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1.  Cohort study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk in association with hepatitis B virus infection in South Korea 
The lancet oncology  2010;11(9):827-834.
Background
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common throughout Asia and Africa. Evidence is inconclusive regarding whether chronic HBV infection increases risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
Methods
We conducted a cohort study of 603,585 South Korean workers and their dependents enrolled during 1992–1995. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) measured at baseline indicated the presence of chronic HBV infection. We ascertained hematologic malignancies using national inpatient, outpatient, and mortality databases through 2006. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations with HBsAg status, adjusting for sex, age, and enrollment year.
Results
53,045 subjects (8.8%) were HBsAg positive at baseline. Subsequently, 133 HBsAg positive and 905 HBsAg negative individuals developed NHL. HBsAg positive subjects had elevated risk of NHL overall (incidence 19.4 vs. 12.3 per 100,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.74, 95%CI 1.45–2.09). Among NHL subtypes, risk was significantly elevated in association with HBsAg positivity for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (N=325 cases; adjusted HR 2.01, 95%CI 1.48–2.75) and non-significantly elevated for follicular NHL (N=47; 1.67, 0.71–3.95) and T-cell NHL (N=75; 1.40, 0.67–2.92); risk was also elevated for other/unknown NHL subtypes (N=591; 1.65, 1.29–2.11). Elevated risk was also observed for malignant immunoproliferation (N=14; adjusted HR 3.79, 95%CI, 1.05–13.7), a category that includes Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Risk of these malignancies was consistently elevated in HBsAg positive subjects throughout 14 years of follow-up. HBsAg positivity was not associated with Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or various leukemias.
Interpretation
During extended follow-up, HBsAg positive individuals manifested an elevated risk of NHL, suggesting that chronic infection promotes lymphomagenesis.
doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70167-4
PMCID: PMC2933963  PMID: 20688564
2.  Hepatitis B and C viruses and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case-control study in Italy 
Background
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been consistently associated to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); conversely, few studies have evaluated a comprehensive serological panel of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in NHL etiology.
Methods
We conducted a case-control study in Italy in 1999–2014, enrolling 571 incident, histologically confirmed NHLs and 1004 cancer-free matched controls. Study subjects provided serum for HCV and HBV testing and for HCV RNA. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders.
Results
Circulating HCV RNA was detected in 63 (11.1 %) NHL cases and 35 (3.5 %) controls (OR = 3.51, 95 % CI: 2.25–5.47). Chronic HBV infection (i.e., positive to HBV surface antigen - HBsAg+) was found in 3.7 % of cases and 1.7 % of controls (OR = 1.95, 95 % CI: 1.00–3.81); a significantly elevated OR was observed for B-cell NHL (2.11, 95 % CI: 1.07–4.15). People with serological evidence of past HCV or HBV infection, vaccination against HBV, or detectable antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc+) alone were not at increased NHL risk.
Conclusions
Our results support a role of chronic HCV infection in NHL in Italy and suggest an involvement of HBV infection. Associations were clearest for B-cell NHL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Prevention and treatment of HCV and HBV infection may diminish NHL incidence, notably in areas with high prevalence of hepatitis viruses infection.
doi:10.1186/s13027-016-0073-x
PMCID: PMC4918100  PMID: 27340429
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Hepatitis C virus; Hepatitis B virus; Case-control study
3.  microRNA levels in paraffin-embedded indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma tissues from patients chronically infected with hepatitis B or C virus 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(Suppl 5):S6.
Background
Epidemiological evidence links Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). These B-NHLs, particularly those associated with HCV, may represent a distinct sub-group with peculiar molecular features, including peculiar expression of microRNAs (miRs).
The aim of the present study was to search for miRs whose level in indolent B-NHL tissues could be associated with HBV or HCV infection.
Methods
Fourteen formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues from HBV+, HCV+ and HBV-/HCV- indolent B-NHL patients were analyzed for levels of 34 selected miRs by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Reactive lymph nodes (RLNs) from HBV-/HCV- patients were included as non-tumor control. Statistical analysis of output data included Pearson and Spearman correlation and Mann-Whitney test and were carried out by the STATA software.
Results
MiR-92a was decreased exclusively in HBV-/HCV- B-NHLs, while miR-30b was increased in HBV+ and HCV+ samples, though only the HCV+ achieved full statistical significance. Analysis of a small subset of B-NHLs belonging to the same histological subtype (Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma) highlighted three miRs associated with HCV infection (miR-223, miR-29a and miR-29b) and confirmed decreased level of miR-92a in HBV-/HCV- samples also when considering this restricted B-NHL group.
Conclusions
Although caution is needed due to the limited number of analyzed samples, overall the results suggest that differences at the miR expression level exist between indolent B-NHLs developed in patients with or without HBV or HCV infection. The identification of three further miRs associated with HCV by analyzing histologically homogeneous samples suggests that variations of miR levels possibly associated with HBV or HCV may be obscured by the tissue-specific variability of miR level associated with the different histological subtypes of B-NHL. Thus, the identification of further miRs will require, in addition to an increased sample size, the comparison of B-NHL tissues with the same histological classification.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-S5-S6
PMCID: PMC4160900  PMID: 25236768
Lymphoma; Hepatitis B Virus; Hepatitis C Virus; microRNA; FFPE
4.  Hepatitis B Reactivation with Novel Agents in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Prevention Strategies 
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains an endemic disease in most parts of the world despite available prophylactic vaccines. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is the most common hematological malignancy, and certain patients undergoing therapy are at increased risk of HBV reactivation. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody, is well studied in HBV reactivation, but newer agents have been implicated as well. Here, we review novel agents suspected in HBV reactivation and effective strategies to prevent HBV reactivation. Fifteen years of literature were reviewed in order to better understand the reactivation rates of hepatitis B in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Anti-CD20 antibodies continue to be the main medications that can lead to HBV reactivation, and HBV reactivation rates have decreased with increased awareness. HBV reactivation is uncommon when using other novel agents. Entecavir and lamivudine remain the agents of choice to prevent HBV reactivation in high risk patients. In conclusion, the immunosuppressive effect of NHL and its therapy provide a pathway for HBV reactivation, especially in patients treated with anti-CD20 antibody. Since many HBV positive patients are often excluded from clinical trials of novel agents in NHL, more aggressive post-market surveillance of new agents, well-designed best practice advisories, and timely case reports are needed to reduce the incidence of HBV reactivation. Lastly, large prospective investigations coupled with well-utilized best practice advisories need to be conducted to understand the impact of more potent novel NHL therapy on HBV reactivation.
doi:10.14218/JCTH.2016.00005
PMCID: PMC4913070  PMID: 27350944
Hepatitis B virus; HBV reactivation; Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; Rituximab; Anti-CD20 antibody; Best practice advisories
5.  Plasma Epstein–Barr virus and Hepatitis B virus in non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Two lymphotropic, potentially oncogenic, latently occurring DNA viruses 
Context:
There is a need to study potential infective etiologies in lymphomas. Lymphocyte-transforming viruses can directly infect lymphocytes, disrupt normal cell functions, and promote cell division. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is known to be associated with several lymphomas, especially Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs). And recently, the lymphocyte-transforming role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been emphasized.
Aims:
The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of two potentially oncogenic, widely prevalent latent DNA viruses, EBV and HBV, in non-HL (NHL).
Settings and Design:
In this prospective study, we estimated plasma EBV and HBV DNA in NHL patients.
Materials and Methods:
Peripheral blood was obtained from newly diagnosed, treatment na ïve, histologically confirmed NHL patients. Plasma EBV DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting Epstein–Barr Nucleic acid 1 while the plasma HBV DNA was detected using nested PCR targeting HBX gene. In a small subset of patients, follow-up plasma samples post-anticancer chemotherapy were available and retested for viral DNA.
Results:
Of the 110 NHL patients, ~79% were B-cell NHL and ~21% were T-cell NHL. Plasma EBV-DNA was detected in 10% NHLs with a higher EBV association in Burkitt lymphoma (33.3%) than other subtypes. Pretherapy HBV DNA was detected in 21% NHLs; most of them being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Moreover, 42% of DLBCL patients had HBV DNA in plasma. Since all patients were HBV surface antigen seronegative at diagnosis, baseline plasma HBV-DNAemia before chemotherapy was indicative of occult hepatitis B infection.
Conclusions:
Our findings indicate a significant association of HBV with newly diagnosed DLBCL.
doi:10.4103/0971-5851.190353
PMCID: PMC5027786  PMID: 27688607
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Epstein–Barr virus; hepatitis B virus; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; occult hepatitis B virus infection
6.  Risk of Reverse Seroconversion of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen in Rituximab-Treated Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients 
Medicine  2015;94(32):e1321.
Abstract
Rituximab causes hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-seronegative patients with CD20-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (CD20+ NHL), especially for those seropositive to the antibody of core antigen (anti-HBc). Clinical hepatitis usually develops after reverse seroconversion of HBsAg (HBV-RS), indicated by the reappearance of HBsAg in serum. Because of the relatively high prevalence of anti-HBc seropositivity in unvaccinated HBsAg-seronegative adults in an HBV hyperendemic area, we aimed to investigate additional factors influencing the development of rituximab-associated HBV-RS.
Between January 2000 and December 2010, unvaccinated HBsAg-seronegative adults with CD20+ NHL who had received rituximab-containing therapy but not anti-HBV agents were enrolled. Patients with and without HBV-RS were compared in terms of clinical factors and treatments including the number of cycles of rituximab therapy, and transplantation. Competing risk regression was used to identify the factors associated with HBV-RS.
For the 482 patients enrolled, the serological status of anti-HBc was available in 75.9%, with a seropositivity rate of 86.6%. At the last follow-up, a total of 33 (6.85%) patients had HBV-RS, with 95.8% anti-HBc seropositive, 78.9% anti-HBs seropositive, and none anti-HCV seropositive. HBV-RS patients have received more cycles (≥6) and prolonged durations of rituximab therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The overall survival was not different between patients with and those without HBV-RS. At the time of HBV-RS, a total of 25 (78.1%) patients had hepatitis flare, especially when HBV-RS appeared during/after induction therapy (100%, 10 of 10). Three (9.1%) patients had fulminant hepatitis, resulting in death in 1 (3%) patient. A higher rituximab cycle intensity was associated with a higher rate of hepatitis flare at the time of HBV-RS. When death in the absence of HBV-RS was considered as the competing risk, the univariate and multivariate regression analyses showed that several factors were independently associated with the development of HBV-RS, including anti-HCV seronegativity, histological subtype of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, ≥6 cycles of rituximab therapy, and succeeding hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
The findings of our study identify additional factors influencing the development of rituximab-associated HBV-RS in HBsAg-seronegative adults with CD20+ NHL.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000001321
PMCID: PMC4616669  PMID: 26266374
7.  Efficacy of Neonatal HBV Vaccination on Liver Cancer and Other Liver Diseases over 30-Year Follow-up of the Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(12):e1001774.
In a 30-year follow-up of the Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study, Yawei Zhang and colleagues examine the effects of neonatal vaccination on liver diseases.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Neonatal hepatitis B vaccination has been implemented worldwide to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Its long-term protective efficacy on primary liver cancer (PLC) and other liver diseases has not been fully examined.
Methods and Findings
The Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study, a population-based, cluster randomized, controlled trial between 1985 and 1990 in Qidong, China, included 39,292 newborns who were randomly assigned to the vaccination group in which 38,366 participants completed the HBV vaccination series and 34,441 newborns who were randomly assigned to the control group in which the participants received neither a vaccine nor a placebo. However, 23,368 (67.8%) participants in the control group received catch-up vaccination at age 10–14 years. By December 2013, a total of 3,895 (10.2%) in the vaccination group and 3,898 (11.3%) in the control group were lost to follow-up. Information on PLC incidence and liver disease mortality were collected through linkage of all remaining cohort members to a well-established population-based tumor registry until December 31, 2013. Two cross-sectional surveys on HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence were conducted in 1996–2000 and 2008–2012. The participation rates of the two surveys were 57.5% (21,770) and 50.7% (17,204) in the vaccination group and 36.3% (12,184) and 58.6% (17,395) in the control group, respectively. Using intention-to-treat analysis, we found that the incidence rate of PLC and the mortality rates of severe end-stage liver diseases and infant fulminant hepatitis were significantly lower in the vaccination group than the control group with efficacies of 84% (95% CI 23%–97%), 70% (95% CI 15%–89%), and 69% (95% CI 34%–85%), respectively. The estimated efficacy of catch-up vaccination on HBsAg seroprevalence in early adulthood was 21% (95% CI 10%–30%), substantially weaker than that of the neonatal vaccination (72%, 95% CI 68%–75%). Receiving a booster at age 10–14 years decreased HBsAg seroprevalence if participants were born to HBsAg-positive mothers (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.47–0.97). Limitations to consider in interpreting the study results include the small number of individuals with PLC, participants lost to follow-up, and the large proportion of participants who did not provide serum samples at follow-up.
Conclusions
Neonatal HBV vaccination was found to significantly decrease HBsAg seroprevalence in childhood through young adulthood and subsequently reduce the risk of PLC and other liver diseases in young adults in rural China. The findings underscore the importance of neonatal HBV vaccination. Our results also suggest that an adolescence booster should be considered in individuals born to HBsAg-positive mothers and who have completed the HBV neonatal vaccination series.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Hepatitis B is a life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV, which is transmitted through contact with the blood or other bodily fluids of an infected person, can cause both acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) liver infections. Acute infections rarely cause any symptoms and more than 90% of adults who become infected with HBV (usually through sexual intercourse with an infected partner or through the use of contaminated needles) are virus-free within 6 months. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia, and other regions where HBV infection is common, HBV is usually transmitted from mother to child at birth or between individuals during early childhood and, unfortunately, most infants who are infected with HBV during the first year of life and many children who are infected before the age of 6 years develop a chronic HBV infection. Such infections can cause liver cancer, liver cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), and other fatal liver diseases. In addition, HBV infection around the time of birth can cause infant fulminant hepatitis, a rare but frequently fatal condition.
Why Was This Study Done?
HBV infections kill about 780,000 people worldwide annually but can be prevented by neonatal vaccination—immunization against HBV at birth. A vaccine against HBV became available in 1982 and many countries now include HBV vaccination at birth followed by additional vaccine doses during early childhood in their national vaccination programs. But, although HBV vaccination has greatly reduced the rate of chronic HBV infection, the protective efficacy of neonatal HBV vaccination against liver diseases has not been fully examined. Here, the researchers investigate how well neonatal HBV vaccination protects against primary liver cancer and other liver diseases by undertaking a 30-year follow-up of the Qidong Hepatitis B intervention Study (QHBIS). This cluster randomized controlled trial of neonatal HBV vaccination was conducted between 1983 and 1990 in Qidong County, a rural area in China with a high incidence of HBV-related primary liver cancer and other liver diseases. A cluster randomized controlled trial compares outcomes in groups of people (towns in this study) chosen at random to receive an intervention or a control treatment (here, vaccination or no vaccination; this study design was ethically acceptable during the 1980s when HBV vaccination was unavailable in rural China but would be unethical nowadays).
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The QHBIS assigned nearly 80,000 newborns to receive either a full course of HBV vaccinations (the vaccination group) or no vaccination (the control group); two-thirds of the control group participants received a catch-up vaccination at age 10–14 years. The researchers obtained data on how many trial participants developed primary liver cancer or died from a liver disease during the follow-up period from a population-based tumor registry. They also obtained information on HBsAg seroprevalence—the presence of HBsAg (an HBV surface protein) in the blood of the participants, an indicator of current HBV infection—from surveys undertaken in1996–2000 and 2008–2012. The researchers estimate that the protective efficacy of vaccination was 84% for primary liver cancer (vaccination reduced the incidence of liver cancer by 84%), 70% for death from liver diseases, and 69% for the incidence of infant fulminant hepatitis. Overall, the efficacy of catch-up vaccination on HBsAg seroprevalence in early adulthood was weak compared with neonatal vaccination (21% versus 72%). Notably, receiving a booster vaccination at age 10–14 years decreased HBsAg seroprevalence among participants who were born to HBsAg-positive mothers.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The small number of cases of primary liver cancer and other liver diseases observed during the 30-year follow-up, the length of follow-up, and the availability of incomplete data on seroprevalence all limit the accuracy of these findings. Nevertheless, these findings indicate that neonatal HBV vaccination greatly reduced HBsAg seroprevalence (an indicator of current HBV infection) in childhood and young adulthood and subsequently reduced the risk of liver cancer and other liver diseases in young adults. These findings therefore support the importance of neonatal HBV vaccination. In addition, they suggest that booster vaccination during adolescence might consolidate the efficacy of neonatal vaccination among individuals who were born to HBsAg-positive mothers, a suggestion that needs to be confirmed in randomized controlled trials before booster vaccines are introduced into vaccination programs.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001774.
The World Health Organization provides a fact sheet about hepatitis B (available in several languages) and information about hepatitis B vaccination
The World Hepatitis Alliance (an international not-for-profit, non-governmental organization) provides information about viral hepatitis, including some personal stories about hepatitis B from Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Malawi
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information about hepatitis B
The not-for-profit British Liver Trust provides information about hepatitis B, including Hepatitis B: PATH B, an interactive educational resource designed to improve the lives of people living with chronic hepatitis B
MedlinePlus provides links to other resources about hepatitis B (in English and Spanish)
Information about the Qidong Hepatitis B intervention Study is available
Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention provides links about hepatitis B prevention in Chinese
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001774
PMCID: PMC4280122  PMID: 25549238
8.  Concurrent Infection of Hepatitis B Virus Negatively Affects the Clinical Outcome and Prognosis of Patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma after Chemotherapy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69400.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hepatotropic and lymphotropic. HBV-infected individuals have an increased risk of developing malignant lymphoma, and the HBV infection rate in lymphoma patients is significantly higher than that in the general population. However, the exact mechanism and correlation between HBV infection and lymphoma onset and progression currently remain unclear. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) patients with different HBV infection statuses. The results showed that the HBV infection rate was significantly higher in patients with B-cell type and late stage of NHL. The chemotherapy efficacy for NHL patients with chronic active HBV infection was significantly lower than that for the patients with chronic inactive HBV infection, the patients with HBV carriers and the patients without HBV infection. In addition, the NHL chemotherapy activated HBV replication and caused significant liver dysfunction, which could further reduce the chemotherapy efficacy. Through Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank analysis, we found that the HBV infection status in NHL patients was significantly correlated with the patients’ progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Compared with the patients without HBV infection (PFS: 95% CI 47.915 to 55.640; OS: 95% CI 81.324 to 86.858), the PFS and OS of the patients with chronic active HBV infection were significantly shorter (PFS: 95% CI 9.424 to 42.589, P < 0.001; OS: 95% CI 42.840 to 82.259, P = 0.006). The study demonstrated that the sustained HBV replication in patients with chronic active HBV infection could be a key factor that influences the prognosis of NHL patients after chemotherapy, and thus may provide information for designing rational clinical treatments for NHL patients with different HBV infection statuses and improve the treatment efficacy and prognosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069400
PMCID: PMC3704665  PMID: 23861969
9.  Long-term Outcome after Prophylactic Lamivudine Treatment on Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(1):78-89.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is the frequent complication after cytotoxic chemotherapy in HBsAg-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. Pre-chemotherapy viral load may be a risk factor and HBeAg-positive status is associated with increased viral load. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term treatment outcome of lamivudine in preventing HBV reactivation and its associated morbidity according to HBeAg status. Twenty-four adult HBsAg-positive NHL patients were taken 100 mg of lamivudine daily before the initiation of chemotherapy. The median duration of lamivudine therapy was 11.5 months (range: 1-54 months) and the median number of chemotherapy cycles was 6 (range: 1-16 cycles). The steroid containing chemotherapy regimens were used in 18 patients (75%), and the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody containing chemotherapy regimen was used in 6 patients (25%). Four patients received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation without resultant HBV reactivation. Hepatitis related to HBV reactivation was developed in 1 patient among 14 HBeAg-positive patients and no one among 10 HBeAg-negative. One patient developed HBV reactivation after lamivudine withdrawal, and 4 patients developed the YMDD (tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate) mutation during lamivudine therapy. There were no statistical differences in HBV reactivation rate during chemotherapy according to the HBeAg status. Our results demonstrate that lamivudine should be considered preemptively before the chemotherapy for all HBsAg-positive NHL patients to prevent HBV reactivation, regardless of pre-chemotherapy HBeAg status. Finally, compared with the chronic hepatitis B patients, similar rate of HBV reactivation after lamivudine withdrawal and development of YMDD mutation was observed in NHL patients.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2007.48.1.78
PMCID: PMC2627995  PMID: 17326249
HBV reactivation; lamivudine; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; chemotherapy; HBeAg
10.  Human Cytokine Genetic Variants Associated With HBsAg Reverse Seroconversion in Rituximab-Treated Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients 
Medicine  2016;95(11):e3064.
Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been noted in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-seronegative patients with CD20+ B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) undergoing rituximab treatment. Clinically, hepatitis flares are usually associated with the reappearance of HBsAg (reverse seroconversion of HBsAg, HBV-RS). It is unclear whether human genetic factors are related to rituximab-associated HBV reactivation.
Unvaccinated HBsAg-seronegative adults (n = 104) with CD20+ NHL who had received rituximab-containing therapy without anti-HBV prophylaxis were enrolled. Eighty-nine candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 49 human cytokine genes were chosen and were analyzed using the iPLEX technique. Competing risk regression was used to identify the factors associated with HBV-RS.
Participants had a median age of 66.1 years and 56.7% were male (n = 59). The anti-HBs and anti-HBc positivity rates were 82.4% and 94.1%, respectively, among patients for whom data were available (approximately 81%). A mean of 7.14 cycles of rituximab therapy were administered, and a total of 14 (13.4%) patients developed HBV-RS. Nine SNPs showed significant differences in frequency between patients with or without HBV-RS: CD40 rs1883832, IL4 rs2243248 and rs2243263, IL13 rs1295686, IL18 rs243908, IL20 rs1518108, and TNFSF13B rs12428930 and rs12583006. Multivariate analysis showed that ≥6 cycles of rituximab therapy, IL18 rs243908, and the IL4 haplotype rs2243248∼rs2243263 were independently associated with HBV-RS. The IL4 haplotype rs2243248∼rs2243263 was significantly associated with HBV-RS regardless of anti-HBs status.
Polymorphisms in human cytokine genes impact the risk of rituximab-associated HBV-RS.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000003064
PMCID: PMC4839912  PMID: 26986131
11.  Effect of Antiviral Prophylaxis Strategy for Chemotherapy-Associated Hepatitis B Reactivation in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Retrospective Cohort Study 
Recent data indicates that nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NUC) is effective in preventing and controlling hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HBV-carrying cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy, but the ideal antiviral agent and optimal application protocol still needs to be determined. Meanwhile, it is uncertain whether those with past HBV infection require antiviral prophylaxis during chemotherapy. This report retrospectively analyzed non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) patients seen from January, 2004 to June, 2009 in West China Hospital. We found that the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in our NHL patients was 20.7 % while that of past HBV infection was 21.05 %. Compared with the high rate (25.6 %) of HBV reactivation in patients with chronic HBV infection, none of those with past HBV infection in fact had occult HBV infection thus none experienced reactivation. Of the 82 patients with chronic HBV infection who received chemotherapy, antiviral prophylaxis could significantly reduce the incidence of HBV reactivation (5.0 vs. 45.2 % in the control group) and the incidence of liver function damage (32.5 vs. 73.8 % in the control group). The results of the current study confirmed previous reports that prophylactic NUCs administration can effectively prevent HBV reactivation and significantly reduce the incidence of HBV reactivation especially for patients receiving rituximab-containing regimens. Due to the fact that none of individuals who had past HBV infection developed HBV reactivation reported in our study, antiviral prophylaxis may not be required for patients with past HBV infection. Close observation of alanine aminotransferase and HBV–DNA contributes to early diagnosis and timely treatment of HBV reactivation.
doi:10.1007/s12288-012-0195-2
PMCID: PMC4022915  PMID: 24839363
HBV reactivation; Nucleoside/nucleotide analogue; Rituximab; Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
12.  High Seroprevalence of HBV and HCV Infection in HIV-Infected Adults in Kigali, Rwanda 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63303.
Background
Data on prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Rwanda are scarce.
Methods
HBV status was assessed at baseline and Month 12, and anti-HCV antibodies at baseline, in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients in Kigali, Rwanda: 104 men and 114 women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at baseline, and 200 women not yet eligible for ART.
Results
Baseline prevalence of active HBV infection (HBsAg positive), past or occult HBV infection (anti-HBc positive and HBsAg negative) and anti-HCV was 5.2%, 42.9%, and 5.7%, respectively. The active HBV incidence rate was 4.2/1,000 person years (PY). In a multivariable logistic regression model using baseline data, participants with WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV disease were 4.19 times (95% CI 1.21–14.47) more likely to have active HBV infection, and older patients were more likely to have evidence of past exposure to HBV (aRR 1.03 per year; 95%CI 1.01–1.06). Older age was also positively associated with having anti-HCV antibodies (aOR 1.09; 95%CI 1.04–1.14) while having a higher baseline HIV viral load was negatively associated with HCV (aOR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40–0.98). The median CD4 increase during the first 12 months of ART was lower for those with active HBV infection or anti-HCV at baseline. Almost all participants (88%) with active HBV infection who were on ART were receiving lamivudine monotherapy for HBV.
Conclusion
HBV and HCV are common in HIV-infected patients in Rwanda. Regular HBsAg screening is needed to ensure that HIV-HBV co-infected patients receive an HBV-active ART regimen, and the prevalence of occult HBV infection should be determined. Improved access to HBV vaccination is recommended. Active HCV prevalence and incidence should be investigated further to determine whether HCV RNA PCR testing should be introduced in Rwanda.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063303
PMCID: PMC3661584  PMID: 23717409
13.  Disparate distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes in four sub-Saharan African countries 
Background
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) places a substantial health burden on Africa. Here, we investigated genetic diversity of HBV variants circulating in 4 countries of sub-Saharan Africa using archived samples. In total, 1492 plasma samples were tested from HIV-infected individuals and pregnant women, among which 143 (9.6%) were PCR-positive for HBV DNA (Côte d’Ivoire, 70/608 [11.5%]; Ghana, 13/444 [2.9%]; Cameroon, 33/303 [10.9%]; and Uganda, 27/137 [19.7%]).
Study design/results
Phylogenetic analysis of the S-gene sequences identified HBV genotypes E (HBV/E, n = 96) and A (HBV/A, n = 47) distributed as follows: 87% of HBV/E and 13% of HBV/A in Côte d’Ivoire; 100% of HBV/E in Ghana; 67% of HBV/E and 33% of HBV/A in Cameroon; and 100% of HBV/A in Uganda. The average and maximal nucleotide distances among HBV/E sequences were 1.9% and 6.4%, respectively, suggesting a greater genetic diversity for this genotype than previously reported (p < 0.001). HBV/A strains were classified into subgenotypes HBV/A1, HBV/A2 and HBV/A3. In Uganda, 93% of HBV/A strains belonged to HBV/A1 whereas HBV/A3 was the only subgenotype of HBV/A found in Cameroon. In Côte d’Ivoire, HBV/A strains were classified as HBV/A1 (11.1%), HBV/A2 (33.3%) and HBV/A3 (55.6%). Phylogeographic analysis of the sequences available from Africa supported earlier suggestions on the origin of HBV/A1, HBV/A2 and HBV/A3 in East, South and West/Central Africa, respectively. Using predicted amino acid sequences, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was classified into serotype ayw4 in 93% of HBV/E strains and adw2 in 68% of HBV/A strains. Also, 7.7% of the sequences carried substitutions in HBsAg associated with immune escape.
Conclusions
The observations of pan-African and global dissemination of HBV/A1 and HBV/A2, and the circulation of HBV/E and HBV/A3 almost exclusively in West and Central Africa suggest a more recent increase in prevalence in Africa of HBV/E and HBV/A3 compared to HBV/A1 and HBV/A2. The broad genetic heterogeneity of HBsAg detected here may impact the efficacy of prevention and control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.
doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2013.06.028
PMCID: PMC4591023  PMID: 23871163
Hepatitis B virus; Phylogenetic analysis; Genotypes; Subgenotypes; Sub-Saharan Africa
14.  Study of the Association of Mutant HBsAg Gene and Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 
Background:
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is responsible for chronic, acute, and fulminant hepatitis, which are prevalent worldwide. Chronic HBV may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that hepatitis B virus is involved in B-cell Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL).
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between hepatitis B infection and Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Materials and Methods:
Paraffin embedded of 41 block samples including 12 (29.26%) Hodgkin and 29 (70.73%) non-Hodgkin patients were collected. Next, DNA extraction was carried out for all the samples followed by HBV DNA detection by the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The positive HBV DNA samples were sequenced, and HBV genotypes and HBV subtypes were determined.
Results:
Three out of 12 (25%) Hodgkin samples and seven out of 29 (24.13%) non-Hodgkin showed positive HBV DNA results. The results of sequencing revealed that the D genotype was predominant among the positive HBV patients. Interestingly an unpredictable amino acid proline was detected in position 88 of the HBs gene, which indicates a new mutation in the “S” region of HBV DNA in patients with Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Conclusions:
A high rate of 25% and 24.13% of HBV DNA was detected among patients with Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, respectively.
doi:10.5812/jjm.25726
PMCID: PMC4740896  PMID: 26862382
Hepatitis B Virus; Hodgkin Disease; Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.  Hepatitis C virus and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: findings from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;95(11):1598-1602.
Infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and, possibly, hepatitis B virus (HBV) are associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the general population, but little information is available on the relationship between hepatitis viruses and NHL among people with HIV (PHIV). We conducted a matched case–control study nested in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). Two hundred and ninety-eight NHL cases and 889 control subjects were matched by SHCS centre, gender, age group, CD4+ count at enrolment, and length of follow-up. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression to evaluate the association between NHL and seropositivity for antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV) and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Anti-HCV was not associated with increased NHL risk overall (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 0.63–1.75), or in different strata of CD4+ count, age or gender. Only among men having sex with men was an association with anti-HCV found (OR=2.37; 95% CI: 1.03–5.43). No relationships between NHL risk and anti-HBc or HBsAg emerged. Coinfection with HIV and HCV or HBV did not increase NHL risk compared to HIV alone in the SHCS.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603472
PMCID: PMC2360727  PMID: 17106439
hepatitis C virus; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; HIV; Switzerland
16.  Veterans health administration hepatitis B testing and treatment with anti-CD20 antibody administration 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2016;22(19):4732-4740.
AIM: To evaluate pretreatment hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing, vaccination, and antiviral treatment rates in Veterans Affairs patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab for quality improvement.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using a national repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic health record data. We identified all patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab treatment (2002-2014). We ascertained patient demographics, laboratory results, HBV vaccination status (from vaccination records), pharmacy data, and vital status. The high risk period for HBV reactivation is during anti-CD20 Ab treatment and 12 mo follow up. Therefore, we analyzed those who were followed to death or for at least 12 mo after completing anti-CD20 Ab. Pretreatment serologic tests were used to categorize chronic HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen positive or HBsAg+), past HBV (HBsAg-, hepatitis B core antibody positive or HBcAb+), resolved HBV (HBsAg-, HBcAb+, hepatitis B surface antibody positive or HBsAb+), likely prior vaccination (isolated HBsAb+), HBV negative (HBsAg-, HBcAb-), or unknown. Acute hepatitis B was defined by the appearance of HBsAg+ in the high risk period in patients who were pretreatment HBV negative. We assessed HBV antiviral treatment and the incidence of hepatitis, liver failure, and death during the high risk period. Cumulative hepatitis, liver failure, and death after anti-CD20 Ab initiation were compared by HBV disease categories and differences compared using the χ2 test. Mean time to hepatitis peak alanine aminotransferase, liver failure, and death relative to anti-CD20 Ab administration and follow-up were also compared by HBV disease group.
RESULTS: Among 19304 VHA patients who received anti-CD20 Ab, 10224 (53%) had pretreatment HBsAg testing during the study period, with 49% and 43% tested for HBsAg and HBcAb, respectively within 6 mo pretreatment in 2014. Of those tested, 2% (167/10224) had chronic HBV, 4% (326/7903) past HBV, 5% (427/8110) resolved HBV, 8% (628/8110) likely prior HBV vaccination, and 76% (6022/7903) were HBV negative. In those with chronic HBV infection, ≤ 37% received HBV antiviral treatment during the high risk period while 21% to 23% of those with past or resolved HBV, respectively, received HBV antiviral treatment. During and 12 mo after anti-CD20 Ab, the rate of hepatitis was significantly greater in those HBV positive vs negative (P = 0.001). The mortality rate was 35%-40% in chronic or past hepatitis B and 26%-31% in hepatitis B negative. In those pretreatment HBV negative, 16 (0.3%) developed acute hepatitis B of 4947 tested during anti-CD20Ab treatment and follow-up.
CONCLUSION: While HBV testing of Veterans has increased prior to anti-CD20 Ab, few HBV+ patients received HBV antivirals, suggesting electronic health record algorithms may enhance health outcomes.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i19.4732
PMCID: PMC4870079  PMID: 27217704
Hepatitis B; Hepatitis B reactivation; Anti-CD20 antibody; Rituximab; Lymphoma; Chemotherapy; Hepatitis B antivirals; Vaccination; Veteran
17.  Prevalence, Risk Behaviors, and Virological Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Group of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Brazil: Results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(8):e0160916.
Background
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) compared with the general population. This study aims to assess the epidemiological and virological characteristics of HBV infection in a sample of MSM in Brazil, where data are scarce.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil, from March to November 2014, using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS). After signing the consent form, participants were interviewed and a blood sample collected. All samples were tested for HBV serological markers and HBV DNA. HBV nucleotide sequence analysis was also performed.
Results
A total of 522 MSM were recruited in the study. The prevalence of HBV infection (current or past [presence of anti-HBc marker]) was 15.4% (95% CI: 8.7–25.8) and the rate of HBsAg carriers was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–1.6). About 40% (95% CI: 32.3–48.8) of the participants had serological evidence of previous HBV vaccination (reactive for isolated anti-HBs). In addition, 44.3% (95% CI: 36.1–52.9) were seronegative for all HBV markers. Age over 25 years old, receptive anal intercourse, previous sex with women, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were factors associated with HBV infection. HBV DNA was detected only in HBsAg-positive individuals. HBV isolates were classified into genotype A (subgenotypes A1 and A2), and some mutations were identified throughout the genome. Therefore, occult HBV infection was not observed in the study population.
Conclusions
Public health strategies should be improved for the MSM population in order to prevent HBV and other STIs, as well as to provide appropriate management of patients with active infections.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0160916
PMCID: PMC4980030  PMID: 27508385
18.  Correlations of hematological parameters with bone marrow findings in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders associated with hepatitis viruses 
Journal of Medicine and Life  2013;6(4):464-471.
Abstract
Background. Hepatitis B and C viruses’ infections are often associated with hematological disorders in evolution, suggesting that these viruses have a tropism for peripheral blood and/or bone marrow cells.
Aim. To analyze the hematological parameters and bone marrow findings in a group of patients diagnosed with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLD) and hepatitis viruses B, C, D infections, which were included in the research grant (acronym LIMFO-VIR) between December 2007 and May 2010 in the Hematology Department of the Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest.
Methods and results. Patients were diagnosed by using immunopathology according to the WHO criteria. The analyzed group included 42 patients (both sexes), with the mean age of 60,35 years. The most frequent hematologic disease was non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 30/42 (71,42%), followed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (16,66%) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (7,14%). Hepatitis viruses were distributed: 17/42 (40,47%) patients with HBV, 22/42 (52,38%) with HCV and 3/42 (7,14%) had a double/triple association of viruses. Most of the patients had an indolent type of disease - 27/42 (64,28%), whereas 15/42 (35,71%) had an aggressive one, pattern found both in the HBV and HCV infected groups. An abnormal bone marrow result was revealed in 32/42 (76,19%) patients, 19 (59,37%) of them being HCV infected. Myelodysplasia was found in 6/42(14,28%) patients, the majority being HCV infected, all having an indolent form of CLD. The antiviral therapy did not influence the hematological parameters (no significant differences were found between the groups with/without an antiviral therapy).
Discussions. Patients with hepatitis virus infections may associate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia; the mechanisms are thought to involve hypersplenism, autoimmune processes and antiviral therapy. We excluded the influence of chemotherapy, as the study was performed before the treatment. In our group, patients whether HBV or HCV infected, presented an isolated cytopenia. The abnormal bone marrow cellularity (increased or decreased) and dysplasia were found especially in the HCV group. There are studies showing no association between myelodysplasia and hepatitis viruses; others found a strong relation of these. One of the mechanisms of myelodysplasia could be a dysregulation of the immune system.
Conclusions. Bone marrow/peripheral blood features correlate with the type of viral infection and HCV is more prone to develop additional hematological changes than HBV. The degree of bone marrow involvement by CLDs influences these features. We considered mandatory to perform a bone marrow analysis at the diagnosis of CLDs to stage and to establish if other bone marrow changes were present, a crucial aspect for therapy and outcome of the disease. The association between the hepatitis viruses – myelodysplasia- autoimmunity seems to have a role in the lymphoproliferative disorders etiology.
Abbreviations: CLD – chronic lymphoproliferative disorders; NHL- non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, CLL- chronic lymphocytic leukemia, HL- Hodgkin’s lymphoma, MDS – myelodysplastic syndrome, AML – acute myeloid leukemia
PMCID: PMC4034312  PMID: 24868264
hepatitis viruses; chronic lymphoproliferative disorders; myelodysplasia; cytopenia
19.  Epstein-Barr virus in hepatocellular carcinogenesis 
AIM: In recent years, studies have suggested that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with HCC. The present study was to determine the prevalence of EBV in HCC patients, and whether EBV acted synergistically with hepatitis viruses in HCC carcinogenesis.
METHODS: Liver tissue 115 HCC patients and 26 non-carcinoma patients were studied. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect EBV BamHI W DNA, EBV LMP1 DNA, HBV X DNA, and HBV S DNA. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to detect HCV RNA and HDV RNA. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect LMP1, HBsAg, HBcAg and HCV. The positive ratios were compared between HCC group and control group by χ 2 test.
RESULTS: Totally, 78 HCC samples whose β -globulin DNA was positively detected by amplified PCR were selected. PCR was performed in all cases for EBV DNA and HBV DNA. RT-PCR was performed in 18 cases for HCV RNA and HDV RNA. EBV BamHI W and EBV LMP1 were positive in 18 and 6 cases, respectively. HBV X gene and HBV S gene were positive in 42 and 27 cases respectively. HCV was positive in one of the 18 cases, and none was positive for HDV. The positive rates were 28.2% (22 of 78) for EBV DNA (BamHI W and/or LMP1) and 56.4% (44 of 78) for HBV DNA (X gene and/or S gene) respectively. In addition, 12 cases were positive for both EBV DNA and HBV DNA. Among the 26 cases in the control group, 2 cases were positive for EBV BamHI W, 4 positive for HBV X gene and 3 positive for HBV S gene. The positive rates were 8.0% (2 of 26) and 23.1% (6 of 26), respectively, for EBV DNA and HBV DNA. The result of DNA sequencing of BamHI W was 100% homologous with the corresponding sequence of B95-8. There was significant difference in EBV infection rate between HCC patients and controls (χ 2 = 4.622, P < 0.05). The difference in HBV infection rate was also significant (χ 2 = 8.681, P < 0.05). However, there was no obvious correlation between HBV and EBV in HCC patients (χ 2 = 0.835, P > 0.05). LMP1, HBV (HBsAg, HBcAg) and HCV were detected positively in 25, 45 and 6 of 78 cases of HCC tissues respectively. In the 26 control cases, the corresponding positive cases were 2, 4 and 0. The difference in EBV infection rate between HCC patients and control cases was statistically significant (χ 2 = 6.02, P < 0.05). The difference in HBV infection rate was also statistically significant (χ 2 = 10.03, P < 0.05). In the 25 cases with positive LMP1 expression, 6 were in the nuclei of tumor cells, 9 in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and 10 in mesenchymal lymphocyte cytoplasm.
CONCLUSION: The existence of EBV infection in HCC tissues suggests that EBV may be involved in the hepatocellular carcinogenesis in China. HBV infection may be a major cause of HCC. There is no correlation between EBV and HBV in the development of HCC. The prevalence of HCV infection is low in our area, and HDV appears not to play a direct role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v10.i23.3409
PMCID: PMC4576219  PMID: 15526357
20.  HBV serum and renal biopsy markers are associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of HBV-associated nephropathy 
Background: Accumulated evidence has shown that hepatitis B virus infection is associated with numerous types of nephropathy but it remains to clarify the different role of HBV markers, either in serum or deposit in kidney, in the pathogenesis of HBV-associated nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HBV markers and HBV-associated nephropathy by using multi-linear regression in Chinese patients with HBV-associated membranous nephropathy (MN). Methods: A total of 196 cases of HBV-associated MN, which were diagnosed based on renal biopsy, were collected during the period of January 2000 to December 2009 from our hospital. Serum and renal biopsy HBV markers included HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBC. HBV-associated nephropathy was characterized by a panel of clinical manifestations and pathological parameters, which included proteinuria, hematuria, serum creatinine, hypertension, and renal damage in glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, and blood vessels. Multilinear regression was used to analyze the relationship between the HBV markers in serum and renal biopsy and the clinicopathological characteristics of HBV-associated nephropathy. Results: After analysis of the clinical and pathological data in 196 cases of HBV-associated membranous nephropathy, this study revealed that glomerular lesion was marginally associated with serum HBsAg (P = 0.0528), Anti-HBs (P = 0.0978), but significantly associated with the presence of IgA (P = 0.0242), IgG (P < 0.0001) and C3 (P = 0.0064) in renal biopsy. There was no significant association between glomerular lesion and HBV markers in kidney. The presence of crescent and renal tube impairment was not related to HBV markers. The renal fibrosis was significantly related to gender (P = 0.023), age (P = 0.0211), HBsAg (P = 0.0001) and HBcAg (P = 0.0083) and C3 (P = 0.0299) in renal biopsy. Notably, the renal blood vessel impairment was significantly related to systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0.0002), serum HBsAg (P = 0.0428), serum HBeAg (P = 0.0766), FRA (P = 0.0002), and HBsAg (P = 0.0241) and HBcAg (P = 0.0599) in renal tissues. Also, the renal interstitial infiltration was related to patient age (P = 0.015, SBP (P < 0.0001), DBP (P = 0.0001), C3 (P = 0.0028), FRA (P = 0.0165), HBsAg (P = 0.0016) and HBcAg (P = 0.0203) in kidney biopsy. These results suggest that the major pathological changes in kidneys in HBV patients are related to one or more HBV markers, such as HBsAg, HBeAg, or anti-HBs antibody. Besides, most of the pathological changes in kidneys are related to C3 and FRA in kidney tissues. The clinical markers of nephropathy, such as proteinuria, hematuria and creatine serum levels, were also evaluated for their relationship with HBV markers in serum and kidney tissues. We found proteinuria was marginally related to HBV DNA (P = 0.0537), significantly related to IgA (0.0223). Hematouria was significantly related to IgA (P = 0.0434), IgG (P < 0.0001), and C1q (P = 0.0282). The serum creatine level was related to patient gender (P = 0.0077), SBP (P < 0.0001), DBP (0.0049), IgG (P-0.0006), and C3 (P = 0.0113). These clinical manifestations were not related to HBV markers in either serum or kidney. These results indicate that some of clinical manifestations of nephropathy are related to HBV markers, but the relationship is limited.
PMCID: PMC4270632  PMID: 25550864
Hepatitis B virus; serum markers; nephropathy
21.  Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Previously Vaccinated Injection Drug User 
Hepatitis Monthly  2016;16(2):e34758.
Introduction:
Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) is defined by the presence of HBV DNA in patient sera in the absence of HBsAg. Occult HBV has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation during immune suppression, and transmission to others. While the hepatitis B vaccine is very effective at preventing chronic HBV infection, recent studies indicate it is less effective at preventing occult HBV following infant vaccination. No studies, however, have examined the efficacy of adult HBV vaccination at preventing occult HBV. Here, we present the first report of occult HBV following adult vaccination.
Case Presentation:
A 21-year old Caucasian female presented with tricuspid valve endocarditis secondary to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. She reported active use of intravenous drugs. Her liver enzymes were elevated (ALT = 1873 IU/mL; AST = 4518 IU/mL), and she was found to have HCV and occult HBV. HBV viral loads ranged from 4608 - 8364 copies IU/mL during hospitalization. The patient’s HBV was sequenced and found to be genotype D3 without any known diagnostic escape mutations. Immune complexes that may have prevented HBsAg detection were not observed.
Conclusions:
HBV vaccination in infancy is effective at preventing chronic HBV infection but is less effective at preventing occult HBV infection. Similar studies examining the efficacy of adult HBV vaccination in preventing occult HBV have not been performed. This case highlights the importance of carefully determining the HBV status of high-risk individuals, as vaccination history and the presence of anti-HBs may not be adequate to rule out HBV infection, even in the absence of HBsAg.
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.34758
PMCID: PMC4851822  PMID: 27148386
Hepatitis B; Occult Hepatitis B; Hepatitis B Vaccine
22.  Incidence and characteristics of HBV reactivation in hematological malignant patients in south Egypt 
AIM: To investigate characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) implicated in HBV reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies receiving immunosuppressive therapy.
METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 53 patients with hematological malignancies negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) before the start of and throughout the chemotherapy course. HBV reactivation was diagnosed when the HBsAg status changed from negative to positive after the initiation of chemotherapy and/or when HBV DNA was detected by real-time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR). For detecting the serological markers of HBV infection, HBsAg as well as antibodies to the core antigen (anti-HBc) and to the surface antigen were measured in the sera by CEIA. Nucleic acids were extracted from sera, and HBV DNA sequences spanning the S gene were amplified by RTD-PCR. The extracted DNA was further subjected to PCR to amplify the complete genome as well as the specific genomic sequences bearing the enhancer II/core promoter/pre-core/core regions (nt 1628-2364). Amplicons were sequenced directly.
RESULTS: Thirty-five (66%) of the 53 HBsAg-negative patients were found to be negative serologically for anti-HBc, and the remaining 18 (34%) patients were positive for anti-HBc. Five of the 53 (9.4%) patients with hematologic malignancies experienced HBV reactivation. Genotype D1 was detected in all five patients. Four types of mutant strains were detected in the S gene product of HBV strains and were isolated from 3 patients with HBV reactivation: T/S120, L143, and I126. HBV DNA was detected in the pretreatment HBsAg-negative samples in one of the five patients with HBV reactivation. In this patient, sequences encompassing the HBV full genome obtained from sera before the start of chemotherapy and at the time of de novo HBV hepatitis were detected and it showed 100% homology. Furthermore, in the phylogenetic tree, the sequences were clustered together, thereby indicating that this patient developed reactivation from an occult HBV infection.
CONCLUSION: Past infection with HBV is a risk factor for HBV reactivation in Egypt. Mandatory anti-HBc screening prior to chemotherapy in patients with hematological malignancies is recommended.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i37.6214
PMCID: PMC3787352  PMID: 24115819
Hepatitis B virus; Occult infection; Reactivation; Hepatitis B surface antigen
23.  Testing for hepatitis B infection in prospective chemotherapy patients: A retrospective study 
AIM: To estimate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection testing rate in cancer patients before chemotherapy with a focus on HBV reactivation.
METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted from January 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Inclusion required that patients be naïve to cancer chemotherapy but have indications for it. Patients who did not receive chemotherapy for any reason were excluded. Important clinical information, such as the levels of HBV DNA and serological markers were collected. HBV reactivation was defined as an increase in serum HBV DNA to > 1 log higher than that of the pre-exacerbation baseline, or serum HBV DNA conversion from negative to positive. HBV DNA levels > 1000 copies/mL were defined as HBV DNA positive. The χ2 or Fisher’s exact test was used for analysis of categorized data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odd ratio and 95%CI of the HBV screening rate.
RESULTS: Of 6646 patients, 5616 (84.5%) received chemotherapy. Only 17.1% of the cancer patients received pre-chemotherapy HBV testing (43.2% for hematological malignancies and 14.9% for solid tumors). Patients who had received rituximab therapy, had elevated aminotransferase levels, or had hematological malignancies were more likely to receive HBV testing. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was 13.4%. HBV reactivation (appearance of HBV DNA or an increase in HBV DNA levels by 1 log10) was observed in 33.1% (53/160) of the patients after chemotherapy. Among patients without prophylactic antiviral therapy, the reactivation rate was 43.9% (43/98) in the solid tumor group. Two reactivation cases occurred in patients who were HBsAg negative, but positive for hepatitis B core antibody. HBV reactivation was more likely to occur in patients with lymphoma, high levels of HBV DNA, or hepatitis B e antigen, and in men.
CONCLUSION: Less than 20% of patients received HBV testing before chemotherapy. HBV reactivation would have occurred in about 50% of infected patients with solid tumors without antiviral prophylaxis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i6.923
PMCID: PMC3574891  PMID: 23429298
Chemotherapy; Hematologic malignancy; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis B virus reactivation; Solid tumor
24.  Prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies treated with anticancer therapy 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2016;22(28):6484-6500.
Hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can be severe and potentially fatal, but is preventable. HBV reactivation is most commonly reported in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, especially rituximab-containing therapy for hematological malignancies and those receiving stem cell transplantation. All patients with hematological malignancies receiving anticancer therapy should be screened for active or resolved HBV infection by blood tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Patients found to be positive for HBsAg should be given prophylactic antiviral therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. For patients with resolved HBV infection, no standard strategy has yet been established to prevent HBV reactivation. There are usually two options. One is pre-emptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring, whereby antiviral therapy is given as soon as HBV DNA becomes detectable. However, there is little evidence regarding the optimal interval and period of monitoring. An alternative approach is prophylactic antiviral therapy, especially for patients receiving high-risk therapy such as rituximab, newer generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, obinutuzumab or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This strategy may effectively prevent HBV reactivation and avoid the inconvenience of repeated HBV DNA monitoring. Entecavir or tenofovir are preferred over lamivudine as prophylactic therapy. Although there is no well-defined guideline on the optimal duration of prophylactic therapy, there is growing evidence to recommend continuing prophylactic antiviral therapy for at least 12 mo after cessation of chemotherapy, and even longer for those who receive rituximab or who had high serum HBV DNA levels before the start of immunosuppressive therapy. Many novel agents have recently become available for the treatment of hematological malignancies, and these agents may be associated with HBV reactivation. Although there is currently limited evidence to guide the optimal preventive measures, we recommend antiviral prophylaxis in HBsAg-positive patients receiving novel treatments, especially the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, which are B-cell receptor signaling modulators and reduce proliferation of malignant B-cells. Further studies are needed to clarify the risk of HBV reactivation with these agents and the best prophylactic strategy in the era of targeted therapy for hematological malignancies.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i28.6484
PMCID: PMC4968128  PMID: 27605883
Hepatitis B virus reactivation; Hematological malignancies; Rituximab; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Prophylactic antiviral therapy
25.  No evidence for occult HBV infection in hepatitis B vaccine non-responders 
Iranian Journal of Microbiology  2014;6(5):350-353.
Background and Objective
Although hepatitis B vaccine immunogenicity is high, certain risk factors such as age, tobacco consumption, obesity and genetic background have been associated with low responsiveness to HBV vaccine. We aimed to evaluate the role of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in non-responder adults to HBV vaccine in a low endemic area for HBV.
Material and Methods
A total of 52 subjects who were non-responder to HBV vaccine were enrolled in the study. HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were tested in all subjects. The presence of HBV-DNA was determined in plasma samples by real-time PCR.
Results
A total of 52 cases with median age 34 years were enrolled in the study. 63.5% of patients were male and 36.5% were female. Isolated anti-HBc (HBsAg negative, anti-HBs negative and anti-HBc positive) was detected in 3.8% of cases. HBV-DNA was not detected in our cases.
Conclusion
This study showed no evidence of occult HBV infection in our HBV vaccine non-responders even in cases with isolated anti-HBc.
PMCID: PMC4385577  PMID: 25848527
HBV; HBV core antibody; HBV vaccine non-responders; Occult HBV infection

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