons. The expression patterns of these proteins are dynamically regulated after activation of the epithelium by methyl bromide lesion.
microarray; neurogenesis; regeneration; Neurog1; Sox2; LSD1; coREST
Carcinoma of the gallbladder (GBC) clinically mimics benign gallbladder diseases and often escapes detection until advanced stage. Despite the frequency of cholecystectomy, diagnosis of GBC remains problematic in many situations. We sought to identify pathologic features that contribute to the difficulty in recognition of GBC.
We identified 23 patients (ranged from 45 to 86 years, male to female ratio 1:4.5) with carcinoma involving the gallbladder referred to an academic medical center over a period of 10 years for study. This includes 10 cases of primary GBC, 6 cases of metastatic tumor to gallbladder, 6 cases of directly invasive adenocarcinoma arising elsewhere in the biliary tree, and one case of unidentified origin adenocarcinoma. Primary tumors include adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS) in 6 cases, papillary adenocarcinoma in 2 cases, and single cases of undifferentiated carcinoma and combined adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Metastatic tumors to gallbladder were from a wide range of primary sites, predominantly the gastrointestinal tract.
These cases illustrate seven potential pitfalls which can be encountered. These include: 1) mistakenly making a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of gallbladder when only benign lesions such as deeply penetrating Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are present (overdiagnosis), 2) misdiagnosing well-differentiated invasive carcinoma with minimal disease as benign disease (underdiagnosis), 3) differentiating between primary NEC of gallbladder and metastasis, 4) confusing primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of gallbladder with pseudomyxoma peritonei from a low grade appendiceal neoplasm disseminated to gallbladder, 5) confusing gangrenous necrosis related to cholecystitis with geographic tumoral necrosis, 6) undersampling early, grossly occult disease, and 7) misinterpreting extracellular mucin pools.
Clinical history and a high index of suspicion are prerequisite to detecting GBC. Detection of GBC at an early stage is difficult because the symptoms mimic benign gallbladder diseases. Misinterpretation of subtle microscopic abnormalities contributes diagnostic failures in early cases. Careful attention to any evidence of mural thickening, thorough sampling, particularly in older patients, and close examination of any deeply situated glandular structures are critical. Correlations with radiographic and clinical findings are important helps to avoid misdiagnosis in this commonly resected organ.
Carcinoma; gallbladder neoplasm; immunohistochemistry; histology; misdiagnosis