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1.  The Survival of Freely Grafted Orbital Fat on Porous Polyethylene Orbital Implants in the Rabbit 
Purpose
To investigate the long term survival of orbital fat grafted on a Medpor® implant as a method of preventing porous polyethylene orbital implant (Medpor®) exposure in anophthalmic sockets.
Methods
In one orbit in each of 8 rabbits, a small amount of retrobulbar orbital fat was grafted between the anterior surface of the Medpor® implant and overlying conjunctiva, during the enucleation and Medpor® implantation procedure. Two rabbits were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively and grafted orbital fats were examined by light microscopy.
Results
Grafted orbital fat was well-maintained at 2 and 4 weeks, postoperatively. However, fat amounts were significantly reduced at 8 weeks, and viable fat was barely visible at 12 weeks.
Conclusions
In rabbits, orbital fat grafted on Medpor® implants was gradually resorbed, and the fat-occupied volume was not maintained.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2006.20.3.143
PMCID: PMC2908836  PMID: 17004626
Exposure; Medpor®; Orbital fat
2.  High density porous polyethylene material (Medpor) as an unwrapped orbital implant 
Objective: To introduce the clinical effect among patients who received an unwrapped orbital implant with high density porous polyethylene material (Medpor) after enucleation or evisceration. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a series of 302 patients with anophthalmia who underwent placement of an unwrapped high density porous polyethylene orbital implant. We compared the patients (n=180) who accepted primary implant placement with those (n=122) who accepted secondary implant placement. Parameters evaluated included: age at time of surgery, date of surgery, sex, implant type and size, surgery type, the surgical procedure and technique performed, and complications. Results: The time of follow-up ranged from 2.0 to 58.0 months (mean 32.5 months). A total of 5 of 302 (1.66%) cases had documented postoperative complications. The following problems were noted after surgery: implant exposure, 3 patients (0.99%); implant removed due to orbital infection, 1 patient (0.34%); ptosis, 1 patient (0.34%). There were no significant complications observed in other 297 cases and all implants showed good orbital motility. The clinical effect of primary implant placement is better than that of secondary placement. Conclusion: High density porous polyethylene material can be used successfully as an unwrapped orbital implant in anopthalmic socket surgery with minimal complications. The material is well tolerated, nonantigenic and has low rate of infection and migration.
doi:10.1631/jzus.2006.B0679
PMCID: PMC1533749  PMID: 16845724
Orbital implants; High density porous polyethylene; Correction of orbital abnormality
3.  Amniotic membrane transplantation for porous sphere orbital implant exposure 
Objective: This study is aimed at describing the clinical outcome of amniotic membrane transplantation for exposure of porous sphere implants. Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive cases of porous sphere orbital implant exposure was carried out. Eight cases were presented between May 2004 and Oct. 2006 (5 males, 3 females; mean age 44.5 years). Six had enucleation and two had evisceration. Exposure occurred in two primary and six secondary. Orbital implant diameter was 22 mm in seven cases and 20 mm in one case. Six patients are with hydroxyapatite and two with high-density porous polyethylene (Medpor) orbital implants. The mean time from implantation to exposure was 1.1 months (range 0.8~2 months). All patients required surgical intervention. Results: The time of follow-up ranged from 3.0 to 28.0 months (mean 16.5 months). Amniotic membrane grafting successfully closed the defect without re-exposure in all of these patients. The grafts were left bare with a mean time to conjunctiva of about 1 month (range 0.8~1.5 months). Conclusion: Exposed porous sphere implants were treated successfully with amniotic membrane graft in all of patients. The graft is easy to harvest. This technique is useful, dose not lead to prolonged socket inflammation and infection, and it is valuable application extensively.
doi:10.1631/jzus.2007.B0616
PMCID: PMC1963426  PMID: 17726741
Amniotic membrane transplantation; Orbital implants; Exposure
4.  Autogenous temporalis fascia patch graft for porous polyethylene (Medpor) sphere orbital implant exposure 
Background: Temporalis fascia has been recommended for hydroxyapatite sphere exposure. The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for exposure of porous polyethylene (Medpor) sphere implants and evaluate the use of autogenous temporalis fascia as a patch graft for exposure.
Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive cases of porous polyethylene sphere orbital implant exposure.
Results: Five cases presented between May 2000 and October 2001 (three males, two females; mean age 44.5 years). Three had enucleation (two with primary implants) and two had evisceration (one with primary implant). Exposure occurred in one primary, two secondary, and two replacement implants. Orbital implant diameter was 20 mm in four cases and 16 mm in one case (contracted socket). The mean time from implantation to exposure was 23 months (range 0.7–42.6). Three patients had secondary motility peg placement before exposure. The average time from last procedure (sphere implant or peg insertion) to exposure was 3 months (range 0.7–12.6). Four patients required surgical intervention, of which three needed more than one procedure. Autogenous temporalis fascia grafting successfully closed the defect without re-exposure in three of these four patients. The grafts were left bare in three patients, with a mean time to conjunctivalise of 2.4 months (range 1.6–3.2).
Conclusions: Exposed porous polyethylene sphere implants were treated successfully with autogenous temporalis fascia graft in three of four patients. This technique is useful, the graft easy to harvest, and did not lead to prolonged socket inflammation, infection, or extrusion.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2003.026823
PMCID: PMC1772235  PMID: 15205243
porous polyethylene sphere implants; exposure; temporalis fascia patch graft
5.  The Results of Evisceration with Primary Porous Implant Placement in Patients with Endophthalmitis 
Purpose
To assess the results and long-term prognosis of evisceration with primary porous implant placement in patients with endophthalmitis.
Methods
A retrospective study was conducted to review the files of 27 patients (29 eyes) with endophthalmitis who underwent evisceration with primary porous implant placement from January 1997 to December 2007 at St. Mary's Hospital and Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital. The mean follow-up period was 12.24 months (range, 3 to 89 months) and the mean age of the patients was 63.6 years (range, 33 to 89 years).
Results
During the surgical procedure, primary implant placement was successfully completed, and any postoperative infection or inflammation rapidly resolved in all 27 patients (29 eyes). One of two porous implant materials was used. Hydroxyapatite was inserted in 14 eyes and Medpor was inserted in 15 eyes. Delayed implant exposure was noted in 1 eye, which was treated by inserting a hydroxyapatite implant 18 months after the first surgery. This was well treated by a preserved scleral graft. Implant infection was noted in 1 other eye at 20 days after the first surgery. All other minor complications healed without sequelae.
Conclusions
Evisceration with primary porous implant placement as the treatment for recalcitrant endophthalmitis resulted in rapid resolution of any infection and inflammation. Implant exposure and infection occurred in only 2 eyes, and these problems were well treated without long-term sequelae. Therefore, evisceration with primary porous implant placement is a treatment option for patients with endophthalmitis.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2010.24.5.279
PMCID: PMC2955270  PMID: 21052507
Endophthalmitis; Evisceration; Porous implant
6.  Efficacy of Iliac Crest vs. Medpor in Orbital Floor Reconstruction 
Aim
The present study is to compare the effectiveness of iliac crest graft and medpor implant, for repairing traumatic orbital floor defects.
Materials and methods
A total of 20 patients were included in the study. Autogenous iliac crest graft and medpor implant was used in 10 patients of the each group. Patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of diplopia, enophthalmos, infraorbital nerve paresthesia, and ocular motility disorders. Surgical indications for orbital exploration included entrapment of orbital tissues, large orbital defect (greater than 50% of the orbital floor or more than 8 mm), or orbital floor defects with involvement of other zygomaticofrontal complex fractures.
Results
All patients were successfully treated by restoration of the orbital wall continuity. Follow-up was done at 1–12 weeks. One patient had postoperative infection. There was no graft extrusion.
Conclusions
Both the groups showed satisfactory results, but group II was better than group I, as there was no donor site morbidity. Porous polyethylene (Medpor) is a biocompatible and high-density polyethylene implant. It is well tolerated by surrounding tissue, and its porous structure is rapidly infiltrated by host tissue. It is a highly stable and somewhat flexible porous alloplast that has rapid tissue in growth into its pores.
doi:10.1007/s12663-010-0047-2
PMCID: PMC3244104  PMID: 22190772
Medpor; Orbit; Iliac crest; Trauma
7.  The use of porous polyethylene (Medpor) lower eyelid spacers in lid heightening and stabilisation 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2004;88(9):1197-1200.
Background/aims: The management of lower eyelid retraction can be challenging, and established techniques to correct it are not always successful. Previous reports have suggested a role for the ultrathin high density porous polyethylene lower eyelid spacer (Medpor LES) in such patients. The authors report the experience of three surgeons implanting Medpor LES over 1 year, and ascertain whether such implants are a safe and effective alternative to autogenous spacers.
Methods: A prospective, interventional, non-comparative case series of consecutive patients. Surgical indications for Medpor LES were noted. Preoperative and postoperative lower marginal reflex distance (L-MRD), vertical palpebral aperture (PA), lagophthalmos, and scleral show inferior to the limbus (LSS) were recorded, together with major and minor complications.
Results: 32 patients (35 eyelids) had a Medpor LES inserted, 22/32 under local anaesthetic, and nine with adjunctive procedures. Mean follow up was 22 months (range 15–28 months). The Medpor LES was effective in reducing the palpebral aperture (p<0.001) and lagophthalmos (p = 0.04) and raising the lower eyelid height by reducing both L-MRD (p  =  0.006) and LSS (p<0.001). However there were major complications in 7/32 patients and minor complications in 8/32, most requiring further surgery. Final outcome was good in 24/35 eyelids and satisfactory in 5/35.
Conclusions: Despite a good or satisfactory final outcome in the majority of patients, the value of this technique is limited by complications, and should be reserved for those unsuitable for safer techniques.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2003.029397
PMCID: PMC1772304  PMID: 15317715
Medpor; porous polyethylene; lower eyelid spacer; implant
8.  UK national survey of enucleation, evisceration and orbital implant trends 
Aim
To evaluate current clinical practice in the UK in the management of the anophthalmic socket; choice of enucleation, evisceration, type of orbital implant, wrap, motility pegging and complications.
Methods
All consultant ophthalmologists in the UK were surveyed by postal questionnaire. Questions included their practice subspecialty and number of enucleations and eviscerations performed in 2003. Specific questions addressed choice of implant, wrap, motility pegging and complications.
Results
456/896 (51%) consultants responded, of which 162 (35%) had a specific interest in oculoplastics, lacrimal, orbits or oncology. Only 243/456 (53%) did enucleations or eviscerations. 92% inserted an orbital implant after primary enucleation, 69% after non‐endophthalmitis evisceration, whereas only 43% did so after evisceration for endophthalmitis (50% as a delayed procedure). 55% used porous orbital implants (porous polyethylene, hydroxyapatite or alumina) as their first choice and 42% used acrylic. Most implants inserted were spherical, sized 18–20 mm in diameter. 57% wrapped the implant after enucleation, using salvaged autogenous sclera (20%), donor sclera (28%) and synthetic Vicryl or Mersilene mesh (42%). A minority (7%) placed motility pegs in selected cases, usually as a secondary procedure. 14% of respondents reported implant exposure for each type of procedure and extrusion was reported by 4% after enucleation and 3% after evisceration.
Conclusions
This survey highlights contemporary anophthalmic socket practice in the UK. Most surgeons use porous orbital implants with a synthetic wrap after enucleation and only few perform motility pegging.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2006.103937
PMCID: PMC1954760  PMID: 17151061
9.  Orbital Floor Fractures: A Retrospective Review of 45 Cases at a Tertiary Health Care Center 
The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate treatment options for orbital floor fractures at a Level 1 Trauma Center in Southern California. A review of 45 cases of isolated orbital floor fractures treated at the University of California at Irvine between February 2004 and April 2007 was done. Patients were retrospectively analyzed for gender, age, mechanism of injury, associated facial injuries, presenting symptoms, method of treatment, and postoperative complications. Thirty-six male patients and nine female patients were treated. Motor vehicle collision (26/45) was the most common cause of injury, and the mean age of the patients was 35.5 years (range: 15–81 years). Ecchymosis surrounding the orbital tissue was the most common presentation (38/45). Diplopia was present in 8 of 45 patients, with 1 patient requiring urgent decompression for retrobulbar hematoma. Forty-three patients underwent surgical repair; 40 underwent transconjunctival approach with lateral canthotomy; 17 underwent reconstruction with porous polyethylene Medpor (Porex Surgical, Inc., College Park, GA.); and 26 underwent reconstruction with a titanium mesh plate. Immediate postoperative complications included 12 patients with infraorbital numbness, 3 with diplopia, 1 with cellulitis, and 1 with ectropion with a subcilliary approach. Average timing of surgery of our study was 4.94 days (range, 1–20 days). Orbital floor fracture management has changed significantly over the past few decades with the introduction of new internal fixation methods and new materials for reconstructing orbital floor defects. Recommendations for surgical intervention on orbital floor fractures mostly depend on clinical examination and imaging studies. Consequences of inadequate repair of orbital floor fractures can lead to significant facial asymmetry and visual problems. Both porous polyethylene and titanium plates are effective tools for reconstructing the orbital floor. Our review demonstrates that orbital floor fractures can be repaired safely with minimal postoperative complications and confirms that transconjunctival approach to orbital floor is an effective way for exposure and prevention of ectropion that can be seen with other techniques.
doi:10.1055/s-0030-1249374
PMCID: PMC3052659  PMID: 22110817
Orbital floor fractures; review; treatment options
10.  The Effect of Cancer Therapies on Pediatric Anophthalmic Sockets 
Ophthalmology  2011;118(12):2480-2486.
Purpose
To determine the impact of chemotherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) on pediatric anophthalmic sockets.
Design
A retrospective, nonrandomized, interventional cohort study.
Participants
A total of 135 sockets of 133 children undergoing enucleation from late 1999 to early 2009 at the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital were included.
Methods
A retrospective chart review of outcomes after enucleation in patients treated with systemic chemotherapy or orbital EBRT either before or after removal of the eye compared with patients who received no other treatment.
Main Outcome Measures
Incidence of implant exposure, migration, extrusion, socket contracture, and pyogenic granuloma formation.
Results
Retinoblastoma was the primary diagnosis in 128 eyes (95%). Median follow-up was 3.6 years (range, 0.1–9.3 years). Event-free course was observed in 94 sockets (69.6%). Complications included implant exposure (n = 28, 20.7%), socket contracture (n = 16, 11.9%), pyogenic granuloma (n = 9, 6.7%), implant extrusion (n = 3, 2.2%), and migration (n = 2, 1.5%). Exposure resolved in 21 sockets (77.8%) and improved in 2 sockets (11.1%); 1 patient with exposure died. Use of prior, adjuvant, or subsequent chemotherapy increased the long-term risk of exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–9.4), and contracture (OR could not be calculated, P<0.0001). External beam radiotherapy greatly increased the risk of contracture (OR 24.0; 95% CI, 6.9–82.8) and exposure (OR 2.89; 95% CI, 1.1–7.9).
Conclusions
In this unique pediatric population with cancer, chemotherapy and EBRT had an additive effect, significantly increasing the incidence of exposure and socket contracture.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.05.024
PMCID: PMC3539308  PMID: 21856015
11.  A Case of Orbital Abscess following Porous Orbital Implant Infection 
Purpose
We present a case of orbital abscess following porous orbital implant infection in a 73-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis.
Methods
Just one month after a seemingly uncomplicated enucleation and porous polyethylene (Medpor®) orbital implant surgery, implant exposure developed with profuse pus discharge. The patient was unresponsive to implant removal and MRI confirmed the presence of an orbital pus pocket. Despite extirpation of the four rectus muscles, inflammatory granulation debridement and abscess drainage, another new pus pocket developed.
Results
After partial orbital exenteration, the wound finally healed well without any additional abscess formation.
Conclusions
A patient who has risk factors for delayed wound healing must be examined thoroughly and extreme care such as exenteration must be taken if there is persistent infection.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2006.20.4.234
PMCID: PMC2908858  PMID: 17302210
Porous orbital implant infection; Orbital abscess; Partial orbital exenteration
12.  Medpor Craniotomy Gap Wedge Designed to Fill Small Bone Defects along Cranial Bone Flap 
Objective
Medpor porous polyethylene was used to reconstruct small bone defects (gaps and burr holes) along a craniotomy bone flap. The feasibility and cosmetic results were evaluated.
Methods
Medpor Craniotomy Gap Wedges, V and T, were designed. The V implant is a 10 cm-long wedge strip, the cross section of which is an isosceles triangle with a 4 mm-long base, making it suitable for gaps less than 4 mm after trimming. Meanwhile, the Medpor T wedge includes a 10 mm-wide thin plate on the top surface of the Medpor V Wedge, making it suitable for gaps wider than 4 mm and burr holes. Sixty-eight pterional craniotomies and 39 superciliary approaches were performed using the implants, and the operative results were evaluated with respect to the cosmetic results and pain or tenderness related to the cranial flap.
Results
The small bone defects were eliminated with less than 10 minutes additional operative time. In a physical examination, there were no considerable cosmetic problems regarding to the cranial bone defects, such as a linear depression or dimple in the forehead, anterior temporal hollow, preauricular depression, and parietal burr hole defect. Plus, no patient suffered from any infectious complications.
Conclusion
The Medpor Craniotomy Gap Wedge is technically easy to work with for reconstructing small bone defects, such as the bone gaps and burr holes created by a craniotomy, and produces excellent cosmetic results.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.3.195
PMCID: PMC2764015  PMID: 19844617
Cosmetic appearance; Craniotomy; Medpor; Operative technique
13.  Autologous dermis graft at the time of evisceration or enucleation 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2007;91(11):1528-1531.
Aim
To present a new technique using autologous dermis graft at the time of enucleation or evisceration to replace the ocular surface area lost when the corneal scleral button is excised.
Methods
A retrospective, interventional, non‐comparative case series of patients who had an autologous dermis graft placed to assist in closure of Tenon's capsule and conjunctiva at the time of enucleation or evisceration. Medical records were reviewed and the following variables were recorded: age, sex, history of previous ocular surgery or radiation treatment, indication for surgery, type of surgery, laterality, type of orbital implant, size of implant, length of follow up, and complications.
Results
Nine patients were identified (three male, six female) Five had enucleation with implant placement and four had evisceration with implant placement. Four individuals received unwrapped porous polyethylene spherical implants, three received silicone implants, and two received hydroxylapatite implants. Follow up ranged from 30 to 112 weeks (mean (SD), 61 (28) weeks). No operative or early complications were observed. One patient who had enucleation after two rounds of brachytherapy for uveal melanoma developed subsequent late exposure of the implant. There were no complications involving the graft donor site.
Conclusions
This small series shows that the use of a dermis graft is a safe and effective new technique to facilitate orbital rehabilitation. It is hypothesised that the extra surface area produced with a dermis graft preserves the fornices and allows a larger implant. It may also allow the implant to be placed more anteriorly which assists with both implant and prosthesis motility.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2007.115543
PMCID: PMC2095415  PMID: 17947269
enucleation; evisceration; dermis graft; orbital implant; anophthalmos
14.  Management of diplopia in patients with blowout fractures 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2011;59(6):461-464.
Purpose:
To report the management outcomes of diplopia in patients with blowout fracture.
Materials and Methods:
Data for 39 patients with diplopia due to orbital blowout fracture were analyzed retrospectively. The inferior wall alone was involved in 22 (56.4%) patients, medial wall alone was involved in 14 (35.8%) patients, and the medial and inferior walls were involved in three (7.6%) patients. Each fracture was reconstructed with a Medpore® implant. Strabismus surgery or prism correction was performed in required patients for the management of persistent diplopia. Mean postoperative follow up was 6.5 months.
Results:
Twenty-three (58.9%) patients with diplopia underwent surgical repair of blowout fracture. Diplopia was eliminated in 17 (73.9%) patients following orbital wall surgery. Of the 23 patients, three (7.6%) patients required prism glasses and another three (7.6%) patients required strabismus surgery for persistent diplopia. In four (10.2%) patients, strabismus surgery was performed without fracture repair. Twelve patients (30.7%) with negative forced duction test results were followed up without surgery.
Conclusions:
In our study, diplopia resolved in 30.7% of patients without surgery and 69.2% of patients with diplopia required surgical intervention. Primary gaze diplopia was eliminated in 73.9% of patients through orbital wall repair. The most frequently employed secondary surgery was adjustable inferior rectus recession and <17.8% of patients required additional strabismus surgery.
doi:10.4103/0301-4738.86313
PMCID: PMC3214416  PMID: 22011490
Blowout; diplopia; prism; strabismus
15.  Porous high-density polyethylene in facial reconstruction and revision rhinoplasty: a prospective cohort study 
Head & Face Medicine  2012;8:17.
Introduction
Initial methods which used human tissues as reconstruction materials caused different problems including rejection, limited shapes and infection. In 1970s, PHDPE (Medpor®) was introduced by its exclusive advantageous including no donor site morbidity, easily shaped and the minimal foreign body reaction. Hereby, we report our experience of using Medpor® in facial reconstruction especially in frontal reconstruction and orbital rim with a large sample size.
Methods
This study was a prospective cohort study. Surgical techniques included using Medpor® in reconstruction of lamina papiracea (LP) (15 patients), frontal bone (15 patients), orbital rim (18 patients) and open rhinoplasty (8 patients). All interventions on LP were performed by endoscopic procedures. All frontal operations were carried out by bicoronal incision. In orbital defects, we used subciliary incision.
Results
From all 56 patients, 1 case had primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of maxillary sinus. In that case, reconstruction of inferior orbital rim was not successful and extrusion was occurred after radiotherapy. In rhinoplasty and other experiences no extrusion or infection were detected within the next 1 to 3 years of follow up. There were not any palpable and visible irregularities under the skin in our experiences.
Conclusions
In this study the patients did not experience any complications during the follow up periods and the satisfaction was remarkable. Gathering these data gives rise to future review studies which can provide more organized evidences for replacing classic reconstructive methods by the presented material.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-8-17
PMCID: PMC3441356  PMID: 22642753
Medpor; Rhinoplasty; Frontal reconstruction; Reconstruction of orbital rim
16.  Intraosseous Cavernous Hemangioma: A Rare Presentation in Maxilla 
Eplasty  2014;14:e35.
Objective: Hemangiomas are benign vascular lesions mostly arising from soft tissues. However, intraosseous hemangioma is a rare entity, comprising only 1% of benign bone tumors. We describe here the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of a 42-year-old woman with a painless hard swelling—diagnosed to be intraosseous hemangioma via orbital magnetic resonance imaging—localized on the left infraorbital margin. Methods: After en bloc excision of the mass with safety margins through a subciliary incision, the defect was reconstructed via Medpor, which was fixed to the drilled bones with polypropylene sutures. Results: Histopathological diagnosis of the specimen revealed intraosseous cavernous hemangioma. There seems to be no recurrence or any cosmetic deformity 3 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Total surgical excision is the preferred method of treatment for intraosseous hemangiomas with reconstruction. In this patient, we used Medpor for reconstruction of orbital floor, the infraorbital orbital rim and anterior wall of maxillary sinus. We think that Medpor is a good option since a natural smooth malar contour and adequate orbital rim can be achieved and there is no any other scar.
PMCID: PMC4194598  PMID: 25328568
cavernous hemangioma; intraosseous; Medpor; maxilla; orbital protrusion
17.  Use of Extraocular Muscle Flaps in the Correction of Orbital Implant Exposure 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e72223.
Purposes
The study is to describe a new surgical technique for correcting large orbital implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps and to propose a treatment algorithm for orbital implant exposure.
Methods
In a retrospective study, seven patients with orbital implant exposure were treated with extraocular muscle flaps. All data were collected from patients in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan during 2007–2012. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon (Y.J.T). Patient demographics, the original etiology, details of surgical procedures, implant types, and follow-up interval were recorded. Small exposure, defined as exposure area smaller than 3 mm in diameter, was treated conservatively first with topical lubricant and prophylactic antibiotics. Larger defects were managed surgically.
Results
Seven patients consisting of two males and five females were successfully treated for orbital implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps. The average age was 36.4 (range, 3–55) years old. Five patients were referred from other hospitals. One eye was enucleated for retinoblastoma. The other six eyes were eviscerated, including one for endophthalmitis and five for trauma. Mean follow-up time of all seven patients was 19.5 (range, 2–60) months. No patient developed recurrence of exposure during follow-up. All patients were fitted with an acceptable prosthesis and had satisfactory cosmetic and functional results.
Conclusions
The most common complication of orbital implant is exposure, caused by breakdown of the covering layers, leading to extrusion. Several methods were reported to manage the exposed implants. We report our experience of treating implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps to establish a well-vascularized environment that supplies both the wrapping material and the overlying ocular surface tissue. We believe it can work as a good strategy to manage or to prevent orbital implant exposure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072223
PMCID: PMC3783467  PMID: 24086260
18.  Use of Proplast II as a subperiosteal implant for the correction of anophthalmic enophthalmos. 
BACKGROUND--A variety of autogenous and alloplastic materials have been used as subperiosteal implants to correct anophthalmic enophthalmos. Proplast II is a synthetic porous composite of Teflon polymer and alumina. Proplast II offers a number of advantages over other commonly used alloplastic materials such as silicone and polymethyl methacrylate. It is light, porous, resilient, malleable, and easy to shape. It can be readily sterilised after shaping. It has been found to integrate with the surrounding tissues, thereby minimising the risk of subsequent implant migration and extrusion. METHODS--Proplast II was used as a subperiosteal implant in a total of 15 anophthalmic patients during the period June 1990 to March 1994. The indication for this procedure in all patients was poor orbital volume replacement despite the prior insertion of an adequately sized spherical socket implant. RESULTS--The results were excellent with a good correction of preoperative upper eyelid sulcus deformity. There were no operative complications nor any serious postoperative complications. The implants were well tolerated. CONCLUSION--Proplast II can be highly recommended for use as a subperiosteal implant.
Images
PMCID: PMC505269  PMID: 7488602
19.  Management of Radiation-induced Severe Anophthalmic Socket Contracture in Patients with Uveal Melanoma 
Purpose
High-dose radiotherapy can cause contracture of the anophthalmic socket, but the incidence of this complication in patients with enucleation for uveal melanoma has not previously been reported. We reviewed the surgical management and outcomes in terms of successful prosthesis wear in patients with severe contracture of the anophthalmic socket treated with high-dose radiotherapy for high-risk uveal melanoma and estimated the relative risk of this complication.
Methods
The medical records of all consecutive patients enrolled in a prospective uveal-melanoma tissue-banking protocol at our institution who underwent enucleation between January 2003 and December 2010 were reviewed. Patients who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy of the enucleated socket were further studied.
Results
Of the 68 patients enrolled in the prospective tissue banking protocol, 12 had high-risk histologic features (e.g., extrascleral spread or vortex vein invasion) and were treated with 60 Gy of external-beam radiotherapy after enucleation. Five of these patients (41.7%) experienced severe socket contracture precluding prosthesis wear. The median time to onset of contracture following completion of radiotherapy was 20 months. Three patients underwent surgery, which entailed scar tissue release, oral mucous membrane grafting, and socket reconstruction; 2 patients declined surgery. All 3 patients who had surgery experienced significant improvement of socket contracture that enabled patients to wear a prosthesis again.
Conclusion
High-dose radiotherapy after enucleation in patients with uveal melanoma caused severe socket contracture and inability to wear a prosthesis in approximately 40% of patients. Surgical repair of the contracted socket using oral mucous membrane grafting can allow resumption of prosthesis wear.
doi:10.1097/IOP.0b013e31824dd9b8
PMCID: PMC3359825  PMID: 22581085
20.  Problems Associated with Alloplastic Materials in Rhinoplasty 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(6):1617-1623.
Purpose
Augmentation rhinoplasty using alloplastic materials is a relatively common procedure among Asians. Silicon, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-tex®), and porous high density polyethylene (Medpor®) are most frequently used materials. This study was conducted to analyze revisional rhinoplasty cases with alloplastic materials, and to investigate the usage of alloplastic materials and their complications. We also reviewed complications caused by various materials used in plastic surgery while operating rhinoplasty.
Materials and Methods
We report 581 cases of complications rhinoplasty with alloplastic implants and review of the literature available to offer plastic surgeons an overview on alloplastic implant-related complications.
Results
Among a total 581 revisional rhinoplasty cases reviewed, the alloplastic materials used were silicone implants in 376, Gore-tex® in 183, and Medpor® in 22 cases. Revision cases and complications differed according to each alloplastic implant.
Conclusion
Optimal alloplastic implants should be used in nasal structure by taking into account the properties of the materials for the goal of minimizing their complications and revision rates. A thorough understanding of the mechanism involved in alloplastic material interaction and wound healing is the top priority in successfully overcoming alloplastic-related complications.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.6.1617
PMCID: PMC4205703  PMID: 25323900
Rhinoplasty; implant; postoperative complications
21.  Long term follow up of bone derived hydroxyapatite orbital implants 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2002;86(11):1287-1292.
Aims: To document the long term experience of bone derived hydroxyapatite orbital implants and compare results using scleral wrapped implants with those not using sclera.
Methods: This retrospective case series reviewed the long term follow up of 118 patients with 120 eyes which had undergone enucleation and bone derived hydroxyapatite orbital implant insertion at Dunedin Hospital from 1977 until 2000. Patient details were obtained from theatre records, case note review, patient interview and examination, interview of patient relatives, and family general practitioner records.
Results: Of the 120 eyes 84 had bone derived hydroxyapatite orbital implants with sclera and 36 without sclera. Follow up was 0.5–25 years (mean 8.9 years). 25 (19.3%) suffered minor complications of limited exposure of the implant which resolved spontaneously, with implant drilling or wound resuture. Nine (7.5%) suffered major complications requiring explantation. Major complications were more likely in cases with major tissue disruption, ischaemia, or inflammation. There were significantly fewer complications in the group where a bone derived hydroxyapatite orbital implant was implanted without a scleral covering (p<0.05).
Conclusions: The placement of a bone derived hydroxyapatite orbital implant in the socket was associated with a low rate of long term complications and good cosmesis in most cases. The omission of a scleral covering over the hydroxyapatite sphere had some advantages and may prove to be the procedure of choice.
PMCID: PMC1771380  PMID: 12386091
bone derived hydroxyapatite; enucleation; orbital implants
22.  Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;62(2):145-153.
Purpose:
The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG) for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG).
Study Design:
Prospective comparative study.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna's classification) were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured.
Results:
In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001) and motility (P = 0.004) between the two groups was significant.
Conclusion:
Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention.
doi:10.4103/0301-4738.128593
PMCID: PMC4005228  PMID: 24618485
Contracted socket; dermis fat graft; porous orbital implant; reconstruction
23.  Blepharoptosis Repair through the Small Orbital Septum Incision and Minimal Dissection Technique in Patients with Coexisting Dermatochalasis 
Purpose
To describe a modified surgical technique for blepharoptosis repair through a small orbital septum incision and minimal dissection, along with the results obtained in patients with coexisting dermatochalasis.
Methods
A retrospective chart review included 33 patients (52 eyelids) with blepharoptosis coexisting with dermatochalasis, surgically corrected through a small orbital septum incision and minimal dissection after redundant upper lid skin excision, by placing a single fixation suture between the levator aponeurosis and the tarsal plate. Outcome measures included the pre- and postoperative marginal reflex distances (MRD1), eyelid contour, post-operative complications, and need for reoperation.
Results
The pre- and postoperative MRD1 averaged 1.1 ± 0.8 mm and 2.8 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. Of the 33 patients, 9 patients (9 eyelids) underwent surgery on one eyelid for unilateral blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis (Group I), 5 patients (5 eyelids) underwent a simple skin excision blepharoplasty of the contralateral eyelid (Group II), and 19 patients (38 eyelids) underwent bilateral blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis repair (Group III). Of the 14 eyelids that underwent unilateral ptosis repair (Groups I and II), 12 eyelids (85.7%) showed less than a 1-mm difference from the contralateral eyelid. Of the 38 eyelids that underwent bilateral ptosis repair (Group III), 27 eyelids (71.1%), 5 eyelids (13.1%), and 6 eyelids (15.8%) had excellent, good, and poor outcomes, respectively. Overall, 44 eyelids (84.6%) out of a total of 52 eyelids had successful outcomes; the remaining 8 eyelids demonstrated unsatisfactory eyelid contour was corrected by an additional surgery.
Conclusions
Blepharoptosis repair through a small orbital septum incision and minimal dissection can be considered an efficient technique in patients with ptosis and dermatochalasis.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2013.27.1.1
PMCID: PMC3550305  PMID: 23372372
Blepharoptosis; Dermatochalasis; Minimal dissection; Small incision
24.  Standard Enucleation with Aluminium Oxide Implant (Bioceramic) Covered with Patient's Sclera 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:481584.
Purpose. We describe in our study a modified standard enucleation, using sclera harvested from the enucleated eye to cover the prosthesis in order to insert a large porous implant and to reduce postoperative complication rates in a phthisis globe. Methods. We perform initially a standard enucleation. The porous implant (Bioceramic) is then covered only partially by the patient's sclera. The implant is inserted in the posterior Tenon's space with the scleral covering looking at front. All patients were followed at least for twelve months (average followup 16 months). Results. We performed nineteen primary procedures (19 patients, 19 eyes, x M; x F) and secondary, to fill the orbital cavity in patients already operated by standard evisceration (7 patients, 7 eyes). There were no cases of implant extrusion. The orbital volume was well reintegrated. Conclusion. Our procedure was safe and effective. All patients had a good cosmetic result after final prosthetic fitting and we also achieved good prothesis mobility.
doi:10.1100/2012/481584
PMCID: PMC3361278  PMID: 22654614
25.  Long-term results of high-density porous polyethylene implants in facial skeletal augmentation: An Indian perspective 
Context:
With the increasing emphasis on well-sculpted facial features, today there is a growing need for tools to augment the facial skeleton; either for cosmetic reasons or to re-contour deformities-congenital, post-traumatic and post-ablative. The limitations of autogenous materials has lead to evolution of numerous 'alloplasts', of which, high-density porous polyethylene (HDPE) seems to be a promising alternative.
Aims:
To evaluate the long term results of HDPE in facial skeletal augmentation in terms of achieving desired facial contour, patient satisfaction and complications.
Settings:
A tertiary care referral centre in a metropolitan set-up.
Design:
Case Series
Materials and Methods:
All patients undergoing HDPE implant insertion for facial skeletal augmentation between July 2001 and November 2009 were included in the study. A total of 70 HDPE implants were inserted in 44 patients. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon following standardized pre, intra and post-operative protocols. The results were evaluated with respect to improvement in facial contour desired and achieved, overall patient satisfaction and complications encountered.
Results:
The study included 44 patients with a male:female ratio of 1:1, a mean age of 25.09 years (14 to 58 years) and a mean follow-up of 45.34 months (0.5 to 100 months). HDPE implants were used to augment the nasal dorsum, maxilla, malar eminence, chin, mandibular body and angle, orbital rim and frontal region. The overall recontouring afforded by the HDPE implants was good, with most patients reporting satisfactory results. There were seven complications (10%), including three cases of deviation (4.29%), three cases of exposure (4.29%) and one case of sub-clinical infection (1.43%). None however necessitated implant removal. Nasal dorsal HDPE implants, especially those involving secondary surgery, suffered a much higher complication rate compared to other implants.
Conclusions:
HDPE is an alternative to autogenous grafts for facial skeletal augmentation with good long-term results and a low incidence of complications, provided there is adequate vascular soft tissue cover.
doi:10.4103/0970-0358.63955
PMCID: PMC2938619  PMID: 20924447
High density porous polyethylene; facial skeletal augmentation; alloplast

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