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1.  Breast cancer histological classification: agreement between the Office for National Statistics and the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme 
Breast Cancer Research  2005;7(6):R1090-R1096.
Introduction
Epidemiological studies rely on data supplied by central cancer registration sources to be timely, accurate and complete. Validation studies of such data at a national level are limited. Data collected for the Million Women Study was used to compare the level of agreement between the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) in the recording of incident screen-detected breast cancer histology between 1996 and 2001.
Methods
1.3 million women aged 50 to 64 years were recruited into the Million Women Study cohort via the NHSBSP. Incident screen-detected breast cancer histologies were notified separately by the ONS and NHSBSP. ICD-10 and ICD-02 ONS codes and NHSBSP histology data were similarly coded to allow for comparison in terms of cancer invasiveness and morphology. The statistical outcome measures are percentage agreement and the kappa statistic.
Results
A total of 5,886 incident screen-detected breast cancers were available for analysis. Of the 5,886 screen-detected cancers reported by the ONS and NHSBSP, 5,684 (96.6%, κ = 0.9) agreed in terms of the degree of invasiveness. Of the 5,458 cancers that had been assigned a specific morphology code, there was exact agreement between the ONS and the NHSBSP in 4,922 cases (90.2%, κ = 0.8).
Conclusion
There is an excellent level of agreement between the ONS and NHSBSP in the recording of the histology of screen-detected breast cancer. From these results it is not possible to comment on which source of data is the more or less accurate, although the differences are very small.
doi:10.1186/bcr1352
PMCID: PMC1410775  PMID: 16457689
2.  Genetic Predisposition to In Situ and Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast 
Sawyer, Elinor | Roylance, Rebecca | Petridis, Christos | Brook, Mark N. | Nowinski, Salpie | Papouli, Efterpi | Fletcher, Olivia | Pinder, Sarah | Hanby, Andrew | Kohut, Kelly | Gorman, Patricia | Caneppele, Michele | Peto, Julian | dos Santos Silva, Isabel | Johnson, Nichola | Swann, Ruth | Dwek, Miriam | Perkins, Katherine-Anne | Gillett, Cheryl | Houlston, Richard | Ross, Gillian | De Ieso, Paolo | Southey, Melissa C. | Hopper, John L. | Provenzano, Elena | Apicella, Carmel | Wesseling, Jelle | Cornelissen, Sten | Keeman, Renske | Fasching, Peter A. | Jud, Sebastian M. | Ekici, Arif B. | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Kerin, Michael J. | Marme, Federick | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Sohn, Christof | Burwinkel, Barbara | Guénel, Pascal | Truong, Therese | Laurent-Puig, Pierre | Kerbrat, Pierre | Bojesen, Stig E. | Nordestgaard, Børge G. | Nielsen, Sune F. | Flyger, Henrik | Milne, Roger L. | Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias | Menéndez, Primitiva | Benitez, Javier | Brenner, Hermann | Dieffenbach, Aida Karina | Arndt, Volker | Stegmaier, Christa | Meindl, Alfons | Lichtner, Peter | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Lochmann, Magdalena | Brauch, Hiltrud | Fischer, Hans-Peter | Ko, Yon-Dschun | Nevanlinna, Heli | Muranen, Taru A. | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Blomqvist, Carl | Bogdanova, Natalia V. | Dörk, Thilo | Lindblom, Annika | Margolin, Sara | Mannermaa, Arto | Kataja, Vesa | Kosma, Veli-Matti | Hartikainen, Jaana M. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Investigators, kConFab | Lambrechts, Diether | Weltens, Caroline | Van Limbergen, Erik | Hatse, Sigrid | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Rudolph, Anja | Seibold, Petra | Flesch-Janys, Dieter | Radice, Paolo | Peterlongo, Paolo | Bonanni, Bernardo | Volorio, Sara | Giles, Graham G. | Severi, Gianluca | Baglietto, Laura | Mclean, Catriona A. | Haiman, Christopher A. | Henderson, Brian E. | Schumacher, Fredrick | Le Marchand, Loic | Simard, Jacques | Goldberg, Mark S. | Labrèche, France | Dumont, Martine | Kristensen, Vessela | Winqvist, Robert | Pylkäs, Katri | Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja | Kauppila, Saila | Andrulis, Irene L. | Knight, Julia A. | Glendon, Gord | Mulligan, Anna Marie | Devillee, Peter | Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M. | Seynaeve, Caroline M. | Kriege, Mieke | Figueroa, Jonine | Chanock, Stephen J. | Sherman, Mark E. | Hooning, Maartje J. | Hollestelle, Antoinette | van den Ouweland, Ans M. W. | van Deurzen, Carolien H. M. | Li, Jingmei | Czene, Kamila | Humphreys, Keith | Cox, Angela | Cross, Simon S. | Reed, Malcolm W. R. | Shah, Mitul | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna | Durda, Katarzyna | Swerdlow, Anthony | Ashworth, Alan | Orr, Nicholas | Schoemaker, Minouk | Couch, Fergus J. | Hallberg, Emily | González-Neira, Anna | Pita, Guillermo | Alonso, M. Rosario | Tessier, Daniel C. | Vincent, Daniel | Bacot, Francois | Bolla, Manjeet K. | Wang, Qin | Dennis, Joe | Michailidou, Kyriaki | Dunning, Alison M. | Hall, Per | Easton, Doug | Pharoah, Paul | Schmidt, Marjanka K. | Tomlinson, Ian | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(4):e1004285.
Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10–15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09–1.18), P = 6.0×10−10; P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8×10−4). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P<0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03); and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04). In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365) and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7). In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity between ER+ lobular and ER+ IDC tumors. These data provide evidence for overlapping, but distinct etiological pathways within ER+ breast cancer between morphological subtypes.
Author Summary
Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10–15% of invasive breast cancer and is generally ER positive (ER+). To date, none of the genome-wide association studies that have identified loci that predispose to breast cancer in general or to ER+ or ER-negative breast cancer have focused on lobular breast cancer. In this lobular breast cancer study we identified a new variant that appears to be specific to this morphological subtype. We also ascertained which of the known variants predisposes specifically to lobular breast cancer and show for the first time that some of these loci are also associated with lobular carcinoma in situ, a non-obligate precursor of breast cancer and also a risk factor for contralateral breast cancer. Our study shows that the genetic pathways of invasive lobular cancer and ER+ ductal carcinoma mostly overlap, but there are important differences that are likely to provide insights into the biology of lobular breast tumors.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004285
PMCID: PMC3990493  PMID: 24743323
3.  Clonal relatedness between lobular carcinoma in situ and synchronous malignant lesions 
Breast Cancer Research : BCR  2012;14(4):R103.
Introduction
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) has been accepted as a marker of risk for the development of invasive breast cancer, yet modern models of breast carcinogenesis include LCIS as a precursor of low-grade carcinomas. We provide evidence favoring a clonal origin for LCIS and synchronous estrogen receptor-positive malignant lesions of the ductal and lobular phenotype.
Methods
Patients with prior LCIS undergoing mastectomy were identified preoperatively from 2003 to 2008. Specimens were widely sampled, and frozen blocks were screened for LCIS and co-existing malignant lesions, and were subject to microdissection. Samples from 65 patients were hybridized to the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array platform. Cases with both an LCIS sample and an associated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive tumor sample were evaluated for patterns of somatic copy number changes to assess evidence of clonal relatedness.
Results
LCIS was identified in 44 of the cases, and among these a DCIS and/or invasive lesion was also identified in 21 cases. A total of 17 tumor pairs had adequate DNA/array data for analysis, including nine pairs of LCIS/invasive lobular cancer, four pairs of LCIS/DCIS, and four pairs of LCIS/invasive ductal cancer. Overall, seven pairs (41%) were judged to be clonally related; in five (29%) evidence suggested clonality but was equivocal, and five (29%) were considered independent. Clonal pairs were observed with all matched lesion types and low and high histological grades. We also show anecdotal evidence of clonality between a patient-matched triplet of LCIS, DCIS, and invasive ductal cancer.
Conclusion
Our results support the role of LCIS as a precursor in the development of both high-grade and low-grade ductal and lobular cancers.
doi:10.1186/bcr3222
PMCID: PMC3680923  PMID: 22776144
4.  Impact of a national external quality assessment scheme for breast pathology in the UK 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2006;59(2):138-145.
Background
This article presents the results and observed effects of the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) external quality assurance scheme in breast histopathology.
Aims/Methods
The major objectives were to monitor and improve the consistency of diagnoses made by pathologists and the quality of prognostic information in pathology reports. The scheme is based on a twice yearly circulation of 12 cases to over 600 registered participants. The level of agreement was generally measured using κ statistics.
Results
Four main situations were encountered with respect to diagnostic consistency, namely: (1) where consistency is naturally very high—this included diagnosing in situ and invasive carcinomas (and certain distinctive subtypes) and uncomplicated benign lesions; (2) where the level of consistency was low but could be improved by making guidelines more detailed and explicit—this included histological grading; (3) where consistency could be improved but only by changing the system of classification—this included classification of ductal carcinoma in situ; and (4) where no improvement in consistency could be achieved—this included diagnosing atypical hyperplasia and reporting vascular invasion. Size measurements were more consistent for invasive than in situ carcinomas. Even in cases where there is a high level of agreement on tumour size, a few widely outlying measurements were encountered, for which no explanation is readily forthcoming.
Conclusions
These results broadly confirm the robustness of the systems of breast disease diagnosis and classification adopted by the NHSBSP, and also identify areas where improvement or new approaches are required.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2004.025551
PMCID: PMC1860326  PMID: 16443727
breast; external quality assurance; histopathology; pathology; quality assurance
5.  Accuracy of screening mammography in women with a history of lobular carcinoma in-situ or atypical hyperplasia of the breast 
Background
Women with lobular carcinoma-in-situ (LCIS), atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), or atypical hyperplasia (AH) are at increased breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated the accuracy and outcomes of mammography screening in women with histology-proven LCIS, ALH, ADH, or AH history who had screening through Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium-affiliated mammography facilities.
Methods
Screens from two cohorts, defined by LCIS/ALH or ADH/AH history, were compared to two cohorts without such history mammogram-matched for age-group, breast density, family history, screen-year, and mammography registry.
Results
Overall 359 BCs (277 invasive BC) occurred within 1-year from screening amongst 52,380 screens. In the LCIS/ALH cohort [versus comparator screens] cancer incidence rates, cancer detection rates (CDR), and interval cancer rates (ICR) were significantly higher (all P<0.001); although ICR was 4.4/1000 screens [versus 0.9/1000; P<0.001] the proportion that were interval cancers did not differ between compared cohorts (P=0.43); screening sensitivity was 76.1% [versus 82.3%; P=0.43] however specificity was significantly lower at 85.1% [versus 90.7%; P<0.0001]. In the ADH/AH cohort [versus comparator] cancer rates and CDR were significantly higher (P<0.001); although ICR was 2.6/1000 screens [versus 0.9/1000;P=0.002] the proportion that were interval cancers did not differ between cohorts (P=0.74); screening sensitivity was 81.0% [versus 82.6%; P=0.74] and specificity was lower at 86.2% [versus 90.2%; P<0.0001].
Conclusions
Mammography screening sensitivity in LCIS/ALH and ADH/AH cohorts did not significantly differ from that of matched screens however specificity was lower, and ICRs were higher (reflecting underlying cancer rates). Adjunct screening may be of value in these women if it reduces ICR without substantially reducing specificity.
doi:10.1007/s10549-014-2965-z
PMCID: PMC4111461  PMID: 24800915
Mammography; high-risk screening; interval cancer; lobular carcinoma in-situ; atypical hyperplasia
6.  Diagnostic utility of E-cadherin and P120 catenin cocktail immunostain in distinguishing DCIS from LCIS 
Background: Breast carcinoma in situ (CIS) is classified into ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). DCIS is treated with surgical excision while LCIS can be clinically followed with or without hormonal treatment. Thus, it is critical to distinguish DCIS from LCIS. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for E-cadherin is routinely used to differentiate DCIS from LCIS in diagnostically challenging cases. Circumferential diffuse membranous staining of E-cadherin is the typical pattern in DCIS, whereas LCIS lacks or shows decreased E-cadherin expression. Recent studies have shown that DCIS has membranous staining of P120 catenin and LCIS has diffuse cytoplasmic staining of P120 catenin. We developed a cocktail composed of E-cadherin and P120 catenin primary antibodies so that only one slide is needed for the double immunostains. Designs: Twenty-seven blocks of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from 26 cases of DCIS or LCIS were retrieved from the archives of Houston Methodist Hospital. Four consecutive sections from the same blocks were used for H&E and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains. The E-cadherin antibody was a rabbit polyclonal antibody and the P120 catenin antibody was a mouse monoclonal antibody. The E-cadherin primary antibody was detected using a secondary antibody raised against rabbit antibody and was visualized with a brown color. The P120 catenin primary antibody was detected using a secondary antibody raised against mouse antibody and was visualized with a red color. Results: Using individual antibodies, 15 of 15 DCIS lesions had diffuse circumferential membranous E-cadherin staining (brown stain) or P120 catenin staining (red stain). All 12 LCIS cases showed cytoplasmic P120 red staining or loss of E-cadherin staining when the single P120 catenin or E-cadherin antibody was used. When stained with the antibody cocktail, all 15 DCIS samples showed diffuse red and brown membranous staining without cytoplasmic stain; all 12 LCIS samples showed diffuse cytoplasmic red staining for P120 catenin but no membranous staining for E-cadherin. Conclusions: 1. This antibody cocktail can be applied in daily practice on paraffin-embedded tissue and is especially useful in small biopsies with small foci of CIS lesions. 2. Immunohistochemical staining with the antibody cocktail showed 100% concordance with the traditional single antibody immunostaining using either E-cadherin or P120 catenin antibody. 3. Our antibody cocktail includes E-cadherin as a positive membranous stain for DCIS and P120 catenin as a positive cytoplasmic stain for LCIS, which may enhance accuracy and confidence in the differential diagnoses.
PMCID: PMC4069889  PMID: 24966968
DCIS; LCIS; E-cadherin; p120 catenin
7.  Genetic relation of lobular carcinoma in situ, ductal carcinoma in situ, and associated invasive carcinoma of the breast 
Molecular Pathology  2000;53(3):118-121.
Aims—The mutual relation of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast, as accepted precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer, is controversial. Because they display genetic heterogeneity, it is not clear how genetically advanced these entities are and what causes the transition to an invasive carcinoma.
Methods—Six cases of LCIS, four of them with associated lobular invasive carcinoma, four cases of intermediately differentiated DCIS with an associated invasive lobular carcinoma, and nine cases of intermediately and poorly differentiated DCIS with associated ductal invasive carcinoma were investigated by means of comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) after microdissection and immunohistochemical staining of E-cadherin.
Results—LCIS was characterised by a low average rate of copy number changes, no evidence of amplifications, and a high rate of gains and losses of chromosomal material at 1q and 16q, respectively. A high degree of genetic homology with well differentiated DCIS was obvious, as reported previously. The cases of intermediately differentiated DCIS with associated lobular invasive components and lobular differentiation revealed striking homologies, and a significant difference of E-cadherin expression. The comparison of preinvasive and invasive breast lesions, irrespective of differentiation within the same patient, revealed no specific alteration that might be associated with invasion. Genetic alterations seen in invasive carcinoma were not necessarily seen in the adjacent precursor lesions.
Conclusions—These results provide strong evidence that invasive breast cancer is a disease with multiple cytogenetic subclones already present in preinvasive lesions. Moreover, specific CGH alterations associated with invasion were not observed. Furthermore, the close genetic association between well differentiated and a subgroup of intermediately differentiated DCIS and LCIS led to the hypothesis that LCIS and a subgroup of DCIS are different phenotypic forms of a common genotype.
PMCID: PMC1186916  PMID: 10897329
lobular carcinoma in situ; ductal carcinoma in situ; invasion
8.  Loss of heterozygosity in lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast 
Clinical Molecular Pathology  1995;48(2):M74-M78.
Aims—(1) To investigate whether loss of heterozygosity identified at various loci in invasive breast carcinoma or is present in lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). (2) To investigate whether LCIS is a monoclonal (neoplastic) or a polyclonal (hyperplastic) proliferation.
Methods—Forty three cases of LCIS (30 with associated invasive carcinoma or in situ ductal carcinoma (DCIS) and 13 cases of pure LCIS) were investigated for loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 16q, 17q, 17p, and 13q using a microdissection technique, polymorphic DNA markers, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results—Loss of heterozygosity was detected in both subgroups of LCIS at all the loci examined. There was no significant difference in the frequency of the loss between the group associated with invasive carcinoma and the pure LCIS group. The frequency of loss of heterozygosity ranged from 8% on 17p to 50% on 17q.
Conclusions—Because of the nature of the technique employed, our findings show that LCIS is a monoclonal (neoplastic) proliferation rather than a hyperplastic proliferation. The incidence of loss of heterozygosity on 17p (D17S796) is lower than we have observed previously in DCIS, suggesting that LCIS and DCIS are different genetically as well as clinically and morphologically. The similar incidence of loss of heterozygosity on 16q and 17q, however, suggests that DCIS and LCIS may share a common pathway of evolution.
Images
PMCID: PMC407928  PMID: 16695985
Breast cancer; lobular carcinoma in situ; loss of heterozygosity
9.  The Million Women Study: design and characteristics of the study population 
Breast Cancer Research  1999;1(1):73-80.
Objectives:
To describe the design of the Million Women Study and the characteristics of the study population.
Study design:
Population-based cohort study of women aged 50-64 in the UK.
Setting:
Women are asked to join the Million Women Study when they are invited to routine screening for breast cancer at 61 of the screening centres of the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). An estimated 71% of women screened by the NHSBSP return a completed questionnaire.
Participants:
800 000 women were recruited between May 1996 and June 1999, and it is planned that an additional 200 000 will be recruited by the year 2000.
Results:
The characteristics of the first 121 000 women recruited into the Million Women Study are described here. At recruitment 33% of the study population were currently using hormone replacement therapy and 47% had used it at some time. Over half (54%) had used oral contraceptives, and 18% were current smokers at the time of recruitment. Before they were screened 1.4% of the women had been diagnosed with breast cancer in the past, 6% had a mother with a history of breast cancer and 3.7% had a sister with a history of breast cancer. It is estimated that 1 million women will have been recruited by early in the year 2000, and that by the end of the year 2002 there will be 5000 screen-detected breast cancers and 23 000 deaths in the cohort, the majority of which will be attributed to cancer (12 600 deaths) and circulatory disease (8000 deaths).
Conclusions:
By the end of the year 2002, the Million Women Study will have sufficient statistical power to detect relative risks of 0.8 or less, or of 1.2 or more in current users compared with never users of hormone replacement therapy for mortality from breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung and ovarian cancer, ischaemic heart disease and stroke.
PMCID: PMC13913  PMID: 11056681
breast cancer; breast screening; cohort study; hormone replacement therapy; lifestyle factors; morbidity; mortality
10.  Histopathological and clonal study of combined lobular and ductal carcinoma of the breast 
Pathology International  2013;63(6):297-304.
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) clinically constitutes a risk factor for the subsequent development of either invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). In order to approach the possibility of this common precursor of both ILC and IDC, we investigated combined lobular and ductal carcinomas. Thirty-two cases of lobular carcinoma were picked up out of 773 cases of operated breast carcinomas. The histopathological detailed re-examination using immunostain of E-cadherin and β-catenin revealed a rather high frequency of combined lobular carcinomas than previous reports. Clinicopathologically, combined lobular carcinomas were younger and smaller than pure lobular carcinomas, and the cytological atypia was relatively low. These results suggested that combined lobular carcinomas could be detected in the earlier stage of breast cancer. Furthermore, the lobular and ductal components of combined carcinomas coexisted in the neighborhood and were distributed contiguously. The immunohistochemical phenotypes of both components were accorded in most combined cases. A genetic analysis using methylation-specific PCR on the HUMARA gene demonstrated that the same allele was inactivated in both lobular and ductal components in all detectable cases of combined carcinoma. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that both lobular and ductal components of combined carcinomas are clonal and derived from the LCIS as the common precursor lesion, which may contradict the conventional concept that the lobular and ductal carcinomas arise from distinct differentiation pathways.
doi:10.1111/pin.12065
PMCID: PMC3798103  PMID: 23782331
breast cancer; ductal carcinoma; human androgen receptor (HUMARA) gene; lobular carcinoma; methylation-specific PCR
11.  MOLECULAR CLASSIFICATION OF BREAST CARCINOMA IN SITU 
Current genomics  2006;7(8):523-532.
Pleomorphic variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (PILC) is an aggressive variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Its in situ counterpart, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS) is a recently described entity. Morphologically it has the typical architectural pattern of LCIS, but the neoplastic cells resemble intermediate grade DCIS. Molecular signatures that distinguish PLCIS from DCIS and LCIS would provide additional tools to aid in the histopathologic classification of PLCIS as a lesion distinct from LCIS and DCIS. CIS lesions, obtained from a study cohort of 38 breast cancer patients, were divided into 18 DCIS, 14 PLCIS and 6 LCIS. DNA from microdissected archival tissue was interrogated for loss or gain of 112 breast-cancer-specific genes using the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification Assay (MLPA). Classification Regression Tree (CART) analysis was employed to develop a gene-based molecular classification to distinguish or separate out PLCIS from DCIS and LCIS. Molecular classification via CART, based on gene copy number, agreed with histopathology in 34/38 CIS cases. Loss of CASP1 was predictive of LCIS (n=4) with one misclassified PLCIS. Gain of RELA predicted only the LCIS classification (n=2 cases). STK15 and TNFRSF1B were predictive only for DCIS with no misclassifications. Gain of EHF and TNFRSF1B and loss of NCOA3 were predictive of PLCIS, but not without misclassification. Molecular reclassification by CART was accomplished in 4 CIS cases: 1 PLCIS was reclassified as LCIS, 1 LCIS reclassified as PLCIS, and 2 DCIS cases as PLCIS. This study provides additional rationale for molecular modeling strategies in the evaluation of CIS lesions. This diagnostic aid may serve to minimize misclassification between PLCIS and DCIS, and PLCIS and LCIS, aiding to increase accuracy in the differential diagnosis of CIS lesions.
PMCID: PMC1828915  PMID: 17375183
Carcinoma in situ (CIS); Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS); Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS); Classification Regression Tree (CART); molecular classification; Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification Assay (MLPA); differential diagnosis
12.  Molecular Classification of Breast Carcinoma In Situ 
Current Genomics  2006;7(8):523-532.
Pleomorphic variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (PILC) is an aggressive variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Its in situ counterpart, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS) is a recently described entity. Morphologically it has the typical architectural pattern of LCIS, but the neoplastic cells resemble intermediate grade DCIS. Molecular signatures that distinguish PLCIS from DCIS and LCIS would provide additional tools to aid in the histopathologic classification of PLCIS as a lesion distinct from LCIS and DCIS. CIS lesions, obtained from a study cohort of 38 breast cancer patients, were divided into 18 DCIS, 14 PLCIS and 6 LCIS. DNA from microdissected archival tissue was interrogated for loss or gain of 112 breast-cancer-specific genes using the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification Assay (MLPA). Classification Regression Tree (CART) analysis was employed to develop a gene-based molecular classification to distinguish or separate out PLCIS from DCIS and LCIS. Molecular classification via CART, based on gene copy number, agreed with histopathology in 34/38 CIS cases. Loss of CASP1 was predictive of LCIS (n=4) with one misclassified PLCIS. Gain of RELA predicted only the LCIS classification (n=2 cases). STK15 and TNFRSF1B were predictive only for DCIS with no misclassifications. Gain of EHF and TNFRSF1B and loss of NCOA3 were predictive of PLCIS, but not without misclassification. Molecular reclassification by CART was accomplished in 4 CIS cases: 1 PLCIS was reclassified as LCIS, 1 LCIS reclassified as PLCIS, and 2 DCIS cases as PLCIS. This study provides additional rationale for molecular modeling strategies in the evaluation of CIS lesions. This diagnostic aid may serve to minimize misclassification between PLCIS and DCIS, and PLCIS and LCIS, aiding to increase accuracy in the differential diagnosis of CIS lesions.
PMCID: PMC1828915  PMID: 17375183
Carcinoma in situ (CIS); Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS); Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS); Classification Regression Tree (CART); molecular classification; Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification Assay (MLPA); differential diagnosis
13.  Germline CDH1 mutations in bilateral lobular carcinoma in situ 
British Journal of Cancer  2013;110(4):1053-1057.
Background:
Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) are characterised by loss of E-cadherin expression. However germline CDH1 mutations are rare in cases of ILC with no family history of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) and have not been described in women with LCIS.
Methods:
We screened the CDH1 gene in 50 cases of bilateral LCIS/ILC using Sanger sequencing and MLPA.
Results:
Sanger sequencing revealed four pathogenic germline mutations, including a novel splicing mutation (c.48+1G>A). The remaining three (c.1465insC, c.1942G>T, c.2398delC) have been previously described. All four cases had bilateral LCIS +/− ILC and no family history of gastric cancer.
Conclusion:
CDH1 germline mutations have not been previously described in women with LCIS. We have shown that germline CDH1 mutations are associated with early onset of bilateral LCIS with or without ILC in women without a family history of gastric cancer. CDH1 mutation screening should be considered in women with early onset of bilateral LCIS/ILC with no family history of HDGC.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.792
PMCID: PMC3929874  PMID: 24366306
bilateral; invasive lobular breast cancer; lobular carcinoma in situ; CDH1; E-cadherin; germline mutation
14.  Improving screening recall services for women with false-positive mammograms: a comparison of qualitative evidence with UK guidelines 
BMJ Open  2015;5(1):e005855.
Objectives
To gain an understanding of the views of women with false-positive screening mammograms of screening recall services, their ideas for service improvements and how these compare with current UK guidelines.
Methods
Inductive qualitative content analysis of semistructured interviews of 21 women who had false-positive screening mammograms. These were then compared with UK National Health Service (NHS) guidelines.
Results
Participants’ concerns about mammography screening recall services focused on issues of communication and choice. Many of the issues raised indicated that the 1998 NHS Breast Screening Programme guidelines on improving the quality of written information sent to women who are recalled, had not been fully implemented. This included being told a clear reason for recall, who may attend with them, the length of appointment, who they will see and what tests will be carried out. Additionally women voiced a need for: reassurance that a swift appointment did not imply they had cancer; choice about invasive assessment or watchful waiting; the offer of a follow-up mammogram for those uncertain about the validity of their all-clear and an extension of the role of the clinical nurse specialist, outlined in the 2012 NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) guidelines, to include availability at the clinic after the all-clear for women with false-positive mammograms.
Conclusions
It is time the NHSBSP 1998 recall information guidelines were fully implemented. Additionally, the further suggestions from this research, including extending the role of the clinical nurses from the 2012 NHSBSP guidelines, should be considered. These actions have the potential to reduce the anxiety of being recalled.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005855
PMCID: PMC4316556  PMID: 25618139
PUBLIC HEALTH; QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
15.  Serial analysis of gene expression of lobular carcinoma in situ identifies down regulation of claudin 4 and overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 
Introduction
Although lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) has traditionally been viewed as a marker of breast cancer risk, recent clinical, pathological and genetic analyses have supported the concept that LCIS is a low risk, direct precursor of invasive lobular carcinoma. Global gene expression profiling of LCIS has not been performed.
Methods
We analysed the comprehensive gene expression profile of a unique case of mass-forming LCIS using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). This SAGE library is publicly available online. By comparing the gene expression profile of LCIS to that of benign breast epithelium and stroma, we identified several genes up and down regulated in LCIS. Differential expression of selected genes not previously studied in LCIS was validated at the protein level by immunohistochemistry and at the RNA level by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR).
Results
We identified down regulation of claudin 4 and overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in LCIS relative to normal breast epithelium and stroma. We validated these findings by immunohistochemistry in a separate series of 11 and 19 LCIS cases, respectively. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 was further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the index case.
Conclusions
We have created the first global gene expression profile of LCIS, and demonstrated down regulation of cell junction proteins (an expected result) and overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (an unexpected result). Additional analysis of this data made available as an online resource should facilitate further molecular characterisation of LCIS.
doi:10.1186/bcr2189
PMCID: PMC2614499  PMID: 18954444
16.  Is there a role for routine screening MRI in women with LCIS? 
Breast cancer research and treatment  2013;142(2):10.1007/s10549-013-2725-5.
Women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have an elevated breast cancer risk, yet the benefit of MRI screening is unclear. We examined cancer detection rates with mammography alone versus mammography plus MRI in this high-risk population. From a prospectively maintained, single-institution database, we identified 776 patients diagnosed with LCIS after the adoption of screening MRI in April 1999. In addition to annual mammography and breast exam, MRI was used at the discretion of the physician and patient. Kaplan–Meier methods and landmark analyses at 1, 2, and 3 years following LCIS diagnosis were performed to compare rates of cancer detection with or without MRI. MRI screening was performed in 455 (59 %) patients (median, 3/patient). Median time from LCIS diagnosis to first MRI was 9 months (range 0.3–137 months). Patients undergoing MRI were younger (p < 0.0001), premenopausal (p < 0.0001), and more likely to have ≥1 first-degree relative with breast cancer (p = 0.009). At a median follow-up of 58 months, 98/776 (13 %) patients developed cancer. The crude cancer detection rate in both screening groups was 13 %. MRI was not associated with earlier stage, smaller size, or node negativity. Landmark analyses at 1, 2, and 3 years after LCIS diagnosis failed to demonstrate increased cancer detection rates among women having MRI (p = 0.23, 0.26, and 0.13, respectively). Although a diagnosis of LCIS remains a significant risk factor for breast cancer, the routine use of MRI does not result in increased cancer detection rates (short-term), nor does it result in earlier stage at diagnosis, illustrating the importance of defining optimal screening strategies for high-risk patients based on tumor biology rather than numerical risk.
doi:10.1007/s10549-013-2725-5
PMCID: PMC3871867  PMID: 24141896
LCIS; MRI; Screening; High risk; Breast cancer
17.  Screening Mammography for Women Aged 40 to 49 Years at Average Risk for Breast Cancer 
Executive Summary
Objective
The aim of this review was to determine the effectiveness of screening mammography in women aged 40 to 49 years at average risk for breast cancer.
Clinical Need
The effectiveness of screening mammography in women aged over 50 years has been established, yet the issue of screening in women aged 40 to 49 years is still unsettled. The Canadian Task Force of Preventive Services, which sets guidelines for screening mammography for all provinces, supports neither the inclusion nor the exclusion of this screening procedure for 40- to 49-year-old women from the periodic health examination. In addition to this, 2 separate reviews, one conducted in Quebec in 2005 and the other in Alberta in 2000, each concluded that there is an absence of convincing evidence on the effectiveness of screening mammography for women in this age group who are at average risk for breast cancer.
In the United States, there is disagreement among organizations on whether population-based mammography should begin at the age of 40 or 50 years. The National Institutes of Health, the American Association for Cancer Research, and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend against screening women in their 40s, whereas the United States Preventive Services Task Force, the National Cancer Institute, the American Cancer Society, the American College of Radiology, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend screening mammograms for women aged 40 to 49 years. Furthermore, in comparing screening guidelines between Canada and the United States, it is also important to recognize that “standard care” within a socialized medical system such as Canada’s differs from that of the United States. The National Breast Screening Study (NBSS-1), a randomized screening trial conducted in multiple centres across Canada, has shown there is no benefit in mortality from breast cancer from annual mammograms in women randomized between the ages of 40 and 49, relative to standard care (i.e. physical exam and teaching of breast-self examination on entry to the study, with usual community care thereafter).
At present, organized screening programs in Canada systematically screen women starting at 50 years of age, although with a physician’s referral, a screening mammogram is an insured service in Ontario for women under 50 years of age.
International estimates of the epidemiology of breast cancer show that the incidence of breast cancer is increasing for all ages combined, whereas mortality is decreasing, though at a slower rate. These decreasing mortality rates may be attributed to screening and advances in breast cancer therapy over time. Decreases in mortality attributable to screening may be a result of the earlier detection and treatment of invasive cancers, in addition to the increased detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), of which certain subpathologies are less lethal. Evidence from the SEER cancer registry in the United States indicates that the age-adjusted incidence of DCIS has increased almost 10-fold over a 20-year period (from 2.7 to 25 per 100,000).
The incidence of breast cancer is lower in women aged 40 to 49 years than in women aged 50 to 69 years (about 140 per 100,000 versus 500 per 100,000 women, respectively), as is the sensitivity (about 75% versus 85% for women aged under and over 50, respectively) and specificity of mammography (about 80% versus 90% for women aged under and over 50, respectively). The increased density of breast tissue in younger women is mainly responsible for the lower accuracy of this procedure in this age group. In addition, as the proportion of breast cancers that occur before the age of 50 are more likely to be associated with genetic predisposition as compared with those diagnosed in women after the age of 50, mammography may not be an optimal screening method for younger women.
Treatment options vary with the stage of disease (based on tumor size, involvement of surrounding tissue, and number of affected axillary lymph nodes) and its pathology, and may include a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy.
Surgery is the first-line intervention for biopsy confirmed tumours. The subsequent use of radiation, chemotherapy, or hormonal treatments is dependent on the histopathologic characteristics of the tumor and the type of surgery. There is controversy regarding the optimal treatment of DCIS, which is noninvasive.
With such controversy as to the effectiveness of mammography and the potential risk associated with women being overtreated or actual cancers being missed, and the increased risk of breast cancer associated with exposure to annual mammograms over a 10-year period, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee requested this review of screening mammography in women aged 40 to 49 years at average risk for breast cancer. This review is the first of 2 parts and concentrates on the effectiveness of screening mammography (i.e., film mammography, FM) for women at average risk aged 40 to 49 years. The second part will be an evaluation of screening by either magnetic resonance imaging or digital mammography, with the objective of determining the optimal screening modality in these younger women.
Review Strategy
The following questions were asked:
Does screening mammography for women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer reduce breast cancer mortality?
What is the sensitivity and specificity of mammography for this age group?
What are the risks associated with annual screening from ages 40 to 49?
What are the risks associated with false positive and false negative mammography results?
What are the economic considerations if evidence for effectiveness is established?
The Medical Advisory Secretariat followed its standard procedures and searched these electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment.
Keywords used in the search were breast cancer, breast neoplasms, mass screening, and mammography.
In total, the search yielded 6,359 articles specific to breast cancer screening and mammography. This did not include reports on diagnostic mammograms. The search was further restricted to English-language randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published between 1995 and 2005. Excluded were case reports, comments, editorials, and letters, which narrowed the results to 516 articles and previous health technology policy assessments.
These were examined against the criteria outlined below. This resulted in the inclusion of 5 health technology assessments, the Canadian Preventive Services Task Force report, the United States Preventive Services Task Force report, 1 Cochrane review, and 8 RCTs.
Inclusion Criteria
English-language articles, and English and French-language health technology policy assessments, conducted by other organizations, from 1995 to 2005
Articles specific to RCTs of screening mammography of women at average risk for breast cancer that included results for women randomized to studies between the ages of 40 and 49 years
Studies in which women were randomized to screening with or without mammography, although women may have had clinical breast examinations and/or may have been conducting breast self-examination.
UK Age Trial results published in December 2006.
Exclusion Criteria
Observational studies, including those nested within RCTs
RCTs that do not include results on women between the ages of 40 and 49 at randomization
Studies in which mammography was compared with other radiologic screening modalities, for example, digital mammography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound.
Studies in which women randomized had a personal history of breast cancer.
Intervention
Film mammography
Comparators
Within RCTs, the comparison group would have been women randomized to not undergo screening mammography, although they may have had clinical breast examinations and/or have been conducting breast self-examination.
Outcomes of Interest
Breast cancer mortality
Summary of Findings
There is Level 1 Canadian evidence that screening women between the ages of 40 and 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer is not effective, and that the absence of a benefit is sustained over a maximum follow-up period of 16 years.
All remaining studies that reported on women aged under 50 years were based on subset analyses. They provide additional evidence that, when all these RCTs are taken into account, there is no significant reduction in breast cancer mortality associated with screening mammography in women aged 40 to 49 years.
Conclusions
There is Level 1 evidence that screening mammography in women aged 40 to 49 years at average risk for breast cancer is not effective in reducing mortality.
Moreover, risks associated with exposure to mammographic radiation, the increased risk of missed cancers due to lower mammographic sensitivity, and the psychological impact of false positives, are not inconsequential.
The UK Age Trial results published in December 2006 did not change these conclusions.
PMCID: PMC3377515  PMID: 23074501
18.  The clinical effectiveness of fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with palpable breast lesions seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria: A 10-year retrospective study 
Background:
Although open surgical biopsy is the ‘gold standard’ for diagnosis of palpable breast lesions, in recent years two types of minimally invasive breast biopsy techniques, core needle biopsy and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), have become established for the diagnostic evaluation of palpable breast lesions.
Aims:
This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of FNAB as a first line diagnostic procedure in the management of patients with breast lumps in University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, using the suggested thresholds for cytology performance as recommended by the United Kingdom National Health Services Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP).
Settings and Design:
A 10-year retrospective cohort study carried out in the Pathology Department of UCH.
Materials and Methods:
All FNAB and histologically diagnosed cases of breast lesions in the pathology department between January 1996 and December 2005 were reviewed. The cytological diagnoses were then categorized into one of five diagnostic categories in accordance with the recommendations of the NHSBSP.
Results:
The positive predictive value for malignancy was 99.3% with a complete sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity (full) of 94.2%.
Conclusions:
The high quality assurance measures obtained in this study affirms FNAB as a clinically effective diagnostic procedure for breast lesions.
doi:10.4103/0970-9371.83467
PMCID: PMC3159286  PMID: 21897544
Clinical effectiveness; fine needle aspiration biopsy; Nigeria; palpable breast lesions
19.  Disparate E-cadherin mutations in LCIS and associated invasive breast carcinomas 
Molecular Pathology  2001;54(2):91-97.
Aims—The relation between lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and invasive breast cancer is unresolved. In an attempt to establish whether LCIS is a precursor of invasive cancer the mutational status and the expression of E-cadherin was analysed in LCIS and associated invasive breast carcinoma in 23 patients.
Methods—Foci of LCIS and associated invasive carcinoma were individually microdissected from tissue from 23 patients. Exons 4–16 of the E-cadherin gene were analysed using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP); protein expression and the localisation of E-cadherin and β-catenin were assessed with the use of immunohistochemistry.
Results—Immunohistochemistry revealed a lack of expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in most LCIS samples and invasive foci. In all but four cases, the staining pattern was identical in the LCIS and associated invasive areas. When E-cadherin was absent, β-catenin was also undetected, suggesting a lack of expression of alternative classic cadherin members in these lesions. Coincident E-cadherin mutations in LCIS and associated invasive carcinoma were not identified in this series of patients. However, mutational analysis of E-cadherin in multiple foci of carcinoma in situ surrounding an invasive lesion provided evidence to support ductal carcinoma in situ as a precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma.
Conclusion—These data support the hypothesis that LCIS is not a precursor of invasive breast carcinoma but a marker of increased risk of developing invasive disease.
PMCID: PMC1187009  PMID: 11322170
lobular carcinoma in situ; breast; E-cadherin; infiltrating lobular carcinoma
20.  Lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast is not caused by constitutional mutations in the E-cadherin gene 
British Journal of Cancer  2000;82(3):568-570.
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an unusual histological pattern of non-invasive neoplastic disease of the breast occurring predominantly in women aged between 40 and 50 years. LCIS is frequently multicentric and bilateral, and there is evidence that it is associated with an elevated familial risk of breast cancer. Although women with LCIS suffer an increased risk of invasive breast disease, this risk is moderate suggesting that LCIS may result from mutation of a gene or genes conferring a high risk of LCIS, but a lower risk of invasive breast cancer. The high frequency of somatic mutations in E-cadherin in LCIS, coupled with recent reports that germline mutations in this gene can predispose to diffuse gastric cancer, raised the possibility that constitutional E-cadherin mutations may confer susceptibility to LCIS. In order to explore this possibility we have examined a series of 65 LCIS patients for germline E-cadherin mutations. Four polymorphisms were detected but no pathogenic mutations were identified. The results indicate that E-cadherin is unlikely to act as a susceptibility gene for LCIS. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
doi:10.1054/bjoc.1999.0965
PMCID: PMC2363330  PMID: 10682667
LCIS; germline; E-cadherin mutations
21.  Routine breast screening for women aged 65–69: results from evaluation of the demonstration sites 
British Journal of Cancer  2001;85(9):1289-1294.
Routine programme data and specially designed surveys from 3 demonstration sites were analysed to determine the implications of extending the NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP), to include routine invitations for women up to 69 years. All women aged 65–69 and registered with GPs in these areas received routine invitations for breast screening along with those aged 50–64. Overall uptake was 71% in women aged 65–69 compared with 78% in younger women, but was ≥ 90% in both groups who had previously attended within 5 years. Recall rates were lower for older women, but with a higher positive predictive value for cancer. The percentages of invasive cancer in different prognostic categories were similar in the 2 age groups. Older women took no longer to screen than younger women. The costs per woman invited or per woman screened were also similar to those for women aged 50–64, whilst the cost per cancer detected was some 34% lower in older women. Breast screening is as cost effective for women aged 65–69 as for those aged 50–64, with a higher cancer detection rate balancing shorter life expectancy. The proposed extension to the national programme will have considerable workforce implications for the NHSBSP and require additional resources. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign
doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.2047
PMCID: PMC2375256  PMID: 11720462
breast cancer; screening; older women
22.  An ongoing case-control study to evaluate the NHS breast screening programme 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:596.
Background
In England, a national breast screening programme (NHSBSP) has been in place since 1988, and assessment of its impact on breast cancer incidence and mortality is essential to ensure that the programme is indeed doing more good than harm. This article describes large observation studies designed to estimate the effects of the current programme in terms of the benefits on breast cancer incidence and mortality and detrimental effect in terms of overdiagnosis. The case-control design of the cervical screening programme evaluation was highly effective in informing policy on screening intervals and age ranges. We propose innovative selection of cases and controls and gathering of additional variables to address new outcomes of interest and develop new methodologies to control for potential sources of bias.
Methods/Design
Traditional case-control evaluation of breast screening uses women who have died from breast cancer as cases, and women known to be alive at the time of case death as controls. Breast screening histories prior to the cases’ date of first diagnosis are compared. If breast screening is preventing mortality from breast cancer, cases will be characterised by a lesser screening history than controls. All deaths and incident cases of primary breast cancer in England within each 2-year study period will be included in this ongoing evaluation. Cases will be age- and area-matched to controls and variables related to cancer treatment and breast tumour pathology will be obtained to investigate the interplay between screening and treatment, and the effect of screening on incidence of advanced stage disease. Screening attendance at other national screening programmes will also be collected to derive superior adjustment for self-selection bias.
The study is registered and has received full ethics approval.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-596
PMCID: PMC3866937  PMID: 24330588
Breast cancer; Case–control; Incidence; Mortality; Overdiagnosis; Advanced stage; Bias
23.  E-cadherin inactivation in lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast: an early event in tumorigenesis. 
British Journal of Cancer  1997;76(9):1131-1133.
In breast cancer, inactivating point mutations in the E-cadherin gene are frequently found in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) but never in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) adjacent to ILC has previously been shown to lack E-cadherin expression, but whether LCIS without adjacent invasive carcinoma also lacks E-cadherin expression and whether the gene mutations present in ILC are already present in LCIS is not known. We report here that E-cadherin expression is absent in six cases of LCIS and present in 150 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), both without an adjacent invasive component. Furthermore, using mutation analysis, we could demonstrate the presence of the same truncating mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type E-cadherin in the LCIS component and in the adjacent ILC. Our results indicate that E-cadherin is a very early target gene in lobular breast carcinogenesis and plays a tumour-suppressive role, additional to the previously suggested invasion-suppressive role.
Images
PMCID: PMC2228132  PMID: 9365159
24.  Chemoprevention of breast cancer: A joint guideline from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the Canadian Breast Cancer Initiative's Steering Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer 
Objective
To assist women and their physicians in making decisions regarding the prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen and raloxifene.
Evidence
Systematic review of English-language literature published from 1966 to August 2000 retrieved from MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, Current Contents and Cochrane Library.
Values
The strength of evidence was evaluated using the methods of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the Steering Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer.
Recommendations
· Women at low or normal risk of breast cancer (Gail risk assessment index < 1.66% at 5 years): There is fair evidence to recommend against the use of tamoxifen to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at low or normal risk of the disease (grade D recommendation). · Women at higher risk of breast cancer (Gail index ≥ 1.66% at 5 years): Evidence supports counselling women at high risk on the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer prevention with tamoxifen (grade B recommendation). The cutoff for defining high risk is arbitrary, but the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study included women with a 5-year projected risk of at least 1.66% according to the Gail index, and the average risk of patients entered in the trial was 3.2%. Examples of high-risk clinical situations are 2 first-degree relatives with breast cancer, a history of lobular carcinoma in situ or a history of atypical hyperplasia. As the risk of breast cancer increases above 5% and the benefits outweigh the harms, a woman may choose to take tamoxifen. The duration of tamoxifen use in such situations is 5 years based on the results from trials of tamoxifen involving women with early breast cancer. If a woman raises concerns or has already been evaluated and is calculated to be at high risk, then individuals experienced and skilled in counselling may discuss the potential benefits and harms of tamoxifen use.
Important additional issues
· Prevention of breast cancer with raloxifene: Current evidence does not support recommending chemoprevention of breast cancer with raloxifene outside of a clinical trial setting. · Screening using the Gail risk assessment index: This index was the main eligibility criterion for enrolling women in the one study that showed potential benefit from chemoprevention. However, it has not been evaluated for use as a routine screening or case-finding instrument; validation of the index is required. Overall, current evidence does not support a shift to its routine use in physicians' offices for screening or case finding. However, when a woman or her physician is concerned about the woman's increased risk of breast cancer, the index can be a useful tool in deciding whether to pursue an in-depth discussion of the potential benefits and harms of chemoprevention. Hence, the approach to identifying women at higher risk who warrant counselling and shared decision-making will vary across practices. (The risk assessment index is available online at http://bcra.nci.nih.gov/brc/). [A patient version of these guidelines appears in Appendix 2.]
Validation
The authors' original text was revised by both the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the Steering Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer. The final document reflects a consensus of these contributors.
Sponsor
Health Canada.
Completion date
February 2001.
PMCID: PMC81154  PMID: 11450210
25.  Imaging in situ breast carcinoma (with or without an invasive component) with technetium-99m pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid and technetium-99m 2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile scintimammography 
Breast Cancer Research  2004;7(1):R33-R45.
Introduction
The aim of the study was to retrospectively define specific features of the technetium-99m pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-(V)DMSA) and technetium-99m 2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-Sestamibi [99mTc-MIBI]) distribution in ductal breast carcinoma in situ and lobular breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS/LCIS), in relation to mammographic, histological and immunohistochemical parameters.
Materials and methods
One hundred and two patients with suspicious palpation or mammographic findings were submitted preoperatively to scintimammography (a total of 72 patients with 99mTc-(V)DMSA and a total of 75 patients with 99mTc-Sestamibi, 45 patients receiving both radiotracers). Images were acquired at 10 min and 60 min, and were evaluated for a pattern of diffuse radiotracer accumulation. The tumor-to-background ratios were correlated (T-pair test) with mammographic, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics.
Results
Histology confirmed malignancy in 46/102 patients: 20/46 patients had DCIS/LCIS, with or without coexistent invasive lesions, and 26/46 patients had isolated invasive carcinomas. Diffuse 99mTc-(V)DMSA accumulation was noticed in 18/19 cases and 99mTc-Sestamibi in 6/13 DCIS/LCIS cases. Epithelial hyperplasia demonstrated a similar accumulation pattern. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each tracer were calculated. Solely for 99mTc-(V)DMSA, the tumor-to-background ratio was significantly higher at 60 min than at 10 min and the diffuse uptake was significantly associated with suspicious microcalcifications, with the cell proliferation index ≥ 40% and with c-erbB-2 ≥ 10%.
Conclusion
99mTc-(V)DMSA showed high sensitivity and 99mTc-Sestamibi showed high specificity in detecting in situ breast carcinoma (99mTc-(V)DMSA especially in cases with increased cell proliferation), and these radiotracers could provide clinicians with preoperative information not always obtainable by mammography.
doi:10.1186/bcr948
PMCID: PMC1064097  PMID: 15642168
ductal carcinoma in situ; extensive intraductal carcinoma; lobular breast carcinoma in situ; scintimammography; 99mTc-(V)DMSA; 99mTc-Sestamibi

Results 1-25 (802044)