Lipolytic enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in the presence of water. In media with low water content or in organic solvents, they can catalyze synthetic reactions such as esterification and transesterification. Lipases and esterases, in particular those from extremophilic origin, are robust enzymes, functional under the harsh conditions of industrial processes owing to their inherent thermostability and resistance towards organic solvents, which combined with their high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity make them very attractive biocatalysts for a variety of industrial applications. Likewise, enzymes from extremophile sources can provide additional features such as activity at extreme temperatures, extreme pH values or high salinity levels, which could be interesting for certain purposes. New lipases and esterases have traditionally been discovered by the isolation of microbial strains producing lipolytic activity. The Genome Projects Era allowed genome mining, exploiting homology with known lipases and esterases, to be used in the search for new enzymes. The Metagenomic Era meant a step forward in this field with the study of the metagenome, the pool of genomes in an environmental microbial community. Current molecular biology techniques make it possible to construct total environmental DNA libraries, including the genomes of unculturable organisms, opening a new window to a vast field of unknown enzymes with new and unique properties. Here, we review the latest advances and findings from research into new extremophilic lipases and esterases, using metagenomic approaches, and their potential industrial and biotechnological applications.
Extremophiles; industrial biocatalysts; lipases and esterases; lipolytic enzymes classification; metagenomics; non-culturable microorganisms.
The proteome of the radiation- and desiccation-resistant bacterium D. radiodurans features a group of proteins that contain significant intrinsically disordered regions that are not present in non-extremophile homologues. Interestingly, this group includes a number of housekeeping and repair proteins such as DNA polymerase III, nudix hydrolase and rotamase. Here, we focus on a member of the nudix hydrolase family from D. radiodurans possessing low-complexity N- and C-terminal tails, which exhibit sequence signatures of intrinsic disorder and have unknown function. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxidatively damaged and mutagenic nucleotides, and it is thought to play an important role in D. radiodurans during the recovery phase after exposure to ionizing radiation or desiccation. We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the dynamics of the protein, and study its hydration free energy using the GB/SA formalism. We show that the presence of disordered tails significantly decreases the hydration free energy of the whole protein. We hypothesize that the tails increase the chances of the protein to be located in the remaining water patches in the desiccated cell, where it is protected from the desiccation effects and can function normally. We extrapolate this to other intrinsically disordered regions in proteins, and propose a novel function for them: intrinsically disordered regions increase the “surface-properties” of the folded domains they are attached to, making them on the whole more hydrophilic and potentially influencing, in this way, their localization and cellular activity.
Intrinsically disordered proteins and protein segments carry out a wide range of important biological functions despite their lack of permanent tertiary structure. Using advanced computational methods we study the biophysical properties of the intrinsically disordered regions in the enzyme nudix hydrolase from the desiccation- and radiation-resistant bacterium D. radiodurans. Interestingly, these regions are absent in homologue proteins in non-extremophile bacteria, suggesting that they might be involved in helping the key rescue-and-repair proteins in D. radiodurans, such as nudix hydrolase, adapt to the extreme absence of water. We show that the disordered regions in nudix hydrolase enlarge the overall surface of the enzyme, and most importantly, increase its overall affinity for water (i.e. its hydrophilicity). We suggest a novel hypothesis that this, indeed, may be the principal function of disordered regions in some cases: they increase the chances of the protein to be located in the remaining water patches in the desiccated cell, where it is protected from the desiccation effects and can function normally.
The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely made this area of investigation more exciting. Particularly fascinating are their structural and physiological features allowing them to withstand extremely selective environmental conditions. These properties are often due to specific biomolecules (DNA, lipids, enzymes, osmolites, etc.) that have been studied for years as novel sources for biotechnological applications. In some cases (DNA-polymerase, thermostable enzymes), the search and applications successful exceeded preliminary expectations, but certainly further exploitations are still needed.
anaerobic thermophiles; thermal ecosystems; extremophiles; deep-sea; taxonomy; biotechnology
Petroleum reservoirs have long been known as the hosts of extremophilic microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms are known for their potential biotechnological applications, particularly production of extra and intracellular polymers and enzymes.
Here, 14 petroleum liquid samples from southern Iranian oil reservoirs were screened for presence of biosurfactant‐producing halothermophiles.
Materials and Methods:
Mixture of the reservoir fluid samples with a minimal growth medium was incubated under an N2 atmosphere in 40°C; 0.5 mL samples were transferred from the aqueous phase to agar plates after 72 hours of incubation; 100 mL cell cultures were prepared using the MSS-1 (mineral salt solution 1) liquid medium with 5% (w/v) NaCl. The time-course samples were analyzed by recording the absorbance at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer. Incubation was carried out in 40°C with mild shaking in aerobic conditions. Thermotolerance was evaluated by growing the isolates at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C with varying NaCl concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/v). Halotolerance was evaluated using NaCl concentrations of 5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% (w/v) and incubating them at 40°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Different phenotypic characteristics were evaluated, as outlined in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Comparing 16S rDNA sequences is one of the most powerful tools for classification of microorganisms.
Among 34 isolates, 10 demonstrated biosurfactant production and growth at temperatures between 40°C and 70°C in saline media containing 5%‐15% w/v NaCl. Using partial 16S rDNA sequencing (and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [ARDRA]) and biochemical tests (API tests 20E and 50 CHB), all the 10 isolates proved to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive moderate thermohalophiles of the genus Bacillus (B. thermoglucosidasius, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermoleovorans, B. stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis), exhibiting surface-active behaviors.
General patterns include decreasing the thermotolerance with increasing the salt concentrations and also more halotolerance in the aerobic environment compared with anaerobic conditions. The results demonstrated that Iranian petroleum reservoirs enjoy a source of indigenous extremophilic microorganisms with potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and commercial enzyme production.
Bacillus; Microorganism; Petroleum
Life has effectively colonized most of our planet and extremophilic organisms require specialized enzymes to survive under harsh conditions. Cold-loving organisms (psychrophiles) express heat-labile enzymes that possess a high specific activity and catalytic efficiency at low temperatures. A remarkable universal characteristic of cold-active enzymes is that they show a reduction both in activation enthalpy and entropy, compared to mesophilic orthologs, which makes their reaction rates less sensitive to falling temperature. Despite significant efforts since the early 1970s, the important question of the origin of this effect still largely remains unanswered. Here we use cold- and warm-active trypsins as model systems to investigate the temperature dependence of the reaction rates with extensive molecular dynamics free energy simulations. The calculations quantitatively reproduce the catalytic rates of the two enzymes and further yield high-precision Arrhenius plots, which show the characteristic trends in activation enthalpy and entropy. Detailed structural analysis indicates that the relationship between these parameters and the 3D structure is reflected by significantly different internal protein energy changes during the reaction. The origin of this effect is not localized to the active site, but is found in the outer regions of the protein, where the cold-active enzyme has a higher degree of softness. Several structural mechanisms for softening the protein surface are identified, together with key mutations responsible for this effect. Our simulations further show that single point-mutations can significantly affect the thermodynamic activation parameters, indicating how these can be optimized by evolution.
Cold-adapted organisms require specialized enzymes to maintain functional integrity at low temperatures, and psychrophiles express heat-labile enzymes that possess a high specific activity and catalytic efficiency at low temperatures. The high catalytic rates are achieved by enzyme adaptations yielding lower activation enthalpies and entropies than for mesophilic homologs, thereby solving the problem of the exponential rate decrease with falling temperature. However, the structural mechanisms behind this universal property of cold-adapted enzymes remain unknown. By extensive computer simulations, which reproduce both the experimental reaction rates and the characteristic temperature dependence of activation free energies, we show that it is the softness of the protein-water surface that regulates the activation enthalpy-entropy balance. Structural mechanisms behind this phenomenon are identified and our simulations show that single mutations can significantly affect the thermodynamic activation parameters, indicating how these can be optimized by evolution.
Extremophiles, especially those in Archaea, have a myriad of adaptations that keep their cellular proteins stable and active under the extreme conditions in which they live. Rather than having one basic set of adaptations that works for all environments, Archaea have evolved separate protein features that are customized for each environment. We categorized the Archaea into three general groups to describe what is known about their protein adaptations: thermophilic, psychrophilic, and halophilic. Thermophilic proteins tend to have a prominent hydrophobic core and increased electrostatic interactions to maintain activity at high temperatures. Psychrophilic proteins have a reduced hydrophobic core and a less charged protein surface to maintain flexibility and activity under cold temperatures. Halophilic proteins are characterized by increased negative surface charge due to increased acidic amino acid content and peptide insertions, which compensates for the extreme ionic conditions. While acidophiles, alkaliphiles, and piezophiles are their own class of Archaea, their protein adaptations toward pH and pressure are less discernible. By understanding the protein adaptations used by archaeal extremophiles, we hope to be able to engineer and utilize proteins for industrial, environmental, and biotechnological applications where function in extreme conditions is required for activity.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) offer several advantages for applications in biomedical and biotechnological research. In particular, MNP-based immobilization of enzymes allows high surface-to-volume ratio, good dispersibility, easy separation of enzymes from the reaction mixture, and reuse by applying an external magnetic field. In a biotechnological perspective, extremophilic enzymes hold great promise as they often can be used under non-conventional harsh conditions, which may result in substrate transformations that are not achievable with normal enzymes. This prompted us to investigate the effect of MNP bioconjugation on the catalytic properties of a thermostable carboxypeptidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (CPSso), which exhibits catalytic properties that are useful in synthetic processes.
CPSso was immobilized onto silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles via NiNTA-His tag site-directed conjugation. Following the immobilization, CPSso acquired distinctly higher long-term stability at room temperature compared to the free native enzyme, which, in contrast, underwent extensive inactivation after 72 h incubation, thus suggesting a potential utilization of this enzyme under low energy consumption. Moreover, CPSso conjugation also resulted in a significantly higher stability in organic solvents at 40°C, which made it possible to synthesize N-blocked amino acids in remarkably higher yields compared to those of free enzyme.
The nanobioconjugate of CPSso immobilized on silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles exhibited enhanced stability in aqueous media at room temperature as well as in different organic solvents. The improved stability in ethanol paves the way to possible applications of immobilized CPSso, in particular as a biocatalyst for the synthesis of N-blocked amino acids. Another potential application might be amino acid racemate resolution, a critical and expensive step in chemical synthesis.
Carboxypeptidase; Magnetic nanoparticles; His-tag immobilization; Enzyme stability; Hyperthermophilic microorganisms
Extremophiles are micro-organisms adapted to survive in ecological niches defined as ‘extreme’ for humans and characterized by the presence of adverse environmental conditions, such as high or low temperatures, extreme values of pH, high salt concentrations or high pressure. Biomolecules isolated from extremophiles possess extraordinary properties and, in particular, proteins isolated from extremophiles represent unique biomolecules that function under severe conditions, comparable to those prevailing in various industrial processes.
In this article, we will review some examples of recent applications of thermophilic proteins for the development of a new class of fluorescence non-consuming substrate biosensors for monitoring the levels of two analytes of high social interest, such as glucose and sodium.
biosensor; fluorescence; extremophiles
Recent advances in molecular and structural biology have improved the availability of virtually any biocatalyst in large quantity and have also provided an insight into the detailed structure-function relationships of many of them. These results allowed the rational exploitation of biocatalysts for use in organic synthesis. In this context, extremophilic enzymes are extensively studied for their potential interest for many biotechnological and industrial applications, as they offer increased rates of reactions, higher substrate solubility, and/or longer enzyme half-lives at the conditions of industrial processes. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), for its ubiquitous nature, represents a suitable model for analyzing enzyme adaptation to extreme environments. In fact, many SHMT sequences from Eukarya, Eubacteria and Archaea are available in data banks as well as several crystal structures. In addition, SHMT is structurally conserved because of its critical metabolic role; consequently, very few structural changes have occurred during evolution. Our research group analyzed the molecular basis of SHMT adaptation to high and low temperatures, using experimental and comparative in silico approaches. These structural and functional studies of SHMTs purified from extremophilic organisms can help to understand the peculiarities of the enzyme activity at extreme temperatures, indicating possible strategies for rational enzyme engineering.
Extremophiles are organisms that can grow and thrive in harsh conditions, e.g., extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, radiation, pressure and oxygen tension. Thermophilic, halophilic and radiation-resistant organisms are all microbes, some of which are able to withstand multiple extremes. Psychrophiles, or cold-loving organisms, include not only microbes, but fish that live in polar waters and animals that can withstand freezing. Extremophiles are structurally adapted at a molecular level to withstand these conditions. Thermophiles have particularly stable proteins and cell membranes, psychrophiles have flexible cellular proteins and membranes and/or antifreeze proteins, salt-resistant halophiles contain compatible solutes or high concentrations of inorganic ions, and acidophiles and alkaliphiles are able to pump ions to keep their internal pH close to neutrality. Their interest to veterinary medicine resides in their capacity to be pathogenic, and as sources of enzymes and other molecules for diagnostic and pharmaceutical purposes. In particular, thermostable DNA polymerases are a mainstay of PCR-based diagnostics.
Extremophiles; Adaptation; Thermophiles; Extremozymes; Diagnostics; Polymerase chain reaction
Among extremophiles, halophiles are defined as microorganisms adapted to live and thrive in diverse extreme saline environments. These extremophilic microorganisms constitute the source of a number of hydrolases with great biotechnological applications. The interest to use extremozymes from halophiles in industrial applications is their resistance to organic solvents and extreme temperatures. Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 is a moderately halophilic bacterium, isolated previously from a saline habitat in South Spain, showing lipolytic activity.
Methods and Findings
A lipolytic enzyme from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 was isolated. This enzyme, designated LipBL, was expressed in Escherichia coli. LipBL is a protein of 404 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45.3 kDa and high identity to class C β-lactamases. LipBL was purified and biochemically characterized. The temperature for its maximal activity was 80°C and the pH optimum determined at 25°C was 7.0, showing optimal activity without sodium chloride, while maintaining 20% activity in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. This enzyme exhibited high activity against short-medium length acyl chain substrates, although it also hydrolyzes olive oil and fish oil. The fish oil hydrolysis using LipBL results in an enrichment of free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), relative to its levels present in fish oil. For improving the stability and to be used in industrial processes LipBL was immobilized in different supports. The immobilized derivatives CNBr-activated Sepharose were highly selective towards the release of EPA versus DHA. The enzyme is also active towards different chiral and prochiral esters. Exposure of LipBL to buffer-solvent mixtures showed that the enzyme had remarkable activity and stability in all organic solvents tested.
In this study we isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and immobilized a lipolytic enzyme from a halophilic bacterium M. lipolyticus, which constitutes an enzyme with excellent properties to be used in the food industry, in the enrichment in omega-3 PUFAs.
Microbial enzymes from extremophilic regions such as hot spring serve as an important source of various stable and valuable industrial enzymes. The present paper encompasses the modeling and optimization approach for production of halophilic, solvent, tolerant, and alkaline lipase from Staphylococcus arlettae through response surface methodology integrated nature inspired genetic algorithm. Response surface model based on central composite design has been developed by considering the individual and interaction effects of fermentation conditions on lipase production through submerged fermentation. The validated input space of response surface model (with R2 value of 96.6%) has been utilized for optimization through genetic algorithm. An optimum lipase yield of 6.5 U/mL has been obtained using binary coded genetic algorithm predicted conditions of 9.39% inoculum with the oil concentration of 10.285% in 2.99 hrs using pH of 7.32 at 38.8°C. This outcome could contribute to introducing this extremophilic lipase (halophilic, solvent, and tolerant) to industrial biotechnology sector and will be a probable choice for different food, detergent, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. The present work also demonstrated the feasibility of statistical design tools integration with computational tools for optimization of fermentation conditions for maximum lipase production.
The model halophile Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 was among the first Archaea to be completely sequenced and many post-genomic tools, including whole genome DNA microarrays are now being applied to its analysis. This extremophile displays tolerance to multiple stresses, including high salinity, extreme (non-mesophilic) temperatures, lack of oxygen, and ultraviolet and ionizing radiation.
In order to study the response of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 to two common stressors, salinity and temperature, we used whole genome DNA microarrays to assay for changes in gene expression under differential growth conditions. Cultures grown aerobically in rich medium at 42°C were compared to cultures grown at elevated or reduced temperature and high or low salinity. The results obtained were analyzed using a custom database and microarray analysis tools. Growth under salt stress conditions resulted in the modulation of genes coding for many ion transporters, including potassium, phosphate, and iron transporters, as well as some peptide transporters and stress proteins. Growth at cold temperature altered the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, buoyant gas vesicles, and cold shock proteins. Heat shock showed induction of several known chaperone genes. The results showed that Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 cells are highly responsive to environmental changes at the level of gene expression.
Transcriptional profiling showed that Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 is highly responsive to its environment and provided insights into some of the specific responses at the level of gene expression. Responses to changes in salt conditions appear to be designed to minimize the loss of essential ionic species and abate possible toxic effects of others, while exposure to temperature extremes elicit responses to promote protein folding and limit factors responsible for growth inhibition. This work lays the foundation for further bioinformatic and genetic studies which will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the biology of a model halophilic Archaeon.
► Detailed molecular evolution of metalloenzymes that catalyse the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide. ► Three protein families of differing structure, catalytic mechanism, distribution and evolutionary age. ► Catalatic enzymes in pathogenic organisms are promising targets for drug design. ► Occurrence of biotechnological interesting representatives in extremophiles.
For efficient removal of intra- and/or extracellular hydrogen peroxide by dismutation to harmless dioxygen and water (2H2O2 → O2 + 2H2O), nature designed three metalloenzyme families that differ in oligomeric organization, monomer architecture as well as active site geometry and catalytic residues. Here we report on the updated reconstruction of the molecular phylogeny of these three gene families. Ubiquitous typical (monofunctional) heme catalases are found in all domains of life showing a high structural conservation. Their evolution was directed from large subunit towards small subunit proteins and further to fused proteins where the catalase fold was retained but lost its original functionality. Bifunctional catalase–peroxidases were at the origin of one of the two main heme peroxidase superfamilies (i.e. peroxidase–catalase superfamily) and constitute a protein family predominantly present among eubacteria and archaea, but two evolutionary branches are also found in the eukaryotic world. Non-heme manganese catalases are a relatively small protein family with very old roots only present among bacteria and archaea. Phylogenetic analyses of the three protein families reveal features typical (i) for the evolution of whole genomes as well as (ii) for specific evolutionary events including horizontal gene transfer, paralog formation and gene fusion. As catalases have reached a striking diversity among prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, understanding their phylogenetic and molecular relationship and function will contribute to drug design for prevention of diseases of humans, animals and plants.
Catalase; Catalase–peroxidase; Manganese catalase; Molecular evolution; Pathogen; Horizontal gene transfer
Environments that are hostile to life are characterized by reduced microbial activity which results in poor soil- and plant-health, low biomass and biodiversity, and feeble ecosystem development. Whereas the functional biosphere may primarily be constrained by water activity (aw) the mechanism(s) by which this occurs have not been fully elucidated. Remarkably we found that, for diverse species of xerophilic fungi at aw values of ≤ 0.72, water activity per se did not limit cellular function. We provide evidence that chaotropic activity determined their biotic window, and obtained mycelial growth at water activities as low as 0.647 (below that recorded for any microbial species) by addition of compounds that reduced the net chaotropicity. Unexpectedly we found that some fungi grew optimally under chaotropic conditions, providing evidence for a previously uncharacterized class of extremophilic microbes. Further studies to elucidate the way in which solute activities interact to determine the limits of life may lead to enhanced biotechnological processes, and increased productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems in arid and semiarid regions.
Arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima is a 27.7 kDa protein possessing the typical two-domain structure of the periplasmic binding proteins family. The protein is characterized by a very high specificity and affinity to bind to arginine, also at high temperatures. Due to its features, this protein could be taken into account as a potential candidate for the design of a biosensor for arginine. It is important to investigate the stability of proteins when they are used for biotechnological applications. In this article, we review the structural and functional features of an arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima with a particular eye on its potential biotechnological applications.
ABC transporters; periplasmic binding proteins; arginine; structural stability; unfolding
Extremophiles are the microorganisms which can survive under extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, pH, salinity etc. They have gained much attention for their potential role in biotechnological and industrial applications. The large amount of experimental data in the literature is so diverse, that it becomes difficult and time consuming for the researcher to implement it in various areas of research. Therefore, a systematic arrangement of data and redirection in a similar fashion through web interface can assist researchers in analyzing the data as per their requirement. ExtremeDB is a freely available web based relational database which integrates general characteristics, genome-proteome information, industrial applications and recent scientific investigations of the seven major groups of 865 extremophillic microorganisms. The search options are user friendly and analyses tools such as Compare and Extreme BLAST have been incorporated for comparative analysis of two or more extremophiles and determining the sequence similarity of a given protein/nucleotide in relation to other extremophiles respectively. The effort put forth herein in the form of database, would open up new avenues on the potential utility of extremophiles in applied research. ExtremeDB is freely accessible via http://extrem.igib.res.in.
Natrialba magadii is an aerobic chemoorganotrophic member of the Euryarchaeota and is a dual extremophile requiring alkaline conditions and hypersalinity for optimal growth. The genome sequence of Nab. magadii type strain ATCC 43099 was deciphered to obtain a comprehensive insight into the genetic content of this haloarchaeon and to understand the basis of some of the cellular functions necessary for its survival.
The genome of Nab. magadii consists of four replicons with a total sequence of 4,443,643 bp and encodes 4,212 putative proteins, some of which contain peptide repeats of various lengths. Comparative genome analyses facilitated the identification of genes encoding putative proteins involved in adaptation to hypersalinity, stress response, glycosylation, and polysaccharide biosynthesis. A proton-driven ATP synthase and a variety of putative cytochromes and other proteins supporting aerobic respiration and electron transfer were encoded by one or more of Nab. magadii replicons. The genome encodes a number of putative proteases/peptidases as well as protein secretion functions. Genes encoding putative transcriptional regulators, basal transcription factors, signal perception/transduction proteins, and chemotaxis/phototaxis proteins were abundant in the genome. Pathways for the biosynthesis of thiamine, riboflavin, heme, cobalamin, coenzyme F420 and other essential co-factors were deduced by in depth sequence analyses. However, approximately 36% of Nab. magadii protein coding genes could not be assigned a function based on Blast analysis and have been annotated as encoding hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins. Furthermore, despite extensive comparative genomic analyses, genes necessary for survival in alkaline conditions could not be identified in Nab. magadii.
Based on genomic analyses, Nab. magadii is predicted to be metabolically versatile and it could use different carbon and energy sources to sustain growth. Nab. magadii has the genetic potential to adapt to its milieu by intracellular accumulation of inorganic cations and/or neutral organic compounds. The identification of Nab. magadii genes involved in coenzyme biosynthesis is a necessary step toward further reconstruction of the metabolic pathways in halophilic archaea and other extremophiles. The knowledge gained from the genome sequence of this haloalkaliphilic archaeon is highly valuable in advancing the applications of extremophiles and their enzymes.
Understanding the mechanisms that govern protein stability under poly-extreme conditions continues to be a major challenge. Xylanase (BSX) from Bacillus sp. NG-27, which has a TIM-barrel structure, shows optimum activity at high temperature and alkaline pH, and is resistant to denaturation by SDS and degradation by proteinase K. A comparative circular dichroism analysis was performed on native BSX and a recombinant BSX (R-BSX) with just one additional methionine resulting from the start codon. The results of this analysis revealed the role of the partially exposed N-terminus in the unfolding of BSX in response to an increase in temperature.
We investigated the poly-extremophilicity of BSX to deduce the structural features responsible for its stability under one set of conditions, in order to gain information about its stability in other extreme conditions. To systematically address the role of the partially exposed N-terminus in BSX stability, a series of mutants was generated in which the first hydrophobic residue, valine (Val1), was either deleted or substituted with various amino acids. Each mutant was subsequently analyzed for its thermal, SDS and proteinase K stability in comparison to native BSX.
A single conversion of Val1 to glycine (Gly) changed R-BSX from being thermo- and alkali- stable and proteinase K and SDS resistant, to being thermolabile and proteinase K-, alkali- and SDS- sensitive. This result provided insight into the structure-function relationships of BSX under poly-extreme conditions. Molecular, biochemical and structural data revealed that the poly-extremophilicity of BSX is governed by a partially exposed N-terminus through hydrophobic interactions. Such hitherto unidentified N-terminal hydrophobic interactions may play a similar role in other proteins, especially those with TIM-barrel structures. The results of the present study are therefore of major significance for protein folding and protein engineering.
OLE (Ornate, Large, Extremophilic) RNAs represent a recently discovered non-coding RNA class found in extremophilic anaerobic bacteria, including certain human pathogens. OLE RNAs exhibit several unusual characteristics that indicate a potentially novel function, including exceptionally high expression and localization to cell membranes via interaction with a protein partner called OLE-associated protein (OAP). In the current study, new genetic and phenotypic characteristics of OLE RNA from Bacillus halodurans C-125 were established. OLE RNA is transcribed at high levels from its own promoter under normal growth conditions and the transcript is exceptionally stable compared to most other RNAs. Expression is increased by ∼7-fold when cells are exposed to near lethal concentrations of short-chain alcohols such as ethanol or methanol. Strains wherein the genes for OLE and/or OAP are deleted are more susceptible to growth inhibition by alcohol and also become more sensitive to cold. Normal growth characteristics can be restored by expressing the genes for OLE and OAP from plasmids or from elsewhere on the chromosome. Our findings confirm a functional link between OLE and OAP and reveal the importance of a large non-coding RNA in the response to alcohol-induced stress.
Bacteria of genus Thermus inhabit both man-made and natural thermal environments. Several Thermus species have shown biotechnological potential such as reduction of heavy metals which is essential for eradication of heavy metal pollution; removing of organic contaminants in water; opening clogged pipes, controlling global warming among many others. Enzymes from thermophilic bacteria have exhibited higher activity and stability than synthetic or enzymes from mesophilic organisms.
Using Meiothermus silvanus DSM 9946 as a reference genome, high level of coordinated rearrangements has been observed in extremely thermophilic Thermus that may imply existence of yet unknown evolutionary forces controlling adaptive re-organization of whole genomes of thermo-extremophiles. However, no remarkable differences were observed across species on distribution of functionally related genes on the chromosome suggesting constraints imposed by metabolic networks. The metabolic network exhibit evolutionary pressures similar to levels of rearrangements as measured by the cross-clustering index. Using stratigraphic analysis of donor-recipient, intensive gene exchanges were observed from Meiothermus species and some unknown sources to Thermus species confirming a well established DNA uptake mechanism as previously proposed.
Global genome rearrangements were found to play an important role in the evolution of Thermus bacteria at both genomic and metabolic network levels. Relatively higher level of rearrangements was observed in extremely thermophilic Thermus strains in comparison to the thermo-tolerant Thermus scotoductus. Rearrangements did not significantly disrupt operons and functionally related genes. Thermus species appeared to have a developed capability for acquiring DNA through horizontal gene transfer as shown by the donor-recipient stratigraphic analysis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-813) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Rearrangements; Metabolic networks; Clustering; Genomic island; Thermophile
Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.
antipredator behavior; hydrogen sulfide; Poecilia; predator avoidance; predator recognition
A major issue in microbial ecology is to identify the limits of life for growth and survival, and to understand the molecular mechanisms that define these limits. Thus, interest in the biodiversity and ecology of extreme environments has grown in recent years for several reasons. Some are basic and revolve around the idea that extreme environments are believed to reflect early Earth conditions. Others are related to the biotechnological potential of extremophiles. In this regard, the study of extremely acidic environments has become increasingly important since environmental acidity is often caused by microbial activity. Highly acidic environments are relatively scarce worldwide and are generally associated with volcanic activity or mining operations. For most acidic environments, low pH facilitates metal solubility, and therefore acidic waters tend to have high concentrations of heavy metals. However, highly acidic environments are usually inhabited by acidophilic and acidotolerant eukaryotic microorganisms such as algae, amoebas, ciliates, heliozoan and rotifers, not to mention filamentous fungi and yeasts. Here, we review the general trends concerning the diversity and ecophysiology of eukaryotic acidophilic microorganims, as well as summarize our latest results on this topic in one of the largest extreme acidic rivers, Río Tinto (SW, Spain).
acidophiles; eukaryots; extremophiles; extreme environments; photosynthesis; Río Tinto
In particular niches of the marine environment, such as abyssal trenches, icy waters and hot vents, the base of the food web is composed of bacteria and archaea that have developed strategies to survive and thrive under the most extreme conditions. Some of these organisms are considered “extremophiles” and modulate the fatty acid composition of their phospholipids to maintain the adequate fluidity of the cellular membrane under cold/hot temperatures, elevated pressure, high/low salinity and pH. Bacterial cells are even able to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, contrarily to what was considered until the 1990s, helping the regulation of the membrane fluidity triggered by temperature and pressure and providing protection from oxidative stress. In marine ecosystems, bacteria may either act as a sink of carbon, contribute to nutrient recycling to photo-autotrophs or bacterial organic matter may be transferred to other trophic links in aquatic food webs. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review on lipid production in bacteria and archaea and to discuss how their lipids, of both heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic origin, contribute to marine food webs.
phospholipid; fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; extremophile; bacteria; archaea; trophic web
Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt. Although the salt reliance and physiology of these extremophiles have been widely investigated, the molecular working mechanisms of their enzymes under salty conditions have been little explored.
A halophilic esterolytic enzyme LipC derived from archeaon Haloarcula marismortui was overexpressed from Escherichia coli BL21. The purified enzyme showed a range of hydrolytic activity towards the substrates of p-nitrophenyl esters with different alkyl chains (n = 2−16), with the highest activity being observed for p-nitrophenyl acetate, consistent with the basic character of an esterase. The optimal esterase activities were found to be at pH 9.5 and [NaCl] = 3.4 M or [KCl] = 3.0 M and at around 45°C. Interestingly, the hydrolysis activity showed a clear reversibility against changes in salt concentration. At the ambient temperature of 22°C, enzyme systems working under the optimal salt concentrations were very stable against time. Increase in temperature increased the activity but reduced its stability. Circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were deployed to determine the physical states of LipC in solution. As the salt concentration increased, DLS revealed substantial increase in aggregate sizes, but CD measurements revealed the maximal retention of the α-helical structure at the salt concentration matching the optimal activity. These observations were supported by SANS analysis that revealed the highest proportion of unimers and dimers around the optimal salt concentration, although the coexistent larger aggregates showed a trend of increasing size with salt concentration, consistent with the DLS data.
The solution α-helical structure and activity relation also matched the highest proportion of enzyme unimers and dimers. Given that all the solutions studied were structurally inhomogeneous, it is important for future work to understand how the LipC's solution aggregation affected its activity.