Titanium dioxide is one of the most frequently studied metal oxides, and its (110) rutile surface serves as a prototypical model for the surface science of such materials. Recent studies have also shown that the (011) surface is relatively easy for preparation in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and that both the (110) and (011) surfaces could be precisely characterized using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The supramolecular self-assembly of organic molecules on the surfaces of titanium dioxide plays an important role in nanofabrication, and it can control the formation and properties of nanostructures, leading to wide range of applications covering the fields of catalysis, coatings and fabrication of sensors and extends to the optoelectronic industry and medical usage. Although the majority of experiments and theoretical calculations are focused on the adsorption of relatively small organic species, in recent years, there has been increasing interest in the properties of larger molecules that have several aromatic rings in which functional units could also be observed. The purpose of this review is to summarize the achievements in the study of single polycyclic molecules and thin layers adsorbed onto the surfaces of single crystalline titanium dioxide over the past decade.
organic molecules; titanium dioxide; self-assembly; polycyclic molecules; adsorption
This paper presents experimental evidence that thin (<∼200 nm) boron coatings, deposited with a (vacuum) cathodic arc technique on pre-polished Co-Cr-Mo surfaces, could potentially extend the life of metal-on-polymer orthopedic devices using cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy for the metal component. The primary tribological test used a linear, reciprocating pin-on-disc arrangement, with pins made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. The disks were cast Co-Cr-Mo samples that were metallographically polished and then coated with boron at a substrate bias of 500 V and at about 100 °C. The wear tests were carried out in a saline solution to simulate the biological environment. The improvements were manifested by the absence of a detectable wear track scar on the coated metal component, while significant polymer transfer film was detected on the uncoated (control) samples tested under the same conditions. The polymer transfer track was characterized with both profilometry and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. Mechanical characterization of the thin films included nano-indentation, as well as additional pin-on-disk tests with a steel ball to demonstrate adhesion, using ultra-high frequency acoustic microscopy to probe for any void occurrence at the coating-substrate interface.
Boron; amorphous materials; coatings; biomaterials; deposition process; Rutherford back-scattering spectroscopy; tribology; cobalt alloy
Controllers for scanning probe instruments can be programmed for automated lithography to generate desired surface arrangements of nanopatterns of organic thin films, such as n-alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). In this report, atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods of lithography known as nanoshaving and nanografting are used to write nanopatterns within organic thin films. Commercial instruments provide software to control the length, direction, speed, and applied force of the scanning motion of the tip. For nanoshaving, higher forces are applied to an AFM tip to selectively remove regions of the matrix monolayer, exposing bare areas of the gold substrate. Nanografting is accomplished by force-induced displacement of molecules of a matrix SAM, followed immediately by the surface self-assembly of n-alkanethiol molecules from solution. Advancements in AFM automation enable rapid protocols for nanolithography, which can be accomplished within the tight time restraints of undergraduate laboratories. Example experiments with scanning probe lithography (SPL) will be described in this report that were accomplished by undergraduate students during laboratory course activities and research internships in the chemistry department of Louisiana State University. Students were introduced to principles of surface analysis and gained “hands-on” experience with nanoscale chemistry.
Atomic force microscope (AFM) equipped with diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated Si probe has been used for scratch nanolithography on Si surfaces. The effect of scratch direction, applied tip force, scratch speed, and number of scratches on the size of the scratched geometry has been investigated. The size of the groove differs with scratch direction, which increases with the applied tip force and number of scratches but decreases slightly with scratch speed. Complex nanostructures of arrays of parallel lines and square arrays are further fabricated uniformly and precisely on Si substrates at relatively high scratch speed. DLC-coated Si probe has the potential to be an alternative in AFM-based scratch nanofabrication on hard surfaces.
Background: Noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) now regularly produces atomic-resolution images on a wide range of surfaces, and has demonstrated the capability for atomic manipulation solely using chemical forces. Nonetheless, the role of the tip apex in both imaging and manipulation remains poorly understood and is an active area of research both experimentally and theoretically. Recent work employing specially functionalised tips has provided additional impetus to elucidating the role of the tip apex in the observed contrast.
Results: We present an analysis of the influence of the tip apex during imaging of the Si(100) substrate in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at 5 K using a qPlus sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM). Data demonstrating stable imaging with a range of tip apexes, each with a characteristic imaging signature, have been acquired. By imaging at close to zero applied bias we eliminate the influence of tunnel current on the force between tip and surface, and also the tunnel-current-induced excitation of silicon dimers, which is a key issue in scanning probe studies of Si(100).
Conclusion: A wide range of novel imaging mechanisms are demonstrated on the Si(100) surface, which can only be explained by variations in the precise structural configuration at the apex of the tip. Such images provide a valuable resource for theoreticians working on the development of realistic tip structures for NC-AFM simulations. Force spectroscopy measurements show that the tip termination critically affects both the short-range force and dissipated energy.
force spectroscopy; image contrast; noncontact AFM; qPlus; Si(001); Si(100); tip (apex) structure
Bioactive coatings are in high demand to increase the functions of cells for numerous medical devices. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion on several potential orthopedic polymeric materials (specifically, polyetheretherketone, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, and polytetrafluoroethylene) coated with either titanium or gold using a novel Ionic Plasma Deposition process which creates a surface-engineered nanostructure (with features below 100 nm). Results demonstrated that compared to currently-used titanium and uncoated polymers, polymers coated with either titanium or gold using Ionic Plasma Deposition significantly increased osteoblast adhesion. Qualitative cell morphology results supported quantitative adhesion results as increased osteoblast cell spreading was observed on coated polymers compared to uncoated polymers. In this manner, this in vitro study strongly suggests that Ionic Plasma Deposition should be further studied for creating nanometer surface features on a wide variety of materials to enhance osteoblast functions necessary for orthopedic applications.
Nanostructured metal coatings; medical devices; osteoblast
The catalytic effect of gold seed particles deposited on a substrate prior to zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film growth by magnetron sputtering was investigated. For this purpose, selected ultra thin gold layers, with thicknesses close to the percolation threshold, are deposited by thermal evaporation in ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions and subsequently annealed to form gold nanodroplets. The ZnO structures are subsequently deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering in a UHV chamber, and possible morphological differences between the ZnO grown on top of the substrate and on the gold are investigated. The results indicate a moderate catalytic effect for a deposited gold underlayer of 4 nm, quite close to the gold thin film percolation thickness.
The adsorption on KBr(001) of a specially designed molecule, consisting of a flat aromatic triphenylene core equipped with six flexible propyl chains ending with polar cyano groups, is investigated by using atomic force microscopy in the noncontact mode (NC-AFM) coupled to Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) in ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature. Two types of monolayers are identified, one in which the molecules lie flat on the surface (MLh) and another in which they stand approximately upright (MLv). The Kelvin voltage on these two structures is negatively shifted relative to that of the clean KBr surface, revealing the presence of surface dipoles with a component pointing along the normal to the surface. These findings are interpreted with the help of numerical simulations. It is shown that the surface–molecule interaction is dominated by the electrostatic interaction of the cyano groups with the K+ ions of the substrate. The molecule is strongly adsorbed in the MLh structure with an adsorption energy of 1.8 eV. In the MLv layer, the molecules form π-stacked rows aligned along the polar directions of the KBr surface. In these rows, the molecules are less strongly bound to the substrate, but the structure is stabilized by the strong intermolecular interaction due to π-stacking.
atomic force microscopy; insulating surfaces; Kelvin force probe microscopy; molecular adsorption
There currently lacks of a way to directly write out electronics, just like printing pictures on paper by an office printer. Here we show a desktop printing of flexible circuits on paper via developing liquid metal ink and related working mechanisms. Through modifying adhesion of the ink, overcoming its high surface tension by dispensing machine and designing a brush like porous pinhead for printing alloy and identifying matched substrate materials among different papers, the slightly oxidized alloy ink was demonstrated to be flexibly printed on coated paper, which could compose various functional electronics and the concept of Printed-Circuits-on-Paper was thus presented. Further, RTV silicone rubber was adopted as isolating inks and packaging material to guarantee the functional stability of the circuit, which suggests an approach for printing 3D hybrid electro-mechanical device. The present work paved the way for a low cost and easygoing method in directly printing paper electronics.
Direct nanopatterning of a number of high melting-temperature molecules have been systematically investigated by Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN). By tuning DPN experimental conditions, all of the high melting-temperature molecules transported smoothly from the AFM tip to the surface at room temperature without tip pre-heating. Water meniscus formation between the tip and substrate is found to play a critical role in patterning high melting-temperature molecules. These results show that heating an AFM probe to a temperature above the ink's melting temperature is not a prerequisite for ink delivery, which extends the current “ink-substrate” combinations, available to DPN users.
Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) involves the direct transfer of an ink from a coated atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to a substrate of interest and uses as many as 55,000 pens to form arbitrary patterns of alkanethiols, oligonucleotides, proteins and viruses. Two limitations of DPN are the difficulty in transporting high molecular weight inks and the need to optimize individually the transport rates and tip inking methods of each molecule. As an alternative strategy that circumvents these two challenges, a method termed redox activating DPN (RA-DPN), is reported. In this strategy, an electrochemically active quinone functionalized surface is toggled from the reduced hydroquinone form to the oxidized benzoquinone form by the delivery of an oxidant by DPN. While the benzoquinone form is susceptible to nucleophilic attack in Michael-type additions, hydroquinone is not and acts as a passivating agent. Because both forms of the quinone are kinetically stable, the patterned surface can be immersed in a solution of a target containing any strong nucleophile, which will react only where the benzoquinone form persists on the surface. For proof-of-concept demonstrations, quinone surfaces were patterned by the delivery of the oxidant cerric ammonium nitrate and were immersed in solutions of AF549 labeled cholera toxin β subunit or oligonucleotides modified at the 5’ end with an amine and the 3’ end with a fluorophore. Fluorescent patterns of both the proteins and oligonucleotides were observed by epifluorescence microscopy. Additionally, RA-DPN maintains the advantageous ability of DPN to control feature size by varying the dwell time of the tip on the surface, and variation of this parameter has resulted in feature sizes as small as 165 nm. With this resolution, patterns of 50,000 spots could be made in a 100 × 100 µm grid.
Bioactive coatings are in high demand to control cellular functions for numerous medical devices. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize for the first time fibroblast (fibrous scar tissue forming cells) adhesion and proliferation on an important polymeric biomaterial (silicone) coated with titanium using a novel ionic plasma deposition (IPD) process. Fibroblasts are one of the first anchorage-dependent cells to arrive at an implant surface during the wound healing process. Persistent excessive functions of fibroblasts have been linked to detrimental fibrous tissue formation which may cause implant failure. The IPD process creates a surface-engineered nanostructure (with features usually below 100 nm) by first using a vacuum to remove all contaminants, then guiding charged metallic ions or plasma to the surface of a medical device at ambient temperature. Results demonstrated that compared to currently used titanium and uncoated silicone, silicone coated with titanium using IPD significantly decreased fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. Results also showed competitively increased osteoblast (bone-forming cells) over fibroblast adhesion on silicone coated with titanium; in contrast, osteoblast adhesion was not competitively increased over fibroblast adhesion on uncoated silicone or titanium controls. In this manner, this study strongly suggests that IPD should be further studied for biomaterial applications in which fibrous tissue encapsulation is undesirable (such as for orthopedic implants, cardiovascular components, etc.).
Nanometer; Coatings; Fibroblasts; Osteoblasts; Orthopedic
Micrometer resolution placement and immobilization of probe molecules is an important step in the preparation of biochips and a wide range of lab-on-chip systems. Most known methods for such a deposition of several different substances are costly and only suitable for a limited number of probes. In this article we present a flexible procedure for simultaneous spatially controlled immobilization of functional biomolecules by molecular ink lithography.
For the bottom-up fabrication of surface bound nanostructures a universal method is presented that allows the immobilization of different types of biomolecules with micrometer resolution. A supporting surface is biotinylated and streptavidin molecules are deposited with an AFM (atomic force microscope) tip at distinct positions. Subsequent incubation with a biotinylated molecule species leads to binding only at these positions. After washing streptavidin is deposited a second time with the same AFM tip and then a second biotinylated molecule species is coupled by incubation. This procedure can be repeated several times. Here we show how to immobilize different types of biomolecules in an arbitrary arrangement whereas most common methods can deposit only one type of molecules. The presented method works on transparent as well as on opaque substrates. The spatial resolution is better than 400 nm and is limited only by the AFM's positional accuracy after repeated z-cycles since all steps are performed in situ without moving the supporting surface. The principle is demonstrated by hybridization to different immobilized DNA oligomers and was validated by fluorescence microscopy.
The immobilization of different types of biomolecules in high-density microarrays is a challenging task for biotechnology. The method presented here not only allows for the deposition of DNA at submicrometer resolution but also for proteins and other molecules of biological relevance that can be coupled to biotin.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a three-dimensional topographic technique with a high atomic resolution to measure surface roughness. AFM is a kind of scanning probe microscope, and its near-field technique is based on the interaction between a sharp tip and the atoms of the sample surface. There are several methods and many ways to modify the tip of the AFM to investigate surface properties, including measuring friction, adhesion forces and viscoelastic properties as well as determining the Young modulus and imaging magnetic or electrostatic properties. The AFM technique can analyze any kind of samples such as polymers, adsorbed molecules, films or fibers, and powders in the air whether in a controlled atmosphere or in a liquid medium. In the past decade, the AFM has emerged as a powerful tool to obtain the nanostructural details and biomechanical properties of biological samples, including biomolecules and cells. The AFM applications, techniques, and -in particular- its ability to measure forces, are not still familiar to most clinicians. This paper reviews the literature on the main principles of the AFM modality and highlights the advantages of this technique in biology, medicine, and- especially- dentistry. This literature review was performed through E-resources, including Science Direct, PubMed, Blackwell Synergy, Embase, Elsevier, and Scholar Google for the references published between 1985 and 2010.
Atomic force microscopy; Scanning tunneling microscopy; Scanning probe microscopy; Dental; Biological
We demonstrate a method that allows the controlled writing of metallic patterns on the nanometer scale using the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) as a “mechano–electrochemical pen”. In contrast to previous experiments, no voltage is applied between the AFM tip and the sample surface. Instead, a passivated sample surface is activated locally due to lateral forces between the AFM tip and the sample surface. In this way, the area of tip–sample interaction is narrowly limited by the mechanical contact between tip and sample, and well-defined metallic patterns can be written reproducibly. Nanoscale structures and lines of copper were deposited, and the line widths ranged between 5 nm and 80 nm, depending on the deposition parameters. A procedure for the sequential writing of metallic nanostructures is introduced, based on the understanding of the passivation process. The mechanism of this mechano–electrochemical writing technique is investigated, and the processes of site-selective surface depassivation, deposition, dissolution and repassivation of electrochemically deposited nanoscale metallic islands are studied in detail.
atomic force microscopy; deposition; electrochemistry; nanoelectronics; nanofabrication; nanolithography; nanotechnology; NEMS and MEMS; scanning probe lithography
Si/Si0.66Ge0.34coupled quantum well (CQW) structures with different barrier thickness of 40, 4 and 2 nm were grown on Si substrates using an ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV-CVD) system. The samples were characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Blue shift in PL peak energy due to interwell coupling was observed in the CQWs following increase in the Si barrier thickness. The Si/SiGe heterostructure growth process and theoretical band structure model was validated by comparing the energy of the no-phonon peak calculated by the 6 + 2-bandk·pmethod with experimental PL data. Close agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental data was obtained.
Si/SiGe; Coupled quantum well; UHV-CVD
The coating of thin films is applied in numerous fields and many methods are employed for the deposition of these films. Some coating techniques may deposit films at high speed; for example, ordinary printing paper is coated with micrometre-thick layers of clay at a speed of tens of meters per second. However, to coat nanometre thin films at high speed, vacuum techniques are typically required, which increases the complexity of the process. Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for the high-speed coating of films with thicknesses at the nanometre level. This soap-film coating technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. Molecules and nanomaterials can be deposited at a thickness ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology.
One-dimensional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were prepared by electron beam evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The SiNWs can be grown through either vapor–liquid-solid (VLS) or oxide-assisted growth (OAG) mechanism. In VLS growth, SiNWs can be formed on Si surface, not on SiO2 surfaces. Moreover, low deposition rate is helpful for producing lateral SiNWs by VLS. But in OAG process, SiNWs can be grown on SiO2 surfaces, not on Si surfaces. This work reveals the methods of producing large-scale SiNWs in UHV.
Silicon nanowires; Preparation; Vapor–liquid-solid; Oxide-assisted growth; Ultrahigh vacuum
This paper describes a method for the patterned immobilization of capture antibodies into a microfluidic platform fabricated by roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing on poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Covalent attachment of antibodies was achieved by two sequential inkjet printing steps. First, a polyethyleneimine (PEI) layer was deposited onto oxygen plasma activated PMMA foil and further cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) to provide an amine-reactive aldehyde surface (PEI-GA). This step was followed by a second deposition of antibody by overprinting on the PEI-GA patterned PMMA foil. The PEI polymer ink was first formulated to ensure stable drop formation in inkjet printing and the printed films were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Anti-CRP antibody was patterned on PMMA foil by the developed method and bonded permanently with R2R hot embossed PMMA microchannels by solvent bonding lamination. The functionality of the immobilized antibody inside the microfluidic channel was evaluated by fluorescence-based sandwich immunoassay for detection of C-reactive protein (CRP). The antibody-antigen assay exhibited a good level of linearity over the range of 10 ng/ml to 500 ng/ml (R2 = 0.991) with a calculated detection limit of 5.2 ng/ml. The developed patterning method is straightforward, rapid and provides a versatile approach for creating multiple protein patterns in a single microfluidic channel for multiplexed immunoassays.
We report a method to form multifunctional polymer coatings through simple dip-coating of objects in an aqueous solution of dopamine. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we used dopamine self-polymerization to form thin, surface-adherent polydopamine films onto a wide range of inorganic and organic materials, including noble metals, oxides, polymers, semiconductors, and ceramics. Secondary reactions can be used to create a variety of ad-layers, including self-assembled monolayers through deposition of long-chain molecular building blocks, metal films by electroless metallization, and bioinert and bioactive surfaces via grafting of macromolecules.
This study investigates the controlled chemical functionalization of silicon oxide nanostructures prepared by AFM-anodization lithography of alkyl-terminated silicon. Different conditions for the growth of covalently bound mono-, multi- or submonolayers of distinctively functional silane molecules on nanostructures have been identified by AFM-height investigations. Routes for the preparation of methyl- or amino-terminated structures or silicon surfaces are presented and discussed. The formation of silane monolayers on nanoscopic silicon oxide nanostructures was found to be much more sensitive towards ambient humidity than, e.g., the silanization of larger OH-terminated silica surfaces. Amino-functionalized nanostructures have been successfully modified by the covalent binding of functional fluorescein dye molecules. Upon excitation, the dye-functionalized structures show only weak fluorescence, which may be an indication of a relatively low surface coverage of the dye molecules on length scale that is not accessible by standard AFM measurements.
AFM lithography; amino-functionalization; local anodic oxidation; octadecyl-trichlorosilane; silicon oxide nanostructures
The study of surface morphology of Au deposited on mica is crucial for the fabrication of flat Au films for applications in biological, electronic, and optical devices. The understanding of the growth mechanisms of Au on mica allows to tune the process parameters to obtain ultra-flat film as suitable platform for anchoring self-assembling monolayers, molecules, nanotubes, and nanoparticles. Furthermore, atomically flat Au substrates are ideal for imaging adsorbate layers using scanning probe microscopy techniques. The control of these mechanisms is a prerequisite for control of the film nano- and micro-structure to obtain materials with desired morphological properties. We report on an atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the morphology evolution of Au film deposited on mica by room-temperature sputtering as a function of subsequent annealing processes. Starting from an Au continuous film on the mica substrate, the AFM technique allowed us to observe nucleation and growth of Au clusters when annealing process is performed in the 573-773 K temperature range and 900-3600 s time range. The evolution of the clusters size was quantified allowing us to evaluate the growth exponent 〈z〉 = 1.88 ± 0.06. Furthermore, we observed that the late stage of cluster growth is accompanied by the formation of circular depletion zones around the largest clusters. From the quantification of the evolution of the size of these zones, the Au surface diffusion coefficient was evaluated in D(T) = [(7.42 × 10−13) ± (5.94 × 10−14) m2/s]exp(−(0.33±0.04) eVkT). These quantitative data and their correlation with existing theoretical models elucidate the kinetic growth mechanisms of the sputtered Au on mica. As a consequence we acquired a methodology to control the morphological characteristics of the Au film simply controlling the annealing temperature and time.
Semiconducting CrSi2 nanocrystallites (NCs) were grown by reactive deposition epitaxy of Cr onto n-type silicon and covered with a 50-nm epitaxial silicon cap. Two types of samples were investigated: in one of them, the NCs were localized near the deposition depth, and in the other they migrated near the surface. The electrical characteristics were investigated in Schottky junctions by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), conductive AFM and scanning probe capacitance microscopy (SCM) were applied to reveal morphology and local electrical properties. The scanning probe methods yielded specific information, and tapping-mode AFM has shown up to 13-nm-high large-area protrusions not seen in the contact-mode AFM. The electrical interaction of the vibrating scanning tip results in virtual deformation of the surface. SCM has revealed NCs deep below the surface not seen by AFM. The electrically active probe yielded significantly better spatial resolution than AFM. The conductive AFM measurements have shown that the Cr-related point defects near the surface are responsible for the leakage of the macroscopic Schottky junctions, and also that NCs near the surface are sensitive to the mechanical and electrical stress induced by the scanning probe.
Nanoporous materials can provide significant benefits to the field of biosensors. Their size and porous structure makes them an ideal tool for improving sensor performance. This study characterized a novel ultra low index of refraction nanoporous organosilicate (NPO) material for use as an optical platform for fluorescence-based optical biosensors. While serving as the low index cladding material, the novel coating based on organosilicate nanoparticles also provides an opportunity for a high surface area coating that can be utilized for immobilizing biological probes. Biological molecules were immobilized onto NPO, which was spin-coated on silicon and glass substrates. The biological molecule was composed of Protein A conjugated to AlexaFluor 546 fluorophore and then immobilized onto the NPO substrate via silanization. Sample analysis consisted of spectrofluorometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurement and ellipsometry. The results showed the presence of emission peaks at 574 nm, indicating that the immobilization of Protein A to the NPO material is possible. When compared to Si and glass substrates not coated with NPO, the results showed a 100X and 10X increase in packing density with the NPO coated films respectively. Ellipsometric analysis, FT-IR, contact angle, and SEM imaging of the surface immobilized NPO films suggested that while the surface modifications did induce some damage, it did not incur significant changes to its unique characteristics, i.e., pore structure, wettability and index of refraction. It was concluded that NPO films would be a viable sensor substrate to enhance sensitivity and improve sensor performance.
nanoporous material; biosensor; protein immobilization
Surface patterns of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) consisting of nanoscale lines as thin as 40 nm were fabricated on polymer substrates for nanotechnology and bioaffinity sensing applications. Large scale arrays (with areas up to 4 cm2) of ssDNA “nanolines” were created on streptavidin-coated polymer (PDMS) surfaces by transferring biotinylated ssDNA from a master pattern of gold nanowires attached to a glass substrate. The gold nanowires were first formed on the glass substrate by the process of lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE), and then “inked” with biotinylated ssDNA by hybridization adsorption to a thiol-modified ssDNA monolayer attached to the gold nanowires. The transferred ssDNA nanolines were capable of hybridizing with ssDNA from solution to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) patterns; a combination of fluorescence and AFM measurements were used to characterize the dsDNA nanoline arrays. To demonstrate the utility of these surfaces for biosensing, optical diffraction measurements of the hybridization adsorption of DNA-coated gold nanoparticles onto the ssDNA nanoline arrays were used to detect a specific target sequence of unlabeled ssDNA in solution.