Both peripheral fat loss and central fat gain have been reported in HIV infection. Which changes are specific to HIV were determined by comparison with control subjects and the associations among different adipose tissue depots were determined.
Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-positive and control men from the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection. Lipoatrophy or lipohypertrophy was defined as concordance between participant report of change and examination. Regional adipose tissue volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
HIV-positive men reported more fat loss than controls in all peripheral and most central depots. Peripheral lipoatrophy was more frequent in HIV-positive men than in controls (38.3% vs. 4.6%, P < 0.001), whereas central lipohypertrophy was less frequent (40.2% vs. 55.9%, P = 0.001). Among HIV-positive men, the presence of central lipohypertrophy was not positively associated with peripheral lipoatrophy (odds ratio = 0.71, CI: 0.47 to 1.06, P = 0.10). On MRI, HIV-positive men with clinical peripheral lipoatrophy had less subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in peripheral and central sites and less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) than HIV-positive men without peripheral lipoatrophy. HIV-positive men both with and without lipoatrophy had less SAT than controls, with legs and lower trunk more affected than upper trunk. Use of the antiretroviral drugs stavudine or indinavir was associated with less leg SAT but did not appear to be associated with more VAT; nevirapine use was associated with less VAT.
Both peripheral and central subcutaneous lipoatrophy was found in HIV infection. Lipoatrophy in HIV-positive men is not associated with reciprocally increased VAT.
HIV infection; lipodystrophy; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; visceral obesity; fat redistribution; body composition
Both peripheral fat loss and central fat gain have been reported in women with HIV infection. We determined the fat changes that are specific to HIV infection in women.
HIV-infected and control women from the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) were compared. Lipoatrophy or lipohypertrophy was defined as concordance between participant report of fat change and clinical examination. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volumes. The relationship among different adipose tissue depots was assessed. Factors associated with individual depots were analyzed using multivariate linear regression.
HIV-infected women reported more fat loss than controls in all peripheral and most central depots. Peripheral lipoatrophy was more frequent in HIV-infected women than controls (28% vs. 4%, P < 0.001), whereas central lipohypertrophy was similar (62% vs. 63%). Among HIV-infected women, those with central lipohypertrophy were less likely to have peripheral lipoatrophy (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.75, P = 0.006) than those without central lipohypertrophy. On magnetic resonance imaging, HIV-infected women with clinical peripheral lipoatrophy had less subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in peripheral and central sites and less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) than HIV-infected women without peripheral lipoatrophy. Compared with controls, HIV-infected women had less SAT in the legs, regardless of the presence or absence of lipoatrophy. However, those without lipoatrophy had more VAT and upper trunk SAT than controls. Use of the antiretroviral drug stavudine was associated with less leg SAT but was not associated with VAT. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, however, was associated with more VAT.
Peripheral lipoatrophy occurs commonly in HIV-infected women but is not associated with reciprocally increased VAT or trunk fat.
HIV; lipodystrophy; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; visceral obesity; fat redistribution; body composition
Altered fat distribution is associated with insulin resistance in HIV, but little is known about regional glucose metabolism in fat and muscle depots in this patient population. The aim of the present study was to quantify regional fat, muscle, and whole body glucose disposal in HIV-infected men with lipoatrophy. Whole body glucose disposal was determined by hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (80 mU·m−2·min−1) in 6 HIV-infected men and 5 age/weight-matched healthy volunteers. Regional glucose uptake in muscle and subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was quantified in fasting and insulin-stimulated states using 2-deoxy-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography. HIV-infected subjects with lipoatrophy had significantly increased glucose uptake into SAT (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 0.5 μmol·kg tissue−1·min−1, P < 0.05) in the fasted state. Glucose uptake into VAT did not differ between groups. VAT area was inversely related with whole body glucose disposal, insulin sensitivity, and muscle glucose uptake during insulin stimulation. VAT area was highly predictive of whole body glucose disposal (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.0001). This may be mediated by adiponectin, which was significantly associated with VAT area (r =−0.75, P = 0.008), and whole body glucose disposal (r = 0.80, P = 0.003). This is the first study to directly demonstrate increased glucose uptake in subcutaneous fat of lipoatrophic patients, which may partially compensate for loss of SAT. Furthermore, we demonstrate a clear relationship between VAT and glucose metabolism in multiple fat and muscle depots, suggesting the critical importance of this depot in the regulation of glucose and highlighting the significant potential role of adiponectin in this process.
positron emission tomography; adipose tissue; insulin resistance; human immunodeficiency virus-lipodystrophy
Lipoatrophy is a prevalent side effect of antiretroviral treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Its mechanisms are still disputed but include mitochondrial toxicity and, in particular, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion induced by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. To obtain an integrated evaluation of the mitochondrial alteration in lipoatrophy, we investigated the DNA, RNA, and protein levels in 15 samples of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue from HIV-infected patients with peripheral lipoatrophy and compared the results with those for 15 samples from age- and body mass index-matched controls. The DNA and RNA analyses used PCR-based techniques, while proteins were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and measurement of activities with spectrophotometric assays. Depletion of mtDNA and mtDNA-encoded MT-CO2 mRNA was present, but normal levels of mtDNA-dependent activity (cytochrome c oxidase) and protein (MT-CO2p) showed that it was compensated for. An increase in nuclear-DNA-dependent mitochondrial activities (citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase) and protein (COX4I1p), as well as transcriptional up-regulation of nuclear-DNA-encoded mitochondrial genes (COX4I1 and UCP2), demonstrated increased mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the expression of the known transcription factors of mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM, NRF1, GABPA, PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, and PPRC1) was normal or decreased. Increased amounts of activated caspase 3 and of DDIT3 mRNA showed the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress, respectively. The mtDNA content did not correlate with any other mitochondrial parameter. In conclusion, mtDNA content does not appear to be an accurate biomarker of mitochondrial alteration in lipoatrophic adipose tissue. The preservation of mtDNA-dependent mitochondrial functions occurred despite severe mtDNA depletion. The presence of significant oxidative stress and apoptosis did not correlate with the mtDNA content.
To assess the association of inflammatory and endothelial activation biomarkers with the presence of lipoatrophy in HIV-infected subjects and to examine the role of HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and metabolic parameters in endothelial activation and inflammation.
Prospective, cross-sectional study including 4 groups: HIV+ on ART with HIV-1 RNA <1000 copies/mL with and without clinical lipoatrophy, HIV+ ART naive, and healthy controls.
We measured plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and myeloperoxidase) and endothelial activation markers (soluble intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules and von Willebrand factor).
We enrolled 182 subjects. Limb fat and lipoatrophy status were not correlated with endothelial markers. Endothelial markers were higher in HIV+ ART naive when compared with healthy controls and with HIV+ on ART but were similar between HIV+ on ART and healthy controls. Neither endothelial nor inflammatory markers were correlated with HIV duration, CD4 count, lipids, glucose, or specific ART. Strong correlations were found between some inflammatory cytokines and endothelial markers.
There is enhanced endothelial activation in ART naive, whereas HIV+ on ART has similar values to healthy controls. Lipoatrophy did not seem to affect endothelial activation. Results highlight a potential association between heightened inflammation and endothelial activation.
cardiovascular disease; endothelial activation; inflammatory cytokines; lipoatrophy
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated metabolic complications include lipoatrophy (loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)) and insulin resistance. Thiazolidinediones are insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic agents which—as an untoward side effect in obese diabetic patients—increase SAT. Furthermore, troglitazone has improved lipoatrophy and glycemic control in non-HIV patients with various forms of lipodystrophy. These data have led to 14 clinical trials to examine whether thiazolidinediones could be useful in the treatment of HAART-associated metabolic complications. The results of these studies indicate very modest, if any, effect on lipoatrophic SAT, probably due to ongoing HAART negating the beneficial effect. The benefit might be more prominent in patients not taking thymidine analoges. Despite the poor effect on lipoatrophy, thiazolidin-ediones improved insulin sensitivity. However, especially rosiglitazone induced harmful effects on blood lipids. Current data do not provide evidence for the use of thiazolidinediones in the treatment of HAART-associated lipoatrophy, but treatment of lipoatrophy-associated diabetes may be warranted. The role of thiazolidinediones for novel indications, such as hepatosteatosis, should be studied in these patients.
The aim of this study was evaluation of ultrasound (US) as a tool for the assessment of lipoatrophy in a population of HIV-infected patients. We enrolled a convenience sample of 151 HIV-infected Caucasian participants (males, 79%) who were treated for at least 1 year with combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) in Zagreb, Croatia. US measurements of subcutaneous fat thickness were done over the malar, brachial, and crural region. We determined sensitivity and specificity of US as a diagnostic tool for lipoatrophy using receiver-operating curves and concordant patient and clinician assessment as our reference for the presence of lipoatrophy. HIV was acquired through heterosexual contact in 50% of participants and by sex between men in 42%. The mean current CD4 cell count was 503.1 cells/mm3 (standard deviation [SD] = 250.8). Seventy-seven (51%) participants were treated with stavudine and 91 (64%) with a protease inhibitor for at least 6 months. Nineteen (13%) participants had lipoatrophy in at least one anatomic site. Sensitivity of US ranged from 67%–71%, specificity from 65%–71%, positive and negative predictive values ranged from 11%–20% and 96–97%, respectively. US-diagnosed lipoatrophy was more frequently found in patients with a history of stavudine treatment and in females. Patients with lipoatrophy had a longer duration of CART than those without lipoatrophy. US is a useful tool in ruling out the presence of clinical lipoatrophy in patients on CART. Using this objective measure of subcutaneous fat may be useful in helping clinicians make decisions about changing therapy.
Advanced HIV infection can result in lipoatrophy and wasting, even in the absence of ongoing opportunistic infections, suggesting that HIV may directly affect adipose tissue amount and distribution.
We assessed the relationship of fat (measured using anthropometry, DEXA, MRI scans) or markers related to glucose and lipid metabolism with viral load in a cross-sectional sample of 83 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected South African women. A multivariable linear model was fitted to log10VL to assess the combined effect of these variables.
In addition to higher T cell activation, women with viral load greater than the population median had lower waist circumference, body mass index and subcutaneous abdominal fat, as well as lower serum leptin. We demonstrate that leptin serum levels are inversely associated with viral replication, independent of the amount of adipose tissue. This association is maintained after adjusting for multiple variables associated with disease progression (i.e., cellular activation and innate immunity effector levels).
Our results demonstrate that serum leptin levels are inversely associated with viral replication, independent of disease progression: we postulate that leptin may affect viral replication.
Although physician and patient-rated diagnosis of lipoatrophy are currently used as a basis for inclusion into clinical trials, few studies have compared physician or patient-rated lipoatrophy severity with objective measures. We aim to assess the validity of physician- and patient-rated diagnosis of lipoatrophy by evaluating the correlation between clinical assessments of lipoatrophy and objective fat indices.
This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between clinical lipoatrophy scores and DEXA-measured limb fat (n=154) and subcutaneous fat mitochondrial DNA levels (n=80) in HIV+ individuals.
There was a significant negative correlation between DEXA-measured limb fat and lipoatrophy scores generated by either the patients (r= -0.27, p=0.008) or the physician (r=-0.48, p<0.0001). Also, a significant positive correlation was found between the patient-generated lipoatrophy score and the physician score (r=0.68, p<0.0001). However, there was no correlation between fat mtDNA levels and DEXA-measured limb fat (r= -0.09, p=0.42) nor with physician or patient-generated lipoatrophy scores (r=-0.09; p=0.43 and r=0.04; p=0.71, respectively.)
These results suggest that physician and patient-rated lipoatrophy scores may be useful surrogates for more expensive measures of lipoatrophy, which could be reserved for research studies.
Lipoatrophy; Lipodystrophy; DEXA
Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is associated with metabolic abnormalities similar to those associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Increased IMAT has been found in obese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. We hypothesized that IMAT, like VAT, would be similar or increased in HIV-infected persons compared with healthy controls, despite decreases in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) found in HIV infection. In the second FRAM (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection) exam, we studied 425 HIV-infected subjects and 211 controls (from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study) who had regional AT and skeletal muscle (SM) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multivariable linear regression identified factors associated with IMAT and its association with metabolites. Total IMAT was 51% lower in HIV-infected participants compared with controls (P = 0.003). The HIV effect was attenuated after multivariable adjustment (to −28%, P < 0.0001 in men and −3.6%, P = 0.70 in women). Higher quantities of leg SAT, upper-trunk SAT, and VAT were associated with higher IMAT in HIV-infected participants, with weaker associations in controls. Stavudine use was associated with lower IMAT and SAT, but showed little relationship with VAT. In multivariable analyses, regional IMAT was associated with insulin resistance and triglycerides (TGs). Contrary to expectation, IMAT is not increased in HIV infection; after controlling for demographics, lifestyle, VAT, SAT, and SM, HIV+ men have lower IMAT compared with controls, whereas values for women are similar. Stavudine exposure is associated with both decreased IMAT and SAT, suggesting that IMAT shares cellular origins with SAT.
Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects.
We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects.
The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors.
In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r ≤ 0.07). Multivariate adjustment found no significant difference for optimally fitting models between the use of anthropometric and MRI measures, and the magnitudes of differences were small (adjusted R2 ≤ 0.06). For HOMA and HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR.
Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.
The potential for mitochondrial (mt) DNA mutation accumulation during antiretroviral therapy (ART), and preferential accumulation in patients with lipoatrophy compared with control participants, remains controversial. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome, both before ART and after ART exposure, in 29 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected Swiss HIV Cohort Study participants initiating a first-line thymidine analogue–containing ART regimen. No accumulation of mtDNA mutations or deletions was detected in 13 participants who developed lipoatrophy or in 16 control participants after significant and comparable ART exposure (median duration, 3.3 and 3.7 years, respectively). In HIV-infected persons, the development of lipoatrophy is unlikely to be associated with accumulation of mtDNA mutations detectable in peripheral blood.
Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is reported to be associated with a higher prevalence of lipodystrophy than HIV infection alone. We examine the association between HCV and adipose tissue volume in HIV-infected men and women.
Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected subjects from the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection. MRI measured regional adipose tissue volume. Detectable HCV RNA defined HCV infection.
Twenty percent of 792 men and 26% of 329 women were HIV/HCV-coinfected. HIV/HCV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected women had similar amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in the leg, lower trunk, upper trunk, and arm and similar amounts of visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Similar findings were seen in men, except in the leg and VAT. After adjustment, HCV infection remained associated with more leg fat in men (12.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3 to 25.3; P = 0.043). Among those on stavudine, HIV-monoinfected men had less leg fat (−7% effect per year of stavudine use, 95% CI: −9 to −5; P < 0.001); a weaker association was seen in HIV/HCV-coinfected men (−2% effect, 95% CI: −7 to 3; P = 0.45). Indinavir was associated with less leg fat (−4% in HIV-monoinfected men, 95% CI: −6 to −1; P = 0.002; −5% in HIV/HCV-coinfected men, 95% CI: −11 to 2; P = 0.14).
Our findings suggest that HIV/HCV coinfection is not associated with less SAT in men and women. HCV infection seems to mitigate the loss of leg fat seen in HIV-infected men on stavudine.
adipose tissue volume; fat distribution; hepatitis C virus; HIV; lipodystrophy
Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA).
Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (−17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and −22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (−2.5%) or control arms (−1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter.
The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT.
Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured adipose tissue (AT), but no such study has been conducted in HIV+ subjects, who have a high prevalence of regional fat loss.
We compared DXA with MRI-measured trunk, leg, arm, and total fat in HIV+ and control subjects.
Cross-sectional analysis in 877 HIV+ and 260 controls in FRAM (Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection), stratified by sex and HIV status.
Univariate associations of DXA with MRI were strongest for total and trunk fat (r≥0.92), and slightly weaker in leg (r≥0.87) and arm (r≥0.71). Estimated limb fat averaged substantially higher for DXA than MRI for HIV+ and control, men and women (all p<0.0001). Trunk showed much less difference between DXA and MRI, but was still statistically significant (p<0.0001). Bland-Altman plots showed increasing differences and variability; higher average limb fat in controls and HIV+ (both p<0.0001) was associated with greater DXA vs. MRI difference. As controls have more limb fat than HIV+, the bias leads to even higher fat measured by DXA than by MRI when controls are compared to HIV+; more HIV+ subjects had leg fat in the bottom decile of controls by DXA than by MRI (p<0.0001).
Although DXA and MRI-measured AT depots correlate strongly in HIV+ subjects and controls, differences increase as average fat increases, particularly for limb fat. DXA may estimate a higher peripheral lipoatrophy prevalence than MRI in HIV+ subjects.
DXA; MRI; adipose tissue depots; lipoatrophy; HIV infection
Thymidine reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tNRTI) are strong inhibitors of PPAR-γ and clearly implicated as a cause of lipoatrophy. Thiazolidenediaones (TZD), potent PPAR-γ agonists, would be expected to be beneficial in HIV lipoatrophy, but prior studies have been conflicting. None specifically excluded the use of tNRTIs. We report the first study in individuals treated with tNRTI-sparing regimens using a TZD for treatment of HIV lipoatrophy.
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated limb fat in HIV-infected subjects with lipoatrophy who discontinued tNRTI at least 24 weeks prior to enrollment.
Subjects were randomized to rosiglitazone vs. placebo for 48 weeks. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)-scans and fasting metabolic assessments were serially performed.
We enrolled 71 subjects: 17% were female and 51% white. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups except for higher total cholesterol in the placebo group (p=0.04). At 48 weeks, limb fat (grams) increased significantly (p=0.02) more in the rosiglitazone than in the placebo group: median (IQR) 448 (138, 1670) vs. 153 (−100, 682), respectively. Of lipids parameters, only total cholesterol increased significantly more in rosiglitazone group (p=0.008). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and total bone mineral density did not change between or within groups.
In the absence of tNTRIs, rosiglitazone significantly improves lipoatrophy without deleterious effect on bone mineral density. Total cholesterol, but not triglycerides, significantly increased in the rosiglitazone arm. The glitazones may be a promising addition for accelerating fat recovery in subjects who had switched off tNRTI and remain with significant lipoatrophy.
Lipoatrophy; Thiazolidenediaones; antiretroviral therapy
Lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy are frequently observed during long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated whether consumption of a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower risk of body shape changes in Croatian patients treated with ART.
Between May 2004 and June 2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 136 adults with HIV-1 infection who were treated with ART for at least one year. Lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy were assessed by self-report and physical examination. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet was determined by a 150-item questionnaire; a 0 to 9-point diet scale was created that stratified respondents as having low adherence (<4 points) and moderate to high adherence (≥ 4 points).
Lipoatrophy was present in 41% and lipohypertrophy in 32% of participants. Non-smokers with a dietary score ≥ 4 had the lowest risk for lipoatrophy. Stavudine use, female gender, and duration of ART were also independently associated with a higher risk of lipoatrophy. A dietary score of ≥ 4 was associated with lower risk of lipohypertrophy (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7; P=0.012). Female gender, longer duration of ART, and longer known duration of HIV infection prior to ART were also independently associated with higher risk of lipohypertrophy.
Croatians who did not smoke and moderately or highly adhered to the Mediterranean diet were least likely to have the clinical syndrome of lipoatrophy. Moderate to high adherence to a Mediterranean diet was also associated with a lower risk of lipohypertrophy.
HIV; antiretrovirals; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; Mediterranean diet
Lipoatrophy is known to be associated with stavudine as part of the treatment for HIV infection, but it is less clear if this serious side effect is also related to other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors like zidovudine. We aimed to determine whether zidovudine-sparing first-line antiretroviral therapy would lead to less lipoatrophy and other metabolic changes than zidovudine-containing therapy.
Fifty antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-1 infected men with an indication to start antiretroviral therapy were included in a randomized single blinded clinical trial. Randomisation was between zidovudine-containing therapy (zidovudine/lamivudine+lopinavir/ritonavir) and zidovudine-sparing therapy (nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir). Main outcome measures were body composition assessed by computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and lipid profile before and after 3, 12, 24 months of antiretroviral therapy. In the zidovudine/lamivudine+lopinavir/ritonavir group, from 3 months onward limb fat decreased progressively by 684±293 grams (estimated mean±standard error of the mean)(p = 0.02) up to 24 months whereas abdominal fat increased, but exclusively in the visceral compartment (+21.9±8.1 cm2, p = 0.008)). In contrast, in the nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir group, a generalized increase in fat mass was observed. After 24 months no significant differences in high density lipoprotein and total/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were found between both treatment groups, but total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in the nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir group (6.1±0.2 versus 5.3±0.2 and 3.6±0.1 versus 2.8±0.1 mmol/l respectively, p<0.05). Virologic response and safety were comparable in both groups.
Zidovudine/lamivudine+lopinavir/ritonavir, but not nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir in antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients, is associated with lipoatrophy and greater relative intraabdominal lipohypertrophy, suggesting that zidovudine/lamivudine contributes to both these features of lipodystrophy. These findings support to no longer consider zidovudine/lamivudine as one of the preferred possible components of first-line antiretroviral therapy where alternative treatments are available.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00122226
We previously demonstrated that HIV infection is associated with peripheral and central lipoatrophy in women. We now describe the association of specific antiretroviral drugs (ARV) with body fat changes over a four-year period from 1999 to 2003. 775 HIV-positive and 205 HIV-negative women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study with anthropometric measurements, weight, bioelectric impedance analysis and ARV collected semiannually were included in analysis. Exposure to ARV was defined as report of use for 3 consecutive semiannual study visits. The average 6–month change in weight, percent total body fat, and circumference measurements (i.e., hip, waist, chest, arm, and thigh) was compared between those exposed and those unexposed to the specific ARV for any of the same three consecutive visits. Weight, percent total body fat, and hip, waist, thigh, chest, and arm circumferences decreased in HIV-positive women, but increased in HIV-negative women on average for every six-month interval over the 4-year study period. Among the HIV-positive women, didanosine was the only ARV associated with decreases in circumference measures in the hip (−0.65 cm, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.18, −0.12), waist (−0.71 cm, 95% CI: −1.37, −0.04), chest (−0.71 cm, 95% CI: −1.17, −0.26), and arm (−0.23 cm, 95% CI: −0.48, 0.03; p = 0.08). These prospective data suggest that fat loss continues to predominate in HIV-positive women and exposure to didanosine for at least 12 months may further worsen fat loss.
We sought to determine the association between body morphology abnormalities and depression examining lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy separately.
Observational cross-sectional study of 250 patients from the University of Washington HIV Cohort. Patients completed an assessment including depression and body morphology. We used linear regression analysis to examine the association between lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and depression. ANOVA was used to examine the relationship between mean depression scores and lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy in 10 body regions.
Of 250 patients, 76 had lipoatrophy, and 128 had lipohypertrophy. Mean depression scores were highest among patients with moderate-to-severe lipoatrophy (16.4), intermediate among those with moderate-to-severe lipohypertrophy (11.7), mild lipohypertrophy (9.9), and mild lipoatrophy (8.5), and lowest among those without body morphology abnormalities (7.7) (p=0.002). After adjustment, mean depression scores for subjects reporting moderate-to-severe lipoatrophy were 9.2 points higher (p<0.001), scores for subjects with moderate-to-severe lipohypertrophy were 4.8 points higher (p=0.02), and scores for subjects with mild lipohypertrophy were 2.8 points higher (p=0.03) than patients without body morphology abnormalities. Facial lipoatrophy was the body region associated with the most severe depression scores (15.5 versus 8.9 for controls, p=0.03).
In addition to long-term cardiovascular implications, body morphology has a more immediate effect on depression severity.
Lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; lipodystrophy; depression; HIV
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy are associated with dyslipidemia, but the association between regional adipose tissue depots and lipid levels is not defined.
The association of MRI-measured visceral (VAT) and regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume with fasting lipid parameters was analyzed by multivariable linear regression in 737 HIV-infected and 145 control men from the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM).
HIV-infected men had higher median triglycerides (TG) (170mg/dl vs. 107mg/dl, p<0.0001), lower high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) (38mg/dl vs. 46mg/dl, p<0.0001) and lower low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (105mg/dl vs. 125mg/dl, p<0.0001) than controls. After adjustment, greater VAT was associated with higher TG and lower HDL-C in both HIV-infected and control men, while greater leg SAT was associated with lower TG in HIV-infected men with a similar trend in controls. More upper trunk SAT was associated with higher LDL-C and lower HDL-C in controls, while more lower trunk SAT was associated with higher TG in controls. After adjustment, HIV infection remained strongly associated (p<0.0001) with higher TG (+76%, CI: 53, 103), lower LDL-C (−19%, CI: −25,−12), and lower HDL-C (−18%, CI: −22,−12).
HIV-infected men are more likely than controls to have higher TG and lower HDL-C, which promote atherosclerosis, but also lower LDL-C. Less leg SAT and more VAT are important factors associated with high TG and low HDL-C in HIV-infected men. The reduced leg SAT in HIV-infected men with lipoatrophy places them at increased risk for pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia.
Visceral obesity is associated with insulin resistance, but the association of other regional adipose depots with insulin resistance is not understood. In HIV infection, buffalo hump (upper trunk fat) is associated, but the association of upper trunk fat with insulin resistance has not been examined in controls. To determine the independent association of adipose depots other than visceral with insulin resistance, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of controls and HIV-infected subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study, who had measurements of glucose, insulin, and adipose tissue volumes by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. We studied 926 HIV-positive persons from 16 academic medical center clinics and trials units with demographic characteristics representative of US patients with HIV infection and 258 FRAM controls from the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. We measured visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume in the legs, arms, lower trunk (back and abdomen), and upper trunk (back and chest) and assessed their association with the homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA) and HOMA >4 by stepwise multivariable analysis. The prevalence of HOMA >4 as a marker of insulin resistance was 28% among controls compared with 37% among HIV-infected subjects (P = 0.005). Among controls, those in the highest tertile of upper trunk SAT volume had an odds ratio (OR) of 9.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.4 to 34; P = 0.001) for having HOMA >4 compared with the lowest tertile, whereas in HIV-positive subjects, the OR was lower (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.36 to 3.19; P = 0.001). Among controls, the highest tertile of VAT volume had an OR of 12.1 (95% CI: 3.2 to 46; P = 0.0002) of having HOMA >4 compared with the lowest tertile, whereas in HIV-positive subjects, the OR was 3.12 (95% CI: 2.0 to 4.8; P < 0.0001). After adjusting for VAT and upper trunk SAT, the association of other SAT depots with HOMA >4 did not reach statistical significance. Thus, VAT and upper trunk SAT are independently associated with insulin resistance in controls and in HIV-infected persons.
buffalo hump; fat distribution; insulin resistance; lipodystrophy; visceral obesity
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients is associated with adverse effects, such as lipodystrophy and hyperlipidemia. The lipodystrophic syndrome is characterized by a peripheral lipoatrophy and/or fat accumulation in the abdomen and neck. In order to get insights into the physiopathological mechanisms underlying this syndrome, we treated mice with protease inhibitors (PIs) over a long period of time. Although atazanavir-treated mice presented the same circulating triglyceride concentration as control mice, lopinavir-ritonavir-treated mice rapidly became hypertriglyceridemic, with triglyceride levels of 200 mg/dl, whereas control and atazanavir-treated animals had triglyceride levels of 80 mg/dl. These results obtained with mice reproduce the metabolic disorder observed in humans. White adipose tissue (WAT) was analyzed after 8 weeks of treatment. Compared to the control or atazanavir treatment, lopinavir-ritonavir treatment induced a significant 25% weight reduction in the peripheral inguinal WAT depot. By contrast, the profound epididymal WAT depot was not affected. This effect was associated with a 5.5-fold increase in SREBP-1c gene expression only in the inguinal depot. Our results demonstrate that the long-term treatment of mice with PIs constitutes an interesting experimental model with which some aspects of the lipoatrophy induced by HAART in humans may be studied.
The association of fat distribution with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations is not well-defined in HIV-infected individuals. Obesity is associated with hepatic steatosis, and ALT is a marker of steatosis in the general population.
Cross-sectional analysis of 1119 HIV-infected and 284 control subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing determined HCV infection. Magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volume.
After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was positively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (+9.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8 to 17.6), HIV-monoinfected subjects (+8.0%, 95% CI: 4.2 to 12.1), and controls (+5.9%, 95% CI: 2.0 to 10.1). In contrast, lower trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was negatively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (−14.3%, 95% CI: −24.7 to −4.2) and HIV-monoinfected subjects (−11.9%, 95% CI: −18.4 to −5.3); there was a trend toward an association in controls (−7.1%, 95% CI: −22.7 to 5.9). Estimated associations between regional adipose tissue and AST were small and did not reach statistical significance.
More VAT and less lower trunk SAT are associated with elevated ALT, which likely reflects the presence of steatosis. There was little association with AST. HCV infection and having more VAT or less lower trunk SAT are independently associated with elevated ALT in HIV infection. Study regarding the association between VAT, trunk SAT, HCV, and progression of steatosis and fibrosis is needed in HIV-infected individuals.
adipose tissue; aminotransferase levels; hepatitis C virus; HIV; lipodystrophy
Assess the effect of ART versus HIV on fat mitochondria.
Subcutaneous-fat was collected from 45 HIV-infected subjects on ART with lipoatrophy, 11 HIV-infected ART-naïve, and 9 healthy-controls. Three mt-transcripts NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 1(ND1), cytochrome-b (CYTB), and NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) genes were quantitated using Taqman-probes, and normalized to nuclear-encoded ribosomal L13.
ND1/L13 and CYTB/L13 were reduced in HIV-ART-lipoatrophy versus ART-naïve [3.4 vs. 7.2; p=0.017 and 2.5 vs. 4.6; p=0.006]. No difference was found between naïve and controls (p >0.70). ND6/L13 was similar between all groups. DEXA-measured limb fat (grams) and fat-mtDNA (copies/cell) were also lower in HIV-ART-lipoatrophy versus HIV-infected ART-naïve [4382 vs. 7662; p=0.02 and 726 vs. 1372; p=0.03], but no difference was found between ART-naïve and controls. In a multiple regression analysis, limb fat correlated with all 3 mtRNA, while mtDNA did not correlate with mtRNAs or limb fat.
In contrast to ART-naive, patients with HIV-ART-lipoatrophy had significant depletion in fat-mtDNA and mtRNAs. This suggests that mitochondrial toxicity in lipoatrophy may be driven by ART and not by HIV itself. In addition, mtRNA abnormalities, and not mtDNA depletion, may be a key driving force behind lipoatrophy.
adipose; mitochondria; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial RNA; lipoatrophy; lipodystrophy