Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) (an effector of Ras) belonging to the phospholipase family plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis and progression of several cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2274223) in PLCE1 has been identified as a novel susceptibility locus in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) that share similar risk factors with SCCHN. Therefore, we investigated the association between potentially functional SNPs in PLCE1 and susceptibility to SCCHN.
We genotyped three potentially functional SNPs (rs2274223A/G, rs3203713A/G and rs11599672T/G) of PLCE1 in 1,098 SCCHN patients and 1,090 controls matched by age and sex in a non-Hispanic white population.
Although none of three SNPs was alone significantly associated with overall risk of SCCHN, their combined effects of risk alleles (rs2274223G, rs3203713G and rs11599672G) were found to be associated with risk of SCCHN in a locus-dose effect manner (Ptrend = 0.046), particularly for non-oropharyngeal tumors (Ptrend = 0.017); specifically, rs2274223 was associated with a significantly increased risk (AG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01-1.64; AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03-1.64), while rs11599672 was associated with a significantly decreased risk (GG vs. TT: adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.34-0.86; TG/GG vs. TT: adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.61-0.95).
Our findings suggest that PLCE1 variants may have an effect on risk of SCCHN associated with tobacco and alcohol exposure, particularly for those tumors arising at non-oropharyngeal sites. These findings, although need to be validated by larger studies, are consistent with those in esophageal and gastric cancers.
PLCE1; polymorphism; SCCHN; risk; susceptibility
In recent years, the PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism has been extensively investigated as a potential risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cancer. However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent.
A meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies was performed including more than 11,000 subjects with genotyped PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphisms. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were employed to assess the association of the PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism with a susceptibility to ESCC or gastric cancer.
A statistically significant increase in the risk of ESCC was associated with the PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism. This included the homozygous genetic model (OR = 1.46), heterozygous genetic model (OR = 1.25) and allelic genetic model (OR = 1.23). Similar results were consistently found for gastric cancer. In a subgroup analysis, the PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism was found to be a very sensitive marker for gastric cardia cancer as shown by the homozygous genetic model (OR = 2.23), heterozygous genetic model(OR = 1.59) and allelic genetic model (OR = 1.47). The risk associations of all of the gastric cardia cancer models were statistically significant. In contrast, none of the genetic models for non-cardia gastric cancer were significant.
In this meta-analysis, the PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism was confirmed to have a statistically significant association with an increasing risk of ESCC and gastric cancer. The increase risk was especially observed for gastric cardia cancer.
Background And Objective
Two recent genome-wide association studies have identified a shared susceptibility variation PLCE1 rs2274223 for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA). Subsequent case-control studies have reported this association in other populations. However, the findings were controversial and the effect remains undetermined. Our aim is to provide a precise quantification of the association between PLCE1 rs2274223 variation and the risk of ESCC and GCA.
Studies were identified by a literature search in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association in allele, dominant, recessive, homozygous, and heterozygous models.
Ten articles were identified, including 22156 ESCC cases and 28803 controls, 5197 GCA cases and 17613 controls. Overall, PLCE1 rs2274223 G allele (G vs. A: OR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.15-1.39 for ESCC; OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.35–1.69 for GCA) and its carrier (GG +AG vs. AA: OR = 1.23; 95% CI =1.02-1.49 for ESCC; OR =1.62; 95% CI =1.15-2.29 for GCA) were significantly associated with the risk of ESCC and GCA. In stratified analysis by ethnicity, significant association of PLCE1 rs2274223 G allele and the risk of ESCC (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.21–1.45) and GCA (OR =1.56, 95% CI: 1.47-1.64) was observed in Chinese population.
Our meta-analysis results indicated that PLCE1 rs2274223 G allele significantly contributed to the risk of ESCC and GCA, especially in Chinese population.
Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reported that three SNPs (rs4072037, rs13361707 and rs2274223) located on genes related to host inflammatory response are significantly associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC) in Chinese populations. Helicobacter pylori infection is also an important risk factor for GC through causing inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa. However, no study has established whether there are potential gene-environment interactions between these genetic variants and H. pylori infection to the risk of GC.
We genotyped three polymorphisms (rs4072037 at 1q22, rs13361707 at 5p13, and rs2274223 at 10q23) in 335 Chinese gastric adenocarcinoma patients and 334 controls. H. pylori serology was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the variables and GC risk.
We confirmed that the three SNPs (rs4072037, rs13361707 and rs2274223) were significantly associated with GC susceptibility. H. pylori infection also significantly increased the risk of GC. Furthermore, there were joint effects between H. pylori infection and the three SNPs on the risk of GC. The most elevated risk of GC was found in subjects with H. pylori seropositivity and AA genotypes for rs4072037 [odds ratio (OR), 3.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.29–6.79], H. pylori seropositivity and CT/CC genotypes for rs13361707 (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.62–4.43), H. pylori seropositivity and AG/GG genotypes for rs2274223 (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.55–3.88) compared with those with H. pylori seronegativity and other genotypes of each SNP. Significant interactions were observed between H. pylori seropositivity and the three SNPs (all PG× E <0.05) to the risk of GC.
These findings indicate that the three SNPs (rs4072037, rs13361707 and rs2274223) identified in the GWASs may interact with H. pylori infection to increase the risk of GC.
To date, the association between phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) rs2274223 A>G and risk of digestive tract cancer (DTC) remains inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the association, we conducted a meta-analysis on all eligible case–control studies involving 8281 cases and 10,532 controls.
A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all eligible studies of PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism and digestive tract cancer risk. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using a fixed or random effect model. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were also explored.
Overall, the PLCE1 rs2274223 A>G polymorphism was associated with risk of DTC in all genetic models (GA vs. AA: OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.14–1.29, P<0.001; GG vs. AA: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06–1.60, P = 0.012; GG/GA vs. AA: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.10–1.32, P<0.001; GG vs. GA/AA: OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.01–1.46, P = 0.040). The recessive model did not reach statistically significance when the P values were Bonferroni corrected to 0.0125. In the stratified analysis by cancer type, ethnicity, and source of controls, significantly increased risk was observed for esophagus cancer, Asians in three genetic models (heterozygote comparison, homozygote comparison and dominant model), population-based studies in all genetic models, and for gastric cancer in the heterozygote comparison and dominant model after Bonferroni correction. However, in the subsite of gastric cancer, no significant association was found either in cardia or non-cardia gastric cancer.
Our study indicated that PLCE1 rs2274223 A>G polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of DTC, especially among Asian populations. Due to some minor limitations, our findings should be confirmed in further studies.
We conducted a genome-wide association study of gastric cancer (GC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in ethnic Chinese subjects in which we genotyped 551,152 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We report a combined analysis of 2,240 GC cases, 2,115 ESCC cases, and 3,302 controls drawn from five studies. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and study, multiple variants at 10q23 had genome-wide significance for GC and ESCC independently. A notable signal was rs2274223, a nonsynonymous SNP located in PLCE1, for GC (P=8.40×1010; per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.31) and ESCC (P=3.85×10−9; OR = 1.34). The association with GC differed by anatomic subsite. For tumors located in the cardia the association was stronger (P=4.19 × 10−15; OR= 1.57) and for those located in the noncardia stomach it was absent (P=0.44; OR=1.05). Our findings at 10q23 could provide insight into the high incidence rates of both cancers in China.
We conducted a genome-wide association study of gastric cancer (GC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in ethnic Chinese subjects in which we genotyped 551,152 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We report a combined analysis of 2,240 GC cases, 2,115 ESCC cases, and 3,302 controls drawn from five studies. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and study, multiple variants at 10q23 had genome-wide significance for GC and ESCC independently. A notable signal was rs2274223, a nonsynonymous SNP located in PLCE1, for GC (P=8.40×10−9; per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.31) and ESCC (P=3.85×10−9; OR = 1.34). The association with GC differed by anatomic subsite. For tumors located in the cardia the association was stronger (P=4.19 × 10−15; OR= 1.57) and for those located in the noncardia stomach it was absent (P=0.44; OR=1.05). Our findings at 10q23 could provide insight into the high incidence rates of both cancers in China.
Recently, two large genome wide association studies, conducted in Chinese populations, reported associations between upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and the rs2274223, rs13042395 and rs4072037 polymorphisms in PLCE1, C20orf54 and MUC1 respectively. We set out to determine whether similar associations existed for Caucasian populations.
We genotyped two population-based, case-control studies of upper GI cancer; the first included 290 gastric cancer cases and 376 controls; the second study included 306 gastric cancer cases, 107 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cancer cases, 52 oesphageal squamous cell cancer cases, and 211 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed from logistic models and adjusted for confounding variables.
The rs4072037 polymorphism in MUC1 was associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer of intestinal histological type (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.9), and a reduced risk of oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.2–1.0), but not oesphageal adenocarcinoma. Likewise, rs2274223 in PLCE1 was associated with a reduced risk of oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3–1.0) but not oesphageal adenocarcinoma. We observed no association between rs13042395 in Corf54 and risk of gastric or oesphageal cancer in either of the two studies.
Our findings for rs4072037 and gastric cancer risk are in keeping with one previous report for a Caucasian population. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to report an association between rs2274223 and rs4072037 and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Caucasian population.
Two recent genome-wide association studies reported significant associations of genetic variants at 1q22, 10q23 and 20p13 with gastric cancer (GC) risk in Chinese populations. However, these findings have not been confirmed in other independent studies. Here, we performed an independent case–control study in a Chinese population by genotyping three loci (rs4072037A>G at 1q22, rs2274223A>G at 10q23 and rs13042395C>T at 20p13) in 1681 GC cases and 1858 controls. We found that rs4072037 at 1q22 and rs2274223 at 10q23 were significantly associated with risk of GC with per allele odds ratio (OR) of 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–0.81; P = 2.98 × 10−7] and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.27–1.58; P = 9.68 × 10−10), respectively. The association was more prominent for rs2274223 in female (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.49–2.32) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.49–1.95). Furthermore, we combined the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms to evaluate the joint effect and found that the GC risk significantly increased with the number of risk allele increasing with a trend P value of 6.66 × 10−16, and individuals with four risk alleles had a 3.28-fold (95% CI: 1.75–6.13) risk of GC compared with those having no risk alleles. However, no significant association was detected between rs13042395 at 20p13 and GC risk (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.94–1.15; P = 0.452). In conclusion, our results indicate that genetic variants at 1q22 and 10q23 but not 20p13 may serve as candidate markers for GC susceptibility in the Chinese population.
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified susceptibility loci for dengue shock syndrome (DSS) at MICB rs3132468 and PLCE1 rs3740360. The aim of this study was to define the extent to which MICB (rs3132468) and PLCE1 (rs3740360) were associated with less severe clinical phenotypes of pediatric and adult dengue.
3961 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases and 5968 controls were genotyped at MICB rs3132468 and PLCE1 rs3740360. Per-allele odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each patient cohort. Pooled analyses were performed for adults and paediatrics respectively using a fixed effects model.
Pooled analysis of the paediatric and adult cohorts indicated a significant association between MICB rs3132468 and dengue cases without shock (OR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.07 – 1.24; P = 0.0012). Similarly, pooled analysis of pediatric and adult cohorts indicated a significant association between dengue cases without shock and PLCE1 rs3740360 (OR = 0.92; 95%CI: 0.85 – 0.99; P = 0.018). We also note significant association between both SNPs (OR = 1.48; P = 0.0075 for MICB rs3132468 and OR = 0.75, P = 0.041 for PLCE1 rs3740360) and dengue in infants.
This study confirms that the MICB rs3132468 and PLCE1 rs3740360 risk genotypes are not only associated with DSS, but are also associated with less severe clinical phenotypes of dengue, as well as with dengue in infants. These findings have implications for our understanding of dengue pathogenesis.
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high prevalence in the Black and Mixed Ancestry populations of South Africa. Recently, three genome-wide association studies in Chinese populations identified five new OSCC susceptibility loci, including variants at PLCE1, C20orf54, PDE4D, RUNX1 and UNC5CL, but their contribution to disease risk in other populations is unknown. In this study, we report testing variants from these five loci for association with OSCC in the South African Black (407 cases and 849 controls) and Mixed Ancestry (257 cases and 860 controls) populations. The RUNX1 variant rs2014300, which reduced risk in the Chinese population, was associated with an increased risk of OSCC in the Mixed Ancestry population [odds ratio (OR) = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09–1.63, P = 0.0055], and none of the five loci were associated in the Black population. Since PLCE1 variants increased the risk of OSCC in all three Chinese studies, this gene was investigated further by sequencing in 46 Black South Africans. This revealed 48 variants, 10 of which resulted in amino acid substitutions, and much lower linkage disequilibrium across the PLCE1 locus than in the Chinese population. We genotyped five PLCE1 variants in cases and controls, and found association of Arg548Leu (rs17417407) with a reduced risk of OSCC (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.60–0.93, P = 0.008) in the Black population. These findings indicate several differences in the genetic contribution to OSCC between the South African and Chinese populations that may be related to differences in their genetic architecture.
Inherited functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes may alter DNA repair capacity and thus contribute to cancer risk.
Three ERCC1 functional SNPs (rs2298881C>A, rs3212986C>A and rs11615G>A) and two XPF/ERCC4 functional SNPs (rs2276466C>G and rs6498486A>C) were genotyped for 1125 gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 1196 cancer-free controls by Taqman assays. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate risk associations, and false-positive report probabilities (FPRP) were calculated for assessing significant findings.
ERCC1 rs2298881C and rs11615A variant genotypes were associated with increased gastric cancer risk (adjusted OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05–1.67 for rs2298881 AC/CC and adjusted OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.05–1.46 for rs11615 AG/AA, compared with their common genotype AA and GG, respectively). Patients with 2–3 ERCC1 risk genotypes had significant increased risk (adjusted OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.27–1.93), compared with those with 0–1 ERCC1 risk genotypes, and this risk was more significantly in subgroups of never drinkers, non-gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (NGCA) and clinical stage I+II. All these risks were not observed for XPF SNPs.
These findings suggest that functional ERCC1 SNPs may contribute to risk of gastric cancer. Larger and well-designed studies with different ethnic populations are needed to validate our findings.
Objective: We conducted a case-control study by genotyping three potential functional SNPs to assess the association of Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XPF) polymorphisms with gastric cancer susceptibility, and role of XPF polymorphisms in combination with H.pylori infection in the risk of gastric cancer.
Methodology: A hospital case-control study was conducted. A total of 331 patients with gastric cancer and 355 controls were collected. Three SNPs of XPF, XPF rs180067, rs1799801 and rs2276466, were genotyped by Taqman real-time PCR method with a 7900 HT sequence detector system.
Results: The gastric cancer patients were more likely to have smoking habit, a family history of cancer and H.pylori infection. We did not find the significant difference in the genotype distributions of XPF rs180067, rs1799801 and rs2276466 between cases and controls. Multivariate logistic analysis showed a non-significant decreased risk in patients carrying rs180067 G allele, rs1799801 T allele or rs2276466 T allele genotypes. The stratification by H.pylori infection was not significantly different in polymorphisms of XPF rs180067, rs1799801 and rs2276466.
Conclusion: There was no evidence that polymorphisms in rs180067, rs1799801 and rs2276466 significantly affect the risk of gastric cancer. Further large sample size studies are strongly needed to validate their association.
Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F; Single Nucleotide Polymorphism; Gastric cancer; H.pylori
There is a paucity of data on familial risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and distal gastric adenocarcinoma from population-based studies.
A population-based case–control study of newly diagnosed gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma was conducted in Los Angeles County. This analysis included data of case-patients whom we were able to interview directly (147 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma, 182 with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 285 with distal gastric adenocarcinoma) and 1,309 control participants. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the three cancer types.
Risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma was positively associated with a family history of prostate cancer (OR = 2.84; 95% CI = 1.50-5.36) and a family history of hiatal hernia (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.12-3.71). Risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma was strongly associated with a family history of esophageal cancer (OR = 5.18; 95% CI = 1.23-21.79) and a family history of hiatal hernia (OR = 2.31; 95% CI = 1.37-3.91). Risk of distal gastric adenocarcinoma was positively associated with a family history of gastric cancer (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.18-3.91), particularly early-onset (before age 50) gastric cancer (OR = 2.82; 95% CI = 1.11-7.15).
This study provides evidence that family history of hiatal hernia is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and that cancer in specific sites is associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and distal gastric adenocarcinoma. It is important to determine the extent to which shared environmental and genetic factors explain these familial associations.
Hiatal hernia; Family history; Esophageal adenocarcinoma, Gastric cardia; Distal gastric cancer
Background: To study the impact of the dietary antioxidant quercetin on risk of gastric adenocarcinoma.
Patients and methods: Using data from a large Swedish population-based case–control study of gastric cancer (505 cases and 1116 controls), we studied the association between quercetin and risk of anatomic (cardia/noncardia) and histological (intestinal and diffuse) subtypes of gastric cancer.
Results: We found strong inverse associations between quercetin and the risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.40–0.83) for the highest quintile (≥11.9 mg) of daily quercetin intake relative to the lowest quintile of intake (<4 mg quercetin/day), supported by a significant decreasing linear trend (P value < 0.001). Similar findings were observed for the intestinal and diffuse subtype. For cardia cancer, we found a less evident and nonsignificant inverse relationship. The protection of quercetin appeared to be stronger among female smokers, with the OR leveled of at values <0.2 in quintiles 3–5 (>6 mg quercetin/day).
Conclusions: High dietary quercetin intake is inversely related to the risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma, and the protection appears to be particularly strong for women exposed to oxidative stress, such as tobacco smoking.
antioxidants; case–control study; gastric cancer; quercetin; Sweden
Published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified few variants in the known biological pathways involved in lung cancer etiology. To mine the possibly hidden causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we explored all SNPs in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway from our published GWAS dataset for 1154 lung cancer cases and 1137 cancer-free controls. In an initial association analysis of 611 tagSNPs in 41 apoptosis-related genes, we identified only 10 tagSNPs associated with lung cancer risk with a P value <10−2, including four tagSNPs in DAPK1 and three tagSNPs in TNFSF8. Unlike DAPK1 SNPs, TNFSF8 rs2181033 tagged other four predicted functional but untyped SNPs (rs776576, rs776577, rs31813148 and rs2075533) in the promoter region. Therefore, we further tested binding affinity of these four SNPs by performing the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We found that only rs2075533T allele modified levels of nuclear proteins bound to DNA, leading to significantly decreased expression of luciferase reporter constructs by 5- to –10-fold in H1299, HeLa and HCT116 cell lines compared with the C allele. We also performed a replication study of the untyped rs2075533 in an independent Texas population but did not confirm the protective effect. We further performed a mini meta-analysis for SNPs of TNFSF8 obtained from other four published lung cancer GWASs with 12 214 cases and 47 721 controls, and we found that only rs3181366 (r2 = 0.69 with the untyped rs2075533) was associated to lung cancer risk (P = 0.008). Our findings suggest a possible role of novel TNFSF8 variants in susceptibility to lung cancer.
Over recent years, genome wide association studies (GWAS) have contributed to our understanding of genetic susceptibility to sporadic cancer. In this study, we assessed the association between upper gastrointestinal cancer risk and four GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously implicated in prostate and colorectal cancer susceptibility. Genotyping for each SNP was performed in two, independent, Caucasian, population-based case-control studies. The first study comprised 290 gastric cancer cases and 374 controls. The second study included 185 non-cardia gastric cancers, 123 cardia cancers, 158 oesophageal cancers, and 209 controls. Odds ratios were computed from logistic models and adjusted for potential confounding variables. An inverse association was observed between the SNP rs1447295, located at 8q24, and gastric cancer risk in the first study population (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.41–0.97). A positive association was observed for the same SNP and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the second study population (OR = 7.43; 95% CI, 1.37–49.98). No significant associations were detected in either study for the three remaining SNPs (rs6983297, rs10505477 and rs719725). Our data represent novel findings on heritable susceptibility to gastric and oesophageal cancer and warrant validation in additional populations.
Gastric cancer; oesophageal cancer; genetic polymorphism; cancer susceptibiility
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a crucial role in the development and progression of gastric cancer. A functional polymorphism, -308 G>A (rs1800629), which is located in the promoter of TNFA gene, has been suggested to alter the production of TNF-α and influence cancer risk. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether this polymorphism has effects on the risk and progression of gastric cancer in a Chinese population.
We genotyped the TNFA -308 G>A polymorphism using the TaqMan method in a two-stage case-control study comprising a total of 1686 gastric cancer patients and 1895 cancer-free subjects. The logistic regression was used to assess the genetic associations with occurrence and progression of gastric cancer.
We found a significant association between the variant genotypes and increased risk of gastric cancer [P = 0.034, odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–1.67, GA/AA vs. GG]. Similar results were observed in the follow-up replication study. When combined the data from the two studies, we found a more significant association (P = 0.001, OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.13–1.59), especially for older subjects (>65 years). Furthermore, the patients carrying the variant genotypes had a significantly greater prevalence of T4 stage of disease (P = 0.001, OR = 2.19, 95%CI = 1.39–3.47) and distant metastasis (P = 0.013, OR = 1.61, 95%CI = 1.10–2.35).
Our results suggest that the functional promoter -308 G>A polymorphism in TNFA influence the susceptibility and progression of gastric cancer in the Chinese population.
Although approximately 20 common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer risk through genome-wide association studies (GWASs), genetic risk variants reported to date explain only a small fraction of heritability for this common cancer. We conducted a four-stage GWAS including 17 153 cases and 16 943 controls among East-Asian women to search for new genetic risk factors for breast cancer. After analyzing 684 457 SNPs in 2062 cases and 2066 controls (Stage I), we selected for replication among 5969 Chinese women (4146 cases and 1823 controls) the top 49 SNPs that had neither been reported previously nor were in strong linkage disequilibrium with reported SNPs (Stage II). Three SNPs were further evaluated in up to 13 152 Chinese and Japanese women (6436 cases and 6716 controls) (Stage III). Finally, two SNPs were evaluated in 10 847 Korean women (4509 cases and 6338 controls) (Stage IV). SNP rs10822013 on chromosome 10q21.2, located in the zinc finger protein 365 (ZNF365) gene, showed a consistent association with breast cancer risk in all four stages with a combined per-risk allele odds ratio of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.14) (P-value for trend = 5.87 × 10−9). In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the potential functional significance of rs10822013. Our results strongly implicate rs10822013 at 10q21.2 as a genetic risk variant for breast cancer among East-Asian women.
Studies on the association between MDM2 SNP309 (T > G) and gastric cancer have reported conflicting results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether MDM2 SNP309 is associated with susceptibility and prognosis of gastric carcinoma in Chinese patients.
Total of 574 gastric carcinoma cases and 574 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. MDM2 polymorphism was detected by PCR- RFLP and infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by a validated serology test. The functionality of MDM2 SNP309, with or without H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was examined by dual-luciferase assay. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to evaluate survival. Additional, a meta-analysis was conducted to verity the findings.
MDM2 SNP309G/G genotype was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma when compared with T/T genotype or T carriers (both P < 0.01), and a joint effect between MDM2 SNP309G/G and H. pylori infection was observed to intensify gastric carcinoma risk. SNP309G/G was identified as an independent marker of poor overall survival of carcinoma. In vitro, the luciferase assay further showed an increased transcriptional activity of SNP309G allele compared with SNP309T allele, and the function of polymorphism T309G in MDM2 gene promoter was intensified by H. pylori LPS. Pooled results from the meta-analysis confirmed that SNP309G/G genotype had a significantly increased risk of gastric carcinoma compared with T/T genotype or T carriers, consistent with the case–control findings.
MDM2 SNP309G allele is associated with an increased risk and poor prognosis of gastric carcinoma in Chinese patients. Additional, there is a joint effect of MDM2 SNP309G/G allele and H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma development, which may attribute to H. pylori LPS.
Helicobacter pylori; Gastric carcinoma; MDM2; SNP; Lipopolysaccharide
Gastric acid suppressing drugs (that is, histamine2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors) could affect the risk of oesophageal or gastric adenocarcinoma but few studies are available.
To study the association between long term treatment with acid suppressing drugs and the risk of oesophageal or gastric adenocarcinoma.
Persons registered in the general practitioners research database in the UK and aged 40–84 years during the period 1994–2001.
Population based nested case control study. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
In 4 340 207 person years of follow up, 287 patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, 195 with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 327 with gastric non‐cardia adenocarcinoma were identified, and 10 000 control persons were randomly sampled. “Oesophageal” indication for long term acid suppression (that is, reflux symptoms, oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus, or hiatal hernia) rendered a fivefold increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (odds ratio (OR) 5.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.13–9.39)) while no association was observed among users with a group of other indications, including peptic ulcer and “gastroduodenal symptoms” (that is, gastritis, dyspepsia, indigestion, and epigastric pain) (OR 1.74 (95% CI 0.90–3.34)). “Peptic ulcer” indication (that is, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, or unspecified peptic ulcer) was associated with a greater than fourfold increased risk of gastric non‐cardia adenocarcinoma among long term users (OR 4.66 (95% CI 2.42–8.97)) but no such association was found in those treated for a group of other indications (that is, “oesophageal” or “gastroduodenal symptoms”) (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.60–2.32)).
Long term pharmacological gastric acid suppression is a marker of increased risk of oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, these associations are most likely explained by the underlying treatment indication being a risk factor for the cancer rather than an independent harmful effect of these agents per se.
histamine H2 antagonists; proton pump inhibitors; gastric acid suppression; oesophageal adenocarcinoma; gastric cancer
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified low-penetrance common variants (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Although GWASs are primarily focused on single-locus effects, gene-gene interactions (i.e., epistasis) are also assumed to contribute to the genetic risks for complex diseases including breast cancer. While it has been hypothesized that moderately ranked (P value based) weak single-locus effects in GWASs could potentially harbor valuable information for evaluating epistasis, we lack systematic efforts to investigate SNPs showing consistent associations with weak statistical significance across independent discovery and replication stages. The objectives of this study were i) to select SNPs showing single-locus effects with weak statistical significance for breast cancer in a GWAS and/or candidate-gene studies; ii) to replicate these SNPs in an independent set of breast cancer cases and controls; and iii) to explore their potential SNP-SNP interactions contributing to breast cancer susceptibility. A total of 17 SNPs related to DNA repair, modification and metabolism pathway genes were selected since these pathways offer a priori knowledge for potential epistatic interactions and an overall role in breast carcinogenesis. The study design included predominantly Caucasian women (2,795 cases and 4,505 controls) from Alberta, Canada. We observed two two-way SNP-SNP interactions (APEX1-rs1130409 and RPAP1-rs2297381; MLH1-rs1799977 and MDM2-rs769412) in logistic regression that conferred elevated risks for breast cancer (Pinteraction<7.3×10−3). Logic regression identified an interaction involving four SNPs (MBD2-rs4041245, MLH1-rs1799977, MDM2-rs769412, BRCA2-rs1799943) (Ppermutation = 2.4×10−3). SNPs involved in SNP-SNP interactions also showed single-locus effects with weak statistical significance, while BRCA2-rs1799943 showed stronger statistical significance (Pcorrelation/trend = 3.2×10−4) than the others. These single-locus effects were independent of body mass index. Our results provide a framework for evaluating SNPs showing statistically weak but reproducible single-locus effects for epistatic effects contributing to disease susceptibility.
Diabetes has been consistently associated with an increased risk of liver, pancreas and endometrial cancer and has been implicated as a risk factor for esophageal and gastric cancers, although this association has been less well studied. We sought to determine the role of diabetes in the etiology of esophageal, gastric cardia and distal gastric adenocarcinomas. This analysis included patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (n=209), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (n=257) and distal gastric adenocarcinoma (n=382), and 1,309 control participants from a population-based case-control study conducted in Los Angeles County. The study included non-Hispanic whites, African Americans, Hispanics and Asian Americans. The association of diabetes with the three tumor types was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Nine percent of control participants and 13% of the case patients reported a history of diabetes. After adjustment for age, gender, race, birthplace, education, cigarette smoking status and body mass index, diabetes was associated with an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.94–2.32; P=0.089) and distal gastric adenocarcinoma (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01–2.15; P=0.045), but was not associated with risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.59–1.55; P=0.87). However, the association between diabetes and risk of DGA was statistically significant only among patients for whom we interviewed their next-of-kin. This study further investigated the association between diabetes and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and distal stomach.
diabetes; esophageal adenocarcinoma; gastric adenocarcinoma; case-control study; polychotomous logistic regression
AIM: To investigate the association between epidermal growth factor (EGF) +61A/G polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer, through a cross-sectional study.
METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction resctriction fragment lenght polymorphism analyses were used to genotype EGF +61 in 207 patients with gastric lesions (162 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas, 45 with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia) and 984 controls. All subjects were Caucasian.
RESULTS: Genotype distribution was 23.5% for GG and 76.5% for GA/AA in the control group, 18.4% for GG and 68.6% for GA/AA in the entire group with gastric lesions and 17.9% for GG and 82.1% for GA/AA in the group with gastric adenocarcinoma. No statistically significant associations were found between EGF +61 variants and risk for developing gastric cancer [odds ratios (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.90-2.21, P = 0.116]. However, the stratification of individuals by gender revealed that males carrying A alleles (EGF +61A/G or AA) had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer as compared to GG homozygous males (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05-2.28, P = 0.021).
CONCLUSION: In summary, we found that males who were A carriers for EGF +61 had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer. This result may be explained by the suggestion that women secrete less gastric acid than men.
Epidermal growth factor polymorphism; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Gastric cancer
p53 Arg72Pro, MDM2 T309G, and CCND1 G870A are functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key genes that regulate apoptosis and cell cycle. Variant genotypes of these SNPs have been associated with increased risk and earlier age of onset in some cancers. We investigated the association of these SNPs with susceptibility to esophageal adenocarcinoma in a large, North American case-control study. 312 cases and 454 cancer-free controls recruited in Boston, USA were genotyped for each of the three SNPs, and demographic and clinical data were collected. Genotype frequencies for each of the three SNPs did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and did not differ between cases and controls. Odds ratios (OR), adjusted for clinical risk factors, for the homozygous variant genotypes were 0.99 (95% CI 0.57 – 1.72) for p53 Pro/Pro, 0.81 (95% CI 0.52 – 1.28) for MDM2 G/G, and 0.97 (95% CI 0.64 – 1.49) for CCND1 A/A. The analysis was adequately powered (80%) to detect ORs of 1.37. 1.35 and 1.34 for each SNP respectively. In contrast to the results of smaller published studies, no association between p53 Arg72Pro, MDM2 T309G, and CCND1 G870A SNPs and susceptibility to esophageal adenocarcinoma, age of onset, or stage of disease at diagnosis was detected.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma; molecular epidemiology; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); risk factors; p53