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1.  A Train-the-Trainer Approach to a Shared Pharmacogenomics Curriculum for US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess pharmacy faculty trainers’ perceptions of a Web-based train-the-trainer program for PharmGenEd, a shared pharmacogenomics curriculum for health professional students and licensed clinicians.
Methods. Pharmacy faculty trainers (n=58, representing 39 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and 1 school from Canada) participated in a train-the-trainer program consisting of up to 9 pharmacogenomics topics. Posttraining survey instruments assessed faculty trainers’ perceptions toward the training program and the likelihood of their adopting the educational materials as part of their institution’s curriculum.
Results. Fifty-five percent of faculty trainers reported no prior formal training in pharmacogenomics. There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in self-reported ability to teach pharmacogenomics to pharmacy students after participants viewed the webinar and obtained educational materials. Nearly two-thirds (64%) indicated at least a “good” likelihood of adopting PharmGenEd materials at their institution during the upcoming academic year. More than two-thirds of respondents indicated interest in using PharmGenEd materials to train licensed health professionals, and 95% indicated that they would recommend the program to other pharmacy faculty members.
Conclusion. As a result of participating in the train-the-trainer program in pharmacogenomics, faculty member participants gained confidence in teaching pharmacogenomics to their students, and the majority of participants indicated a high likelihood of adopting the program at their institution. A Web-based train-the-trainer model appears to be a feasible strategy for training pharmacy faculty in pharmacogenomics.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7610193
PMCID: PMC3530055  PMID: 23275658
pharmacogenomics; curriculum; pharmacy colleges and schools; faculty development; train-the-trainer
2.  Canadian Chiropractic Resources Databank (CCRD): a profile of Canadian chiropractors 
Objective:
To establish a data bank which will serve as a comprehensive inventory of data and document practical information on Canada’s licensed chiropractors and to produce a summary report of this information.
Design:
A national census mail survey.
Setting:
Canada. The survey administration timeline during which information was collected was the period of August 1995 to July 1996.
Participants:
All chiropractors licensed to practice chiropractic in Canada, excluding chiropractors practising in the Yukon and Northwest Territories. A total of 4,246 questionnaires were mailed, of which 121 were ineligible. There were 2,905 valid responses (response rate 70.4%).
Main outcome measures:
Background information (demographics), professional activity, educational, training and affiliations, practice characteristics, finances and income.
Results:
Background information: 82.8% of all respondents were male. On January 1, 1997, the mean age of all respondents was 41.9 years. 88.6% of all respondents were born in Canada and 74.8% graduated from the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The mean number of years in practice by all respondents was 13.7 years. 17.5% of all respondents had more than one practice location. Professional activity: A total of 96.2% of the respondents were active chiropractors (a chiropractor in active practice was one whose level of activity was self-described as full-time, part-time or semi-retired and who was in practice at least 10 hours per week). 85% reported being in full-time practice, 8.7% in part-time practice and 2.5% reported being semi-retired. Full-time chiropractors reported working on average 41.3 hours per week, 49.1 weeks per year and receiving 158.6 total patient visits per week. Active chiropractors reported spending on average 75.1% of their work time on direct patient care. 39.6% of active chiropractors reported that their practice had decreased over the last three years (in terms of number of patient visits). Education, training and affiliations: 42.1% of all respondents had obtained a baccalaureate degree prior to attending chiropractic college. 3.7% of all respondents held a CCA recognized specialty certification. 15.5% of all respondents held a certification or were registered to practice naturopathy, homeopathy, acupuncture, massage therapy or other related discipline. Practice Characteristics: 69.1% of active chiropractors reported being in sole proprietorship, and 85.3% reported working in a private chiropractic office. On an aggregate basis, active chiropractors reported using diversified techniques on 77.3% of their patients. Chiropractors in active practice reported treating on average 86.3% of their patients for primary conditions of a neuromusculoskeletal nature. Active chiropractors reported that their current patients were their greatest source of patient referrals, accounting for on average 58.5% of all their patients. Finances and Income: In provinces with public insurance for chiropractic services (Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia) active chiropractors reported deriving on average 39.7% of their practice income from the provincial plan, 44.7% directly from the patient, 9.6% from a third party payer and 6.1% from workers’ compensation boards. 56.2% of active chiropractors reported a gross annual practice income of less than $150,000 whereas 14.1% reported earning $250,000 or more. 49.5% of active chiropractors reported a net annual practice income of less than $60,000 whereas 21.4% reported earning $100,000 or more. In aggregate, active chiropractors reported that 37.3% of their patients exhausted their public insurance coverage for chiropractic care (in provinces where public insurance is available), and of those patients 35.3% discontinued care.
Conclusions:
This report is a first attempt to document a statistical portrait of Canada’s chiropractors. The report has been prepared by using data derived from the Canadian Chiropractic Resource Databank (CCRD), a data bank (housed at the CCA) which now holds a comprehensive inventory of data and practical information on Canada’s licensed chiropractors. The data is now available for use internally by the CCA or by external audiences who may need statistical information from time to time. It is hoped that the survey which led to the establishment of the CCRD will be repeated on a periodic basis, with requisite modifications, to update the data bank and to determine longitudinal trends regarding the chiropractic profession in Canada. The CCRD can be an important source of information for decision making and planning.
PMCID: PMC2485158
chiropractor; survey statistics; data bank
3.  Motives for early retirement of self-employed GPs in the Netherlands: a comparison of two time periods 
Background
The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies designed to encourage later retirement. This study focuses on actual GP turnover and the determining factors for this in the Netherlands. The period 2003–2007 saw fewer GPs retiring from general practice than the period 1998–2002. In addition, GPs’ retirement age was higher in 2003–2007. For these two periods, we analysed work perception, objective workload and reasons for leaving, and related these with the probability that GPs would leave general practice at an early age.
Methods
In 2003, a first retrospective survey was sent to 520 self-employed GPs who had retired between 1998 and 2002. In 2008, the same survey was sent to 405 GPs who had retired between 2003 and 2007. The response rates were 60% and 54%, respectively. Analyses were done to compare work perception, objective workload, external factors and personal reasons for retiring.
Results
For both male and female GPs, work perception was different in the periods under scrutiny: both groups reported greater job satisfaction and a lower degree of emotional exhaustion in the later period, although there was no notable difference in subjective workload. The objective workload was lower in the second period. Moreover, most external factors and personal reasons that may contribute to the decision to retire were reported as less important in the second period. There was a stronger decrease in the probability that female GPs leave general practice within one year than for male GPs. This underscores the gender differences and the need for disaggregated data collection.
Conclusions
The results of this study suggest that the decrease in the probability of GPs leaving general practice within one year and the increasing retirement age are caused by a decrease in the objective workload, a change in GPs’ work perception, external factors and personal reasons. Based on the results of this study, we consider workload reduction policies are the most useful instruments to control retention and retirement.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-467
PMCID: PMC3541202  PMID: 23249631
Retirement; Health workforce; Health workforce planning; Workload reduction; Policy
4.  The Influence of Faculty Mentors on Junior Pharmacy Faculty Members’ Career Decisions 
Objective. To assess junior faculty members’ perceptions regarding the impact of past faculty-mentoring relationships in their career decisions, including the decision to pursue postgraduate training and ultimately an academic career.
Methods. A mixed-mode survey instrument was developed and an invitation to participate in the survey was sent to 2,634 pharmacy faculty members designated as assistant professors in the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) directory data.
Results. Usable responses were received from 1,059 pharmacy faculty members. Approximately 59% of respondents indicated that they had received encouragement from 1 or more faculty mentors that was very or extremely influential in their decision to pursue postgraduate training. Mentor and mentee pharmacy training characteristics and postgraduate training paths tended to be similar. US pharmacy degree earners rated the likelihood that they would have pursued an academic career without mentor encouragement significantly lower than did their foreign pharmacy and nonpharmacy degree colleagues (p = 0.006, p = 0.021, respectively).
Conclusions. For the majority of junior pharmacy faculty members, faculty mentoring received prior to completing their doctor of pharmacy degree or nonpharmacy undergraduate degree influenced their subsequent career decisions.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77351
PMCID: PMC3631726  PMID: 23610469
mentor; faculty; career; postgraduate training
5.  Work Satisfaction and Retirement Plans of Orthopaedic Surgeons 50 Years of Age and Older 
Retirement age and practice patterns before retirement are important for making accurate workforce predictions for orthopaedic surgeons. A survey of orthopaedic surgeons 50 years of age and older therefore was conducted by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in cooperation with the Association of American Medical Colleges Center for Workforce Studies. The survey focused on three questions: (1) At what age do orthopaedic surgeons retire? (2) Do they stop working abruptly or do they work part time before retirement? (3) What are the major factors that determine when an orthopaedic surgeon retires? According to the survey, the median retirement age for orthopaedic surgeons was 65 years. Nineteen percent of orthopaedic surgeons worked part time before retirement. Decreasing reimbursement and increasing malpractice costs were consistently cited as factors that strongly influenced retirement plans. Career satisfaction was high and was the strongest factor that kept the respondents in the workforce. The option to work part time would have the most impact on keeping orthopaedic surgeons working past the age of 65 years.
Level of Evidence: Level IV Economic and Decision Analyses. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-007-0014-5
PMCID: PMC2505310  PMID: 18196399
6.  Assessment of Factors Influencing Community Pharmacy Residents' Pursuit of Academic Positions 
Objectives
To determine the percentage of residents accepting faculty positions following completion of a community pharmacy residency program (CPRP) and identify influences to pursue/not pursue an academic career.
Methods
CPRP directors and preceptors across the United States were contacted and 53 community pharmacy residents were identified. The residents were invited to participate in surveys at the beginning and end of the 2005-2006 residency year.
Results
Forty-five residents (85%) completed the preliminary survey instrument and 40 (75%) completed the follow-up survey instrument. Of these, 36 completed both survey instruments. Initially, 28 (62%) respondents indicated a faculty position as one of their potential job preferences. After completing their residency program, 3 (8%) residents accepted faculty positions; and 3 (8%) others were awaiting offers at follow-up. Reasons for accepting a faculty position were positive teaching experiences and the influence of a mentor or preceptor. Reasons for not pursuing a faculty position included lack of interest, geographic location, disliked teaching experiences, lack of preparedness, and non-competitive salary.
Conclusion
Many community pharmacy residents consider faculty positions early in their residency but few pursue faculty positions. CPRPs and colleges of pharmacy should work together to enhance residents' experiences to foster interest in academia.
PMCID: PMC2254228  PMID: 18322566
academia; community pharmacy residents; residency training; faculty
7.  A Reflective Teaching Challenge to Motivate Educational Innovation 
Objective. To describe a teaching challenge intended to increase faculty use of evidence-based and student-centered instructional strategies in the demanding school of pharmacy context with technology-savvy students.
Design. A teaching challenge was created that required faculty members to incorporate a “new-to-you” innovative teaching method in a class, course, or experiential activity. The method was linked to at least 1 of 7 evidence-based principles for effective teaching. Faculty members were exposed to colleagues' teaching strategies via brief voluntary presentations at department meetings.
Assessment. A post-challenge survey provided assessment data about the challenge. Responses to a baseline survey provided additional information about what faculty members were already doing (52% response rate). Eighty-one percent of faculty respondents completed the challenge. A wide array of new strategies (13 categories such as flipped classrooms and social media) was implemented and 75% included the use of technology. Nearly all respondents (96%) thought that participation in the challenge was worth the effort and planned to participate again the following year. All faculty members intended to continue using their new strategy and 56% planned additional modifications with future implementations. The challenge demonstrated how multiple goals of curricular improvement, faculty development, and student-centered instruction could be achieved together.
Conclusion. The teaching challenge motivated most of the faculty members to try something new to them. Links between evidence-based principles and day-to-day activities were strengthened. The new-to-you design placed the challenge within reach of faculty members regardless of their background, subject, or experience.
doi:10.5688/ajpe785103
PMCID: PMC4064480  PMID: 24954943
faculty development; teaching innovation; reflective teaching challenge; faculty survey
8.  A 5-Year Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Journal Article Publications of Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members 
Objectives. To evaluate scholarship, as represented by peer-reviewed journal articles, among US pharmacy practice faculty members; contribute evidence that may better inform benchmarking by academic pharmacy practice departments; and examine factors that may be related to publication rates.
Methods. Journal articles published by all pharmacy practice faculty members between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, were identified. College and school publication rates were compared based on public vs. private status, being part of a health science campus, having a graduate program, and having doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) faculty members funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members published 6,101 articles during the 5-year study period, and a pharmacy practice faculty member was the primary author on 2,698 of the articles. Pharmacy practice faculty members published an average of 0.51 articles per year. Pharmacy colleges and schools affiliated with health science campuses, at public institutions, with NIH-funded PharmD faculty members, and with graduate programs had significantly higher total publication rates compared with those that did not have these characteristics (p<0.006).
Conclusion. Pharmacy practice faculty members contributed nearly 6,000 unique publications over the 5-year period studied. However, this reflects a rate of less than 1 publication per faculty member per year, suggesting that a limited number of faculty members produced the majority of publications.
doi:10.5688/ajpe767127
PMCID: PMC3448465  PMID: 23049099
academia; pharmacy practice; faculty; publications; scholarship
9.  Journal publications by pharmacy practice faculty evaluated by institution and region of the United States (2001-2003) 
Pharmacy Practice  2007;5(4):151-156.
Objective
To compare the quantity of manuscripts published in journals by departments of pharmacy practice at schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States for the years 2001-2003.
Methods
We utilized the Web of Science bibliographic database to identify publication citations for the years 2001 to 2003 which were then evaluated in a number of different ways. Faculty were identified via American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy rosters for 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003 academic years.
Results
Rankings were done based on the number of publications per institution and average number of publications per faculty member at an institution. Upon linear regression analysis, a relationship exists between an institution’s faculty size and the total number of publications but not for tenure/nontenure-track faculty ratio. Rating highest in overall publication number did not guarantee high rankings in the average number of publications per faculty member at an institution assessment. Midwestern schools were responsible for more publications per institution than other regions. Many schools only generated minimal scholarship over this evaluative period.
Conclusion
While many schools have pharmacy practice faculty that strongly contributed to the biomedical literature, other schools have not. Pharmacy practice faculty in the Midwest publish more journal manuscripts than faculty in other regions of the country. More pharmacy schools need to engage their faculty in scholarly endeavors by providing support and incentives.
PMCID: PMC4147793  PMID: 25170351
Bibliometrics; Faculty; Pharmacy Schools; United States
10.  Retirement intentions of dentists in New South Wales, Australia 
Background
The Australian dental workforce is ageing and current shortages have been predicted to worsen with the retirement of the growing contingent of older dentists. However, these predictions have been based on retirement trends of previous generations and little is known about the retirement intentions of today's older dentists.
Methods
The Dentist Retirement Intentions Survey was mailed to 768 NSW Australian Dental Association members aged over 50 and achieved a response rate of 20%. T-tests, ANOVAs and multivariate regression were used to analyse the data.
Results
On average, participants intend to retire at the age of 66, although they would prefer to do so earlier (p < 0.05). Those intending to leave the workforce within the next 5 years represent 43%. The most common reasons dentists expect to retire are to have more leisure time, to be able to afford to stop working, and job stress or pressure.
Conclusions
The current generation of older dentists intends to retire later than their predecessors. Most wish to remain involved in dentistry in some capacity following retirement, and may assist in overcoming workforce shortages, either by practising part time or training dental students.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-8-9
PMCID: PMC2853489  PMID: 20356414
11.  Pathways through which health influences early retirement: a qualitative study 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:292.
Background
Due to the aeging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement.
Methods
Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60–64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded.
Results
In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life.
Conclusions
Poor and good health influence early retirement via several different pathways. To prolong working life, a dialogue between employers and employees and tailored work-related interventions may be helpful.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-292
PMCID: PMC3621068  PMID: 23551994
Early retirement; Health; Qualitative study; Dialogue
12.  A survey of retirement intentions of baby boomers: an overview of health, social and economic determinants 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:355.
Background
Governments have been implementing policies aimed at halting the trend towards early retirement for Baby Boomers. Public policies can have a strong effect on when a person retires and this analysis contributes to an improved understanding of retirement aspirations in regards to health, social, workplace and economic determinants.
Methods
In October 2011 a telephone survey was undertaken with participants aged 50 to 65 years who were in paid employment and who had been in the workforce for the previous three years. Participants were obtained from two identical South Australian cohort studies - the North West Adelaide Health Study and the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study. The results of the telephone survey were linked to the original cohort data. Data were weighted by sex, age, postcode and probability of selection in the household. Work related questions included how much they thought about their retirement, current occupation, employment status, type of workplace and hours worked per week. Health related questions included current smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, self-reported health status and overall life satisfaction. Uni-variable and multi-variable analyses were undertaken to compare the different associations between people who were and were not intending to retire.
Results
In total, 25.9% (n = 210) of people who were currently in paid employment indicated that they intend to retire completely from the workforce. The remainder indicated that they will continue to work (41.8% retire from full-time work but work part-time, 25.7% continue working part-time but reduce their current hours, and 6.7% never retire). The multi-variable results indicate that those with lower education, having a savings habit, and sales workers more likely to anticipate complete retirement. The self-employed, and those thinking only moderately about retirement, were more likely to extend their working life beyond age 65.
Conclusion
An important finding of this study is the large number of Baby Boomers who indicated that they would be happy to work part-time or never retire. Policies and continued dialogue aimed at making the workplace a safe, flexible and welcoming environment to accommodate this wish, and to entice others to take up this option over complete withdrawal from the labour force, is required.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-355
PMCID: PMC4005633  PMID: 24731726
Baby boomers; Retirement; Australia; Survey
13.  Use of Adjunct Faculty Members in Classroom Teaching in Departments of Pharmacy Practice 
Objective. To determine trends among departments of pharmacy practice regarding use of adjunct faculty members for classroom-based teaching and to assess departmental support provided to these faculty members.
Methods. Chairs of pharmacy practice departments in US colleges and school of pharmacy were contacted by e-mail and asked to complete an 11-item electronic survey instrument.
Results. Chair respondents reported an average of 5.7 adjunct faculty members hired to teach required courses and 1.8 adjunct faculty members hired to teach elective courses. Compensation averaged $108 per lecture hour and $1,257 per 1-credit-hour course. Twenty-five percent of the respondents expected to hire more adjunct faculty members to teach required courses in the upcoming year due to curricular changes, faculty hiring freezes, and the shortage of full-time faculty members. Only 7% of respondents reported that they provided a teaching mentor and 14% offered no support to their adjunct faculty members.
Conclusions. Departments of pharmacy practice commonly use adjunct faculty members to teach required and elective courses. Given the pharmacy faculty shortage, this trend is expected to increase and may be an area for future faculty development.
doi:10.5688/ajpe757129
PMCID: PMC3175648  PMID: 21969715
adjunct faculty; faculty; teaching
14.  It's Academic: Public Policy Activities Among Faculty Members in a Department of Medicine 
Problem
To investigate whether and how faculty members in a Department of Medicine are engaged in public policy activities.
Approach
Between February and April 2011 the authors conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of all active Department of Medicine (DOM) faculty members at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Survey questions covered demographics, academic role, academic rank, and participation in three specific public policy activities during the past five years: (1) policy related research, (2) expert advice to government officials, and (3) public policy advocacy in collaboration with organizations outside government.
Outcomes
Two hundred twenty of 553 faculty (40%) responded to the survey. One hundred twenty-four faculty members (56% of respondents and 22% of total active faculty) reported that they were engaged in at least one of the three types of policy related activities: 51 (23%) conducted policy related research, 67 (30%) provided expert advice to government officials, and 93 (42%) collaborated with organizations to advocate for public policy. Higher faculty rank was significantly associated with faculty members reporting that they were involved in one or more of the three policy activities (P = .04).
Next Steps
Academic departments should identify public policy expertise among their faculty and leverage this expertise by facilitating opportunities to develop a shared faculty awareness of their public policy activities, by supporting the establishment of mentoring relationships for less experienced faculty in the area of public policy, and by incorporating standards of excellence for work in public policy into the promotions process.
doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182a37329
PMCID: PMC4140189  PMID: 23969373
15.  Projected Growth in Pharmacy Education and Research, 2010 to 2015 
Objectives. To determine projected growth in pharmacy education and research from 2010 to 2015 and to relate findings to external and internal factors.
Methods. An e-mail survey instrument was sent to all US pharmacy deans, and responses were used to estimate growth in the number of first-professional-degree doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates, residents/fellows, graduate students, faculty members, graduate research faculty members, and postdoctoral fellows. Results were related to the national economy, trends in faculty vacancies, growth trends in other health professions, pharmacist roles, and healthcare reform.
Results. Five-year growth projections were: 58% increase in the number of residents/fellows, 23% in postdoctoral fellows, 21% in entry-level PharmD graduates, 19% in graduate/research faculty members, 17% in graduate students, and 13% in total pharmacy faculty members. Residencies/fellowships showed the highest projected growth rates (58%). Graduate education and research data suggest a growing research enterprise. Faculty vacancy trends were downward and this suggests better faculty availability in coming years.
Conclusions. Substantial growth is expected from 2010 to 2015 in all areas of pharmacy education. External factors and how well the profession is able to demonstrate its contribution to resolving healthcare problems may influence the actual growth rates achieved.
doi:10.5688/ajpe756108
PMCID: PMC3175682  PMID: 21931446
pharmacy education; pharmacy faculty members; residents; fellows; graduate students; growth; research
16.  Differences in risk factors for voluntary early retirement and disability pension: a 15-year follow-up in a cohort of nurses’ aides 
BMJ Open  2012;2(6):e000991.
Objective
To estimate the extent of early retirement and to examine risk factors for voluntary early retirement and disability pension in a cohort of nurses’ aides.
Design
Register study including baseline questionnaire and register data covering all transfer incomes from 1991 to 2008 in a cohort of nurses’ aides established in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years.
Setting
Nurses’ aides working in nursery homes, homecare or hospitals.
Participants
3332 gainfully employed nurses’ aides at the time of inclusion in the study.
Outcome
Disability pension or early voluntary retirement.
Results
16.2% of the population was granted disability pension and 27.1% entered early voluntary retirement in the follow-up period representing 11 186 lost working years with a direct cost in transfer payment amounting about €410 million. Health-related risk factors for disability pension was long-lasting low-back pain (HR 2.27(95% CI 1.55 to 3.34), sick leave because of upper-extremity disorders (HR 2.18 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.11), and inflammatory rheumatic disease (HR 2.42 (95% CI 1.67 to 3.52)). Of non-health-related factors, low education, workers compensation case, evening work and high-rated perceived exertion at work all were minor risk factors for disability pension. The primary risk factor for early voluntary retirement was low education (HR 3.19 (95% CI 2.65 to 3.85)).
Conclusions
43.3% of nurses’ aides gainfully employed in 1993 retired before due time during the follow-up period. Work-related factors at baseline only seemed to have a minor prognostic role. Risk factors for disability pension were mainly health-related factors, whereas economical factors seemed to influence the decision to choose early voluntary retirement. The number of persons and the amount of lost working years underscores the need of a more active counselling towards maintaining employment especially among those with persistent musculoskeletal disorders.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000991
PMCID: PMC3533112  PMID: 23148337
Occupational & Industrial Medicine; Preventive Medicine; Epidemiology
17.  Pharmacy Faculty Members' Perspectives on the Student/Faculty Relationship in Online Social Networks 
Objective
To describe pharmacy faculty members' use of the online social network Facebook and compare the perspectives of faculty members with and without Facebook profiles regarding student/faculty relationships.
Methods
An electronic survey instrument was sent to full-time faculty members (n = 183) at 4 colleges of pharmacy in Ohio seeking their opinions on student/faculty relationships on Facebook. If respondents answered “yes” to having a Facebook profile, they were asked 14 questions on aspects of being “friends” with students. If respondents answered “no,” they were asked 4 questions.
Results
Of the 95 respondents (52%) to the survey instrument, 44 faculty members (46%) had a Facebook profile, while 51 faculty members (54%) did not. Those who had a profile had been faculty members for an average of 8.6 years, versus 11.4 years for those who did not have a Facebook profile. Seventy-nine percent of faculty members who used Facebook were not “friends” with their students. The majority of respondents reported that they would decline/ignore a “friend” request from a student, or decline until after the student graduated. Although a limited number of faculty members had used Facebook for online discussions, teaching purposes, or student organizations, the majority of universities did not have policies on the use of social networking sites.
Conclusion
Online social network sites are used widely by students and faculty members, which may raise questions regarding professionalism and appropriate faculty/student relationships. Further research should address the student/preceptor relationship, other online social networking sites, and whether students are interested in using these sites within the classroom and/or professional organizations.
PMCID: PMC3058463  PMID: 21436929
online social networking; Facebook; relationships; technology; network
18.  Is retirement beneficial for mental health? Antidepressant use before and after retirement 
Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)  2011;22(4):553-559.
Background
Recent studies based on self-reported data suggest that retirement may have beneficial effects on mental health, but studies using objective endpoints remain scarce. This study examines longitudinally the changes in antidepressant medication use across the 9 years spanning the transition to retirement.
Methods
Participants were Finnish public-sector employees: 7138 retired at statutory retirement age (76% women, mean age 61.2 years), 1238 retired early due to mental health issues (78% women, mean age 52.0 years), and 2643 retired due to physical health issues(72% women, mean age 55.4 years). Purchase of antidepressant medication four years prior to and four years after retirement year were based on comprehensive national pharmacy records in 1994-2005.
Results
One year before retirement, the use of antidepressants was 4% among those who would retire at statutory age, 61% among those who would retire due to mental health issues, and 14% among those who would retire due to physical health issues. Retirement-related changes in antidepressant use depended on the reason for retirement. Among old-age retirees, antidepressant medication use decreased during the transition period (age- and calendar-year-adjusted prevalence ratio for antidepressant use 1 year after vs. 1 year before retirement = 0.77 [95% confidence interval = 0.68 – 0.88]). Among those whose main reason for disability pension was mental health issues or physical health issues, there was an increasing trend in antidepressant use prior to retirement and, for mental health retirements, a decrease after retirement.
Conclusions
Trajectories of recorded purchases of antidepressant medication are consistent with the hypothesis that retirement is beneficial for mental health.
doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31821c41bd
PMCID: PMC3132597  PMID: 21502864
19.  Multi-Institutional Study of Women and Underrepresented Minority Faculty Members in Academic Pharmacy 
Objectives. To examine trends in the numbers of women and underrepresented minority (URM) pharmacy faculty members over the last 20 years, and determine factors influencing women faculty members’ pursuit and retention of an academic pharmacy career.
Methods. Twenty-year trends in women and URM pharmacy faculty representation were examined. Women faculty members from 9 public colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed regarding demographics, job satisfaction, and their academic pharmacy career, and relationships between demographics and satisfaction were analyzed.
Results. The number of women faculty members more than doubled between 1989 and 2009 (from 20.7% to 45.5%), while the number of URM pharmacy faculty members increased only slightly over the same time period. One hundred fifteen women faculty members completed the survey instrument and indicated they were generally satisfied with their jobs. The academic rank of professor, being a nonpharmacy practice faculty member, being tenured/tenure track, and having children were associated with significantly lower satisfaction with fringe benefits. Women faculty members who were tempted to leave academia for other pharmacy sectors had significantly lower salary satisfaction and overall job satisfaction, and were more likely to indicate their expectations of academia did not match their experiences (p<0.05).
Conclusions. The significant increase in the number of women pharmacy faculty members over the last 20 years may be due to the increased number of female pharmacy graduates and to women faculty members’ satisfaction with their careers. Lessons learned through this multi-institutional study and review may be applicable to initiatives to improve recruitment and retention of URM pharmacy faculty members.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7617
PMCID: PMC3298405  PMID: 22412206
underrepresented minority faculty members; women faculty members; recruitment; retention; diversity
20.  ‘All those things together made me retire’: qualitative study on early retirement among Dutch employees 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:516.
Background
Due to the aging of the population and subsequent higher pressure on public finances, there is a need for employees in many European countries to extend their working lives. One way in which this can be achieved is by employees refraining from retiring early. Factors predicting early retirement have been identified in quantitative research, but little is known on why and how these factors influence early retirement. The present qualitative study investigated which non-health related factors influence early retirement, and why and how these factors influence early retirement.
Methods
A qualitative study among 30 Dutch employees (60–64 years) who retired early, i.e. before the age of 65, was performed by means of face-to-face interviews. Participants were selected from the cohort Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM).
Results
For most employees, a combination of factors played a role in the transition from work to early retirement, and the specific factors involved differed between individuals. Participants reported various factors that pushed towards early retirement (‘push factors’), including organizational changes at work, conflicts at work, high work pressure, high physical job demands, and insufficient use of their skills and knowledge by others in the organization. Employees who reported such push factors towards early retirement often felt unable to find another job. Factors attracting towards early retirement (‘pull factors’) included the wish to do other things outside of work, enjoy life, have more flexibility, spend more time with a spouse or grandchildren, and care for others. In addition, the financial opportunity to retire early played an important role. Factors influenced early retirement via changes in the motivation, ability and opportunity to continue working or retire early.
Conclusion
To support the prolongation of working life, it seems important to improve the fit between the physical and psychosocial job characteristics on the one hand, and the abilities and wishes of the employee on the other hand. Alongside improvements in the work environment that enable and motivate employees to prolong their careers, a continuous dialogue between the employer and employee on the (future) person-job fit and tailored interventions might be helpful.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-516
PMCID: PMC3674915  PMID: 23714371
Early retirement; Pull factors; Push factors; Qualitative study
21.  Perception of Staff in Qassim Medical College about Faculty Development Activities 
Objective:
To explore the faculty member’s perceptions and attitudes regarding the faculty development activities.
Research Design and Methods:
An online survey that included all staff at the College of Medicine, Qassim University was done. Data were collected about the academic position, age, gender, academic phase, and the duration of employment at the college; the questions related to the faculty development activities included the level of participation and perceptions about quality and usefulness of these activities were answered.
Results:
The response rate was 68% (75 out of 110), More than half (56%) of respondents had attended the faculty development activities regularly. For the rest, the reasons for not attending regularly were other commitments (47%) and unsuitable timing of activities (53%); 60 % of respondents thought that attending the faculty development activities should be part of the faculty’s evaluation criteria. The most favored topics of the faculty development seminars were medical education and research. However, new faculty members had unfavorable comments about the medical education seminars. A majority of respondents preferred workshops as a method of learning. Finally, 91% of respondents thought that the content of the sessions should be posted on the College website.
Conclusion:
The medical education and research topics are the most favored by the faculties. Workshops are the most preferred method of learning. Newcomers are less satisfied with the medical education seminars.
PMCID: PMC3312763
faculty development; Saudi Arabia
22.  GP recruitment and retention: a qualitative analysis of doctors' comments about training for and working in general practice. 
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: General practice in the UK is experiencing difficulty with medical staff recruitment and retention, with reduced numbers choosing careers in general practice or entering principalships, and increases in less-than-full-time working, career breaks, early retirement and locum employment. Information is scarce about the reasons for these changes and factors that could increase recruitment and retention. The UK Medical Careers Research Group (UKMCRG) regularly surveys cohorts of UK medical graduates to determine their career choices and progression. We also invite written comments from respondents about their careers and the factors that influence them. Most respondents report high levels of job satisfaction. A noteworthy minority, however, make critical comments about general practice. Although their views may not represent those of all general practitioners (GPs), they nonetheless indicate a range of concerns that deserve to be understood. This paper reports on respondents' comments about general practice. ANALYSIS OF DOCTORS' COMMENTS: Training Greater exposure to general practice at undergraduate level could help to promote general practice careers and better inform career decisions. Postgraduate general practice training in hospital-based posts was seen as poor quality, irrelevant and run as if it were of secondary importance to service commitments. In contrast, general practice-based postgraduate training was widely praised for good formal teaching that met educational needs. The quality of vocational training was dependent upon the skills and enthusiasm of individual trainers. Recruitment problems Perceived deterrents to choosing general practice were its portrayal, by some hospital-based teachers, as a second class career compared to hospital medicine, and a perception of low morale amongst current GPs. The choice of a career in general practice was commonly made for lifestyle reasons rather than professional aspirations. Some GPs had encountered difficulties in obtaining posts in general practice suited to their needs, while others perceived discrimination. Newly qualified GPs often sought work as non-principals because they felt too inexperienced for partnership or because their domestic situation prevented them from settling in a particular area. Changes to general practice The 1990 National Health Service (NHS) reforms were largely viewed unfavourably, partly because they had led to a substantial increase in GPs' workloads that was compounded by growing public expectations, and partly because the two-tier system of fund-holding was considered unfair. Fund-holding and, more recently, GP commissioning threatened the GP's role as patient advocate by shifting the responsibility for rationing of health care from government to GPs. Some concerns were also expressed about the introduction of primary care groups (PCGs) and trusts (PCTs). Together, increased workload and the continual process of change had, for some, resulted in work-related stress, low morale, reduced job satisfaction and quality of life. These problems had been partially alleviated by the formation of GP co-operatives. Retention difficulties Loss of GPs' time from the NHS workforce occurs in four ways: reduced working hours, temporary career breaks, leaving the NHS to work elsewhere and early retirement. Child rearing and a desire to pursue interests outside medicine were cited as reasons for seeking shorter working hours or career breaks. A desire to reduce pressure of work was a common reason for seeking shorter working hours, taking career breaks, early retirement or leaving NHS general practice. Other reasons for leaving NHS general practice, temporarily or permanently, were difficulty in finding a GP post suited to individual needs and a desire to work abroad. CONCLUSIONS: A cultural change amongst medical educationalists is needed to promote general practice as a career choice that is equally attractive as hospital practice. The introduction of Pre-Registration House Officer (PRHO) placements in general practice and improved flexibility of GP vocational training schemes, together with plans to improve the quality of Senior House Officer (SHO) training in the future, are welcome developments and should address some of the concerns about poor quality GP training raised by our respondents. The reluctance of newly qualified GPs to enter principalships, and the increasing demand from experienced GPs for less-than-full-time work, indicates a need for a greater variety of contractual arrangements to reflect doctors' desires for more flexible patterns of working in general practice.
PMCID: PMC2560447  PMID: 12049026
23.  Assessment of Full-time Faculty Preceptors By Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico 
Objective. To identify the manner in which colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico assess full-time faculty preceptors.
Methods. Directors of pharmacy practice (or equivalent title) were invited to complete an online, self-administered questionnaire.
Results. Seventy of the 75 respondents (93.3%) confirmed that their college or school assessed full-time pharmacy faculty members based on activities related to precepting students at a practice site. The most commonly reported assessment components were summative student evaluations (98.5%), type of professional service provided (92.3%), scholarly accomplishments (86.2%), and community service (72.3%). Approximately 42% of respondents indicated that a letter of evaluation provided by a site-based supervisor was included in their assessment process. Some colleges and schools also conducted onsite assessment of faculty members.
Conclusions. Most colleges and schools of pharmacy assess full-time faculty-member preceptors via summative student assessments, although other strategies are used. Given the important role of preceptors in ensuring students are prepared for pharmacy practice, colleges and schools of pharmacy should review their assessment strategies for full-time faculty preceptors, keeping in mind the methodologies used by other institutions.
doi:10.5688/ajpe768148
PMCID: PMC3475777  PMID: 23129847
assessment; faculty; preceptors
24.  Factors Influencing the Pharmacy Faculty Workforce 
In 2005, the Council of Faculties and the Council of Deans within the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) formed a task force to review the status of the pharmacy faculty workforce and to identify factors that may influence the supply of and demand for pharmacy faculty members. This manuscript summarizes the Task Force on Faculty Workforce's findings and describes specific strategies needed to address the various issues facing the academy. Based on Task Force predictions, the academy will need approximately 1200 new faculty members over the next 10 years due to the creation of new pharmacy programs, the expansion of existing programs, faculty retirements, and recurring vacant faculty positions.
PMCID: PMC2384209  PMID: 18496923
faculty recruitment; faculty retention; faculty work force; faculty development
25.  Number and Impact of Published Scholarly Works by Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members at Accredited US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy (2001-2003) 
Objective
To evaluate the quantity and quality of published literature conducted by pharmacy practice faculty members in US colleges and schools of pharmacy for the years 2001-2003.
Methods
The Web of Science bibliographic database was used to identify publication citations for the years 2001-2003, which were then evaluated in a number of different ways. Faculty members were identified using American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy rosters for the 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003 academic years.
Results
Two thousand three hundred seventy-four pharmacy practice faculty members generated 1,896 publications in Web of Science searchable journals. A small number of faculty members (2.1%) were responsible for a large proportion of publications (30.6%), and only 4.9% of faculty members published 2 or more publications in these journals per year. The average impact factor for the top 200 publications was 7.6.
Conclusion
Pharmacy practice faculty members contributed substantially to the biomedical literature and their work has had an important impact. A substantial portion of this work has come from a small subset of faculty members.
PMCID: PMC1913293  PMID: 17619644

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