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1.  Validity and user-friendliness of the minimal eating observation and nutrition form – version II (MEONF – II) for undernutrition risk screening 
Food & Nutrition Research  2011;55:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5801.
Objective
To analyze the criterion-related validity and user-friendliness of the Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form – Version II (MEONF – II) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in relation to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). In addition, the effect of substituting body mass index (BMI) with calf circumference (CC) was explored for the MEONF-II.
Methods
The study included 100 patients who were assessed for nutritional status with the MNA (full version), considered here to be the gold standard, and screened with the MUST and the MEONF-II. The MEONF-II includes assessments of involuntary weight loss, BMI (or calf circumference), eating difficulties, and presence of clinical signs of undernutrition.
Results
The MEONF-II sensitivity (0.73) and specificity (0.88) were acceptable. Sensitivity and specificity for the MUST were 0.57 and 0.93, respectively. Replacing the BMI with CC in the MEONF-II gave similar results (sensitivity 0.68, specificity 0.90). Assessors considered MEONF-II instructions and items to be relevant, easy to understand and complete (100%), and the questions to be relevant (98%). MEONF-II and MUST took 8.8 and 4.7 minutes to complete, respectively, and both were considered relevant and easy to finish. In addition, MEONF-II was thought to reveal problems that allows for nursing interventions.
Conclusions
The MEONF-II is an easy to use, relatively quick, and sensitive screening tool to assess risk of undernutrition among hospital inpatients, which allows for substituting BMI with CC in situations where measures of patient height and weight cannot be easily obtained. High sensitivity is of primary concern in nutritional screening and the MEONF-II outperforms the MUST in this regard.
doi:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5801
PMCID: PMC3021369  PMID: 21246022
undernutrition; screening; criterion-related validity; acceptability; MEOF; MNA; MUST; MEONF
2.  Cut-off scores for the Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form – Version II (MEONF-II) among hospital inpatients 
Food & Nutrition Research  2011;55:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.7289.
Background and objective
The newly developed Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form – Version II (MEONF-II) has shown promising sensitivity and specificity in relation to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). However, the suggested MEONF-II cut-off scores for deciding low/moderate and high risk for undernutrition (UN) (>2 and >4, respectively) have not been decided based on statistical criteria but on clinical reasoning. The objective of this study was to identify the optimal cut-off scores for the MEONF-II in relation to the well-established MNA based on statistical criteria.
Design
Cross-sectional study.
Methods
The study included 187 patients (mean age, 77.5 years) assessed for nutritional status with the MNA (full version), and screened with the MEONF-II. The MEONF-II includes assessments of involuntary weight loss, Body Mass Index (BMI) (or calf circumference), eating difficulties, and presence of clinical signs ofUN. MEONF-II data were analysed by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC); optimal cut-offs were identified by the Youden index (J=sensitivity+specificity–1).
Results
According to the MEONF-II, 41% were at moderate or high UN risk and according to the MNA, 50% were at risk or already undernourished. The suggested cut-off scores were supported by the Youden indices. The lower cut-off for MEONF-II, used to identify any level of risk for UN (>2; J=0.52) gave an overall accuracy of 76% and the AUC was 80%. The higher cut-off for identifying those with high risk for UN (>4; J=0.33) had an accuracy of 63% and the AUC was 70%.
Conclusions
The suggested MEONF-II cut-off scores were statistically supported. This improves the confidence of its clinical use.
doi:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.7289
PMCID: PMC3149411  PMID: 21814520
cut-off scores; MEOF; MNA; MEONF; nutritional screening; ROC-curve
3.  Assessing the nutritional status of elderly Chinese lung cancer patients using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA®) tool 
Purpose
This study assessed the nutritional status of elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients using a revised version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA®) tool.
Patients and methods:
The revised version of the MNA tool was used to assess the nutritional status of 180 elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients prior to their scheduled surgery between June 2010 and July 2011. Patients’ demographic data, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical markers were collected and analyzed.
Results
Among the 180 inpatients who underwent the MNA, 9% were malnourished (MNA score < 19), 33% were at risk of malnutrition (MNA score 19–23), and 58% were well nourished (MNA score ≥ 24). There was significant correlation between the MNA scores of patients who were malnourished, at risk of malnutrition, and well nourished (P < 0.001), as well as between total MNA score and most MNA questions. The three patient groups with different nutritional statuses differed significantly in their responses to anthropometrics and global, diet, and subjective assessments.
Conclusion
Incidence rates of malnutrition prior to surgery are high among elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients. The revised MNA is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to assess and prevent malnutrition among these inpatients.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S41941
PMCID: PMC3592510  PMID: 23487488
malnutrition; MNA-SF; nutrition; inpatients; diet
4.  Characteristics of undernourished older medical patients and the identification of predictors for undernutrition status 
Nutrition Journal  2007;6:37.
Background
Undernutrition among older people is a continuing source of concern, particularly among acutely hospitalized patients. The purpose of the current study is to compare malnourished elderly patients with those at nutritional risk and identify factors contributing to the variability between the groups.
Methods
The study was carried out at the Soroka University Medical Center in the south of Israel. From September 2003 through December 2004, all patients 65 years-of-age or older admitted to any of the internal medicine departments, were screened within 72 hours of admission to determine nutritional status using the short version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). Patients at nutritional risk were entered the study and were divided into malnourished or 'at risk' based on the full version of the MNA. Data regarding medical, nutritional, functional, and emotional status were obtained by trained interviewers.
Results
Two hundred fifty-nine elderly patients, 43.6% men, participated in the study; 18.5% were identified as malnourished and 81.5% were at risk for malnutrition according to the MNA. The malnourished group was less educated, had a higher depression score and lower cognitive and physical functioning. Higher prevalence of chewing problems, nausea, and vomiting was detected among malnourished patients. There was no difference between the groups in health status indicators except for subjective health evaluation which was poorer among the malnourished group. Lower dietary score indicating lower intake of vegetables fruits and fluid, poor appetite and difficulties in eating distinguished between malnourished and at-risk populations with the highest sensitivity and specificity as compare with the anthropometric, global, and self-assessment of nutritional status parts of the MNA. In a multivariate analysis, lower cognitive function, education <12 years and chewing problems were all risk factors for malnutrition.
Conclusion
Our study indicates that low food consumption as well as poor appetite and chewing problems are associated with the development of malnutrition. Given the critical importance of nutritional status in the hospitalized elderly, further intervention trials are required to determine the best intervention strategies to overcome these problems.
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-37
PMCID: PMC2204029  PMID: 17980023
5.  Nutritional screening of older home-dwelling Norwegians: a comparison between two instruments 
Background
It is important to obtain knowledge about the prevalence of nutritional risk and associated factors among older home-dwelling people in order to be able to meet nutritional challenges in this group in the future and to plan appropriate interventions. The aim of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of home-dwelling older people at nutritional risk and to identify associated factors using two different nutritional screening instruments as self-report instruments.
Methods
This study had a cross-sectional design. A postal questionnaire, including the Norwegian versions of the Nutritional Form for the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) and Mini Nutritional Assessment – Short Form (MNA-SF), background variables, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 6033 home-dwelling older people in southern Norway. A total of 2106 (34.9%) subjects were included in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses.
Results
When using the NUFFE-NO and MNA-SF, 426 (22.3%) and 258 (13.5%) older persons, respectively, were identified to be at nutritional risk. The risk of undernutrition increased with age. Several predictors for being at risk of undernutrition, including chronic disease/handicap and receiving family help, as well as protective factors, including sufficient food intake and having social contacts, were identified.
Conclusion
Health professionals must be aware of older people’s vulnerability to risk of undernutrition, perform screening, and have a plan for preventing under-nutrition. For that purpose, MNA-SF and NUFFE-NO can be suggested for screening older people living at home.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S35986
PMCID: PMC3459573  PMID: 23049250
aged; risk factors; undernutrition; screening
6.  Nutritional assessment with different tools in leukemia patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 
Objective
Correct nutritional assessment is essential for leukemia patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This study aimed to investigate the best nutritional assessment method for leukemia patients after HSCT, and find the possible nutritional risk of the patients during the transplantation process in order to intervene in the patients with nutritional risks and undernourished patients timely, so that the entire transplantation process could be successfully completed.
Methods
A prospective study was performed in 108 leukemia patients after HSCT, and different nutritional assessment methods, including nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002), mini nutritional assessment (MNA), subjective globe assessment (SGA) and malnutritional universal screening tools (MUST), were used. The associations between nutritional status of these patients and nutritional assessment methods were analyzed.
Results
A total of 108 patients completed SGA, and 99 patients completed NRS2002, MNA and MUST. During the treatment process, 85.2% of the patients lost weight, wherein, 50% lost weight greater than 5%, and 42.6% had significantly reduced food intake. For nutritional risk assessment, the positive rates of NRS2002, MNA and MUST were 100%, 74.7% and 63.6%, respectively. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) among the positive rates of NRS2002, MNA and MUST. In undernutrition assessment, the positive rate of SGA (83.3%) was significantly higher than that of MNA (17.2%) (P<0.05), and the incidence rate of nutritional risk among leukemia patients ≤30 years old was greater than that of patients >30 years old (P<0.05).
Conclusions
Patients with leukemia were in poor nutritional status during and after HSCT. The leukemia patients ≤30 years old had a greater incidence rate of nutritional risk. As nutritional risk screening tool, the specificity of NRS2002 is not high, but it can be used for evaluating nutritional deficiencies. MNA is a good nutritional risk screening tool, but not an adequate tool for nutritional assessment. If assessment of undernutrition is necessary, the combination of all these screening tools and clinical laboratory indicators should be applied to improve accuracy.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.09
PMCID: PMC3872547  PMID: 24385706
Nutritional screening; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); leukemia; nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002); mini nutritional assessment (MNA); subjective globe assessment (SGA); malnutritional universal screening tools (MUST)
7.  Relationship of serum homocysteine level with nutritional status and HbA1c level in elderly inpatients 
Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for vascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the serum total homocysteine (tHcy) level and nutritional status in elderly inpatients and determine the relationship between tHcy level and nutritional status. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Tongji hospital, and 142 subjects were consecutively recruited. Fasting blood was collected, and the liver and kidney function, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma protein, lipid profile, folic acid, vitamin B12 and serum total tHcy were measured. Anthropometric measurements, grip strength and the shortened MNA form (MNA-SF) were used to assess the nutritional status. Results: Undernutrition was common in this population. Based on MNA-SF scores, 34.2% of subjects were at risk of malnutrition, and malnourished subjects accounted for 4.9%. The mean tHcy was 14.10±5.46 μmol/l, and the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was 32.4% (46/142). Hyperhomocysteinemia was a risk factor of cerebral infarction (RR=1.636, 95% CI: 1.169-2.288); Serum tHcy was negatively correlated with serum folic acid, vitamin B12 and MNA-SF score (r=-0.348,P=0.000; r=-0.236, P=0.005; r=-0.208, P=0.014), and positively with BMI within normal range (18.5-23.9; r=0.232, P=0.044). Serum tHcy was negatively correlated with HbA1c, (r=-0.196, P=0.021) and positively with serum creatinine (r=0.327, P=0.000), but unrelated to fasting blood glucose (r=-0.098, P=0.250). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed serum folic acid, serum creatinine, MNA-SF score and HbA1c were independent determinants of serum tHcy. Conclusion: Elderly subjects have higher serum tHcy level. Compromised renal function, poor nutritional status and lower blood glucose are likely to influence the serum tHcy level.
PMCID: PMC3798213  PMID: 24179571
Homocysteine; nutritional status; MNA-SF; HbA1c
8.  Nutritional status and functional capacity of hospitalized elderly 
Nutrition Journal  2009;8:54.
Background
The nutritional status of the aging individual results from a complex interaction between personal and environmental factors. A disease influences and is influenced by the nutritional status and the functional capacity of the individual. We asses the relationship between nutritional status and indicators of functional capacity among recently hospitalized elderly in a general hospital.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was done with 240 elderly (women, n = 127 and men, n = 113) hospitalized in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. The nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition (adequate). The functional autonomy indicators were obtained by the self-reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) and Activity of Daily Living (ADL) questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to compare the proportions and the level of significance was 5%.
Results
Among the assessed elderly, 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. All the IADL and ADL variables assessed were significantly more deteriorated among the malnourished individuals. Among the ADL variables, eating partial (42.9%) or complete (12.9%) dependence was found in more than half of the malnourished elderly, in 13.4% of those at risk of malnutrition and in 2.5% of those without malnutrition.
Conclusion
There is an interrelationship between the nutritional status of the elderly and reduced functional capacity.
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-54
PMCID: PMC2781024  PMID: 19919711
9.  Psychometric testing of the Norwegian version of the Nutritional Form For the Elderly among older home-dwelling people 
Background
Nutritional screening instruments need to be evaluated in terms of reliability and validity and being able to demonstrate sensitivity and specificity for use in clinical practice and research. The aims of this study were to test the reliability and validity of the Norwegian version of the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) in a sample of older home-dwelling people, and to use the short form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF) as a standard.
Methods
A postal questionnaire, including the two instruments, background variables, and health-related questions, was sent to 6033 home-dwelling older people (65+ years) in southern Norway. In total, 2106 persons responded and were included. Data were analyzed statistically regarding homogeneity, concurrent and construct validity, sensitivity, and specificity of NUFFE-NO.
Results
A Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.71 and significant item-to-total correlations were obtained as measures of homogeneity. Concurrent validity was assessed by a correlation coefficient of −0.37 (P < 0.001) between NUFFE-NO and MNA-SF. NUFFE-NO could separate known nutritional at-risk groups as a measure of construct validity. A cut-off point of ≥4 for identification of older people at nutritional risk was found for NUFFE-NO with MNA-SF as a standard.
Conclusion
NUFFE-NO shows adequate psychometric properties regarding homogeneity and construct validity. MNA-SF was not found to be the most suitable standard to use, because a low correlation coefficient was obtained as a measure of concurrent validity and a lower cut-off point was found compared with another study using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®) as a standard for NUFFE-NO. The obtained cut-off point of ≥4 is not recommended for use in practice or research, because many false positive nutritional at-risk persons would then be identified. Further studies with suitable design have to be performed among older home-dwelling people using the MNA as a standard.
doi:10.2147/JMDH.S32502
PMCID: PMC3392698  PMID: 22791993
nutritional screening instrument; reliability; sensitivity; specificity; validity
10.  Nutrition survey in an elderly population following admission to a tertiary care hospital 
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in elderly patients in institutions has become an issue of clinical concern, but it remains largely unrecognized in acute care hospitals. The demonstrated benefits of intervention emphasize the need for routine nutritional assessment. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in elderly patients admitted to a tertiary care centre and to test the sensitivity and specificity of 3 nutrition screening tools. METHODS: Between July and November 1996 patients 65 years and older were consecutively recruited from the general medicine, orthopedics, general surgery and neurosciences services of The Ottawa Hospital--General Campus within 72 hours of admission. They were interviewed using 3 nutritional screening tools: one developed by Chandra and colleagues (Chandra), the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). A detailed nutrition assessment was then undertaken, which included anthropometric assessment, laboratory tests, determination of risk factors and assessment of dietary intake. A dietitian blinded to the screening results classified each patient as being well nourished, at risk for malnutrition or malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition was assessed, and screening results were compared with the results of the detailed nutrition assessment for sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: In total, 160 patients (86 women) were recruited. Detailed nutrition assessments were completed for 152 patients, of which 62 (40.8%) were found to be well nourished, 67 (44.1%) at moderate risk for malnutrition and 23 (15.1%) malnourished. Matched comparisons showed that, of the 23 malnourished patients, 1 was found to be at high risk for malnutrition using the Chandra screening tool, 9 using the NSI and 4 using the MNA, giving sensitivities of 32%, 54% and 57%, and specificities of 85%, 61% and 69%, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Given the high rate of malnutrition or risk of malnutrition in this study, admitting physicians need to be aware of this problem and its scope. The 3 screening tools tested performed poorly in comparison with the detailed nutrition assessment. This may have been because the score thresholds for the screening tools were set for screening purposes and because the screening tools were designed for different settings and a wider population.
PMCID: PMC1230579  PMID: 10497606
11.  Financial Strain Is Associated with Malnutrition Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Women 
This study examined the relationship between financial strain, or difficulty acquiring necessities, and malnutrition risk in a community dwelling sample of frail and nonfrail women aged 70–79 in the Women’s Health and Aging Study (n = 679). Malnutrition risk was measured with a modified version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and defined as a score <11, financial strain was measured by (1) sufficiency of money on a monthly basis and (2) adequacy of income for food, and income was measured by ordinal categories. Mean (SD) modified MNA-SF score was 12.2 (1.80), and 14.7% of women had malnutrition risk. Women who usually did not have enough money to make ends meet had more than four-fold increased odds of malnutrition risk (OR = 4.54; 95% CI: 2.26, 9.14) compared to their counterparts who had some money left over each month. This was only slightly attenuated after control for income and education, (OR = 4.08; 95% CI: 1.95, 8.52) remaining robust. These results show an association between financial strain and malnutrition risk, independent of income, in older women. Self-reported financial strain may be preferable to income as a screener for malnutrition risk in older adults in clinical and research settings.
doi:10.1155/2012/696518
PMCID: PMC3806140  PMID: 24163772
12.  Implementation of nutritional guidelines in a university hospital monitored by repeated point prevalence surveys 
Background/Objectives:
Malnutrition is present in 20–50% of hospitalized patients, and nutritional care is a challenge. The aim was to evaluate whether the implementation of a nutritional strategy would influence nutritional care performance in a university hospital.
Subjects/Methods:
This was a prospective quality improvement program implementing guidelines for nutritional care, with the aim of improving nutritional practice. The Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 was used. Point prevalence surveys over 2 years to determine whether nutritional practice had improved.
Results:
In total, 3604 (70%) of 5183 eligible patients were screened and 1230 (34%) were at nutritional risk. Only 53% of the at-risk patients got nutritional treatment and 5% were seen by a dietician. The proportion of patients screened increased from the first to the eighth point prevalence survey (P=0.012), but not the proportion of patients treated (P=0.66). The four initial screening questions in NRS 2002 identified 92% of the patients not at nutritional risk.
Conclusions:
Implementation of nutritional guidelines improved the screening performance, but did not increase the proportion of patients who received nutritional treatment. Point prevalence surveys were useful to evaluate nutritional practice in this university hospital. In order to improve practice, we suggest using only the four initial screening questions in NRS 2002 to identify patients not at risk, better education in nutritional care for physicians and nurses, and more dieticians employed. Audit of implementation of guidelines, performed by health authorities, and specific reimbursement for managing nutrition may also improve practice.
doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.149
PMCID: PMC3303136  PMID: 21863042
nutrition guidelines; point prevalence survey; prevalence; nutritional risk screening; hospitals; quality indicator
13.  Nutritional Status and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older People: A Longitudinal Study of a Population-Based Random Sample 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91044.
Background
Falls are common in older people and may lead to functional decline, disability, and death. Many risk factors have been identified, but studies evaluating effects of nutritional status are limited. To determine whether nutritional status is a predictor of falls in older people living in the community, we analyzed data collected through the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan (SHLSET).
Methods
SHLSET include a series of interview surveys conducted by the government on a random sample of people living in community dwellings in the nation. We included participants who received nutritional status assessment using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Taiwan Version 2 (MNA-T2) in the 1999 survey when they were 53 years or older and followed up on the cumulative incidence of falls in the one-year period before the interview in the 2003 survey.
Results
At the beginning of follow-up, the 4440 participants had a mean age of 69.5 (standard deviation  = 9.1) years, and 467 participants were “not well-nourished,” which was defined as having an MNA-T2 score of 23 or less. In the one-year study period, 659 participants reported having at least one fall. After adjusting for other risk factors, we found the associated odds ratio for falls was 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.23, 2.42) for “not well-nourished,” 1.57 (1.30, 1.90) for female gender, 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) for one-year older, 1.55 (1.22, 1.98) for history of falls, 1.34 (1.05, 1.72) for hospital stay during the past 12 months, 1.66 (1.07, 2.58) for difficulties in activities of daily living, and 1.53 (1.23, 1.91) for difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living.
Conclusion
Nutritional status is an independent predictor of falls in older people living in the community. Further studies are warranted to identify nutritional interventions that can help prevent falls in the elderly.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091044
PMCID: PMC3948728  PMID: 24614184
14.  Validation of Mini Nutritional Assessment Scale in peritoneal dialysis patients 
Introduction
Malnutrition is a negative predictive factor for survival in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Coincidence of malnutrition, inflammation and atherosclerosis (MIA syndrome) in the dialysis population is an exceptionally poor outcome event. Due to flexibility, ease of performance and reproducibility, clinical scales are of particular value in assessment of nutritional status in ESRD patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
Material and methods
Nutritional status was assessed in 41 peritoneal dialysis patients by means of the MNA scale and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS). Some other clinical and laboratory parameters associated with nutritional status were analyzed. Patients were followed up for 30 months.
Results
In the analyzed group of patients a good nutritional state was diagnosed in 22 patients (54%), risk of malnutrition in 17 (41%) and malnutrition in 2 patients (5%) based on the MNA scale. A strong correlation between MNA based nutritional status and MIS was found (r = –0.85, p < 0.01, ANOVA, p < 0.01). Differences in time on dialysis, body mass index, concentration of albumin, cholesterol and triglycerides were noted between at risk/malnourished and well-nourished (according to MNA) patients. Statistically significant factors determining survival of patients by Cox proportional hazard analysis were age (HR 1.07), being at risk/malnourished according to MNA (HR 5.7), MIS (HR 1.2), and albumin (HR 0.13).
Conclusions
The MNA scale is a valuable, clinically suitable tool for assessment of nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis patients. Risk of malnutrition and malnutrition diagnosed by MNA identifies patients at high mortality risk.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.31386
PMCID: PMC3776167  PMID: 24049527
malnutrition; peritoneal dialysis; mortality; Mini Nutritional Assessment
15.  Association between functional alterations of senescence and senility and disorders of gait and balance 
Clinics  2012;67(7):719-729.
OBJECTIVES:
Declines in cognition and mobility are frequently observed in the elderly, and it has been suggested that the appearance of gait disorders in older individuals may constitute a marker of cognitive decline that precedes significant findings in functional performance screening tests. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between functional capacities and gait and balance in an elderly community monitored by the Preventive and Integrated Care Unit of the Hospital Adventista Silvestre in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
METHODS:
Elderly individuals (193 females and 90 males) were submitted to a broad geriatric evaluation, which included the following tests: 1) a performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA) to evaluate gait; 2) a mini-mental state examination (MMSE); 3) the use of Katz and Lawton scales to assess functional capacity; 4) the application of the geriatric depression scale (GDS); and 5) a mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) scale.
RESULTS:
Reductions in MMSE, Katz and Lawton scores were associated with reductions in POMA scores, and we also observed that significant reductions in POMA scores were present in persons for whom the MMSE and Katz scores did not clearly indicate cognitive dysfunction. We also demonstrated that a decline in the scores obtained with the GDS and MNA scales was associated with a decline in the POMA scores.
CONCLUSIONS:
Considering that significant alterations in the POMA scores were observed prior to the identification of significant alterations in cognitive capacity using either the MMSE or the Katz systems, a prospective study seems warranted to assess the predictive capacity of POMA scores regarding the associated decline in functional capacity.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2012(07)04
PMCID: PMC3400160  PMID: 22892914
Aging; Cognition disorders; Dementia; Locomotion; Postural balance
16.  Nutrition support in surgical patients with colorectal cancer 
AIM: To review the application of nutrition support in patients after surgery for colorectal cancer, and to propose appropriate nutrition strategies.
METHODS: A total of 202 consecutive surgical patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of colon cancer or rectal cancer from January 2010 to July 2010, meeting the requirements of Nutrition Risk Screening 2002, were enrolled in our study. Laboratory tests were performed to analyze the nutrition status of each patient, and the clinical outcome variables, including postoperative complications, hospital stay, cost of hospitalization and postoperative outcome, were analyzed.
RESULTS: The “non-risk” patients who did not receive postoperative nutrition support had a higher rate of postoperative complications than patients who received postoperative nutrition support (2.40 ± 1.51 vs 1.23 ± 0.60, P = 0.000), and had a longer postoperative hospital stay (23.00 ± 15.84 d vs 15.27 ± 5.89 d, P = 0.009). There was higher cost of hospitalization for patients who received preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) than for patients who did not receive preoperative TPN (62 713.50 ± 5070.66 RMB Yuan vs 43178.00 ± 3596.68 RMB Yuan, P = 0.014). Applying postoperative enteral nutrition significantly shortened postoperative fasting time (5.16 ± 1.21 d vs 6.40 ± 1.84 d, P = 0.001) and postoperative hospital stay (11.92 ± 4.34 d vs 15.77 ± 6.03 d, P = 0.002). The patients who received postoperative TPN for no less than 7 d had increased serum glucose levels (7.59 ± 3.57 mmol/L vs 6.48 ± 1.32 mmol/L, P = 0.006) and cost of hospitalization (47 724.14 ± 16 945.17 Yuan vs 38 598.73 ± 8349.79 Yuan, P = 0.000). The patients who received postoperative omega-3 fatty acids had a higher rate of postoperative complications than the patients who did not (1.33 ± 0.64 vs 1.13 ± 0.49, P = 0.041). High level of serum glucose was associated with a high risk of postoperative complications of infection.
CONCLUSION: Appropriate and moderate nutritional intervention can improve the postoperative outcome of colorectal cancer patients.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i13.1779
PMCID: PMC3072645  PMID: 21483641
Nutritional support; Nutrition assessment; Colorectal cancer; Surgery; Prognosis
17.  The Clinical Significance of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment and the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment in Elderly Patients With Stroke 
Objective
To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the subjective assessments of nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA] and scored patient-generated subjective global assessment [PG-SGA]), compared with the objective (hematological, biochemical, and anthropometric) assessments, and to identify the correlation between the MNA and the scored PG-SGA in elderly patients with stroke.
Methods
Thirty-five stroke patients, aged 60 to 89 years old, participated in our study. The MNA, the scored PG-SGA and objective factors were evaluated. The objective malnutrition state was defined based on laboratory outcomes. According to the MNA and the scored PG-SGA classifications, total patients were respectively divided into three groups; well-nourished (W), at risk of malnutrition (R), and malnourished (M), and into four groups; normally nourished (A), suspected or mildly malnourished (B), moderately malnourished (C), and severely malnourished (D).
Results
Mean age and body mass index of subjects were 70.6 years and 22.2 kg/m2, respectively. Twenty-six (74.3%) patients were identified to be at an objectively malnourished state. In MNA, 3 (8.6%) patients were classified as group W, 13 (37.1%) as R, and 19 (54.3%) as M. Total MNA scores and three categorization had mild correlation with objective grouping (r=0.383, r=0.350, p<0.05, respectively). Restructuring into two groups by combining group R and M made strong correlation (r=0.520, p<0.01). On the basis of scored PG-SGA, 6 (17.1%) patients were sorted as group A, 10 (28.6%) as B, 15 (42.9%) as C, and 4 (11.4%) as D, respectively. Total scores and the grouping into four indicated meaningful correlation with the objective distinction (r=-0.403, p<0.05, r=0.449, p<0.01, respectively). There was a significant correlation between the MNA scores and the PG-SGA scores (r=-0.651, p<0.01).
Conclusion
It is proposed that the MNA and the scored PG-SGA would be useful in screening malnourished elderly patients with stroke.
doi:10.5535/arm.2013.37.1.66
PMCID: PMC3604236  PMID: 23525367
Stroke; Geriatrics; Malnutrition; Nutritional assessment
18.  The Nutritional, Glutathione and Oxidant Status of Elderly Subjects Admitted to a University Hospital 
Background/Aim:
Malnutrition in elderly patients is common in hospitals, and many of the age associated chronic diseases have a common factor, which is oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status, glutathione, and oxidant status of elderly patients.
Patients and Methods:
The mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) was used to determine the nutritional status of elderly patients. Glutathione concentration in the whole blood, plasma albumin, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels was measured spectrophotometrically by the enzymatic recycling method. In addition, length of hospital stay was estimated. All measurements were taken within 48 h after admission.
Results:
The results showed that more than two-thirds of the elderly were classified as at risk of malnutrition and malnourished. About 45% and 53% elevation in the TBARS was found in at risk of being malnourished and in the malnourished groups, respectively, compared to the well-nourished group, but the elevation did not reach the significant level. No significant differences in the glutathione concentration and in the length of hospital stay were found among the three mini-nutritional assessment categories.
Conclusions:
The study indicated the necessity of performing the MNA test for elderly upon admission to hospitals, and more attention needs to be paid to this vulnerable group of people.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.74474
PMCID: PMC3099083  PMID: 21196655
Old subjects; nutritional status; glutathione; thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances
19.  Nutrition education intervention for dependent patients: protocol of a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:373.
Background
Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions.
The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition.
Methods/Design
Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0–6–12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin.
Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient’s nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters.
Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention.
The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis.
Discussion
The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet, anthropometry and biochemistry in dependent patients at nutritional risk and to assess the effect of a nutritional education intervention. The design with random allocation, inclusion of all patients, validated methods, caregivers’ education and standardization between nurses allows us to obtain valuable information about nutritional status and prevention.
Trial Registration number
Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01360775
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-373
PMCID: PMC3508614  PMID: 22625878
20.  Nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients: Effect on dietary intake and the occupational groups' perspectives of intervention 
Nutrition Journal  2004;3:12.
Background
Many patients do not eat and drink sufficiently during hospitalisation. The clinical consequences of this under nutrition include lassitude, an increased risk of complications and prolonged convalescence. The aim of the study was 1) to introduce intervention targeting nutritional care for medical inpatients, 2) to investigate the effect of this intervention, and 3) to investigate the occupational groups' attitudes towards nutritional intervention and nutritional care in general.
Methods
The design was to determinate the extent to which the protein and energy requirements of medical inpatients were met before and after intervention. Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed by 72-hour weighed food records. A total number of 108 medical patients at four bed sections and occupational groups in the two intervention bed sections, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark participated. The intervention included introduction and implementation of nursing procedures targeting nutritional care during a five-month investigation period using standard food produced at the hospital. The effect of intervention for independent groups of patients were tested by one-way analysis of variance. After the intervention occupational groups were interviewed in focus groups.
Results
Before the intervention hospital food on average met 72% of the patients' protein requirement and 85% of their energy requirement. After intervention hospital food satisfied 85% of the protein and 103% of the energy requirements of 14 patients in one intervention section and 56% of the protein and 76% of the energy requirement of 17 patients in the other intervention section. Hospital food satisfied 61% of the protein and 75% of the energy requirement in a total of 29 controls. From the occupational groups' point of view lack of time, lack of access to food, and lack of knowledge of nutritional care for patients were identified as barriers to better integration of nutritional care into the overall care provision.
Conclusion
There was ample room for improving the extent to which standard hospital food satisfies patients' protein and energy requirements, but implementation of procedures addressing nutritional care were difficult, especially at bed sections with a large staff turnover.
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-12
PMCID: PMC521697  PMID: 15363101
21.  Under-nutrition at baseline and health services utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services 
Objective
Older adults receiving Medicare home health services who experience under-nutrition may be at increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. We sought to identify the association between baseline nutritional status and subsequent health service utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services.
Design
This was a longitudinal study using questionnaires and anthropometric measures designed to assess nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA]) at baseline and health services utilization and mortality status at six-month and one-year follow-ups.
Setting
Participants were evaluated in their homes.
Participants
198 older adults who were receiving Medicare home health services.
Results
Based upon MNA, 12.0% of patients were Malnourished, 51.0% were At Risk for Malnourishment, and 36.9% had Normal Nutrition Status. Based upon body mass index (BMI), 8.1% of participants were underweight, 37.9% were normal weight, 25.3% were overweight, and 28.8% were obese. Using multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, participants who were Malnourished or At Risk for Malnourishment were more likely to experience subsequent hospitalization, emergency room visit, home health aide use, and mortality for the entire sample and hospitalization and nursing home stay for overweight and obese participants.
Conclusions
Experiencing under-nutrition at the time of receipt of Medicare home health services was associated with increased health services utilization and mortality for the entire sample, and with increased health services utilization only for the overweight and obese subsample. Opportunities exist to address risk of under-nutrition in patients receiving home health services, including those who are overweight or obese, to prevent subsequent adverse health outcomes.
doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2010.08.017
PMCID: PMC3085002  PMID: 21527170
Mini Nutritional Assessment; Medicare home health care; health services utilization; mortality; overweight and obese; older adults
22.  Malnutrition is associated with depression in rural elderly population 
Background:
Aging induces physiological changes and affects all of organs. Nutritional status and mental health deteriorate with aging. As malnutrition and depression are main problem in elderly this study was performed to assess the association between malnutrition and depression among rural elderly.
Materials and Methods:
Three hundred and seventy rural elderly aged over 60 years were examined in a cross-sectional study by systematic sampling method and using mini nutritional assessment (MNA), which is a standard questionnaire for evaluating nutrition status. Depression was evaluated by a validated questionnaire in the elderly. Correlation between Socio-demographic characteristic, diseases, and nutrition status was obtained by t-test, Chi-square test and logistic regression in elderly population.
Results:
Mean ± SD age was 70.6 ± 7.3 years. Frequency of malnutrition was similar in both genders. According to MNA, 3.8% of subjects suffered from malnutrition, 32.7% were at risk of malnutrition and 63.5% were well-nourished. Nutrition status correlated with body mass index (P = 0.028) and depression (P = 0.001). The risk of severe depression in patients with malnutrition was 15.5 times higher than non-depressed persons (odd ratio: 15.5; 95% CI: 2.9-82.5).
Conclusion:
Depression could act as a powerful risk for malnutrition in elderly population that it should be controlled by physicians.
PMCID: PMC3743311  PMID: 23961277
Depression; elderly; malnutrition; mini nutritional assessment
23.  NRS2002 assesses nutritional status of leukemia patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 
Objective
To discuss whether nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002) is appropriate for nutritional risk screening for leukemia patients before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and whether there are risk differences in other conditions, such as age, gender and matching degree; to find the methods and indicators of nutritional risk screening for these patients before and after HSCT, in order to give timely intervention to guarantee the successful completion of the entire transplantation process.
Methods
Nutritional risk of 99 leukemia patients was screened with NRS2002 before and after HSCT. The χ2 test was applied to compare the risk differences between groups such as age, gender and matching degree, while the differences of other enumeration data, such as recent (1-3 months) weight loss, reduced food intake within one week and BMI, were compared by continuity correction.
Results
Of the 99 leukemia patients, 22 cases (22.2%) had nutritional risk before HSCT, while all patients had nutritional risk after HSCT; there is no significant difference in nutritional risk between male and female, and patients of less than 30 years old, not-full matched, recent (1-3 months) weight loss, reduced food intake within a week or BMI <18.5 were more likely to have nutritional risk; and 77 cases (77.8%) had weight loss, among which 49 patients (63.6%) had more than 5% weight loss within one month.
Conclusions
This study showed that leukemia patients should receive the nutritional risk screening conventionally before and after HSCT, and NRS2002 was only appropriate for nutritional risk screening before HSCT. More attention should be paid to the patients less than 30 years old or not-full matched. Weight change was one of the important nutritional indicators for patients after HSCT.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2012.09.01
PMCID: PMC3551317  PMID: 23359777
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; leukemia; nutrition; nutrition screening
24.  Nutritional care of medical inpatients: a health technology assessment 
Background
The inspiration for the present assessment of the nutritional care of medical patients is puzzlement about the divide that exists between the theoretical knowledge about the importance of the diet for ill persons, and the common failure to incorporate nutritional aspects in the treatment and care of the patients. The purpose is to clarify existing problems in the nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients, to elucidate how the nutritional care for these inpatients can be improved, and to analyse the costs of this improvement.
Methods
Qualitative and quantitative methods are deployed to outline how nutritional care of medical inpatients is performed at three Danish hospitals. The practices observed are compared with official recommendations for nutritional care of inpatients. Factors extraneous and counterproductive to optimal nutritional care are identified from the perspectives of patients and professional staff. A review of the literature illustrates the potential for optimal nutritional care. A health economic analysis is performed to elucidate the savings potential of improved nutritional care.
Results
The prospects for improvements in nutritional care are ameliorated if hospital management clearly identifies nutritional care as a priority area, and enjoys access to management tools for quality assurance. The prospects are also improved if a committed professional at the ward has the necessary time resources to perform nutritional care in practice, and if the care staff can requisition patient meals rich in nutrients 24 hours a day. At the kitchen production level prospects benefit from a facilitator contact between care and kitchen staff, and if the kitchen staff controls the whole food path from the kitchen to the patient. At the patient level, prospects are improved if patients receive information about the choice of food and drink, and have a better nutrition dialogue with the care staff. Better nutritional care of medical patients in Denmark is estimated to hold a cost savings potential reaching approximately USD 22 million.
Conclusion
Every hospital and every bed ward has its strengths and weaknesses, but none of the participating bed wards fully satisfy nutritional care success criteria. All organisational levels have a significant potential for improvements of nutritional care of medical inpatients.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-7
PMCID: PMC1420282  PMID: 16457707
25.  The nutritional risk in oncology: a study of 1,453 cancer outpatients 
Supportive Care in Cancer  2012;20(8):1919-1928.
Purpose
There is little information about the nutritional status of cancer outpatients because the practice of nutritional screening is rarely performed. This study aims to define the pattern of scores of nutritional risk in 1,453 outpatients and factors associated with a high nutrition risk score, to facilitate the identification of such patients by the oncologists.
Methods
We prospectively screened the nutritional status of cancer outpatients according to the NRS-2002 score which combines indicators of malnutrition and of severity of the disease (1–3 points, respectively). A score ≥3 indicates “nutritional risk”. The association of the nutritional scores with some patient/tumour/therapy-related variables was investigated through univariable and multivariable linear regression models.
Results
Thirty-two percent of outpatients were at nutritional risk. Primary tumour site, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score and presence of anorexia or fatigue were significantly associated with the nutrition risk score. Depending on the combination of these variables, it was possible to estimate different probabilities of nutritional risk.
Conclusions
The frequency of a relevant nutritional risk was higher than expected considering the favourably selected population. The nutritional risk was associated with common clinical variables which are usually recorded in the charts and could easily alert the oncologist on the need of a further nutritional assessment or a nutritional support.
doi:10.1007/s00520-012-1387-x
PMCID: PMC3390688  PMID: 22314972
Nutritional screening; Nutritional risk; Nutritional assessment; Nutritional status; Cancer outpatients

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