Prevention and control of hypertension are critical in reducing morbidity and mortality attributable to cardiovascular diseases. Awareness of hypertension is a pre-condition for control and prevention. This study estimated the proportion of adults who were hypertensive, were aware of their hypertension and those that achieved adequate control.
We conducted a community based cross sectional survey among people≥15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda. People had their blood pressure measured and were interviewed about their social-demographic characteristics. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or previous diagnosis of hypertension. Participants were classified as hypertensive aware if they reported that they had previously been informed by a health professional that they had hypertension. Control of hypertension among those aware was if systolic blood pressure was <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure was <90 mmHg.
The age standardized prevalence of hypertension was 27.2% (95% CI 25.9–28.5) similar among females (27.7%) and males (26.4%). Prevalence increased linearly with age, and age effect was more marked among females. Among the hypertensive participants, awareness was 28.2% (95% CI 25.4–31.0) higher among females (37.0%) compared to males (12.4%). Only 9.4% (95% CI 7.5–11.1) of all hypertensive participants were controlled. Control was higher among females (13.2%) compared to males (2.5%).
More than a quarter of the adult population had hypertension but awareness and control was very low. Measures are needed to enhance control, awareness and prevention of hypertension.
To estimate the prevalence of hypertension through a screening campaign in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, and examine its association with lifestyle factors.
Research Design and Methods:
In 2004, all Saudi residents in the Eastern Province, aged 30 years and above were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension. Blood pressure was recorded by trained nurses using a mercury sphygmomanometer, based on the recommendations of (JNC- VII). A positive screening test for hypertension was defined as systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure of ≥ 140 and 90 mm Hg, respectively. Subjects who had positive screening tests were asked to come on the following day for a confirmation of the reading. Hypertension was considered if there was a persistent reading of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure of ≥ 140 and 90 mmHg after confirmation, or when there was history of a previous diagnosis.
21% of the sample was positive from previous history or screening. After confirmation, the prevalence of hypertension dropped to 15.6%, pre-hypertension was 3.7%, whereas the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was 2.8%. The prevalence rose with age. It was higher in women than in men of all age groups and in all sectors of the eastern province, although the mean systolic and diastolic BP was higher in men than women. It was higher with lower education, in widows and divorcees than others (P<0.0001).
The yield of the screening for abnormal blood pressure was high. Systematic follow-up of subjects with abnormal screening results is vital.
Hypertension; Screening; Saudi Arabia
Minorities have a higher prevalence of hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which contributes to racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality in the US. Many modifiable health behaviors have been associated with improved blood pressure control, but it is unclear how racial/ethnic differences in these behaviors are related to the observed disparities in blood pressure control.
Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 21,489 US adults aged >20 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001–2006. Secondary analyses were conducted among those with a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension. Blood pressure control was defined as systolic values <140 mmHg and diastolic values <90 mmHg (or <130 mmHg and <80 mmHg among diabetics, respectively).
In primary analyses, Non-Hispanic Blacks had 90% higher odds of poorly controlled blood pressure compared to non-Hispanic Whites after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics (p <0.001). In secondary analyses among hypertensive subjects, non-Hispanic Blacks and Mexican-Americans had 40% higher odds of uncontrolled blood pressure compared to non-Hispanic Whites after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics (p <0.001). For both analyses, the racial/ethnic differences in blood pressure control persisted even after further adjustment for modifiable health behaviors, which included medication adherence in secondary analyses (p <0.001 for both analyses).
Although population-level adoption of healthy behaviors may contribute to reduction of the societal burden of cardiovascular disease in general, these findings suggest that racial/ethnic differences in some health behaviors do not explain the disparities in hypertension prevalence and control.
Hypertension; blood pressure; health disparities; minority health; health behavior; exercise; diet
The effect of commonly used oral contraceptives (OCs) on blood pressure is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between OCs use and blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension in a population-based sample of Korean women.
A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 3356 participants aged 35–55 years collected in the 2007–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. OC use and demographic characteristics were obtained from participants using a questionnaire, and blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer.
Longer duration of OC use was positively associated with increasing levels of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p for trend <0.001). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio (OR) of hypertension was significantly increased in longer-term (>24 months) OC users (OR 1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–3.73) compared with those who had never used OCs. Additionally, use of OCs >24 months was associated with increased odds of prehypertension (adjusted OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.28–3.90) and hypertension or prehypertension (adjusted OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.37–3.32).
This study found a statistically significant association between OC use and blood pressure or hypertension among Korean women.
Oral contraceptive; Blood pressure; Hypertension; Prehypertension; KNHANES
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It affects approximately 18.0% of Iranian adults. This study aimed to estimate age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension and its control among Iranian persons older 19 years of age. It also tried to find and socioeconomic factors associated with hypertension control in Iranian population.
In Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) subjects were selected by multistage random sampling. The participants completed questionnaires containing demographic information, lifestyle habits, medical history, and consumption of relevant medications, especially antihypertensive agents. Income, marital status, and educational level were considered as socioeconomic factors. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medications. Controlled hypertension was considered as systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg among hypertensive subjects.
The prevalence of hypertension and controlled hypertension was 18.9% and 20.9%, respectively. We found significant relationships between hypertension and marital status, education, and income. At age ≥ 65 years old, odds ratio (OR) was 19.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.01-24.28] for hypertension. Middle family income (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58-0.87) and education level of 6-12 years (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25-0.35) were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension (P = 0.001). Among subjects aging 65 years old or higher, the OR of controlled hypertension was 2.64 (95% CI: 1.61-4.33). Married subjects had a higher OR for controlled hypertension (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.36-3.52). Obesity had no significant relationships with controlled hypertension.
The IHHP data showed significant relationships between some socioeconomic factors and controlled hypertension. Therefore, as current control rates for hypertension in Iran are clearly unacceptable, we recommend preventive measures to control hypertension in all social strata of the Iranian population.
Socioeconomic Factor; High Blood Pressure; Control
Hypertension is both a cause and consequence of chronic kidney disease, but the prevalence of chronic kidney disease throughout the diagnostic spectrum of blood pressure has not been established. We determined the prevalence of chronic kidney disease within blood pressure categories in 17,794 adults surveyed by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999–2006. Diagnosed hypertension was defined as self-reported provider diagnosis (n=5,832); undiagnosed hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, without report of provider diagnosis (n=3,046); pre-hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥120 and < 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 and < 90 mmHg (n=3,719); and normal was defined as systolic blood pressure < 120 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 80 mmHg (n=5,197). Chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate 15–60 ml/min/1.73m2 or urinary albumin-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among those with pre- and undiagnosed hypertension was 17.3% and 22.0%, respectively, compared to 27.5% with diagnosed hypertension and 13.4% with normal blood pressure, after adjustment for age, gender and race in multivariable logistic regression. This pattern persisted with varying definitions of kidney disease; macro-albuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio > 300 mg/g) had the strongest association with increasing blood pressure category [odds ratio 2.37 (95% confidence interval, 2.00–2.81)]. Chronic kidney disease is prevalent in undiagnosed and pre-hypertension. Earlier identification and treatment of both these conditions may prevent or delay morbidity and mortality from chronic kidney disease.
epidemiology; albuminuria; renal; prevention; awareness; surveillance
Disparities in hypertension between African Americans and non-Hispanic whites have been well-documented, yet an explanation for this persistent disparity remains elusive. Since African Americans and non-Hispanic white Americans tend to live in very different social environments, it is not known whether race disparities in hypertension would persist if non-Hispanic whites and African Americans were exposed to similar social environments. We compared data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-SWB (EHDIC-SWB) Study with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 to determine if race disparities in hypertension in the USA were attenuated in EHDIC-SWB, which is based in a raciallyintegrated community without race differences in income. Hypertension was defined as systolic Blood Pressure (BP)>= 140 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and/or diastolic BP >= 90 mm Hg or respondent’s report of taking antihypertensive medications. Of the 1408 study participants, 835 (59.3%) were African American, 628 (44.6%) were men, and the mean age was 40.6 years. After adjustment for potential confounders, various analytic models from EHDIC-SWB and NHANES 1999–2004 data, we found the race odds ratio was between 29.0% and 34% smaller in the EHDIC-SWB sample. We conclude that social and environmental exposures explained a substantial proportion of the race difference in hypertension.
Racial disparities; hypertension; residential segregation; confounding race and socioeconomic status (SES); Integrated community; USA
Automated blood pressure (BP) devices are used by many hypertensive patients in Hong Kong, with or without medical advice. At two community clinics, we invited hypertensive patients aged between 40 and 70 years who used such a device to fill in a questionnaire and to have four sets of BP measurements, automated and mercury, at two visits. Of 290 hypertensive patients 120 fulfilled the criteria, and 73 of these agreed to participate.
53 devices measured arm BP, 21 measured forearm BP. The agreement between the mercury sphygmomanometer and the automated devices was poor, with average differences of 9.5 mmHg for systolic and 9.4 mmHg for diastolic and no clear advantage for either site of measurement. As a means of screening for BP >140/90 mmHg the sensitivity of the automated devices was 81% and the specificity was 80%. There were large variations in how often and under what circumstances the devices had been used. One-fifth of the devices had been acquired on medical advice but only 11% of the participants were aware of the three important conditions for operating such devices.
Discussion of automated devices, their role and proper use, should now be part of routine hypertensive care.
Several studies revealed that low calcium intake is related to high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is high in Koreans along with their low dietary calcium consumption. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the status of calcium intake between the hypertension and normotension groups and to investigate the correlation between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure, blood lipid parameters, and blood/urine oxidative stress indices. A total of 166 adult subjects participated in this study and were assigned to one of two study groups: a hypertension group (n = 83) who had 140 mmHg or higher in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or 90 mmHg or higher in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and an age- and sex-matched normotension group (n = 83, 120 mmHg or less SBP and 80 mmHg or less DBP). The hypertension group consumed 360.5 mg calcium per day, which was lower than that of the normotension group (429.9 mg) but not showing significant difference. In the hypertension group, DBP had a significant negative correlation with plant calcium (P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake. In the normotension group, total calcium and animal calcium intake were significantly and positively correlated with serum triglycerides. No significant relationship was found between calcium intake and blood/urine oxidative stress indices in both groups. Overall, these data suggest reconsideration of food sources for calcium consumption in management of the blood pressure or blood lipid profiles in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects.
Dietary calcium intake; hypertension; oxidative stress indices; plant calcium
Few studies have been conducted on blood pressure monitors and their use at high altitude. This study is the first to evaluate an automated blood pressure device at high altitude following a standard validation protocol. The Omron HEM-7201 upper arm automatic blood pressure monitor was tested for accuracy in Lhasa, Tibet, China (3650 m above sea level) according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 (ESH-IP2). Thirty-three participants received 9–10 sequential blood pressure measurements alternating from a mercury sphygmomanometer and the device. The mean device-observer measurement difference was 1.0 ± 5.9 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and −3.1 ± 4.6 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Of the 99 measurement pairs analyzed, 72, 90, and 97 device readings were within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, of the observer measurements for SBP, and 68, 92, and 99 readings for DBP. The number of participants with at least two out of three measurements within 5mmHg was 27 for SBP and 25 for DBP. Three participants had no measurements within 5 mmHg for SBP or DBP. The Omron HEM-7201 passes the ESH-IP2 validation criteria and can therefore be recommended for use in adults in this setting.
blood pressure; high altitude; International Protocol; Tibet; validation studies
Context and objective
Epidemiological studies show the apparent link between excessive alcohol consumption and hypertension. However, the association between alcohol intake and blood pressure among non-hypertensive individuals is scarcely examined.
This analysis included participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who were aged 20 to 84 years without a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, hypertension or pregnancy, whose systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) was lower than 140/90 mmHg, who were not on antihypertensive medication, and who consumed 12 drinks or more during the past 12 months (N = 3957). Average drinking volume (average alcohol intake per day), usual drinking quantity (drinks per day when drinking) and frequency of binge drinking were used to predict SBP/DBP. Covariates included age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, smoking status, average physical activity level, and daily hours spent on TV/ video/computer.
Drinking volume was directly associated with higher SBP in a linear dependent manner (an increment of 10 g of alcohol per day increased average SBP by 1 mmHg among both men and women). Drinking above the US Dietary Guidelines (men more than two drinks and women more than one drink per drinking day) was associated with higher SBP. Binge drinking was associated with both higher SBP and higher DBP. Average intake greater than two drinks per day was particularly associated with higher DBP among women (P = 0.0003).
This analysis from a population-based survey indicates a direct association between higher alcohol consumption and a higher prevalence of prehypertension among non-hypertensive drinkers.
blood pressure; drinking; ethanol; life style; prehypertension
High sugar intake has been suggested to be related to hypertension. To examine the associations between intakes of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and the prevalence of hypertension, we used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. A total of 3,044 participants aged ≥19 years were included. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariate logistic regression model. Prevalent hypertension cases were defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of ≥90 mmHg. In the multivariate adjusted models, we observed no association between sugar consumption and the prevalence of hypertension. In the model where we adjusted for age, gender, NHANES period and BMI, those who consumed ≥3 times per day of sugar-sweetened beverages had an OR of 1.87 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.06-3.26) for the prevalence of hypertension compared with those who consumed <1 time per month of these beverages. Further adjustment for other factors attenuated the association; ORs (95% CIs) were 1.21 (0.81-1.81) for 1 time per month-<3 times per week, 1.39 (0.86-2.24) for 3 times per week-<1 times per day, 1.26 (0.80-1.98) for 1-<3 times per day, and 1.50 (0.84-2.68) for ≥3 times per day of sugar-sweetened beverages compared to the <1 time per month (p for trend = 0.33). In conclusion, we found that sugar consumption was not associated with the prevalence of hypertension, however there was suggestion that high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with high prevalence of hypertension in the US.
Hypertension; Dietary sugars; Sugar-sweetened beverages; NHANES
OBJECTIVE: 1) To determine whether African-American physicians, compared to caucasian physicians, were at increased risk to develop hypertension; and 2) to determine whether physicians' knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors influenced their pattern of exercise. DESIGN: A mailed survey of members of the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Medical Association (NMA) was completed to assess health status and plans for retirement. RESULTS: High-normal blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure of 85-89 mmHg. Mild (stage-1) hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of 140-159 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of 90-99 mmHg. Gender (male), age, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly correlated with elevated levels of selected blood pressure measures. Using regression analysis to control for gender, age, and BMI, ethnicity was identified as a fourth factor accounting for elevated blood pressure. NMA physicians had 3.25 times the risk of having systolic blood pressure in the mild (stage-1) hypertension range, 5.78 times the risk for blood pressure in the high-normal diastolic hypertension range, and 5.19 times the risk for blood pressure in the mild (stage-1) diastolic hypertension range. Medical specialty and type of psychological support were not significant predictors of elevated blood pressure. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that African-American physicians may be at an increased risk to develop abnormal blood pressure, compared to caucasian physicians, potentially affecting the number of physicians available to minority communities.
Hypertension is a growing public health problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. However, its prevention and control has not yet received due attention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of hypertension among adults in Gondar city, North-West Ethiopia.
A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2012 in Gondar city. Participants aged 35 years and older were recruited using multi-stage random sampling technique. Data were collected by face-to-face interview technique after verbal informed consent. Additionally, weight, height and Blood Pressure (BP) of participants were measured following standard procedures. Hypertension was defined as having Systolic BP ≥140 mmHG or Diastolic BP≥ 90mmHG or reported use of regular anti-hypertensive medications prescribed by professionals for raised BP. Data were collected by clinical nurses and then entered into a computer using Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multiple logistic regressions were fitted and Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to identify associated factors.
A total of 679 participants were included in this study. About one in –five participants (21.0%) were aged 65 years or older. Obesity among all participants was 5.6%. Hundred ninety two (28.3%) were hypertensive of whom more than a third (37.0%) did not know they had hypertension. Family history of hypertension (AOR = 2.71, 95%CI; 1.37-5.36), obesity (AOR = 5.50, 95%CI; 2.07-14.62), self reported diabetes (AOR = 4.15, 95%CI; 1.77-9.72), age ≥ 55 years (AOR=3.33, 95%CI; 1.88-5.90) and not continuously walking for 10 minutes per day (AOR = 2.86, 95%CI; 1.15-7.12) were factors associated with hypertension.
There was a high prevalence of hypertension probably indicating a hidden epidemic in this community. Age ≥ 55 years, obesity, family history of hypertension, physical inactivity and self reported diabetes were associated with hypertension. Hence, we recommend the design and implementation of community based screening programs.
Hypertension; Prevalence; Blood Pressure; Ethiopia
This study aimed at investigating whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an independent risk factor for incident hypertension among middle-aged Japanese subjects with optimal blood pressure (OBP).
This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2943 non-diabetic and non-hypertensive subjects aged 40–64 years, who participated in a voluntary health check-up program during the baseline (1998–2002) and follow-up periods (2002–2006). A multiple logistic regression model was utilized to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of incident hypertension among men and women with IFG and OBP. OBP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) <120 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <80 mmHg, with no known history of hypertension. In this study, hypertension was defined as SBP ≥140 mmHg and DBP ≥90 mmHg or by a self-reported clinical diagnosis of hypertension. After the mean follow-up period of 5.6 years, the incidence of hypertension in men and women was 5.7% (73/1270) and 3.8% (62/1673), respectively. The age-adjusted ORs for incident hypertension in men and women with IFG were 1.95 (95% CI, 1.21–3.15) and 3.54 (95% CI, 2.00–6.27), respectively. After adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and uric acid, the ORs for hypertension were 1.66 (95% CI; 1.02–2.70) for men and 2.62 (95% CI, 1.45–4.73) for women.
The study results show that IFG may act as an independent risk factor for developing hypertension in individuals with OBP.
Fasting plasma glucose; Impaired fasting glucose; Optimal blood pressure; Hypertension
Dietary intake among other lifestyle factors influence blood pressure. We examined the associations of an “a priori” diet score with incident high normal blood pressure (HNBP; systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120–139 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 80–89 mmHg and no antihypertensive medications) and hypertension (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg, DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication). We used proportional hazards regression to evaluate this score in quintiles (Q) and each food group making up the score relative to incident HNBP or hypertension over nine years in the Atherosclerosis Risk of Communities (ARIC) study of 9913 African-American and Caucasian adults aged 45–64 years and free of HNBP or hypertension at baseline. Incidence of HNBP varied from 42.5% in white women to 44.1% in black women; and incident hypertension from 26.1% in white women to 40.8% in black women. Adjusting for demographics and CVD risk factors, the “a priori” food score was inversely associated with incident hypertension; but not HNBP. Compared to Q1, the relative hazards of hypertension for the food score Q2–Q5 were 0.97 (0.87–1.09), 0.91 (0.81–1.02), 0.91 (0.80–1.03), and 0.86 (0.75–0.98); ptrend = 0.01. This inverse relation was largely attributable to greater intake of dairy products and nuts, and less meat. These findings support the 2010 Dietary Guidelines to consume more dairy products and nuts, but suggest a reduction in meat intake.
diet pattern; healthy food score; hypertension; high normal blood pressure
The prevalence of hypertension has increased over the past decade in many developed and developing countries, including China. This increase may be associated with changes in lifestyle, including dietary patterns. We evaluated the association of dietary patterns with blood pressure (BP) by using data from a large, population-based cohort study of middle-aged and elderly Chinese men, the Shanghai Men's Health Study. This cross-sectional study includes 39,252 men who reported no prior history of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, or stroke nor use of antihypertensive drugs at study enrollment. Three dietary patterns, ‘vegetable’, ‘fruit and milk’, and ‘meat’, were derived using factor analysis. The fruit and milk diet was inversely associated with both systolic and diastolic BP (ptrend<0.001). The adjusted mean systolic BP was 2.9mmHg lower (95% CI:-3.4, -2.4) and diastolic BP was 1.7mmHg lower (95% CI: -2.0, -1.4) for men in the highest quintile of the ‘fruit and milk’ pattern compared with men in the lowest quintile. This inverse association was more evident among heavy drinkers; the highest quintile of the ‘fruit and milk’ pattern was associated with 4.1mmHg reduction in systolic BP versus 2.0mmHg reduction among non-drinkers (Pinteraction=0.003) compared to the lowest quintile. The corresponding reductions in diastolic BP were 2.0mmHg versus 1.3mmHg (Pinteraction=0.011). The ‘fruit and milk’ pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of both pre-hypertension and hypertension, and the associations appeared to be stronger among drinkers. Results of this study suggest an important role for diet in the prevention of hypertension.
dietary patterns; blood pressure; hypertension; Chinese men; alcohol consumption; smoking
Associations between body mass index (BMI) and dietary patterns and health conditions were explored in a population-based multiethnic sample of centenarians from northern Georgia. BMI ≤20 and ≥25 was prevalent in 30.9% and 25.3% of study participants, respectively. In a series of logistic regression analyses controlled for gender and place of residence, the probability of having BMI ≥25 was increased by being black versus white and having a low citrus fruit, noncitrus fruit, orange/yellow vegetable or total fruit and vegetable intake. The probability of having BMI ≤20 was not associated with dietary intake. When controlled for race, gender, residence, and total fruit and vegetable intake, BMI ≥25 was an independent risk factor for diabetes or having a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, whereas BMI ≤20 was a risk factor for anemia. Given the many potential adverse consequences of under- and overweight, efforts are needed to maintain a healthy weight, even in the oldest old.
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. One-quarter of the adult Canadian population has hypertension, and more than 90% of the population is estimated to develop hypertension if they live an average lifespan. Reductions in dietary sodium additives significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and population reductions in dietary sodium are recommended by major scientific and public health organizations.
To estimate the reduction in hypertension prevalence and specific hypertension management cost savings associated with a population-wide reduction in dietary sodium additives.
Based on data from clinical trials, reducing dietary sodium additives by 1840 mg/day would result in a decrease of 5.06 mmHg (systolic) and 2.7 mmHg (diastolic) blood pressures. Using Canadian Heart Health Survey data, the resulting reduction in hypertension was estimated. Costs of laboratory testing and physician visits were based on 2001 to 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan data, and the number of physician visits and costs of medications for patients with hypertension were taken from 2003 IMS Canada. To estimate the reduction in total physician visits and laboratory costs, current estimates of aware hypertensive patients in Canada were used from the Canadian Community Health Survey.
Reducing dietary sodium additives may decrease hypertension prevalence by 30%, resulting in one million fewer hypertensive patients in Canada, and almost double the treatment and control rate. Direct cost savings related to fewer physician visits, laboratory tests and lower medication use are estimated to be approximately $430 million per year. Physician visits and laboratory costs would decrease by 6.5%, and 23% fewer treated hypertensive patients would require medications for control of blood pressure.
Based on these estimates, lowering dietary sodium additives would lead to a large reduction in hypertension prevalence and result in health care cost savings in Canada.
Blood pressure; Cost-benefit analysis; Diet; Hypertension; Population health; Prevention; Sodium
The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of hypertension among Chinese adults.
Data were obtained from sphygmomanometer measurements and a questionnaire administered to 46239 Chinese adults ≥20 years of age who participated in the 2007–2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication.
A total of 26.6% of Chinese adults had hypertension, and a significantly greater number of men were hypertensive than women (29.2% vs 24.1%, p<0.001). The age-specific prevalence of hypertension was 13.0%, 36.7%, and 56.5% among persons aged 20 to 44 years (young people), 45 to 64 years (middle-aged people), and ≥65 years (elderly people), respectively. In economically developed regions, the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among rural residents than among urban residents (31.3% vs 29.2%, p = 0.001). Among women or individuals who lived in the northern region, the disparity in the prevalence of hypertension between urban and rural areas disappeared (women: 24.0% vs. 24.0%, p = 0.942; northern region: 31.6% vs. 31.2%, p = 0.505). Among hypertensive patients, 45.0% were aware of their condition, 36.2% were treated, and 11.1% were adequately controlled.
The prevalence of hypertension in China is increasing. The trend of an increase in prevalence is striking in young people and rural populations. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control are poor. Public health efforts for further improving awareness and enhancing effective control are urgently needed in China, especially in emerging populations.
Chronic arsenic exposure and its association with hypertension in adults are inconclusive and this cross-sectional study investigated the association. The study was conducted between January and July 2009 among 1,004 participants from 1,682 eligible women and men aged ≥30 years living in rural Bangladesh who had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (systolic hypertension) and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg (diastolic hypertension). Pulse pressure was calculated by deducting diastolic from systolic pressure and considered to be increased when the difference was ≥55 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.1–8.3%). After adjustment for other factors, no excess risk of hypertension was observed for arsenic exposure >50μg/L or to that of arsenic exposure as quartiles or as duration. Arsenic concentration as quartiles and >50 μg/L did show a strong relationship with increased pulse pressure (adjusted OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.46–8.57), as did arsenic exposure for ≥10 years (adjusted OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 1.41–19.51). Arsenic as quartiles showed a dose response relationship with increased pulse pressure. Our study suggests an association between higher drinking water arsenic or duration and pulse pressure, but not hypertension.
arsenic; drinking-water; hypertension; pulse-pressure; Bangladesh
Selenium is an antioxidant micronutrient with potential interest for cardiovascular disease prevention. Few studies have evaluated the association between selenium and hypertension, with inconsistent findings. We explored the relationship of serum selenium concentrations with blood pressure and hypertension in a representative sample of the US population.
Methods and Results
Cross-sectional analysis of 2,638 adults ≥40 year old who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Mean serum selenium was 137.1 µg/L. The multivariable adjusted differences (95% confidence interval) in blood pressure levels comparing the highest (≥150 µg/L) to the lowest (<122 µg/L) quintile of serum selenium were 4.3 (1.3, 7.4), 1.6 (−0.5, 3.7) and 2.8 (0.8, 4.7) mmHg for systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure, respectively. The corresponding odds ratio (95% CI) for hypertension was 1.73 (1.18, 2.53). In spline regression models, blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension increased with increasing selenium concentrations up to 160 µg/L.
High serum selenium concentrations were associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. These findings call for a thorough evaluation of the risks and benefits associated with high selenium status in the US.
Selenium; blood pressure; hypertension; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NHANES
We examined the relationship between hypertension subtype and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality in Chinese adults.
Methods and Results
We conducted a prospective cohort study in a nationally representative sample of 169,871 Chinese men and women aged 40 years and older. Data on systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and other variables were obtained at a baseline examination in 1991 using standard protocols. Follow-up evaluation was conducted in 1999–2000, with a response rate of 93.4%. Hypertension subtypes were defined as combined systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH: SBP≥140 and DBP≥90 mm Hg), isolated systolic hypertension (ISH: SBP≥140 and DBP<90 mm Hg), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH: SBP<140 and DBP≥90 mm Hg), and two categories of treated hypertension (SBP<140 and DBP<90 mm Hg or SBP≥140 and/or DBP≥90 mm Hg). After excluding participants with missing BP values, 169,577 adults were included in the analyses. Compared to normotensives, relative risks (95% confidence interval) of CVD incidence and mortality were 2.73 (2.60–2.86) and 2.53 (2.39–2.68) for SDH, 1.78 (1.69–1.87) and 1.68 (1.58–1.78) for ISH, 1.59 (1.43–1.76) and 1.45 (1.27–1.65) for IDH, 2.01 (1.64–2.48) and 1.61 (1.28–2.03) for treated hypertension with SBP<140 and DBP<90 mm Hg, and 3.37 (3.07–3.69) and 2.88 (2.60–3.19) for treated hypertension with SBP≥140 and/or DBP≥90 mm Hg, respectively, after adjustment for important covariables.
Our results indicate that all hypertension subtypes are associated with significantly increased risk of CVD in Chinese adults. Primary prevention of hypertension should be a public health priority in the Chinese population.
hypertension; cardiovascular disease; relative risk; Chinese
To determine whether high blood pressure (BP) levels are associated with faster decline in specific cognitive domains.
Prospective longitudinal cohort.
Uniform Data Set of the National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging Alzheimer's Disease Centers.
One thousand three hundred eighty-five participants with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and measured BP values at baseline and two annual follow-up visits.
Neuropsychological test scores and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR Sum) score.
Participants with MCI with two or three annual occasions of high BP values (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg) had significantly faster decline on neuropsychological measures of visuomotor sequencing, set shifting, and naming than those who were normotensive on all three occasions. High systolic BP values were associated as well with faster decline on the CDR Sum score.
Hypertension is associated with faster cognitive decline in persons at risk for dementia.
cerebrovascular disease; dementia; hypertension; mild cognitive impairment; neuropsychology
Hypertension is one of the most important clinical conditions affecting older people. Its prevalence in this group of subjects is above 60% and continues to grow. Isolated systolic hypertension accounts for the majority of cases as systolic blood pressure increases with advancing age, while diastolic blood pressure remains unchanged or even decreases. Nowadays hypertension is a well established risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular disease among older people and its treatment is considered mandatory. The general recommended blood pressure goal in uncomplicated hypertension is less than 140/90 mmHg, even if this target in older people is based mainly on expert opinion. All patients should receive nonpharmacological treatment, in particular reduction in excess body weight when body mass index is greater than 26 kg/m2 and dietary salt restriction. Older patients with hypertension may also benefit from smoking cessation, physical activity and alcohol restriction. In relation to drug therapy, a low-dose thiazide diuretic could be a good first step. Other first-line drugs are long-acting calcium channel blockers, generally dihydropyridines, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers. The HYVET study showed a specific protective effect of indapamide with or without perindopril in people older than 80 years. Since monotherapy normalizes blood pressure in only 40–50% of cases, a combination of two or more drugs is often required. Moreover the addiction of a second drug may reduce the dose-related adverse effects of the first one. Finally, compliance with treatment should always be achieved by giving complete information to patients and simplifying the drug regimen as much as possible.
elderly; hypertension; indapamide; perindopril; treatment