Background and objective
The newly developed Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form – Version II (MEONF-II) has shown promising sensitivity and specificity in relation to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). However, the suggested MEONF-II cut-off scores for deciding low/moderate and high risk for undernutrition (UN) (>2 and >4, respectively) have not been decided based on statistical criteria but on clinical reasoning. The objective of this study was to identify the optimal cut-off scores for the MEONF-II in relation to the well-established MNA based on statistical criteria.
The study included 187 patients (mean age, 77.5 years) assessed for nutritional status with the MNA (full version), and screened with the MEONF-II. The MEONF-II includes assessments of involuntary weight loss, Body Mass Index (BMI) (or calf circumference), eating difficulties, and presence of clinical signs ofUN. MEONF-II data were analysed by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC); optimal cut-offs were identified by the Youden index (J=sensitivity+specificity–1).
According to the MEONF-II, 41% were at moderate or high UN risk and according to the MNA, 50% were at risk or already undernourished. The suggested cut-off scores were supported by the Youden indices. The lower cut-off for MEONF-II, used to identify any level of risk for UN (>2; J=0.52) gave an overall accuracy of 76% and the AUC was 80%. The higher cut-off for identifying those with high risk for UN (>4; J=0.33) had an accuracy of 63% and the AUC was 70%.
The suggested MEONF-II cut-off scores were statistically supported. This improves the confidence of its clinical use.
cut-off scores; MEOF; MNA; MEONF; nutritional screening; ROC-curve
To analyze the criterion-related validity and user-friendliness of the Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form – Version II (MEONF – II) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in relation to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). In addition, the effect of substituting body mass index (BMI) with calf circumference (CC) was explored for the MEONF-II.
The study included 100 patients who were assessed for nutritional status with the MNA (full version), considered here to be the gold standard, and screened with the MUST and the MEONF-II. The MEONF-II includes assessments of involuntary weight loss, BMI (or calf circumference), eating difficulties, and presence of clinical signs of undernutrition.
The MEONF-II sensitivity (0.73) and specificity (0.88) were acceptable. Sensitivity and specificity for the MUST were 0.57 and 0.93, respectively. Replacing the BMI with CC in the MEONF-II gave similar results (sensitivity 0.68, specificity 0.90). Assessors considered MEONF-II instructions and items to be relevant, easy to understand and complete (100%), and the questions to be relevant (98%). MEONF-II and MUST took 8.8 and 4.7 minutes to complete, respectively, and both were considered relevant and easy to finish. In addition, MEONF-II was thought to reveal problems that allows for nursing interventions.
The MEONF-II is an easy to use, relatively quick, and sensitive screening tool to assess risk of undernutrition among hospital inpatients, which allows for substituting BMI with CC in situations where measures of patient height and weight cannot be easily obtained. High sensitivity is of primary concern in nutritional screening and the MEONF-II outperforms the MUST in this regard.
undernutrition; screening; criterion-related validity; acceptability; MEOF; MNA; MUST; MEONF
This study assessed the nutritional status of elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients using a revised version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA®) tool.
Patients and methods:
The revised version of the MNA tool was used to assess the nutritional status of 180 elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients prior to their scheduled surgery between June 2010 and July 2011. Patients’ demographic data, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical markers were collected and analyzed.
Among the 180 inpatients who underwent the MNA, 9% were malnourished (MNA score < 19), 33% were at risk of malnutrition (MNA score 19–23), and 58% were well nourished (MNA score ≥ 24). There was significant correlation between the MNA scores of patients who were malnourished, at risk of malnutrition, and well nourished (P < 0.001), as well as between total MNA score and most MNA questions. The three patient groups with different nutritional statuses differed significantly in their responses to anthropometrics and global, diet, and subjective assessments.
Incidence rates of malnutrition prior to surgery are high among elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients. The revised MNA is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to assess and prevent malnutrition among these inpatients.
malnutrition; MNA-SF; nutrition; inpatients; diet
Undernutrition among older people is a continuing source of concern, particularly among acutely hospitalized patients. The purpose of the current study is to compare malnourished elderly patients with those at nutritional risk and identify factors contributing to the variability between the groups.
The study was carried out at the Soroka University Medical Center in the south of Israel. From September 2003 through December 2004, all patients 65 years-of-age or older admitted to any of the internal medicine departments, were screened within 72 hours of admission to determine nutritional status using the short version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). Patients at nutritional risk were entered the study and were divided into malnourished or 'at risk' based on the full version of the MNA. Data regarding medical, nutritional, functional, and emotional status were obtained by trained interviewers.
Two hundred fifty-nine elderly patients, 43.6% men, participated in the study; 18.5% were identified as malnourished and 81.5% were at risk for malnutrition according to the MNA. The malnourished group was less educated, had a higher depression score and lower cognitive and physical functioning. Higher prevalence of chewing problems, nausea, and vomiting was detected among malnourished patients. There was no difference between the groups in health status indicators except for subjective health evaluation which was poorer among the malnourished group. Lower dietary score indicating lower intake of vegetables fruits and fluid, poor appetite and difficulties in eating distinguished between malnourished and at-risk populations with the highest sensitivity and specificity as compare with the anthropometric, global, and self-assessment of nutritional status parts of the MNA. In a multivariate analysis, lower cognitive function, education <12 years and chewing problems were all risk factors for malnutrition.
Our study indicates that low food consumption as well as poor appetite and chewing problems are associated with the development of malnutrition. Given the critical importance of nutritional status in the hospitalized elderly, further intervention trials are required to determine the best intervention strategies to overcome these problems.
It is important to obtain knowledge about the prevalence of nutritional risk and associated factors among older home-dwelling people in order to be able to meet nutritional challenges in this group in the future and to plan appropriate interventions. The aim of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of home-dwelling older people at nutritional risk and to identify associated factors using two different nutritional screening instruments as self-report instruments.
This study had a cross-sectional design. A postal questionnaire, including the Norwegian versions of the Nutritional Form for the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) and Mini Nutritional Assessment – Short Form (MNA-SF), background variables, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 6033 home-dwelling older people in southern Norway. A total of 2106 (34.9%) subjects were included in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses.
When using the NUFFE-NO and MNA-SF, 426 (22.3%) and 258 (13.5%) older persons, respectively, were identified to be at nutritional risk. The risk of undernutrition increased with age. Several predictors for being at risk of undernutrition, including chronic disease/handicap and receiving family help, as well as protective factors, including sufficient food intake and having social contacts, were identified.
Health professionals must be aware of older people’s vulnerability to risk of undernutrition, perform screening, and have a plan for preventing under-nutrition. For that purpose, MNA-SF and NUFFE-NO can be suggested for screening older people living at home.
aged; risk factors; undernutrition; screening
The nutritional status of the aging individual results from a complex interaction between personal and environmental factors. A disease influences and is influenced by the nutritional status and the functional capacity of the individual. We asses the relationship between nutritional status and indicators of functional capacity among recently hospitalized elderly in a general hospital.
A cross-sectional study was done with 240 elderly (women, n = 127 and men, n = 113) hospitalized in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. The nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition (adequate). The functional autonomy indicators were obtained by the self-reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) and Activity of Daily Living (ADL) questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to compare the proportions and the level of significance was 5%.
Among the assessed elderly, 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. All the IADL and ADL variables assessed were significantly more deteriorated among the malnourished individuals. Among the ADL variables, eating partial (42.9%) or complete (12.9%) dependence was found in more than half of the malnourished elderly, in 13.4% of those at risk of malnutrition and in 2.5% of those without malnutrition.
There is an interrelationship between the nutritional status of the elderly and reduced functional capacity.
Nutritional screening instruments need to be evaluated in terms of reliability and validity and being able to demonstrate sensitivity and specificity for use in clinical practice and research. The aims of this study were to test the reliability and validity of the Norwegian version of the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) in a sample of older home-dwelling people, and to use the short form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF) as a standard.
A postal questionnaire, including the two instruments, background variables, and health-related questions, was sent to 6033 home-dwelling older people (65+ years) in southern Norway. In total, 2106 persons responded and were included. Data were analyzed statistically regarding homogeneity, concurrent and construct validity, sensitivity, and specificity of NUFFE-NO.
A Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.71 and significant item-to-total correlations were obtained as measures of homogeneity. Concurrent validity was assessed by a correlation coefficient of −0.37 (P < 0.001) between NUFFE-NO and MNA-SF. NUFFE-NO could separate known nutritional at-risk groups as a measure of construct validity. A cut-off point of ≥4 for identification of older people at nutritional risk was found for NUFFE-NO with MNA-SF as a standard.
NUFFE-NO shows adequate psychometric properties regarding homogeneity and construct validity. MNA-SF was not found to be the most suitable standard to use, because a low correlation coefficient was obtained as a measure of concurrent validity and a lower cut-off point was found compared with another study using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®) as a standard for NUFFE-NO. The obtained cut-off point of ≥4 is not recommended for use in practice or research, because many false positive nutritional at-risk persons would then be identified. Further studies with suitable design have to be performed among older home-dwelling people using the MNA as a standard.
nutritional screening instrument; reliability; sensitivity; specificity; validity
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in elderly patients in institutions has become an issue of clinical concern, but it remains largely unrecognized in acute care hospitals. The demonstrated benefits of intervention emphasize the need for routine nutritional assessment. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in elderly patients admitted to a tertiary care centre and to test the sensitivity and specificity of 3 nutrition screening tools. METHODS: Between July and November 1996 patients 65 years and older were consecutively recruited from the general medicine, orthopedics, general surgery and neurosciences services of The Ottawa Hospital--General Campus within 72 hours of admission. They were interviewed using 3 nutritional screening tools: one developed by Chandra and colleagues (Chandra), the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). A detailed nutrition assessment was then undertaken, which included anthropometric assessment, laboratory tests, determination of risk factors and assessment of dietary intake. A dietitian blinded to the screening results classified each patient as being well nourished, at risk for malnutrition or malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition was assessed, and screening results were compared with the results of the detailed nutrition assessment for sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: In total, 160 patients (86 women) were recruited. Detailed nutrition assessments were completed for 152 patients, of which 62 (40.8%) were found to be well nourished, 67 (44.1%) at moderate risk for malnutrition and 23 (15.1%) malnourished. Matched comparisons showed that, of the 23 malnourished patients, 1 was found to be at high risk for malnutrition using the Chandra screening tool, 9 using the NSI and 4 using the MNA, giving sensitivities of 32%, 54% and 57%, and specificities of 85%, 61% and 69%, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Given the high rate of malnutrition or risk of malnutrition in this study, admitting physicians need to be aware of this problem and its scope. The 3 screening tools tested performed poorly in comparison with the detailed nutrition assessment. This may have been because the score thresholds for the screening tools were set for screening purposes and because the screening tools were designed for different settings and a wider population.
Malnutrition is present in 20–50% of hospitalized patients, and nutritional care is a challenge. The aim was to evaluate whether the implementation of a nutritional strategy would influence nutritional care performance in a university hospital.
This was a prospective quality improvement program implementing guidelines for nutritional care, with the aim of improving nutritional practice. The Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 was used. Point prevalence surveys over 2 years to determine whether nutritional practice had improved.
In total, 3604 (70%) of 5183 eligible patients were screened and 1230 (34%) were at nutritional risk. Only 53% of the at-risk patients got nutritional treatment and 5% were seen by a dietician. The proportion of patients screened increased from the first to the eighth point prevalence survey (P=0.012), but not the proportion of patients treated (P=0.66). The four initial screening questions in NRS 2002 identified 92% of the patients not at nutritional risk.
Implementation of nutritional guidelines improved the screening performance, but did not increase the proportion of patients who received nutritional treatment. Point prevalence surveys were useful to evaluate nutritional practice in this university hospital. In order to improve practice, we suggest using only the four initial screening questions in NRS 2002 to identify patients not at risk, better education in nutritional care for physicians and nurses, and more dieticians employed. Audit of implementation of guidelines, performed by health authorities, and specific reimbursement for managing nutrition may also improve practice.
nutrition guidelines; point prevalence survey; prevalence; nutritional risk screening; hospitals; quality indicator
Malnutrition is a negative predictive factor for survival in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Coincidence of malnutrition, inflammation and atherosclerosis (MIA syndrome) in the dialysis population is an exceptionally poor outcome event. Due to flexibility, ease of performance and reproducibility, clinical scales are of particular value in assessment of nutritional status in ESRD patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
Material and methods
Nutritional status was assessed in 41 peritoneal dialysis patients by means of the MNA scale and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS). Some other clinical and laboratory parameters associated with nutritional status were analyzed. Patients were followed up for 30 months.
In the analyzed group of patients a good nutritional state was diagnosed in 22 patients (54%), risk of malnutrition in 17 (41%) and malnutrition in 2 patients (5%) based on the MNA scale. A strong correlation between MNA based nutritional status and MIS was found (r = –0.85, p < 0.01, ANOVA, p < 0.01). Differences in time on dialysis, body mass index, concentration of albumin, cholesterol and triglycerides were noted between at risk/malnourished and well-nourished (according to MNA) patients. Statistically significant factors determining survival of patients by Cox proportional hazard analysis were age (HR 1.07), being at risk/malnourished according to MNA (HR 5.7), MIS (HR 1.2), and albumin (HR 0.13).
The MNA scale is a valuable, clinically suitable tool for assessment of nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis patients. Risk of malnutrition and malnutrition diagnosed by MNA identifies patients at high mortality risk.
malnutrition; peritoneal dialysis; mortality; Mini Nutritional Assessment
To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the subjective assessments of nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA] and scored patient-generated subjective global assessment [PG-SGA]), compared with the objective (hematological, biochemical, and anthropometric) assessments, and to identify the correlation between the MNA and the scored PG-SGA in elderly patients with stroke.
Thirty-five stroke patients, aged 60 to 89 years old, participated in our study. The MNA, the scored PG-SGA and objective factors were evaluated. The objective malnutrition state was defined based on laboratory outcomes. According to the MNA and the scored PG-SGA classifications, total patients were respectively divided into three groups; well-nourished (W), at risk of malnutrition (R), and malnourished (M), and into four groups; normally nourished (A), suspected or mildly malnourished (B), moderately malnourished (C), and severely malnourished (D).
Mean age and body mass index of subjects were 70.6 years and 22.2 kg/m2, respectively. Twenty-six (74.3%) patients were identified to be at an objectively malnourished state. In MNA, 3 (8.6%) patients were classified as group W, 13 (37.1%) as R, and 19 (54.3%) as M. Total MNA scores and three categorization had mild correlation with objective grouping (r=0.383, r=0.350, p<0.05, respectively). Restructuring into two groups by combining group R and M made strong correlation (r=0.520, p<0.01). On the basis of scored PG-SGA, 6 (17.1%) patients were sorted as group A, 10 (28.6%) as B, 15 (42.9%) as C, and 4 (11.4%) as D, respectively. Total scores and the grouping into four indicated meaningful correlation with the objective distinction (r=-0.403, p<0.05, r=0.449, p<0.01, respectively). There was a significant correlation between the MNA scores and the PG-SGA scores (r=-0.651, p<0.01).
It is proposed that the MNA and the scored PG-SGA would be useful in screening malnourished elderly patients with stroke.
Stroke; Geriatrics; Malnutrition; Nutritional assessment
Malnutrition in elderly patients is common in hospitals, and many of the age associated chronic diseases have a common factor, which is oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status, glutathione, and oxidant status of elderly patients.
Patients and Methods:
The mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) was used to determine the nutritional status of elderly patients. Glutathione concentration in the whole blood, plasma albumin, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels was measured spectrophotometrically by the enzymatic recycling method. In addition, length of hospital stay was estimated. All measurements were taken within 48 h after admission.
The results showed that more than two-thirds of the elderly were classified as at risk of malnutrition and malnourished. About 45% and 53% elevation in the TBARS was found in at risk of being malnourished and in the malnourished groups, respectively, compared to the well-nourished group, but the elevation did not reach the significant level. No significant differences in the glutathione concentration and in the length of hospital stay were found among the three mini-nutritional assessment categories.
The study indicated the necessity of performing the MNA test for elderly upon admission to hospitals, and more attention needs to be paid to this vulnerable group of people.
Old subjects; nutritional status; glutathione; thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances
AIM: To review the application of nutrition support in patients after surgery for colorectal cancer, and to propose appropriate nutrition strategies.
METHODS: A total of 202 consecutive surgical patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of colon cancer or rectal cancer from January 2010 to July 2010, meeting the requirements of Nutrition Risk Screening 2002, were enrolled in our study. Laboratory tests were performed to analyze the nutrition status of each patient, and the clinical outcome variables, including postoperative complications, hospital stay, cost of hospitalization and postoperative outcome, were analyzed.
RESULTS: The “non-risk” patients who did not receive postoperative nutrition support had a higher rate of postoperative complications than patients who received postoperative nutrition support (2.40 ± 1.51 vs 1.23 ± 0.60, P = 0.000), and had a longer postoperative hospital stay (23.00 ± 15.84 d vs 15.27 ± 5.89 d, P = 0.009). There was higher cost of hospitalization for patients who received preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) than for patients who did not receive preoperative TPN (62 713.50 ± 5070.66 RMB Yuan vs 43178.00 ± 3596.68 RMB Yuan, P = 0.014). Applying postoperative enteral nutrition significantly shortened postoperative fasting time (5.16 ± 1.21 d vs 6.40 ± 1.84 d, P = 0.001) and postoperative hospital stay (11.92 ± 4.34 d vs 15.77 ± 6.03 d, P = 0.002). The patients who received postoperative TPN for no less than 7 d had increased serum glucose levels (7.59 ± 3.57 mmol/L vs 6.48 ± 1.32 mmol/L, P = 0.006) and cost of hospitalization (47 724.14 ± 16 945.17 Yuan vs 38 598.73 ± 8349.79 Yuan, P = 0.000). The patients who received postoperative omega-3 fatty acids had a higher rate of postoperative complications than the patients who did not (1.33 ± 0.64 vs 1.13 ± 0.49, P = 0.041). High level of serum glucose was associated with a high risk of postoperative complications of infection.
CONCLUSION: Appropriate and moderate nutritional intervention can improve the postoperative outcome of colorectal cancer patients.
Nutritional support; Nutrition assessment; Colorectal cancer; Surgery; Prognosis
Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions.
The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition.
Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0–6–12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin.
Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient’s nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters.
Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention.
The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis.
The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet, anthropometry and biochemistry in dependent patients at nutritional risk and to assess the effect of a nutritional education intervention. The design with random allocation, inclusion of all patients, validated methods, caregivers’ education and standardization between nurses allows us to obtain valuable information about nutritional status and prevention.
Trial Registration number
Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01360775
Older adults receiving Medicare home health services who experience under-nutrition may be at increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. We sought to identify the association between baseline nutritional status and subsequent health service utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services.
This was a longitudinal study using questionnaires and anthropometric measures designed to assess nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA]) at baseline and health services utilization and mortality status at six-month and one-year follow-ups.
Participants were evaluated in their homes.
198 older adults who were receiving Medicare home health services.
Based upon MNA, 12.0% of patients were Malnourished, 51.0% were At Risk for Malnourishment, and 36.9% had Normal Nutrition Status. Based upon body mass index (BMI), 8.1% of participants were underweight, 37.9% were normal weight, 25.3% were overweight, and 28.8% were obese. Using multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, participants who were Malnourished or At Risk for Malnourishment were more likely to experience subsequent hospitalization, emergency room visit, home health aide use, and mortality for the entire sample and hospitalization and nursing home stay for overweight and obese participants.
Experiencing under-nutrition at the time of receipt of Medicare home health services was associated with increased health services utilization and mortality for the entire sample, and with increased health services utilization only for the overweight and obese subsample. Opportunities exist to address risk of under-nutrition in patients receiving home health services, including those who are overweight or obese, to prevent subsequent adverse health outcomes.
Mini Nutritional Assessment; Medicare home health care; health services utilization; mortality; overweight and obese; older adults
Aging induces physiological changes and affects all of organs. Nutritional status and mental health deteriorate with aging. As malnutrition and depression are main problem in elderly this study was performed to assess the association between malnutrition and depression among rural elderly.
Materials and Methods:
Three hundred and seventy rural elderly aged over 60 years were examined in a cross-sectional study by systematic sampling method and using mini nutritional assessment (MNA), which is a standard questionnaire for evaluating nutrition status. Depression was evaluated by a validated questionnaire in the elderly. Correlation between Socio-demographic characteristic, diseases, and nutrition status was obtained by t-test, Chi-square test and logistic regression in elderly population.
Mean ± SD age was 70.6 ± 7.3 years. Frequency of malnutrition was similar in both genders. According to MNA, 3.8% of subjects suffered from malnutrition, 32.7% were at risk of malnutrition and 63.5% were well-nourished. Nutrition status correlated with body mass index (P = 0.028) and depression (P = 0.001). The risk of severe depression in patients with malnutrition was 15.5 times higher than non-depressed persons (odd ratio: 15.5; 95% CI: 2.9-82.5).
Depression could act as a powerful risk for malnutrition in elderly population that it should be controlled by physicians.
Depression; elderly; malnutrition; mini nutritional assessment
Many patients do not eat and drink sufficiently during hospitalisation. The clinical consequences of this under nutrition include lassitude, an increased risk of complications and prolonged convalescence. The aim of the study was 1) to introduce intervention targeting nutritional care for medical inpatients, 2) to investigate the effect of this intervention, and 3) to investigate the occupational groups' attitudes towards nutritional intervention and nutritional care in general.
The design was to determinate the extent to which the protein and energy requirements of medical inpatients were met before and after intervention. Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed by 72-hour weighed food records. A total number of 108 medical patients at four bed sections and occupational groups in the two intervention bed sections, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark participated. The intervention included introduction and implementation of nursing procedures targeting nutritional care during a five-month investigation period using standard food produced at the hospital. The effect of intervention for independent groups of patients were tested by one-way analysis of variance. After the intervention occupational groups were interviewed in focus groups.
Before the intervention hospital food on average met 72% of the patients' protein requirement and 85% of their energy requirement. After intervention hospital food satisfied 85% of the protein and 103% of the energy requirements of 14 patients in one intervention section and 56% of the protein and 76% of the energy requirement of 17 patients in the other intervention section. Hospital food satisfied 61% of the protein and 75% of the energy requirement in a total of 29 controls. From the occupational groups' point of view lack of time, lack of access to food, and lack of knowledge of nutritional care for patients were identified as barriers to better integration of nutritional care into the overall care provision.
There was ample room for improving the extent to which standard hospital food satisfies patients' protein and energy requirements, but implementation of procedures addressing nutritional care were difficult, especially at bed sections with a large staff turnover.
Declines in cognition and mobility are frequently observed in the elderly, and it has been suggested that the appearance of gait disorders in older individuals may constitute a marker of cognitive decline that precedes significant findings in functional performance screening tests. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between functional capacities and gait and balance in an elderly community monitored by the Preventive and Integrated Care Unit of the Hospital Adventista Silvestre in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Elderly individuals (193 females and 90 males) were submitted to a broad geriatric evaluation, which included the following tests: 1) a performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA) to evaluate gait; 2) a mini-mental state examination (MMSE); 3) the use of Katz and Lawton scales to assess functional capacity; 4) the application of the geriatric depression scale (GDS); and 5) a mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) scale.
Reductions in MMSE, Katz and Lawton scores were associated with reductions in POMA scores, and we also observed that significant reductions in POMA scores were present in persons for whom the MMSE and Katz scores did not clearly indicate cognitive dysfunction. We also demonstrated that a decline in the scores obtained with the GDS and MNA scales was associated with a decline in the POMA scores.
Considering that significant alterations in the POMA scores were observed prior to the identification of significant alterations in cognitive capacity using either the MMSE or the Katz systems, a prospective study seems warranted to assess the predictive capacity of POMA scores regarding the associated decline in functional capacity.
Aging; Cognition disorders; Dementia; Locomotion; Postural balance
To discuss whether nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002) is appropriate for nutritional risk screening for leukemia patients before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and whether there are risk differences in other conditions, such as age, gender and matching degree; to find the methods and indicators of nutritional risk screening for these patients before and after HSCT, in order to give timely intervention to guarantee the successful completion of the entire transplantation process.
Nutritional risk of 99 leukemia patients was screened with NRS2002 before and after HSCT. The χ2 test was applied to compare the risk differences between groups such as age, gender and matching degree, while the differences of other enumeration data, such as recent (1-3 months) weight loss, reduced food intake within one week and BMI, were compared by continuity correction.
Of the 99 leukemia patients, 22 cases (22.2%) had nutritional risk before HSCT, while all patients had nutritional risk after HSCT; there is no significant difference in nutritional risk between male and female, and patients of less than 30 years old, not-full matched, recent (1-3 months) weight loss, reduced food intake within a week or BMI <18.5 were more likely to have nutritional risk; and 77 cases (77.8%) had weight loss, among which 49 patients (63.6%) had more than 5% weight loss within one month.
This study showed that leukemia patients should receive the nutritional risk screening conventionally before and after HSCT, and NRS2002 was only appropriate for nutritional risk screening before HSCT. More attention should be paid to the patients less than 30 years old or not-full matched. Weight change was one of the important nutritional indicators for patients after HSCT.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; leukemia; nutrition; nutrition screening
There is little information about the nutritional status of cancer outpatients because the practice of nutritional screening is rarely performed. This study aims to define the pattern of scores of nutritional risk in 1,453 outpatients and factors associated with a high nutrition risk score, to facilitate the identification of such patients by the oncologists.
We prospectively screened the nutritional status of cancer outpatients according to the NRS-2002 score which combines indicators of malnutrition and of severity of the disease (1–3 points, respectively). A score ≥3 indicates “nutritional risk”. The association of the nutritional scores with some patient/tumour/therapy-related variables was investigated through univariable and multivariable linear regression models.
Thirty-two percent of outpatients were at nutritional risk. Primary tumour site, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score and presence of anorexia or fatigue were significantly associated with the nutrition risk score. Depending on the combination of these variables, it was possible to estimate different probabilities of nutritional risk.
The frequency of a relevant nutritional risk was higher than expected considering the favourably selected population. The nutritional risk was associated with common clinical variables which are usually recorded in the charts and could easily alert the oncologist on the need of a further nutritional assessment or a nutritional support.
Nutritional screening; Nutritional risk; Nutritional assessment; Nutritional status; Cancer outpatients
In a previous study we evaluated the risk for malnutrition among urological patients in a German university hospital. There are published different studies in other surgical fields that could show a correlation between malnutrition and clinical outcome. As data on this issue is still rare in the urological field we aimed to correlate the risk of malnutrition with different parameters regarding clinical outcome.
In the time from 2007 to 2009 a total of 320 patients were evaluated regarding the risk of malnutrition and occurrence of complications during the time of hospitalization at our Urological department. The Nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS) by Kondrup et al. was used for the estimation of the risk level for malnutrition. Patients of a German university hospital were included independently of intervention, age or gender. Parameters for clinical outcome were: pulmonary complications (infectious/noninfectious), cardiovascular complications (infectious/noninfectious), other infections (urinary tract infection etc.), wound healing disorders and time of hospitalization.
In this evaluation 320 patients were included for analysis. Forty patients (13%) presented with a normal nutritional status (NRS score 0) at the time of admission to the hospital and 212 patients (66%) were at risk for forming malnutrition problems (NRS score 1-2). sixty eight patients (21%) of this urological cohort were detected with a malnutrition according to the applied NRS score (≥3). Regarding the occurrence of overall complications in this cohort the rate was rather low compared to other surgical fields. Of 320 patients only 22 patients (7%) presented with relevant complications during their hospitalization. However if data were stratified for peri- and postoperative complications in correlation to nutritional status of patients, an evident trend to a higher complication rate of 9% was obvious.
In our cohort of exclusively urological patients, the risk for post-surgical complications was higher in patients who were malnourished as defined using the Nutritional Risc Screening System (NRS) by Kondrup et al. Further studies need to show whether an adequate nutritional supportive therapy could help to optimize the clinical outcome of malnourished urological patients.
Malnutrition; Urology; Outcome; observational study
To estimate the effectiveness of an inpatient, hospital-based cervical cancer screening program at a single institution.
Between January 1999 and December 2002, 1,117 women admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital underwent Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening during their hospital stay. In that time period, 111,933 women were screened at all of the combined Hopkins outpatient clinics. We compared rates of abnormal Pap tests in these cohorts (retrospective cohort study). Our main outcome measure was the prevalence of abnormal Pap tests among the screening population by age group, ethnicity, and insurance status compared between our outpatient and inpatient populations.
The prevalence of abnormal Pap tests in the inpatient cohort was twice as high as that in the outpatient setting (15.5% versus 7%). The prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), the immediate precursor lesion to cervical cancer, was nearly 5-fold higher in the inpatient cohort compared with the outpatient cohort (3% versus 0.7%). In multivariable models, younger women had greater risk for all types of abnormal Pap tests, and black women had greater risk for HSIL. Previous abnormal Pap and human immunodeficiency virus-positive status were associated with all abnormal tests and with HSIL results.
A hospital-based, inpatient Pap test program is an efficient strategy for targeting limited screening funds toward women at high risk of invasive cervical cancer. (Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:310–6.
Vitamin deficiency is a cause of health related problems in elderly people. The aims were to study associations between vitamin B6 (B6) and diseases (primarily functional gastrointestinal disorders) in elderly people in nursing homes, the prevalence of B6 deficiency and factors associated with B6 deficiency.
This cross-sectional study included residents in nursing homes. Demographics, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA® ), physical activity, activity of daily living (Katz Index), dietary habits, use of drugs, and psychiatric and somatic diseases were recorded. A blood sample was collected for haematological and biochemical screening, including B6 (p-PLP); p-PLP values < 20 nmol/l indicates B6 deficiency. The results are given as mean (SD).
Sixty-one residents (men/women: 22/39) with an age of 85.3 (6.8) years and BMI 25.7 (4.5) kg/m2 were included. Malnutrition and risk of malnutrition were present in 11.5% and 61% respectively. Dietary intake of B6 (mg/day) in men and women were 1.60 (0.30) and 1.18 (0.31) (recommended 1.6 and 1.2 respectively), and 14 (23%) used B6 supplements. Median p-PLP was 20.7 (range <4.0-175.8), 30 subjects (49%) had B6 deficiency. B6 deficiency was associated with old age, low s-alanine aminotransferase and s-albumin, elevated s-homocysteine and inactivity (p-values 0.01-0.03). There were no clinically significant associations between B6 deficiency and somatic or psychiatric disorders, and B6 deficiency was not observed in subjects given B6 supplements.
Half of the residents had vitamin B6 deficiency. Vitamin supplement was effective prophylaxis for deficiency and should be recommended to all elderly people in nursing homes.
To determine the prevalence of malnutrition and depression in free-living elderly people and their relationships (If any) in Razavi Khorasan, Iran 2007.
To evaluate nutritional status, we used Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) method in free-living elderly people (n=1565 using cluster sampling, 720 males and 845 females, aged≥ 60 yr) and their relationship to Socio Economic Conditions (SECs). Based on the final scores, our patients were classified into three groups: score 17–23.5 (at risk for malnutrition), score less than 17 (with malnutrition), and score 24–30 (well nourished). To determine the mood status (here depression), we used Geriatric Depression Score (GDS). According to this score our participants turned out to be in two distinct groups: depressed (score ≥8) and non-depressed (score < 8).
From the total subjects entered the study (1495), 22.07% were depressed and 11.5% and 44% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition respectively. In depressed group, the prevalence of malnutrition was 14.5% (48 out of 330) and the prevalence of “at risk of malnutrition” was 45.8%, whereas the prevalence of malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition in non-depressed population were 10.6% and 43.3% respectively. From the aforementioned information we have concluded that there is a significant statistical difference between the prevalence of malnutrition in depressed and non-depressed individuals (P= 0.047).
With respect to the high rate of vegetative symptoms in elderly depressed individuals, malnutrition would have a higher prevalence in the depressed people.
Depression; Malnutrition; Geriatric depression score (GDS); Mini nutritional assessment (MNA); Iran
Jumping from heights is a readily available and lethal method of suicide. This study examined the effectiveness of a minimal structural intervention in preventing suicide jumps at a Swiss general teaching hospital. Following a series of suicide jumps out of the hospital’s windows, a metal guard rail was installed at each window of the high-rise building.
In the 114 months prior to the installation of the metal guard rail, 10 suicides by jumping out of the hospital’s windows occurred among 119,269 inpatients. This figure was significantly reduced to 2 fatal incidents among 104,435 inpatients treated during the 78 months immediately following the installation of the rails at the hospital’s windows (χ2 = 4.34, df = 1, p = .037).
Even a minimal structural intervention might prevent suicide jumps in a general hospital. Further work is needed to examine the effectiveness of minimal structural interventions in preventing suicide jumps.