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1.  Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-associated PDGFRB mutations impair the receptor signalling 
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) bind to two related receptor tyrosine kinases, which are encoded by the PDGFRA and PDGFRB genes. Recently, heterozygous PDGFRB mutations have been described in patients diagnosed with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC or Fahr disease), a rare inherited neurological disorder. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these mutations had a positive or negative impact on the PDGFRB activity. We first showed that the E1071V mutant behaved like wild-type PDGFRB and may represent a polymorphism unrelated to IBGC. In contrast, the L658P mutant had no kinase activity and failed to activate any of the pathways normally stimulated by PDGF. The R987W mutant activated Akt and MAP kinases but did not induce the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) after PDGF stimulation. Phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ was also decreased. Finally, we showed that the R987W mutant was more rapidly degraded upon PDGF binding compared to wild-type PDGFRB. In conclusion, PDGFRB mutations associated with IBGC impair the receptor signalling. PDGFRB loss of function in IBGC is consistent with recently described inactivating mutations in the PDGF-B ligand. These results raise concerns about the long-term safety of PDGF receptor inhibition by drugs such as imatinib.
doi:10.1111/jcmm.12443
PMCID: PMC4288366  PMID: 25292412
PDGFRB; Fahr disease; STAT3; receptor degradation; imatinib; brain calcification
2.  Functions of Paracrine PDGF Signaling in the Proangiogenic Tumor Stroma Revealed by Pharmacological Targeting  
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(1):e19.
Background
Important support functions, including promotion of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and invasion, have been attributed to the different cell types populating the tumor stroma, i.e., endothelial cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, pericytes, and infiltrating inflammatory cells. Fibroblasts have long been recognized inside carcinomas and are increasingly implicated as functional participants. The stroma is prominent in cervical carcinoma, and distinguishable from nonmalignant tissue, suggestive of altered (tumor-promoting) functions. We postulated that pharmacological targeting of putative stromal support functions, in particular those of cancer-associated fibroblasts, could have therapeutic utility, and sought to assess the possibility in a pre-clinical setting.
Methods and Findings
We used a genetically engineered mouse model of cervical carcinogenesis to investigate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor signaling in cancer-associated fibroblasts and pericytes. Pharmacological blockade of PDGF receptor signaling with the clinically approved kinase inhibitor imatinib slowed progression of premalignant cervical lesions in this model, and impaired the growth of preexisting invasive carcinomas. Inhibition of stromal PDGF receptors reduced proliferation and angiogenesis in cervical lesions through a mechanism involving suppression of expression of the angiogenic factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and the epithelial cell growth factor FGF-7 by cancer-associated fibroblasts. Treatment with neutralizing antibodies to the PDGF receptors recapitulated these effects. A ligand trap for the FGFs impaired the angiogenic phenotype similarly to imatinib. Thus PDGF ligands expressed by cancerous epithelia evidently stimulate PDGFR-expressing stroma to up-regulate FGFs, promoting angiogenesis and epithelial proliferation, elements of a multicellular signaling network that elicits functional capabilities in the tumor microenvironment.
Conclusions
This study illustrates the therapeutic benefits in a mouse model of human cervical cancer of mechanism-based targeting of the stroma, in particular cancer-associated fibroblasts. Drugs aimed at stromal fibroblast signals and effector functions may prove complementary to conventional treatments targeting the overt cancer cells for a range of solid tumors, possibly including cervical carcinoma, the second most common lethal malignancy in women worldwide, for which management remains poor.
Douglas Hanahan and colleagues investigate a paracrine regulatory circuit centered upon PDGF receptor signaling in cancer-associated fibroblasts and pericytes of a mouse model of cervical carcinogenesis.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Cancers—disorganized, life-threatening masses of cells—develop when cells acquire genetic changes that allow them to divide uncontrollably and to move into (invade) other tissues. Interactions with ostensibly normal cells in the tissue surrounding the tumor (the stroma) support the growth of these abnormal cells. The stroma contains endothelial cells and pericytes (which line the inside and coat the outside, respectively, of blood vessels), cancer-associated fibroblasts, and some immune system cells. Together, these cells support angiogenesis (the formation of a blood supply, which feeds the tumor), produce factors that stimulate tumor cell growth, and facilitate tumor cell invasion into surrounding tissues. One type of tumor with a prominent stromal compartment is cervical cancer. Precancerous changes in the epithelial cells lining the cervix (the structure that connects the womb to the vagina) are usually triggered by infection with human papillomavirus. Some of these early lesions, which are known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs), develop into invasive cervical cancer, which is treated by surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Why Was This Study Done?
The outlook for women whose cervical cancer is detected early is good but only 15%–30% of women whose cancer has spread out of the cervix survive for five years. If, as researchers believe, the stromal compartment is important in the development and growth (neoplastic progression) of cervical cancer, it might be possible to help these women by specifically targeting the cells in the stroma. However, relatively little is known about the role that the stroma plays in the neoplastic progression of cervical cancer or how it is regulated other than that a protein called platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which is made by the tumor cells, might be involved in its formation. In this study, the researchers have used a mouse model of cervical cancer (HPV/E2 mice) to investigate PDGF signaling in the tumor stroma. HPV/E2 mice develop CINs before they are three months old; by five months of age, 90% of them have invasive cervical cancer.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers report that PDGF was expressed in the cervixes of normal and HPV/E2 mice, mainly by epithelial cells, and that PDGF receptors (cell-surface proteins that bind PDGF and send a message into the cell that alters the expression of other proteins) were expressed on cells within normal stroma and in fibroblasts and pericytes in the stroma surrounding CINs and tumors (but not on the cancer cells). The expression of PDGF and its receptors increased slightly during tumor progression. Treatment of the HPV/E2 mice with imatinib, an inhibitor of PDGF signaling, slowed the progression of precancerous lesions, impaired the growth of invasive cancers, and reduced the number of blood vessels formed in the tumors and the coverage of these vessels with pericytes. Other experiments indicate that imatinib had these effects because its inhibition of stromal PDGF receptors suppressed the expression of FGF-7 (a factor that encourages epithelial cell division) and FGF-2 (a proangiogenic factor) by cancer-associated fibroblasts. Finally, as in HPV/E2 mice, FGF-2 and PDGF receptors were expressed in the stroma of human cervical cancers whereas PDGF was expressed in the cancer cells.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that PDGF receptor signaling in the stromal cells associated with cervical tumors in mice has a functional role during tumor progression. More specifically, they suggest that PDGF released by the tumor cells triggers PDGF signaling in the stromal cells, which increases the expression of factors that both directly and indirectly stimulate the growth of the tumor cells. Confirmation of this scheme will require additional experiments in mouse models of cervical cancer and the careful examination of more human material. Importantly, although approaches that work in mice do not always work in people, the current findings suggest that targeted therapeutics that prevent the stromal support of tumor growth (such as inhibitors of PDGF receptor signaling) might provide a complementary approach to conventional treatments that target the cancer cells themselves.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050019.
The US National Cancer Institute provides information on all aspects of cancer, including information about cervical cancer (in English and Spanish)
The UK charity Cancerbackup also provides information on all aspects of cancer, including information on cervical cancer and on imatinib
Wikipedia has pages on platelet-derived growth factor, on PDGF receptors, and on imatinib (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050019
PMCID: PMC2214790  PMID: 18232728
3.  PDGFRA, PDGFRB, EGFR, and downstream signaling activation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor 
Neuro-Oncology  2009;11(6):725-736.
We investigated the activation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor A (PDGFRA), PDGF receptor B (PDGFRB), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and their downstream pathways in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). PDGFRA, PDGFRB, and EGFR were immunohistochemically, biochemically, cytogenetically, and mutationally analyzed along with the detection of their cognate ligands in 16 neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-related and 11 sporadic MPNSTs. The activation of the downstream receptor pathways was also studied by means of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Western blotting experiments, as well as rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (RAS), v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide (PI3KCA), and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) mutational analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. PDGFRA, PDGFRB, and EGFR were expressed/activated, with higher levels of EGFR expression/phosphorylation paralleling increasing EGFR gene copy numbers in the NF1-related cases (71%). Autocrine loop activation of these receptors along with their coactivation were suggested by the expression of the cognate ligands in the absence of mutations and the presence of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) heterodimers, respectively. Both MPNST groups showed AKT, ERK, and mTOR expression/phosphorylation. No BRAF, PI3KCA, or PTEN mutations were found in either group of MPNSTs, but 18% of the sporadic MPNSTs showed RAS mutations. PTEN monosomy segregated with the NF1-related cases (50%, p = 0.018), but PTEN protein was expressed in all but two cases. In conclusion, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, and EGFR seem to be promising molecular targets for tailored treatments in MPNST. In particular, the ligand- and heterodimerization-dependent RTK activation/expression coupled with a downstream signaling phosphorylation, mediated by the upstream receptors or RAS activation, may provide a rationale to apply combined RTK and mTOR inhibitor treatments both to sporadic and NF1-related cases.
doi:10.1215/15228517-2009-003
PMCID: PMC2802393  PMID: 19246520
EGFR; MPNST; mTOR; PDGFRA; PDG-FRB
4.  Imatinib blocks migration and invasion of medulloblastoma cells by concurrently inhibiting activation of PDGFR and transactivation of EGFR 
Molecular cancer therapeutics  2009;8(5):1137-1147.
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) expression correlates with metastatic medulloblastoma. PDGF stimulation of medulloblastoma cells phosphorylates Erk and promotes migration. We sought to determine whether blocking PDGFR activity effectively inhibits signaling required for medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion. DAOY and D556 human medulloblastoma cells were treated with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec®), a PDGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or transfected with siRNA to PDGFRB to test the effects of blocking PDGFR phosphorylation and expression, respectively. PDGFR cell signaling, migration, invasion, survival and proliferation following PDGF-BB stimulation, with and without PDGFR inhibition, were measured. PDGF-BB treatment of cells increased PDGFRB, Akt and Erk phosphorylation, and transactivated EGFR, which correlated with enhanced migration, survival and proliferation. Imatinib (1 uM) treatment of DAOY and D556 cells inhibited PDGF-BB- and serum-mediated migration and invasion at 24 h and 48 h, respectively, and concomitantly inhibited PDGF-BB activation of PDGFRB, Akt and Erk, but induced increased PTEN expression and activity. Imatinib treatment also induced DAOY cell apoptosis at 72 h and inhibited DAOY and D556 cell proliferation at 48 h. siRNA silencing of PDGFRB similarly inhibited signaling, migration and survival and both siRNA and imatinib treatment inhibited PDGF-BB-mediated EGFR transactivation, indicating that the effects of imatinib treatment are specific to PDGFRB target inhibition. These results indicate that PDGFRB tyrosine kinase activity is critical for migration and invasion of medulloblastoma cells, possibly by transactivating EGFR, and thus imatinib may represent an important novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of medulloblastoma.
doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0889
PMCID: PMC2891380  PMID: 19417143
Medulloblasotma; Imatinib mesylate; PDGFR; EGFR; PTEN
5.  Imatinib induces apoptosis by inhibiting PDGF- but not insulin-induced PI 3-kinase/Akt survival signaling in RGC-5 retinal ganglion cells 
Molecular Vision  2009;15:1599-1610.
Purpose
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and insulin promote the survival of neuronal cells, including retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), via activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/Akt signaling. Of importance, recent studies have shown that imatinib inhibition of PDGF receptors induces retinal toxicity in some patients. To date, the extent of activation and the functional significance of insulin-induced PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling remain unclear in the context of dysregulated PDGF receptor signaling in retinal cells. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the pro-survival effect of insulin-induced PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling is compromised by imatinib inhibition of PDGF receptor signaling in RGCs.
Methods
RGC-5 cells were subjected to acute and long-term treatments with imatinib, a PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Afterwards, the changes in RGC phenotype and apoptotic markers were assessed by fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy and caspase-3/poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, respectively. In addition, imatinib regulation of PDGF- and insulin-induced PI 3-kinase/Akt survival signaling was determined by immunoblot analyses, immunoprecipitation, and in vitro PI 3-kinase assays.
Results
Treatment of RGC-5 cells with imatinib for up to 48 h resulted in apoptosis, which was not rescued by insulin supplementation. The apoptotic phenotype was associated with upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Time dependency experiments revealed that imatinib-mediated apoptosis was preceded by early and sustained abrogation of PDGF-induced increases in PDGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase activity. In addition, imatinib inhibited PDGF-induced downstream phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and p70S6kinase. However, imatinib exposure did not affect insulin-induced insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-associated PI 3-kinase activity and the downstream phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and p70S6kinase.
Conclusions
Together, these data indicate that disruption of PDGF receptor signaling compromises the pro-survival effect of insulin-induced IRS-dependent PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling in RGCs, and that the maintenance of PDGF-induced PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling is critical for the survival of retinal neuronal cells.
PMCID: PMC2728561  PMID: 19693287
6.  A naturally occurring carotenoid, lutein, reduces PDGF and H2O2 signaling and compromised migration in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells 
Background
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Abnormalities of PDGF/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) are thought to contribute to vascular diseases and malignancy. We previously showed that a carotenoid, lycopene, can directly bind to PDGF and affect its related functions in VSMCs. In this study we examined the effect of the other naturally occurring carotenoid, lutein, on PDGF signaling and migration in VSMCs.
Methods
Western blotting was performed to examine PDGF and H2O2 signaling. Flowcytometry was used to determine PDGF binding to VSMCs. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to examine intracellular ROS production. Modified Boyden chamber system (Transwell apparatus) was used for migration assay.
Results
Lutein reduced PDGF signaling, including phosphorylation of PDGFR-β and its downstream protein kinases/enzymes such as phospholipase C-γ, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Although lutein possesses a similar structure to lycopene, it was striking that lutein inhibited PDGF signaling through a different way from lycopene in VSMCs. Unlike lycopene, lutein not only interacted with (bound to) PDGF but also interfered with cellular components. This was evidenced that preincubation of PDGF with lutein and treatment of VSMCs with lutein followed by removing of lutein compromised PDGF-induced signaling. Lutein reduced PDGF-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and attenuated ROS- (H2O2-) induced ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation. A further analysis indicated lutein could inhibit a higher concentration of H2O2-induced PDGFR signaling, which is known to act through an oxidative inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase. Finally, we showed that lutein functionally inhibited PDGF-induced VSMC migration, whereas its stereo-isomer zeaxanthin did not, revealing a special action of lutein on VSMCs.
Conclusions
Our study reveals a differential action mechanism of lutein from other reported caroteinoids and suggests a possible beneficial effect of lutein but not zeaxanthin on prevention of vascular diseases.
doi:10.1186/1423-0127-19-18
PMCID: PMC3292940  PMID: 22313606
binding; carotenoid; lutein; migration; oxidative stress; signaling
7.  The role of PDGF in radiation oncology 
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was originally identified as a constituent of blood serum and subsequently purified from human platelets. PDGF ligand is a dimeric molecule consisting of two disulfide-bonded chains from A-, B-, C- and D-polypeptide chains, which combine to homo- and heterodimers. The PDGF isoforms exert their cellular effects by binding to and activating two structurally related protein tyrosine kinase receptors. PDGF is a potent mitogen and chemoattractant for mesenchymal cells and also a chemoattractant for neutrophils and monocytes. In radiation oncology, PDGF are important for several pathologic processes, including oncogenesis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. Autocrine activation of PDGF was observed and interpreted as an important mechanism involved in brain and other tumors. PDGF has been shown to be fundamental for the stability of normal blood vessel formation, and may be essential for the angiogenesis in tumor tissue. PDGF also plays an important role in the proliferative disease, such as atherosclerosis and radiation-induced fibrosis, regarding its proliferative stimulation of fibroblast cells. Moreover, PDGF was also shown to stimulate production of extracellular matrix proteins, which are mainly responsible for the irreversibility of these diseases. This review introduces the structural and functional properties of PDGF and PDGF receptors and discusses the role and mechanism of PDGF signaling in normal and tumor tissues under different conditions in radiation oncology.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-2-5
PMCID: PMC1780053  PMID: 17217530
8.  Role of Glutamine 17 of the Bovine Papillomavirus E5 Protein in Platelet-Derived Growth Factor β Receptor Activation and Cell Transformation 
Journal of Virology  1998;72(11):8921-8932.
The bovine papillomavirus E5 protein is a small, homodimeric transmembrane protein that forms a stable complex with the cellular platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptor through transmembrane and juxtamembrane interactions, resulting in receptor activation and cell transformation. Glutamine 17 in the transmembrane domain of the 44-amino-acid E5 protein is critical for complex formation and receptor activation, and we previously proposed that glutamine 17 forms a hydrogen bond with threonine 513 of the PDGF β receptor. We have constructed and analyzed mutant E5 proteins containing all possible amino acids at position 17 and examined the ability of these proteins to transform C127 fibroblasts, which express endogenous PDGF β receptor. Although several position 17 mutants were able to transform cells, mutants containing amino acids with side groups that were unable to participate in hydrogen bonding interactions did not form a stable complex with the PDGF β receptor or transform cells, in agreement with the proposed interaction between position 17 of the E5 protein and threonine 513 of the receptor. The nature of the residue at position 17 also affected the ability of the E5 proteins to dimerize. Overall, there was an excellent correlation between the ability of the various E5 mutant proteins to bind the PDGF β receptor, lead to receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and transform cells. Similar results were obtained in Ba/F3 hematopoietic cells expressing exogenous PDGF β receptor. In addition, treatment of E5-transformed cells with a specific inhibitor of the PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase reversed the transformed phenotype. These results confirm the central importance of the PDGF β receptor in mediating E5 transformation and highlight the critical role of the residue at position 17 of the E5 protein in the productive interaction with the PDGF β receptor. On the basis of molecular modeling analysis and the known chemical properties of the amino acids, we suggest a structural basis for the role of the residue at position 17 in E5 dimerization and in complex formation between the E5 protein and the PDGF β receptor.
PMCID: PMC110309  PMID: 9765437
9.  PDGFRB Promotes Liver Metastasis Formation of Mesenchymal-Like Colorectal Tumor Cells12 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2013;15(2):204-217.
In epithelial tumors, the platelet-derived growth factor receptor B (PDGFRB) is mainly expressed by stromal cells of mesenchymal origin. Tumor cells may also acquire PDGFRB expression following epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which occurs during metastasis formation. Little is known about PDGFRB signaling in colorectal tumor cells. We studied the relationship between PDGFRB expression, EMT, and metastasis in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cohorts by analysis of gene expression profiles. PDGFRB expression in primary CRC was correlated with short disease-free and overall survival. PDGFRB was co-expressed with genes involved in platelet activation, transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling, and EMT in three CRC cohorts. PDGFRB was expressed in mesenchymal-like tumor cell lines in vitro and stimulated invasion and liver metastasis formation in mice. Platelets, a major source of PDGF, preferentially bound to tumor cells in a non-activated state. Platelet activation caused robust PDGFRB tyrosine phosphorylation on tumor cells in vitro and in liver sinusoids in vivo. Platelets also release TGFB, which is a potent inducer of EMT. Inhibition of TGFB signaling in tumor cells caused partial reversion of the mesenchymal phenotype and strongly reduced PDGFRB expression and PDGF-stimulated tumor cell invasion. These results suggest that PDGFRB may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of colorectal tumors with mesenchymal properties, most likely downstream of platelet activation and TGFB signaling.
PMCID: PMC3579322  PMID: 23441134
10.  Survival effect of PDGF-CC rescues neurons from apoptosis in both brain and retina by regulating GSK3β phosphorylation 
Platelet-derived growth factor CC (PDGF-CC) is the third member of the PDGF family discovered after more than two decades of studies on the original members of the family, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB. The biological function of PDGF-CC remains largely to be explored. We report a novel finding that PDGF-CC is a potent neuroprotective factor that acts by modulating glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity. In several different animal models of neuronal injury, such as axotomy-induced neuronal death, neurotoxin-induced neuronal injury, 6-hydroxydopamine–induced Parkinson’s dopaminergic neuronal death, and ischemia-induced stroke, PDGF-CC protein or gene delivery protected different types of neurons from apoptosis in both the retina and brain. On the other hand, loss-of-function assays using PDGF-C null mice, neutralizing antibody, or short hairpin RNA showed that PDGF-CC deficiency/inhibition exacerbated neuronal death in different neuronal tissues in vivo. Mechanistically, we revealed that the neuroprotective effect of PDGF-CC was achieved by regulating GSK3β phosphorylation and expression. Our data demonstrate that PDGF-CC is critically required for neuronal survival and may potentially be used to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Inhibition of the PDGF-CC–PDGF receptor pathway for different clinical purposes should be conducted with caution to preserve normal neuronal functions.
doi:10.1084/jem.20091704
PMCID: PMC2856029  PMID: 20231377
11.  Tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet derived growth factor β receptors in coronary artery lesions: implications for vascular remodelling after directional coronary atherectomy and unstable angina pectoris 
Heart  1998;79(4):400-406.
Background—Growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) have been postulated to be important mediators of neointimal proliferation observed in atherosclerotic plaques and restenotic lesions following coronary interventions. Binding of PDGF to its receptor results in intrinsic receptor tyrosine kinase activation and subsequent cellular migration, proliferation, and vascular contraction.
Aims—To investigate whether the concentration of PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation obtained from directional coronary atherectomy (DCA) samples correlate with atherosclerotic plaque burden, the ability of diseased vessels to remodel, coronary risk factors, and clinical events.
Methods—DCA samples from 59 patients and 15 non-atherosclerotic left internal thoracic arteries (LITA) were analysed for PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation content by receptor immunoprecipitation and antiphosphotyrosine western blot. The amount of PDGF β receptor phosphorylation was analysed in relation to angiographic follow up data and clinical variables.
Results—PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in the 59 DCA samples was greater than in the 15 non-atherosclerotic LITA (mean (SD) 0.84 (0.67) v 0.17 (0.08) over a control standard, p < 0.0001). As evaluated by stepwise regression analysis, incorporation of both PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and immediate gain correlated strongly (adjusted r2 = 0.579) with late loss, although PDGF β receptor tyramine phosphorylation alone correlated poorly with late loss. Multivariate regression analysis of coronary risk factors and clinical events revealed unstable angina as the most significant correlate of PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation (F value 20.009, p < 0.0001).
Conclusions—PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in atherosclerotic lesions is increased compared with non-atherosclerotic arterial tissues. The association of PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation with immediate gain strongly correlates with vascular remodelling. PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation correlates with unstable angina pectoris.

 Keywords: PDGF receptors;  atherosclerosis;  directional coronary atherectomy;  restenosis
PMCID: PMC1728674  PMID: 9616351
12.  Reversion of autocrine transformation by a dominant negative platelet-derived growth factor mutant. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1993;13(7):4066-4076.
A non-receptor-binding mutant of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A chain, PDGF-0, was generated by exchanging 7 amino acids in the sequence. The mutant chains formed dimers that were similar to wild-type PDGF-AA with regard to stability and rate of processing to the mature 30-kDa secreted forms. Moreover, the mutant chains formed disulfide-bonded heterodimers with the PDGF B chain in NIH 3T3 cells heterodimer underwent the same processing and secretion as PDGF-AB. Transfection of c-sis-expressing 3T3 cells with PDGF-0 significantly inhibited the transformed phenotype of these cells, as determined by the following criteria. (i) Compared with PDGF-0-negative clones, PDGF-0-producing clones showed a reverted morphology. (ii) Clones producing PDGF-0 grew more slowly than PDGF-0-negative clones, with a fivefold difference in cell number after 14 days in culture. (iii) The expression of PDGF-0 completely inhibited the ability of the c-sis-expressing 3T3 cells to form colonies in soft agar; this inhibition was overcome by the addition of recombinant PDGF-BB to the culture medium, showing that the lack of colony formation of these cells was not due to a general unresponsiveness to PDGF. The specific expression of a PDGF-0/PDGF wild-type heterodimer in COS cells revealed that the affinity of the mutant heterodimer for the PDGF alpha receptor was decreased by approximately 50-fold compared with that of PDGF-AA. Thus, we show that a non-receptor-binding PDGF A-chain mutant neutralizes in a trans-dominant manner the autocrine transforming potential of the c-sis/PDGF B chain by forming low-affinity heterodimers with wild-type PDGF chains. This method of specifically antagonizing the effect of PDGF may be useful in investigations of the role of PDGF in normal and pathological conditions.
Images
PMCID: PMC359956  PMID: 8321214
13.  BALB/c-3T3 fibroblasts resistant to growth inhibition by beta interferon exhibit aberrant platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor signal transduction. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1991;11(6):3148-3154.
Several lines of evidence now exist to suggest an interaction between the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) growth-stimulatory signal transduction pathway and the beta interferon (IFN-beta) growth-inhibitory signal transduction pathway. The most direct examples are inhibition of PDGF-mediated gene induction and mitogenesis by IFN-beta and the effects of activators and inhibitors of the IFN-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent eIF2 kinase on expression of PDGF-inducible genes. To further investigate the nature of this PDGF/IFN-beta interaction, we selected BALB/c-3T3 cells for resistance to growth inhibition by IFN-beta and analyzed the phenotypes of resulting clonal lines (called IRB cells) with respect to PDGF signal transduction. Although selected only for IFN resistance, the IRB cells were found to be defective for induction of growth-related genes c-fos, c-myc and JE in response to PDGF. This block to signal transduction was not due to loss or inactivation of PDGF receptors, as immunoprecipitation of PDGF receptors with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies showed them to be present at equal levels in the BALB/c-3T3 and IRB cells and to be autophosphorylated normally in response to PDGF. Furthermore, treatment with other peptide growth factors (PDGF-AA, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor) also failed to induce c-fos, c-myc, or JE expression in IRB cells. All of these growth factors, however, were able to induce another early growth-related gene, Egr-1. The block to signaling was not due to a defect in inositol phosphate metabolism, as PDGF treatment induced normal calcium mobilization and phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase activation in these cells. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters did induce c-fos, c-myc, and JE in IRB cells, indicating that signalling pathways distal to this enzyme remained intact. We have previously shown that IFN-inducible enzyme activities, including double-stranded RNA-dependent eIF2 kinase and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, are normal in IRB cells. The finding that the induction of multiple growth-related genes by several independent growth factors is inhibited in these IFN-resistant cells suggests that there is a second messenger common to both growth factor and IFN signaling pathways and that this messenger is defective in these cells.
Images
PMCID: PMC360164  PMID: 1645446
14.  The Roles of PDGF in Development and During Neurogenesis in the Normal and Diseased Nervous System 
The four platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands and PDGF receptors (PDGFRs), α and β (PDGFRA, PDGFRB), are essential proteins that are expressed during embryonic and mature nervous systems, i.e., in neural progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular cells. PDGF exerts essential roles from the gastrulation period to adult neuronal maintenance by contributing to the regulation of development of preplacodal progenitors, placodal ectoderm, and neural crest cells to adult neural progenitors, in coordinating with other factors. In adulthood, PDGF plays critical roles for maintenance of many specific cell types in the nervous system together with vascular cells through controlling the blood brain barrier homeostasis. At injury or various stresses, PDGF modulates neuronal excitability through adjusting various ion channels, and affecting synaptic plasticity and function. Furthermore, PDGF stimulates survival signals, majorly PI3-K/Akt pathway but also other ways, rescuing cells from apoptosis. Studies imply an involvement of PDGF in dendrite spine morphology, being critical for memory in the developing brain. Recent studies suggest association of PDGF genes with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we will describe the roles of PDGF in the nervous system, from the discovery to recent findings, in order to understand the broad spectrum of PDGF in the nervous system. Recent development of pharmacological and replacement therapies targeting the PDGF system is discussed.
doi:10.1007/s11481-013-9479-z
PMCID: PMC3955130  PMID: 23771592
PDGF; PDGFRA; PDGFRB; Nervous system
15.  Platelet-derived growth-factor requirements for in vitro proliferation of normal and malignant mesenchymal cells. 
British Journal of Cancer  1981;43(3):335-343.
Serum obtained by clotting whole blood contains a potent mitogen with apparent specificity for mesenchymal cells. This peptide wound-healing hormone, derived from platelets, is known as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Serum obtained by clotting plasma contains no detectable growth-promoting activity for fibroblasts, and is therefore a valuable additive to culture medium for an examination of the autonomy of cells from exogenous PDGF. Fibroblasts from man, mouse and hamster remain mitotically quiescent in plasma-derived serum and proliferate only when a source of PDGF is added. Normal human kidney epithelial cells and human T-cells proliferate normally in plasma-derived serum, and are unaffected by the addition of PDGF. A range of virally transformed cells and malignant cells from chemically induced rodent sarcomas was tested for their proliferative capacity in plasma-derived serum and their response to exogenous PDGF. A complete spectrum of PDGF-dependence was revealed. Polyoma-transformed BHK21 cells and SV40-transformed 3T3 cells showed complete PDGF independence. Cells from 7 chemically induced rat or mouse sarcomas provided results which ranged from the FS6 (a C57BL Cbi mouse sarcoma which was completely PDGF dependent) to MC28 (a hooded rat sarcoma) which was completely PDGF independent. The dependence of proliferation of these cells on PDGF showed a close correlation with several features of their in vivo behaviour. Tumours which were non-immunogenic in syngeneic hosts, contained few host macrophages and produced a high incidence of spontaneous distant metastases provided PDGF-independent cells. Cells from highly immunogenic, macrophage-rich "non-metastasizing" tumours were on the other hand PDGF dependent and tumours of intermediate "malignancy" provided cells with partial autonomy from PDGF. An assay for anchorage-independent growth provided data which also correlated with autonomy from PDGF. However, daily addition of large amounts of PDGF to BHK21 C13 cells induced reversible anchorage independent growth. The value of plasma-derived serum for the investigation of the proliferative autonomy of malignant cells is emphasized.
PMCID: PMC2010611  PMID: 7225284
16.  Functional identification of regulatory elements within the promoter region of platelet-derived growth factor 2. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1989;9(2):396-405.
Human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is composed of two polypeptide chains, PDGF-1 and PDGF-2, the human homolog of the v-sis oncogene. Deregulation of PDGF-2 expression can confer a growth advantage to cells possessing the cognate receptor and, thus, may contribute to the malignant phenotype. We investigated the regulation of PDGF-2 mRNA expression during megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells. Induction by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) led to a greater than 200-fold increase in PDGF-2 transcript levels in these cells. Induction was dependent on protein synthesis and was not enhanced by cycloheximide exposure. In our initial investigation of the PDGF-2 promoter, a minimal promoter region, which included sequences extending only 42 base pairs upstream of the TATA signal, was found to be as efficient as 4 kilobase pairs upstream of the TATA signal in driving expression of a reporter gene in uninduced K562 cells. We also functionally identified different regulatory sequence elements of the PDGF-2 promoter in TPA-induced K562 cells. One region acted as a transcriptional silencer, while another region was necessary for maximal activity of the promoter in megakaryoblasts. This region was shown to bind nuclear factors and was the target for trans-activation in normal and tumor cells. In one tumor cell line, which expressed high PDGF-2 mRNA levels, the presence of the positive regulatory region resulted in a 30-fold increase in promoter activity. However, the ability of the minimal PDGF-2 promoter to drive reporter gene expression in uninduced K562 cells and normal fibroblasts, which contained no detectable PDGF-2 transcripts, implies the existence of other negative control mechanisms beyond the regulation of promoter activity.
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PMCID: PMC362614  PMID: 2651898
17.  Stimulation of the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway activates protein kinase C-delta. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1994;14(10):6727-6735.
The murine myeloid progenitor cell line 32D was recently shown to undergo monocytic differentiation when protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) was overexpressed and activated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (H. Mischak, J.H. Pierce, J. Goodnight, M.G. Kazanietz, P.M. Blumberg, and J.F. Mushinski, J. Biol. Chem. 268:20110-20115, 1993). Tyrosine phosphorylation of PKC-delta occurred when PKC-delta-transfected 32D cells were stimulated by TPA (W. Li, H. Mischak, J.-C. Yu, L.-M. Wang, J.F. Mushinski, M.A. Heidaran, and J.H. Pierce, J. Biol. Chem. 269:2349-2352, 1994). In order to elucidate the role played by PKC-delta in response to activation of a receptor tyrosine kinase, we transfected platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor (PDGF-beta R) alone (32D/PDGF-beta R) or together with PKC-delta (32D/PDGF-beta R/PKC-delta) into 32D cells. NIH 3T3 cells which endogenously express both PDGF-alpha R and PDGF-beta R were also transfected with PKC-delta (NIH 3T3/PKC-delta). Like TPA treatment, PDGF-BB stimulation caused striking phosphorylation of PKC-delta in vivo and translocation of some PKC-delta from the cytosol fraction to the membrane fraction in both cell systems. Some of the phosphorylation induced by PDGF-BB treatment was found to be on a tyrosine residue(s). Tyrosine-phosphorylated PKC-delta was observed only for the membrane fraction after stimulation with PDGF-BB or TPA. The enzymatic activity of PKC-delta in the membrane fraction also increased after stimulation with TPA or PDGF, providing a positive correlation between PKC-delta tyrosine phosphorylation and its activation. Overnight treatment of 32D/PDGF-beta R/PKC-delta cells with PDGF-BB induced monocytic differentiation as judged by an increase in expression of cell surface macrophage differentiation markers. PDGF-BB had much weaker effects on 32D/PDGF-beta R cell differentiation, suggesting that increased PKC-delta expression enhanced monocytic differentiation. These results indicate that PKC-delta is a downstream molecule in the PDGFR signaling pathway and may play a pivotal role in PDGF-beta R-mediated cell differentiation.
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PMCID: PMC359203  PMID: 7935392
18.  Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Receptor α Strongly Inhibits Melanoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo1 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2009;11(8):732-742.
Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer; it is highly metastatic and responds poorly to current therapies. The expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-Rs) is reported to be reduced in metastatic melanoma compared with benign nevi or normal skin; we then hypothesized that PDGF-Rα may control growth of melanoma cells. We show here that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα respond to serum with a significantly lower proliferation compared with that of controls. Apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, pRb dephosphorylation, and DNA synthesis inhibition were also observed in cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα. Proliferation was rescued by PDGF-Rα inhibitors, allowing to exclude nonspecific toxic effects and indicating that PDGF-Rα mediates autocrine antiproliferation signals in melanoma cells. Accordingly, PDGF-Rα was found to mediate staurosporine cytotoxicity. A protein array-based analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway revealed that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα show a strong reduction of c-Jun phosphorylated in serine 63 and of protein phosphatase 2A/Bα and a marked increase of p38γ, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3, and signal regulatory protein α1 protein expression. In a mouse model of primary melanoma growth, infection with the Ad-vector overexpressing PDGF-Rα reached a significant 70% inhibition of primary melanoma growth (P < .001) and a similar inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. All together, these data demonstrate that PDGF-Rα strongly impairs melanoma growth likely through autocrine mechanisms and indicate a novel endogenous mechanism involved in melanoma control.
PMCID: PMC2713586  PMID: 19649203
19.  Effects of PKC412, nilotinib and imatinib against GIST-associated PDGFRA mutants with differential imatinib sensitivity 
Gastroenterology  2006;131(6):1734-1742.
Background & Aims
Activating mutations in platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) have been reported in a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients who do not express mutant stem cell factor receptor, c-KIT. The responsiveness of mutant PDGFRA-positive GIST to imatinib depends on the location of the PDGFRA mutation; for example, the V561D juxtamembrane domain mutation is more sensitive to imatinib than the D842V kinase domain mutation. In this study, we compare the effects of three tyrosine kinase inhibitors, PKC412 and nilotinib, and imatinib, on two GIST-related PDGFRA mutants, V561D and D842V, which possess differential sensitivity to imatinib.
Methods
The effects of PKC412, nilotinib, and imatinib, alone and in combination, were evaluated via in vitro proliferation studies performed with V561D- or D842V-PDGFRA mutants. The effects of nilotinib and PKC412, alone and combined, were investigated in vivo.
Results
PKC412 potently inhibited the V561D-PDGFRA mutant in vitro and the D842V-PDGFRA mutant in vitro and in vivo. Both imatinib and nilotinib displayed potent activity in vitro against the V561D-PDGFRA mutant, but were significantly less efficacious against D842V-PDGFRA. However, when combined with either imatinib or PKC412, nilotinib showed no evidence for antagonism and acted in a cooperative fashion against D842V-PDGFRA.
Conclusions
Our findings support the clinical testing of PKC412 for treatment of mutant PDGFRA-GIST. The data also support the use of nilotinib as a treatment option for V561D-PDGFRA-associated GIST, although the reduced sensitivity of D842V-PDGFRA probably limits the potential of nilotinib monotherapy for D842V-PDGFRA-associated GIST.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2006.09.017
PMCID: PMC2967439  PMID: 17087936
20.  Deletion or substitution within the alpha platelet-derived growth factor receptor kinase insert domain: effects on functional coupling with intracellular signaling pathways. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1991;11(1):134-142.
The tyrosine kinase domains of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)/c-fms receptors are interrupted by kinase inserts (ki) which vary in length and amino acid sequence. To define the role of the ki in the human alpha PDGF receptor (alpha PDGFR), we generated deletion mutants, designated alpha R delta ki-1 and alpha R delta ki-2, which lacked 80 (710 to 789) and 95 (695 to 789) amino acids of the 104-amino-acid ki region, respectively. Their functional characteristics were compared with those of the wild-type alpha PDGFR following introduction into a naive hematopoietic cell line, 32D. Biochemical responses, including PDGF-stimulated PDGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover, and receptor-associated PI-3 kinase activity, were differentially impaired by the deletions. Despite a lack of any detectable receptor-associated PI-3 kinase activity, 32D cells expressing alpha R delta ki-1 showed only partially impaired chemotactic and mitogenic responses and were capable of sustained proliferation in vitro and in vivo under conditions of autocrine stimulation by the c-sis product. 32D transfectants expressing the larger ki deletion (alpha R delta ki-2) showed markedly decreased or abolished biochemical and biological responses. However, insertion of the highly unrelated smaller c-fms (685 to 750) ki domain into alpha R delta ki-2 restored each of these activities to wild-type alpha PDGFR levels. Since the CSF-1R does not normally induce PI turnover, the ability of the c-fms ki domain to reconstitute PI turnover in the alpha R delta ki-2 transfectant provides evidence that the ki domain of the alpha PDGFR does not directly couple with this pathway. Taken together, all od these bindings imply that their ki domains have evolved to play very similar roles in the known signaling functions PDGF and CSF-1 receptors.
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PMCID: PMC359603  PMID: 1702511
21.  Isoform-specific regulation of platelet-derived growth factor activity and binding in osteoblast-enriched cultures from fetal rat bone. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;89(4):1076-1084.
In osteoblast-enriched cultures from fetal rat bone, the A-chain homodimer of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AA) is less potent than the PDGF isoforms containing B chain subunits (PDGF-AB and PDGF-BB), but normal osteoblasts appear to synthesize only PDGF-A subunit mRNA and polypeptide. However, other agents may regulate PDGF-AA activity in skeletal tissue. Pretreatment of osteoblast-enriched cultures with interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) synergistically enhanced the mitogenic effect of PDGF-AA coincident with increased binding site occupancy, but neither factor augmented PDGF-BB activity or binding. Polyacrylamide gel analysis showed 125I-PDGF-AA binding complexes predominantly at greater than 200 kD and faint labeling at 185 kD. After IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha pretreatment, PDGF-AA binding increased at both sites, but this effect was more striking at 185 kD, which co-migrated with 125I-PDGF-BB-labeled complexes. PDGF-AA binding sites were rapidly lost by comparison to those for PDGF-BB in cycloheximide-treated cultures, but they remained relatively enhanced by IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha pretreatment. These studies indicate that IL-alpha and TNF-alpha increase PDGF-AA binding and activity for osteoblasts by mechanisms that are at least in part independent of new receptor synthesis, and suggest regulatory events that could control how PDGF binding sites specifically recognize different ligands.
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PMCID: PMC442963  PMID: 1313443
22.  Identification of JAK2 as a Mediator of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-Induced Eosinophil Growth and Function in CEL 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34912.
The Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha fusion gene (F/P) arising in the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC),causes 14% to 60% of patients with hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES). These patients, classified as having F/P (+) chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), present with clonal eosinophilia and display a more aggressive disease phenotype than patients with F/P (–) HES patients. The mechanisms underlying predominant eosinophil lineage targeting and the cytotoxicity of eosinophils in this leukemia remain unclear. Given that the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) signaling pathway is key to cytokine receptor-mediated eosinophil development and activated Stat3 and Stat5 regulate the expression of genes involved in F/P malignant transformation, we investigated whether and how JAK proteins were involved in the pathogenesis of F/P-induced CEL. F/P activation of JAK2, Stat3 and Stat5, were confirmed in all the 11 F/P (+) CEL patients examined. In vitro inhibition of JAK2 in EOL-1, primary F/P(+) CEL cells (PC) and T674I F/P Imatinib resistant cells(IR) by either JAK2-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) or the tryphostin derivative AG490(AG490), significantly reduced cellular proliferation and induced cellular apoptosis. The F/P can enhance the IL-5-induced JAK2 activation, and further results indicated that JAK2 inhibition blocked IL-5-induced cellular migration and activation of the EOL-1 and PC cells in vitro. F/P-stimulation of the JAK2 suppressed cells led to a significantly reduction in Stat3 activation, but relatively normal induction of Stat5 activation. Interestingly, JAK2 inhibition also reduced PI3K, Akt and NF-κB activity in a dose-dependent manner, and suppressed expression levels of c-Myc and Survivin. These results strongly suggest that JAK2 is activated by F/P and is required for F/P stimulation of cellular proliferation and infiltration, possibly through induction of c-Myc and Survivin expression via activation of multiple signaling pathways, including NF-κB, Stat3, and PI3K/Akt.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034912
PMCID: PMC3327703  PMID: 22523564
23.  Expression, mutation and copy number analysis of platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) and its ligand PDGFA in gliomas 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;101(6):973-982.
Background:
Malignant gliomas are the most prevalent type of primary brain tumours but the therapeutic armamentarium for these tumours is limited. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling has been shown to be a key regulator of glioma development. Clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of anti-PDGFRA therapies on gliomas are ongoing. In this study, we intended to analyse the expression of PDGFA and its receptor PDGFRA, as well as the underlying genetic (mutations and amplification) mechanisms driving their expression in a large series of human gliomas.
Methods:
PDGFA and PDGFRA expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 160 gliomas of distinct World Health Organization (WHO) malignancy grade. PDGFRA-activating gene mutations (exons 12, 18 and 23) were assessed in a subset of 86 cases by PCR—single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), followed by direct sequencing. PDGFRA gene amplification analysis was performed in 57 cases by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) and further validated in a subset of cases by chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH).
Results:
PDGFA and PDGFRA expression was found in 81.2% (130 out of 160) and 29.6% (48 out of 160) of gliomas, respectively. Its expression was significantly correlated with histological type of the tumours; however, no significant association between the expression of the ligand and its receptor was observed. The absence of PDGFA expression was significantly associated with the age of patients and with poor prognosis. Although PDGFRA gene-activating mutations were not found, PDGFRA gene amplification was observed in 21.1% (12 out of 57) of gliomas. No association was found between the presence of PDGFRA gene amplification and expression, excepting for grade II diffuse astrocytomas.
Conclusion:
The concurrent expression of PDGFA and PDGFRA in different subtypes of gliomas, reinforce the recognised significance of this signalling pathway in gliomas. PDGFRA gene amplification rather than gene mutation may be the underlying genetic mechanism driving PDGFRA overexpression in a portion of gliomas. Taken together, our results could provide in the future a molecular basis for PDGFRA-targeted therapies in gliomas.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605225
PMCID: PMC2743351  PMID: 19707201
PDGFA; PDGFRA; expression; mutations; amplification; gliomas
24.  A Potential Oncogenic Activity of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor D in Prostate Cancer Progression 
Cancer research  2004;64(5):1722-1729.
The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) proteins are potent stimulators of cell proliferation/transformation and play a major role in cell-cell communication. For over two decades, PDGFs were thought to exist as three dimeric polypeptides (the homodimers AA and BB and the heterodimer AB). Recently, however, the PDGF C and D chains were discovered in a BLAST search of the expressed sequence tag databases. The PDGF CC and DD dimers have a unique two-domain structure with an NH2-terminal CUB (compliment subcomponents C1r/C1s, Uegf, and Bmp1) domain and a COOH-terminal PDGF/vascular endothelial growth factor domain. Whereas secreted PDGF AA, BB, and AB readily activate their cell surface receptors, it was suggested that extracellular proteolytic removal of the CUB domain is required for the PDGF/vascular endothelial growth factor domain of PDGF CC and DD to activate PDGF receptors. In the present study, we examined the processing of latent PDGF D into its active form and the effects of PDGF D expression on prostate cancer progression. We show that LNCaP cells auto-activate latent PDGF DD into the active PDGF domain, which can induce phosphorylation of the β-PDGF receptor and stimulates LNCaP cell proliferation in an autocrine manner. Additionally, LNCaP-PDGF D-conditioned medium induces migration of the prostate fibroblast cell line 1532-FTX, indicating LNCaP-processed PDGF DD is active in a paracrine manner as well. In a severe combined immunodeficient mouse model, PDGF DD expression accelerates early onset of prostate tumor growth and drastically enhances prostate carcinoma cell interaction with surrounding stromal cells. These demonstrate a potential oncogenic activity of PDGF DD in the development and/or progression of prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC4171134  PMID: 14996732
25.  Inverse correlation between PDGFC expression and lymphocyte infiltration in human papillary thyroid carcinomas 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:425.
Background
Members of the PDGF family have been suggested as potential biomarkers for papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). However, it is known that both expression and stimulatory effect of PDGF ligands can be affected by inflammatory cytokines. We have performed a microarray study in a collection of PTCs, of which about half the biopsies contained tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes or thyroiditis. To investigate the expression level of PDGF ligands and receptors in PTC we measured the relative mRNA expression of all members of the PDGF family by qRT-PCR in 10 classical PTC, eight clinically aggressive PTC, and five non-neoplastic thyroid specimens, and integrated qRT-PCR data with microarray data to enable us to link PDGF-associated gene expression profiles into networks based on recognized interactions. Finally, we investigated potential influence on PDGF mRNA levels by the presence of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Methods
qRT-PCR was performed on PDGFA, PDGFB, PDGFC, PDGFD, PDGFRA PDGFRB and a selection of lymphocyte specific mRNA transcripts. Semiquantitative assessment of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes was performed on the adjacent part of the biopsy used for RNA extraction for all biopsies, while direct quantitation by qRT-PCR of lymphocyte-specific mRNA transcripts were performed on RNA also subjected to expression analysis. Relative expression values of PDGF family members were combined with a cDNA microarray dataset and analyzed based on clinical findings and PDGF expression patterns. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to elucidate potential molecular interactions and networks.
Results
PDGF family members were differentially regulated at the mRNA level in PTC as compared to normal thyroid specimens. Expression of PDGFA (p = 0.003), PDGFB (p = 0.01) and PDGFC (p = 0.006) were significantly up-regulated in PTCs compared to non-neoplastic thyroid tissue. In addition, expression of PDGFC was significantly up-regulated in classical PTCs as compared to clinically aggressive PTCs (p = 0.006), and PDGFRB were significantly up-regulated in clinically aggressive PTCs (p = 0.01) as compared to non-neoplastic tissue. Semiquantitative assessment of lymphocytes correlated well with quantitation of lymphocyte-specific gene expression. Further more, by combining TaqMan and microarray data we found a strong inverse correlation between PDGFC expression and the expression of lymphocyte specific mRNAs.
Conclusion
At the mRNA level, several members of the PDGF family are differentially expressed in PTCs as compared to normal thyroid tissue. Of these, only the PDGFC mRNA expression level initially seemed to distinguish classical PTCs from the more aggressive PTCs. However, further investigation showed that PDGFC expression level correlated inversely to the expression of several lymphocyte specific genes, and to the presence of lymphocytes in the biopsies. Thus, we find that PDGFC mRNA expression were down-regulated in biopsies containing infiltrated lymphocytes or thyroiditis. No other PDGF family member could be linked to lymphocyte specific gene expression in our collection of PTCs biopsies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-425
PMCID: PMC2797817  PMID: 19968886

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