The current research proposes that certain anxiety response styles (specifically, responding to anxiety symptoms with rumination or hopeless cognitions) may increase risk of depressive symptoms, contributing to anxiety-depression comorbidity. We delineate preliminary evidence for this model in three studies. In Study 1, controlling for anxiety response styles significantly reduced the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms in an undergraduate sample. In Study 2, these findings were replicated controlling for conceptually related variables, and anxiety interacted with anxiety response styles to predict greater depressive symptoms. In Study 3, anxiety response styles moderated the prospective association between anxiety and later depression in a generalized anxiety disorder sample. Results support a role for anxiety response styles in anxiety-depression co-occurrence, and show that hopeless/ruminative anxiety response styles can be measured with high reliability and convergent and divergent validity.
Depression; Anxiety; Comorbidity; Anxious rumination; Hopelessness; Response styles
We examined the association of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence on cognitive processes in 102 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed anxiety and depression questionnaires, and measures of episodic and semantic memory, word fluency, processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition. Participants with only increased anxiety had poorer processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition, but depressive symptoms alone were not associated with any cognitive deficits. Although co-existing anxiety and depressive symptoms was associated with deficits in 3 cognitive domains, reductions in inhibition were solely attributed to anxiety. Findings suggest an excess cognitive load on inhibitory ability in normal older adults reporting mild anxiety.
anxiety; depression; cognition; older adults
Background. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a psychological treatment approach that has a growing empirical base. Research has indicated an association between therapist-facilitated affective experience and outcome in psychodynamic therapy. Affect-phobia therapy (APT), as outlined by McCullough et al., is a psychodynamic treatment that emphasizes a strong focus on expression and experience of affect. This model has neither been evaluated for depression nor anxiety disorders in a randomized controlled trial. While Internet-delivered psychodynamic treatments for depression and generalized anxiety disorder exist, they have not been based on APT. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT for depression and anxiety disorders.
Methods. One hundred participants with diagnoses of mood and anxiety disorders participated in a randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled trial of an active group versus a control condition. The treatment group received a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT that was delivered through the Internet. The treatment consisted of eight text-based treatment modules and included therapist contact (9.5 min per client and week, on average) in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group also received online therapist support and clinical monitoring of symptoms, but received no treatment modules. Outcome measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures were also included. All measures were administered weekly during the treatment period and at a 7-month follow-up.
Results. Mixed models analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant interaction effects of group and time on all outcome measures, when comparing treatment to the control group. A large between-group effect size of Cohen’s d = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.37–1.18) was found on the PHQ-9 and a moderately large between-group effect size d = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.08–0.87) was found on the GAD-7. The number of patients who recovered (had no diagnoses of depression and anxiety, and had less than 10 on both the PHQ-9 and the GAD-7) were at post-treatment 52% in the treatment group and 24% in the control group. This difference was significant, χ2(N = 100, d
f = 1) = 8.3, p < .01. From post-treatment to follow-up, treatment gains were maintained on the PHQ-9, and significant improvements were seen on the GAD-7.
Conclusion. This study provides initial support for the efficacy of Internet-delivered psychodynamic therapy based on the affect-phobia model in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The results support the conclusion that psychodynamic treatment approaches may be transferred to the guided self-help format and delivered via the Internet.
Depression; Anxiety; Psychotherapy; Psychodynamic therapy; Internet; Affect; Emotion; Internet-delivered treatments; e-health
Subthreshold depression and anxiety are common in the growing population of visually impaired older adults and increase the risk of full-blown depressive or anxiety disorders. Adequate treatment may prevent the development of depression or anxiety in this high risk group.
A stepped-care programme was developed based on other effective interventions and focus groups with professionals and patient representatives of three low vision rehabilitation organisations in the Netherlands and Belgium. The final programme consists of four steps: 1) watchful waiting, 2) guided self-help, 3) problem solving treatment, 4) referral to general practitioner. The (cost-)effectiveness of this programme is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Patients (N = 230) are randomly assigned to either a treatment group (stepped-care) or a control group (usual care). The primary outcome is the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders, measured with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).
Preventive interventions for depression and anxiety have received little attention in the field of low vision. A stepped-care programme that focuses on both depression and anxiety has never been investigated in visually impaired older adults before. If the intervention is shown to be effective, this study will result in an evidence based treatment programme to prevent depression or anxiety in patients from low vision rehabilitation organisations. The pragmatic design of the study greatly enhances the generalisability of the results. However, a possible limitation is the difficulty to investigate the contribution of each individual step.
Low vision; Stepped-care; Older adults; Depression; Anxiety; Prevention
Anxiety disorders and depression are highly prevalent in children and affect their current and future functioning. 'FRIENDS for Life' is a cognitive-behavioural programme teaching children skills to cope more effectively with feelings of anxiety and depression. Although 'FRIENDS for Life' is increasingly being implemented at Dutch schools, its effectiveness as a preventive intervention in Dutch schools has never been investigated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of 'FRIENDS for Life' as an indicated school-based prevention programme for children with early or mild signs of anxiety or depression.
This study is a controlled trial with one pre-intervention and three post-intervention measurements (directly after, and 6 and 12 months after the end of the programme). The study sample consists of children aged 10-12 years (grades 6, 7 and 8 of Dutch primary schools), who show symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorder. Data are collected through self-report, teacher report and peer nomination. A process evaluation is conducted to investigate programme integrity (whether the programme has been executed according to protocol) and to evaluate children's and parents' opinions about 'FRIENDS for Life' using online focus groups and interviews.
The present study will provide insight into the effectiveness of 'FRIENDS for Life' as an indicated school-based prevention programme for children with early or mild signs of anxiety or depression.
Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2397
Prevention; School-based intervention; Anxiety; Depression; Children; FRIENDS for Life; Cognitive-behavioural therapy
Youth within the juvenile justice system report higher rates of mental illnesses than their peers. This study tested whether institutional confinement increases levels of depression and anxiety among male adolescents. We examined heterogeneous trajectories of depression and anxiety from ages 11 to 14 for 510 male adolescents. Youths who were first placed in custody at age 15 (treatment group) were matched with control boys (no official arrest or reported confinement during adolescence) within each trajectory group using a propensity score matching procedure. Matches were found for 37 pairs for depression and 34 pairs for anxiety. There were no significant differences between the confined and control groups in levels of depression or anxiety at age 16. More research is needed to identify aspects of the juvenile justice system that may positively or negatively affect youth’s mental health status.
Juvenile Justice; Mental Health; Confinement; Adolescents; Residential Placement
Emotional problems such as anxiety and low mood in children are common, impair everyday functioning and increase the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few children with emotional health problems are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate preventive approaches.
The study is designed to be a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an efficacious school-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) prevention program (FRIENDS) on symptoms of anxiety and low mood in children 9 to 10 years of age. The unit of allocation is schools which are assigned to one of three conditions: school-led FRIENDS, health-led FRIENDS or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcome measures assess changes in self-esteem, worries, bullying and life satisfaction. An economic evaluation will be undertaken.
As of September 2011, 41 schools have been recruited and randomized. Final 12-month assessments are scheduled to be completed by May 2013.
Older adults face a number of barriers to receiving psychotherapy, such as a lack of transportation and access to providers. One way to overcome such barriers is to provide treatment by telephone. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy delivered by telephone (CBT-T) to older adults diagnosed with an anxiety disorder.
Randomized controlled trial.
Sixty participants ≥ 60 years of age with a diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, or Anxiety Disorder Not Otherwise Specified.
CBT-T vs. information-only comparison.
Co-primary outcomes included worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire) and general anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory). Secondary outcomes included clinician-rated anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), anxiety sensitivity (Anxiety Sensitivity Index), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), quality of life (SF-36), and sleep (Insomnia Severity Index). Assessments were completed prior to randomization, immediately upon completion of treatment, and 6 months after completing treatment.
CBT-T was superior to information-only in reducing general anxiety (ES = 0.71), worry (ES = 0.61), anxiety sensitivity (ES = 0.85), and insomnia (ES = 0.82) at the post-treatment assessment; however, only the reductions in worry were maintained by the 6 month follow-up assessment (ES = 0.80).
These results suggest that CBT-T may be efficacious in reducing anxiety and worry in older adults, but additional sessions may be needed to maintain these effects.
anxiety; cognitive-behavioral therapy; elderly; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Panic Disorder; telephone-delivered psychotherapy
Research to date indicates that the number of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients affected by depression (i.e., major, minor, dysthymia) approximates between 30% and 40% of all cases. A longstanding empirical interest on psychosocial factors in CABG surgery patients highlights an association with increased risk of morbidity in the short and longer term. Recent evidence suggests that both depression and anxiety increase the risk for mortality and morbidity after CABG surgery independent of medical factors, although the behavioral and biological mechanisms are poorly understood. Though neither depression nor anxiety seem to markedly affect neuropsychological dysfunction, depression confers a risk for incident delirium. Following a comprehensive overview of recent literature, practical advice is described for clinicians taking into consideration possible screening aids to improve recognition of anxiety and depression among CABG surgery patients. An overview of contemporary interventions and randomized, controlled trials are described, along with suggestions for future CABG surgery research.
Depression; Depressive disorder; Coronary artery bypass; Coronary artery disease; Antidepressive agents; Anxiety
There is a well recognized association between depression and diabetes. However, there is little empirical data about the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety among different groups of glucose metabolism in population based samples. The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of increased levels of depression and anxiety is different between patients with type 2 diabetes and subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and normal glucose metabolism (NGM).
Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study of 2667 residents, 1261 men and 1406 women aged 40–65 years from the Hoorn region, the Netherlands. Depressive symptoms and anxiety were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, score ≥16) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A, score ≥8), respectively. Glucose metabolism status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test. In the total study population the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety for the NGM, IGM and type 2 diabetes were 12.5, 12.2 and 21.0% (P = 0.004) and 15.0, 15.3 and 19.9% (p = 0.216), respectively. In men, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 7.7, 9.5 and 19.6% (p<0.001), and in women 16.4, 15.8 and 22.6 (p = 0.318), for participants with NGM, IGM and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Anxiety was not associated with glucose metabolism when stratified for sex. Intergroup differences (NGM vs. IGM and IGM vs. type 2 diabetes) revealed that higher prevalences of depressive symptoms are mainly manifested in participants with type 2 diabetes, and not in participants with IGM.
Depressive symptoms, but not anxiety are associated with glucose metabolism. This association is mainly determined by a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in participants with type 2 diabetes and not in participants with IGM.
This study examined whether different types of coping and social support predict anxiety and depression in 212 hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Data were collected prior to and 6 months after HSCT. Coping, social support, and gender predicted 26% of the variance in pre-HSCT anxiety and 24% of the variance in pre-HSCT depression. Coping and social support did not explain significant post-HSCT anxiety or depression when controlling for pretransplant anxiety or depression. High use of acceptance/resignation coping, cognitive avoidance coping, lower tangible support, and lower belonging support were related to increased pre-HSCT anxiety and depression. Approach coping was not related to pre-HSCT anxiety. Patients who use acceptance/resignation coping and report low levels of two types of social support prior to HSCT may require additional intervention before HSCT, as they are at higher risk for depression and anxiety.
depression; anxiety; hematopoietic stem cell transplant; coping; social support
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders and is associated with marked impairments. However, a small proportion of individuals with SAD seek and receive treatment. Internet-administrated cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) has been found to be an effective treatment for SAD. This trial will be the first Internet-delivered guided self-help intervention for SAD in Romania.
Participants with social anxiety disorder (N = 96) will be recruited via newspapers, online banners and Facebook. Participants will be randomized to either: a) an active treatment, or b) a waiting list control group.
The treatment will have a guided iCBT format and will last for nine weeks. Self-report questionnaires on social phobia, anxiety, depression, treatment credibility and irrational thinking will be used. All assessments will be collected pre, post and at follow-up (six months after intervention). Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale – Self-Report version (LSAS-SR) will be the primary outcome measure and will be administrated on a weekly basis in both conditions.
The present randomized controlled trial investigates the efficacy of an Internet-administered intervention in reducing social anxiety symptoms in a culture where this form of treatment has not been tested. This trial will add to the body of knowledge on the efficacy of iCBT, and the results might lead to an increase of the accessibility of evidence-based psychological treatment in Romania.
Internet-administrated cognitive behavior therapy; Social anxiety disorder; Social phobia; Guided self-help; Randomized controlled trial
Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches.
A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16). The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28) which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm.
As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023) had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011.
► We examined differences in prospective mental imagery (PMI) in anxiety and depression. ► Patients wish depression or anxiety disorders reported less vivid positive PMI than controls. ► Patients with anxiety disorders reported more vivid negative PMI than controls. ► Both clinical groups reported greater levels of intrusive PMI than controls.
Prospective negative cognitions are suggested to play an important role in maintaining anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about positive prospective mental imagery. This study investigated differences in prospective mental imagery among 27 patients with anxiety disorders, 24 patients with MDD, and 32 control participants. Measures of both deliberately generated and intrusive imagery were completed. Results indicated that both patients with anxiety disorders and those with MDD provided poorer vividness ratings for deliberately generated prospective positive scenarios compared to the control group. Patients with anxiety disorders showed a greater ability to vividly generate imagery for prospective negative scenarios than both patients with MDD and control participants. Finally, both clinical groups reported greater levels of intrusive prospective imagery of personally-relevant events as compared to the control group. The current findings underline the necessity to target prospective positive mental imagery in treating MDD and anxiety disorders.
Depression; Anxiety; Mental imagery; Prospective cognition; Intrusions; Flashforwards
To examine age-related effects on high-level consciously controlled and low-level automatically controlled inhibitory processes, the Simon task was combined with the masked prime task in a hybrid procedure. Young and older adults responded to the identity of targets (left/right key-press to left-/right-pointing arrows) that appeared on the left/right of the screen and were preceded by left-/right-pointing backward-masked arrow primes at fixation. Responses were faster and more accurate when the target was congruent with its location than incongruent (Simon effect), and when the target was incompatible with the prime than compatible (negative compatibility effect; NCE). The Simon effect was disproportionately larger, and the NCE disproportionately delayed, in older adults compared to young adults, indicating both high- and low-level inhibitory control deficits with aging. Moreover, the two effects were additive in young adults, but interactive in older adults, providing support for the dedifferentiation hypothesis of aging. Specifically, older adults’ prime-related inhibitory control appeared improved on incongruent relative to congruent trials, suggesting that impaired automatic control was substituted by high-level, non-automatic processes.
aging; inhibition; cognitive control; masked priming; negative compatibility effect; Simon effect; dedifferentiation
Evidence that tic behaviour in individuals with Tourette syndrome reflects difficulties inhibiting prepotent motor actions is mixed. Response conflict tasks produce sensitive measures of response interference from prepotent motor impulses and the proficiency of inhibiting these impulses as an act of cognitive control. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with Tourette syndrome show a deficit in inhibiting prepotent motor actions.
Healthy controls and older adolescents/adults with persistent Tourette syndrome without a history of obsessive–compulsive disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and presenting with stable mood functioning (i.e., no history of well-treated anxiety or depression) participated in this study. They performed a Simon task that induced conflict between prepotent actions and goal-directed actions. A novel theoretical framework distinguished group differences in acting impulsively (i.e., fast motor errors) from the proficiency of inhibiting interference by prepotent actions (i.e., slope of interference reduction).
We included 27 controls and 28 individuals with Tourette syndrome in our study. Both groups showed similar susceptibility to making fast, impulsive motor errors (Tourette syndrome 26% v. control 23%; p = 0.10). The slope (m) reduction of the interference effect was significantly less pronounced among participants with Tourette syndrome than controls (Tourette syndrome: m = −0.07 v. control: m = −0.23; p = 0.022), consistent with deficient inhibitory control over prepotent actions in Tourette syndrome.
This study does not address directly the role of psychiatric comorbidities and medication effects on inhibitory control over impulsive actions in individuals with Tourette syndrome.
The results offer empirical evidence for deficient inhibitory control over prepotent motor actions in individuals with persistent Tourette syndrome with minimal to absent psychiatric comorbidities. These findings also suggest that the frontal–basal ganglia circuits involved in suppressing unwanted motor actions may underlie deficient inhibitory control abilities in individuals with Tourette syndrome.
Background: There has been renewed interest in the influence of affect on psychosis. Psychological research on persecutory delusions ascribes a prominent role to cognitive processes related to negative affect: anxiety leads to the anticipation of threat within paranoia; depressive negative ideas about the self create a sense of vulnerability in which paranoid thoughts flourish; and self-consciousness enhances feelings of the self as a target. The objective of this study was to examine such affective processes in relation to state paranoia in patients with delusions. Methods: 130 patients with delusions in the context of a nonaffective psychosis diagnosis (predominately schizophrenia) were assessed for contemporaneous levels of persecutory ideation on 5 visual analog scales. Measures were taken of anxiety, depression, threat anticipation, interpretation of ambiguity, self-focus, and negative ideas about the self. Results: Of the patients, 85% report paranoid thinking at testing. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were highly prevalent. Current paranoid thinking was associated with anxiety, depression, greater anticipation of threat events, negative interpretations of ambiguous events, a self-focused cognitive style, and negative ideas about the self. Conclusions: The study provides a clear demonstration that a range of emotion-related cognitive biases, each of which could plausibly maintain delusions, are associated with current paranoid thinking in patients with psychosis. We identified biases both in the contents of cognition and in the processing of information. Links between affect and psychosis are central to the understanding of schizophrenia. We conclude that treatment of emotional dysfunction should lead to reductions in current psychotic experiences.
delusions; paranoia; cognition; anxiety; depression; schizophrenia
Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are often unrecognized by primary care physicians (PCPs). The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) has been used as a case-finding instrument for depression. Yet, little is known on its usefulness as a case-finding tool for anxiety disorders within the context of a clinical trial.
To examine the: (1) completion rate of the PRIME-MD by patients approached to enroll in a treatment study for PD and GAD; (2) distribution of anxiety diagnoses generated; (3) severity of PD and GAD episodes thus identified; and (4) level of PCPs' agreement with these diagnoses.
Individuals aged 18 to 64 who presented for care at 4 primary care practices.
The PRIME-MD, Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (SIGH-A), and the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS).
Of the 6,700 patients who completed the PRIME-MD Patient Questionnaire (PQ), 2,926 (44%) screened positive for an anxiety disorder, and 1,216 (42%) met preliminary study eligibility and consented to the PRIME-MD Anxiety Module. Of these, 619 (51%) had either GAD (308), PD (94), or both (217) disorders. Later, 329 completed a telephone interview. Of these, 59% with GAD and 68% with PD reported moderate or greater levels of anxiety symptoms on the SIGH-A and PDSS, respectively, and PCPs agreed with the PRIME-MD diagnosis for 98% of these patients.
The PRIME-MD can efficiently screen patients for PD and GAD. Although patients thus identified endorse a wide range of anxiety symptoms, PCPs often agree with the diagnosis.
anxiety; panic; generalized anxiety disorder; primary care; electronic medical record system
Depression and anxiety are common co-morbid health problems in patients with type 2 diabetes. Both depression and anxiety are associated with poor glycaemic control and increased risk of poor vascular outcomes and higher mortality rates. Results of previous studies have shown that in clinical practice, treatment of depression and anxiety is far from optimal as these symptoms are frequently overlooked and undertreated.
This randomised controlled trial will examine the effectiveness of a disease management programme treating symptoms of depression and anxiety in primary care patients with Type 2 diabetes. Patients will be randomized on patient level in 1:1 ratio. Random block sizes of 2 and 4 are used. The disease management programme consists of screening, stepped treatment and monitoring of symptoms (n = 80). This will be compared to care as usual (n = 80).
The disease management model for co-morbid depression and anxiety in primary care patients with diabetes is expected to result in reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety, improved quality of life, reduced diabetes specific distress and improved glyceamic control, compared to care as usual.
Dutch Trial Register NTR2626
diabetes; depression; anxiety; primary care; study protocol; randomised controlled trial; disease management; stepped care; psychological intervention
Women testing positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection experience increased levels of anxiety that have been attributed to fears of stigmatization and developing cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between HPV infection and anxiety in women who were unaware they had been tested specifically for HPV, to determine if any anxiety experienced by HPV-positive women could be due to causes other than learning of test results.
This study was nested within a randomised controlled trial of management of women with abnormal cervical cytology conducted in the United Kingdom with recruitment between 1999 and 2002. At baseline, prior to having a sample taken for HPV testing, the results of which were not disclosed, women were assessed for anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and asked about fears of developing cervical cancer (“cancer worries”); this assessment was repeated at 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of follow-up. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used for the cross-sectional (baseline) and longitudinal analyses, respectively.
Among the 2842 participants, there was no association between HPV status and anxiety among white women. Among non-white women, however, anxiety was less common among HPV-positive than HPV-negative women (adjusted odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.77). Among non-smokers, cancer worry was more common in HPV-positive than HPV-negative women; the opposite association was observed among ex-smokers.
Associations between HPV status and anxiety may be explained by factors other than learning of test results and may vary by ethnicity and lifestyle factors.
To explore whether the symptoms of climacteric syndrome associated with its physical factors or psychological disorder in perimenopausal/postmenopausal patients with anxiety–depression disorder.
We recruited 78 climacteric patients with anxiety–depression disorder and 72 control participants in perimenopausal/postmenopausal without anxiety–depression disorder for this study. We measured symptoms using the Greene Climacteric Symptom Scale in all cases. We also collected demographic data and tested sexual hormone, blood pressure, bone density, cognitive, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) gene polymorphism as physiological factors, using HARS-14 and CHDS assessed psychological disorder degree.
C-MMSE scores as well as Estradiol and progesterone levels in the anxiety–depression disorder group were significantly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.01). In addition, the anxiety–depression disorder group had significantly higher Greene Climacteric Scale scores, as well as somatic symptoms compared to controls (P < 0.01). Moreover, the anxiety, depression and somatic symptoms of the Greene Climacteric Scale were positively correlated with HARS-14 and CHDS scores (P < 0.001) and negatively with estrogen level and C-MMSE scores (P < 0.05) in the anxiety–depression disorder group. Greene Climacteric Scale Symptoms were not significantly correlated with blood pressure, bone density or other factors (P > 0.05). There was no significant change in the allele frequency or the estrogen receptor-alpha gene polymorphisms, between the two groups (P > 0.05); however, the Pp genotype was negatively associated with C-MMSE scores (r = appraises, P = 0.033).
The sample size was relatively small.
The symptoms of somatic symptoms in patients with climacteric syndrome and anxiety–depression disorder are associated with the emotional disorder but not with a physical disease. The Pp ERα polymorphism Pvu II is associated with a cognitive decrease.
Climacteric; Anxiety–depression; Somatic symptoms; Cognitive; Physical disease
Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding.
A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results.
The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289) and control group (n=244) were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs), intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048). Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09) and at six weeks (mean=1.09) were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11) and at six weeks (mean =1.07) with no significant changes.
Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their knowledge and potentially lower the risk of postnatal anxiety.
(Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000667213)
Cognitive reactivity to sad mood is a vulnerability marker of depression. Implicit self-depressed associations are related to depression status and reduced remission probability. It is unknown whether these cognitive vulnerabilities precede the first onset of depression.
To test the predictive value of cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations for the incidence of depressive disorders.
Prospective cohort study of 834 never-depressed individuals, followed over a two-year period. The predictive value of cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations for the onset of depressive disorders was assessed using binomial logistic regression. The multivariate model corrected for baseline levels of subclinical depressive symptoms, neuroticism, for the presence of a history of anxiety disorders, for family history of depressive or anxiety disorders, and for the incidence of negative life events.
As single predictors, both cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations were significantly associated with depression incidence. In the multivariate model, cognitive reactivity was significantly associated with depression incidence, together with baseline depressive symptoms and the number of negative life events, whereas implicit self-depressed associations were not.
Cognitive reactivity to sad mood is associated with the incidence of depressive disorders, also when various other depression-related variables are controlled for. Implicit self-depressed associations predicted depression incidence in a bivariate test, but not when controlling for other predictors.
Familial caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease exhibit reduced quality of life and increased stress levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program on the perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol levels in familial caregivers. A total of 46 volunteers were randomly assigned to participate in a stress-reduction program for a 2-month period (yoga and compassion meditation program—YCMP group) (n = 25) or an untreated group for the same period of time (control group) (n = 21). The levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and morning salivary cortisol of the participants were measured before and after intervention. The groups were initially homogeneous; however, after intervention, the groups diverged significantly. The YCMP group exhibited a reduction of the stress (P < 0.05), anxiety (P < 0.000001), and depression (P < 0.00001) levels, as well as a reduction in the concentration of salivary cortisol (P < 0.05). Our study suggests that an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program may offer an effective intervention for reducing perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol in familial caregivers.
In order to explore neural activity that accompanies cognitive bias in mood disorders, clinically depressed and non-depressed controls completed a self-evaluation procedure in which they indicated whether trait words were self-descriptive or not. Dense array (256-channel) electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Greater depression and low Positive Affect were associated with decreased endorsement of favorable (Good) traits, and greater anxiety and high Negative Affect with increased endorsement of unfavorable (Bad) traits. For controls, the event related potential (ERP) showed an enhanced visual N1 for trials in which Bad traits were endorsed. For depressed participants, this N1 was attenuated, specifically for these endorsed-Bad trials. A similar pattern was observed in the medial frontal P2-MFN complex, with controls showing an enhanced medial-frontal negativity to the endorsed Bad words, while depressed participants showed an attenuated or absent medial-frontal response on these items specifically. Distributed linear-inverse source analysis of the ERP localized the N1 effect to inferotemporal-occipital cortex, and the medial-frontal effect to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. The altered ERP responses in depressed participants may provide clues to the neurophysiological processes associated with negatively biased cognition and self-evaluation in clinical depression.
depression; anxiety; self-evaluation; limbic system; affective cognition