Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) (an effector of Ras) belonging to the phospholipase family plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis and progression of several cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2274223) in PLCE1 has been identified as a novel susceptibility locus in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) that share similar risk factors with SCCHN. Therefore, we investigated the association between potentially functional SNPs in PLCE1 and susceptibility to SCCHN.
We genotyped three potentially functional SNPs (rs2274223A/G, rs3203713A/G and rs11599672T/G) of PLCE1 in 1,098 SCCHN patients and 1,090 controls matched by age and sex in a non-Hispanic white population.
Although none of three SNPs was alone significantly associated with overall risk of SCCHN, their combined effects of risk alleles (rs2274223G, rs3203713G and rs11599672G) were found to be associated with risk of SCCHN in a locus-dose effect manner (Ptrend = 0.046), particularly for non-oropharyngeal tumors (Ptrend = 0.017); specifically, rs2274223 was associated with a significantly increased risk (AG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01-1.64; AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03-1.64), while rs11599672 was associated with a significantly decreased risk (GG vs. TT: adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.34-0.86; TG/GG vs. TT: adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.61-0.95).
Our findings suggest that PLCE1 variants may have an effect on risk of SCCHN associated with tobacco and alcohol exposure, particularly for those tumors arising at non-oropharyngeal sites. These findings, although need to be validated by larger studies, are consistent with those in esophageal and gastric cancers.
PLCE1; polymorphism; SCCHN; risk; susceptibility
We conducted a genome-wide association study of gastric cancer (GC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in ethnic Chinese subjects in which we genotyped 551,152 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We report a combined analysis of 2,240 GC cases, 2,115 ESCC cases, and 3,302 controls drawn from five studies. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and study, multiple variants at 10q23 had genome-wide significance for GC and ESCC independently. A notable signal was rs2274223, a nonsynonymous SNP located in PLCE1, for GC (P=8.40×10−9; per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.31) and ESCC (P=3.85×10−9; OR = 1.34). The association with GC differed by anatomic subsite. For tumors located in the cardia the association was stronger (P=4.19 × 10−15; OR= 1.57) and for those located in the noncardia stomach it was absent (P=0.44; OR=1.05). Our findings at 10q23 could provide insight into the high incidence rates of both cancers in China.
Two recent genome-wide association studies reported significant associations of genetic variants at 1q22, 10q23 and 20p13 with gastric cancer (GC) risk in Chinese populations. However, these findings have not been confirmed in other independent studies. Here, we performed an independent case–control study in a Chinese population by genotyping three loci (rs4072037A>G at 1q22, rs2274223A>G at 10q23 and rs13042395C>T at 20p13) in 1681 GC cases and 1858 controls. We found that rs4072037 at 1q22 and rs2274223 at 10q23 were significantly associated with risk of GC with per allele odds ratio (OR) of 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–0.81; P = 2.98 × 10−7] and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.27–1.58; P = 9.68 × 10−10), respectively. The association was more prominent for rs2274223 in female (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.49–2.32) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.49–1.95). Furthermore, we combined the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms to evaluate the joint effect and found that the GC risk significantly increased with the number of risk allele increasing with a trend P value of 6.66 × 10−16, and individuals with four risk alleles had a 3.28-fold (95% CI: 1.75–6.13) risk of GC compared with those having no risk alleles. However, no significant association was detected between rs13042395 at 20p13 and GC risk (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.94–1.15; P = 0.452). In conclusion, our results indicate that genetic variants at 1q22 and 10q23 but not 20p13 may serve as candidate markers for GC susceptibility in the Chinese population.
Inherited functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes may alter DNA repair capacity and thus contribute to cancer risk.
Three ERCC1 functional SNPs (rs2298881C>A, rs3212986C>A and rs11615G>A) and two XPF/ERCC4 functional SNPs (rs2276466C>G and rs6498486A>C) were genotyped for 1125 gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 1196 cancer-free controls by Taqman assays. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate risk associations, and false-positive report probabilities (FPRP) were calculated for assessing significant findings.
ERCC1 rs2298881C and rs11615A variant genotypes were associated with increased gastric cancer risk (adjusted OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05–1.67 for rs2298881 AC/CC and adjusted OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.05–1.46 for rs11615 AG/AA, compared with their common genotype AA and GG, respectively). Patients with 2–3 ERCC1 risk genotypes had significant increased risk (adjusted OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.27–1.93), compared with those with 0–1 ERCC1 risk genotypes, and this risk was more significantly in subgroups of never drinkers, non-gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (NGCA) and clinical stage I+II. All these risks were not observed for XPF SNPs.
These findings suggest that functional ERCC1 SNPs may contribute to risk of gastric cancer. Larger and well-designed studies with different ethnic populations are needed to validate our findings.
Gastric acid suppressing drugs (that is, histamine2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors) could affect the risk of oesophageal or gastric adenocarcinoma but few studies are available.
To study the association between long term treatment with acid suppressing drugs and the risk of oesophageal or gastric adenocarcinoma.
Persons registered in the general practitioners research database in the UK and aged 40–84 years during the period 1994–2001.
Population based nested case control study. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
In 4 340 207 person years of follow up, 287 patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, 195 with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 327 with gastric non‐cardia adenocarcinoma were identified, and 10 000 control persons were randomly sampled. “Oesophageal” indication for long term acid suppression (that is, reflux symptoms, oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus, or hiatal hernia) rendered a fivefold increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (odds ratio (OR) 5.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.13–9.39)) while no association was observed among users with a group of other indications, including peptic ulcer and “gastroduodenal symptoms” (that is, gastritis, dyspepsia, indigestion, and epigastric pain) (OR 1.74 (95% CI 0.90–3.34)). “Peptic ulcer” indication (that is, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, or unspecified peptic ulcer) was associated with a greater than fourfold increased risk of gastric non‐cardia adenocarcinoma among long term users (OR 4.66 (95% CI 2.42–8.97)) but no such association was found in those treated for a group of other indications (that is, “oesophageal” or “gastroduodenal symptoms”) (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.60–2.32)).
Long term pharmacological gastric acid suppression is a marker of increased risk of oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, these associations are most likely explained by the underlying treatment indication being a risk factor for the cancer rather than an independent harmful effect of these agents per se.
histamine H2 antagonists; proton pump inhibitors; gastric acid suppression; oesophageal adenocarcinoma; gastric cancer
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) is rapidly increasing in Western countries and obesity is thought to be a major risk factor. We examined the association between BMI and EADC, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma in a cohort of approximately 500,000 people in the US. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with control for many potential confounders. We found that compared to people with a BMI of 18.5-25 Kg/m2, a BMI ≥35 was associated with significantly increased risk of EADC, HR (95% CI) = 2.27 (1.44-3.59), and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma 2.46 (1.60-3.80), but not gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma 0.84 (0.50-1.42). Using nonlinear models, we found that higher BMI was associated with increased risk of EADC even within the normal BMI. Increased adiposity was associated with higher risk of EADC even within the normal weight range.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma; Gastric adenocarcinoma; Obesity; BMI; Prospective; Cohort
Background: To study the impact of the dietary antioxidant quercetin on risk of gastric adenocarcinoma.
Patients and methods: Using data from a large Swedish population-based case–control study of gastric cancer (505 cases and 1116 controls), we studied the association between quercetin and risk of anatomic (cardia/noncardia) and histological (intestinal and diffuse) subtypes of gastric cancer.
Results: We found strong inverse associations between quercetin and the risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.40–0.83) for the highest quintile (≥11.9 mg) of daily quercetin intake relative to the lowest quintile of intake (<4 mg quercetin/day), supported by a significant decreasing linear trend (P value < 0.001). Similar findings were observed for the intestinal and diffuse subtype. For cardia cancer, we found a less evident and nonsignificant inverse relationship. The protection of quercetin appeared to be stronger among female smokers, with the OR leveled of at values <0.2 in quintiles 3–5 (>6 mg quercetin/day).
Conclusions: High dietary quercetin intake is inversely related to the risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma, and the protection appears to be particularly strong for women exposed to oxidative stress, such as tobacco smoking.
antioxidants; case–control study; gastric cancer; quercetin; Sweden
Over recent years, genome wide association studies (GWAS) have contributed to our understanding of genetic susceptibility to sporadic cancer. In this study, we assessed the association between upper gastrointestinal cancer risk and four GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously implicated in prostate and colorectal cancer susceptibility. Genotyping for each SNP was performed in two, independent, Caucasian, population-based case-control studies. The first study comprised 290 gastric cancer cases and 374 controls. The second study included 185 non-cardia gastric cancers, 123 cardia cancers, 158 oesophageal cancers, and 209 controls. Odds ratios were computed from logistic models and adjusted for potential confounding variables. An inverse association was observed between the SNP rs1447295, located at 8q24, and gastric cancer risk in the first study population (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.41–0.97). A positive association was observed for the same SNP and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the second study population (OR = 7.43; 95% CI, 1.37–49.98). No significant associations were detected in either study for the three remaining SNPs (rs6983297, rs10505477 and rs719725). Our data represent novel findings on heritable susceptibility to gastric and oesophageal cancer and warrant validation in additional populations.
Gastric cancer; oesophageal cancer; genetic polymorphism; cancer susceptibiility
Epidemiological data on green/jasmine tea and esophageal as well as gastric cancer are limited and inconclusive. In order to study the effect of jasmine tea in upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers, we evaluated 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), 598 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and 316 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) cases and 1514 age-, gender-, and neighborhood-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from logistic regression adjusted for matching factors and potential confounders. Among controls, 35% of males and 8% of females reported consumption of jasmine tea; other tea consumption was rare. Consumption of jasmine tea (ever vs. never) was not associated with risk of ESCC (OR=1.15, 95% CI 0.92–1.44), GCA (OR=1.14, 95% CI 0.88–1.37), or GNCA (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.64–1.15) in males and females combined. Among males, cumulative lifetime consumption showed a significant positive dose-response relation with ESCC risk, but not for GCA and GNCA. In exploratory analyses, occupation affected the relation between tea and ESCC such that consumption in males was associated with increased risk only in non-office workers. Overall, we found no evidence for a protective effect of tea in esophageal or gastric cancer. Further studies of the potential effects of thermal damage, tea quality, and water quality on UGI cancers are suggested.
jasmine tea; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer
Dietary habits influence the risk of cancer of the oesophagus and oesophago-gastric junction, but the role of proportions of the main dietary macronutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins is uncertain.
Data was derived from a nationwide Swedish population-based case-control study conducted in 1995–1997, in which case ascertainment was rapid, and all cases were uniformly classified. Information on the subjects' history of dietary intake was collected in personal interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, with adjustment for potentially confounding factors.
Included were 189 oesophageal adenocarcinomas, 262 oesophago-gastric adenocarcinomas, 167 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and 820 control subjects. Regarding oesophageal or oesophago-gastric junctional adenocarcinoma, a high dietary proportion of carbohydrates decreased the risk (OR 0.50, CI 0.34–0.73), and a high portion of fat increased the risk (OR 1.96, CI 1.34–2.87), while a high proportion of protein did not influence the risk (OR 1. 08, 95% CI 0.75–1.56). Regarding oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the single macronutrients did not influence the risk statistically significantly.
A diet with a low proportion of carbohydrates and a high proportion of fat might increase the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a crucial role in the development and progression of gastric cancer. A functional polymorphism, -308 G>A (rs1800629), which is located in the promoter of TNFA gene, has been suggested to alter the production of TNF-α and influence cancer risk. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether this polymorphism has effects on the risk and progression of gastric cancer in a Chinese population.
We genotyped the TNFA -308 G>A polymorphism using the TaqMan method in a two-stage case-control study comprising a total of 1686 gastric cancer patients and 1895 cancer-free subjects. The logistic regression was used to assess the genetic associations with occurrence and progression of gastric cancer.
We found a significant association between the variant genotypes and increased risk of gastric cancer [P = 0.034, odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–1.67, GA/AA vs. GG]. Similar results were observed in the follow-up replication study. When combined the data from the two studies, we found a more significant association (P = 0.001, OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.13–1.59), especially for older subjects (>65 years). Furthermore, the patients carrying the variant genotypes had a significantly greater prevalence of T4 stage of disease (P = 0.001, OR = 2.19, 95%CI = 1.39–3.47) and distant metastasis (P = 0.013, OR = 1.61, 95%CI = 1.10–2.35).
Our results suggest that the functional promoter -308 G>A polymorphism in TNFA influence the susceptibility and progression of gastric cancer in the Chinese population.
AIM: To explore the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 8q24 and gastric cancer risk.
METHODS: A case-control investigation including 212 gastric cancer patients and 377 healthy controls was conducted. The genotypes of SNPs (rs6983267, rs7008482 and rs10808555) were examined and established through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between SNPs and gastric cancer.
RESULTS: The genotype frequencies of rs6983267 in gastric cancer patients were obviously different from those in the control (P = 0.005). GT genotype of rs6983267 was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer compared with GG genotype (adjusted odds ratio = 2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-3.14). Further stratified analysis indicated that rs6983267 GT genotype facilitated the risk of gastric cancer of non-cardiac and intestinal type (OR: 2.638, 95% CI: 1.464-4.753; OR: 1.916, 95% CI: 1.166-3.150, respectively).
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates for the first time that rs6983267 is involved in susceptibility to gastric cancer, although further large-sample investigations are still needed.
Gastric cancer; Genetic susceptibility; Single nucleotide polymorphism; MYC; 8q24
Although approximately 20 common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer risk through genome-wide association studies (GWASs), genetic risk variants reported to date explain only a small fraction of heritability for this common cancer. We conducted a four-stage GWAS including 17 153 cases and 16 943 controls among East-Asian women to search for new genetic risk factors for breast cancer. After analyzing 684 457 SNPs in 2062 cases and 2066 controls (Stage I), we selected for replication among 5969 Chinese women (4146 cases and 1823 controls) the top 49 SNPs that had neither been reported previously nor were in strong linkage disequilibrium with reported SNPs (Stage II). Three SNPs were further evaluated in up to 13 152 Chinese and Japanese women (6436 cases and 6716 controls) (Stage III). Finally, two SNPs were evaluated in 10 847 Korean women (4509 cases and 6338 controls) (Stage IV). SNP rs10822013 on chromosome 10q21.2, located in the zinc finger protein 365 (ZNF365) gene, showed a consistent association with breast cancer risk in all four stages with a combined per-risk allele odds ratio of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.14) (P-value for trend = 5.87 × 10−9). In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the potential functional significance of rs10822013. Our results strongly implicate rs10822013 at 10q21.2 as a genetic risk variant for breast cancer among East-Asian women.
The purpose of this study was to determine the genotype and allele frequencies of hMLH1 (-93G>A and I219V) and hMSH2 (-118T>C and IVS12-6T>C) polymorphisms in patients with gastric carcinoma and normal controls, and to evaluate the association between these polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer in a hospital-based Chinese population. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. A TaqMan assay was used to determine the genotype and allele frequencies of hMLH1 and hMSH2 polymorphisms in data obtained from 554 gastric cancer cases and 592 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the association between the four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gastric carcinoma risk. No evidence of an association among any of the four polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer was observed. However, when gastric cancer patients were further stratified by age, gender, smoking status, alcohol use and clinicopathological characteristics, and compared with the control populations, the combined variant genotype hMSH2 -118T>C (TC+CC) was not only associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer in subgroups of younger subjects [ages ≤63years; adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–2.16], but also with diffuse tumors (adjusted OR=1.41, 95% CI, 1.01–1.96). These data indicate that the polymorphisms of -93G>A, I219V and IVS12-6T>C are not associated with the risk of gastric cancer. However, hMSH2-118T>C combined with variant genotypes (TC+CC) may confer a potential risk of gastric cancer in the Chinese population.
gastric cancer; polymorphism; hMLH1; hMSH2
To test the hypothesis that polymorphic variants of antioxidant genes modify the risk of pancreatic cancer, we examined seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes coding for superoxide dismutase (SOD) 2, glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (GSTA4), catalase and glutathione peroxidase in 575 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 648 healthy controls in a case–control study. Information on risk factors was collected by personal interview and dietary information was collected by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Genotypes were determined using the Taqman method. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. No significant main effect of genotype was observed. A borderline significant interaction between diabetes and SOD2 Ex2+24T>C CT/TT genotype was observed (Pinteraction = 0.051); the AORs (95% CI) were 0.98 (0.73–1.32) for non-diabetics carrying the CT/TT genotype, 1.73 (0.94–3.18) for diabetics carrying the CC genotype and 3.49 (2.22–5.49) for diabetics carrying the CT/TT genotype compared with non-diabetics carrying the CC genotype. Moreover, the SOD2 −1221G>A AA genotype carriers had a significantly increased risk for pancreatic cancer among those with a low dietary vitamin E intake but decreased risk among those with a high vitamin E intake (Pinteraction = 0.002). There was a non-significant interaction between diabetes and GSTA4 Ex5−64G>A genotypes (Pinteraction = 0.078). No significant interaction between genotype with cigarette smoking or vitamin C intake was observed. These data suggest that genetic variations in antioxidant defenses modify the risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics or individuals with a low dietary vitamin E intake.
Cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the oxyntic glands of the stomach, and under conditions of chronic inflammation and atrophy, serum ghrelin concentrations decrease. However, the relationship between ghrelin and the risk of gastric and esophagogastric junctional cancers has not been investigated.
We conducted a nested case–control study within the Finnish Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study to examine the relationship between serum ghrelin concentration and the risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA). Data from 261 GNCA patients, 98 EGJA patients, and 441 control subjects were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Lag analysis was also performed to investigate the temporal nature of the associations between baseline serum pepsinogen I and ghrelin in GNCA and EGJA patients. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Lower concentrations of serum ghrelin were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of both GNCA (adjusted OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.49 to 2.04; P < .001) and EGJA (adjusted OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.89, P < .001). A multivariable model found that the risk of both GNCA and EGJA were statistically significantly increased for those individuals in the lowest quartile of serum ghrelin levels compared with those in the highest quartile (OR of GNCA = 5.63, 95% CI = 3.16 to 10.03; OR of EGJA = 4.90, 95% CI = 2.11 to 11.35). The statistical significance of these associations remained even after restricting the analysis to those patients who developed cancer more than 10 years after baseline serum ghrelin measurements.
Low baseline concentrations of serum ghrelin were associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of GNCA and EGJA, suggesting a potential role for gastric hormones in carcinogenesis.
Family history (FH) by different relative types and risk of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers has been only rarely reported; the data on UGI cancer survival are sparse.
600 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases, 598 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma cases, and 316 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma cases, and 1514 age-, gender-, and neighborhood-matched controls were asked for FH in first degree relatives and non-blood relatives. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regressions, and hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox proportional hazard regressions were estimated.
Increased ESCC risk was associated with FH of any cancer (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.39–2.12), FH of any UGI cancer (OR = 2.28, 95%CI = 1.77–2.95) and FH of esophageal cancer (OR = 2.84, 95%CI = 2.09–3.86), but not FH of non-UGI cancer. Individuals with two or more affected first-degree relatives had 10-fold increased ESCC risk. FH of gastric cardia cancer was associated with an increased risk of all three cancers. Cancer in non-blood relatives was not associated with risk of any UGI cancer. FH of UGI cancer was associated with a poorer survival rate among younger ESCC cases (HR = 1.82, 95%CI = 1.01–3.29).
These data provide strong evidence that shared susceptibility is involved in esophageal carcinogenesis and also suggest a role in prognosis.
AIM: To explore the association between mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk.
METHODS: Five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in the SMAD4 gene were selected and genotyped in 322 gastric cancer cases and 351 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population by using the polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism method. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine SMAD4 protein expression in 10 normal gastric tissues adjacent to tumors.
RESULTS: In the single-locus analysis, two significantly decreased risk polymorphisms for gastric cancer were observed: the SNP3 rs17663887 TC genotype (adjusted odds ratio = 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.71), compared with the wild-type TT genotype and the SNP5 rs12456284 GG genotype (0.31, 0.16-0.60), and with the wild-type AA genotype. In the combined analyses of these two tSNPs, the combined genotypes with 2-3 protective alleles (SNP3 C and SNP5 G allele) had a significantly decreased risk of gastric cancer (0.28, 0.16-0.49) than those with 0-1 protective allele. Furthermore, individuals with 0-1 protective allele had significantly decreased SMAD4 protein expression levels in the normal tissues adjacent to tumors than those with 2-3 protective alleles (P = 0.025).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that genetic variants in the SMAD4 gene play a protective role in gastric cancer in a Chinese population.
Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4; Genetic variation; Gastric tumor; Molecular epidemiology
Adenocarcinomas located near the gastroesophageal junction have unclear etiology and are difficult to classify. We used DNA methylation analysis to identify subtype-specific markers and new subgroups of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas, and studied their association with epidemiological risk factors and clinical outcomes.
We used logistic regression models and unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of 74 DNA methylation markers on 45 tumor samples (44 patients) of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas obtained from a population-based case-control study to uncover epigenetic markers and cluster groups of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. No distinct epigenetic differences were evident between subtypes of gastric and esophageal cancers. However, we identified two gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma subclusters based on DNA methylation profiles. Group membership was best predicted by GATA5 DNA methylation status. We analyzed the associations between these two epigenetic groups and exposure using logistic regression, and the associations with survival time using Cox regression in a larger set of 317 tumor samples (278 patients). There were more males with esophageal and gastric cardia cancers in Cluster Group 1 characterized by higher GATA5 DNA methylation values (all p<0.05). This group also showed associations of borderline statistical significance with having ever smoked (p-value = 0.07), high body mass index (p-value = 0.06), and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (p-value = 0.07). Subjects in cluster Group 1 showed better survival than those in Group 2 after adjusting for tumor differentiation grade, but this was not found to be independent of tumor stage.
DNA methylation profiling can be used in population-based studies to identify epigenetic subclasses of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas and class-specific DNA methylation markers that can be linked to epidemiological data and clinical outcome. Two new epigenetic subgroups of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas were identified that differ to some extent in their survival rates, risk factors of exposure, and GATA5 DNA methylation.
AIM: To investigate the association between epidermal growth factor (EGF) +61A/G polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer, through a cross-sectional study.
METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction resctriction fragment lenght polymorphism analyses were used to genotype EGF +61 in 207 patients with gastric lesions (162 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas, 45 with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia) and 984 controls. All subjects were Caucasian.
RESULTS: Genotype distribution was 23.5% for GG and 76.5% for GA/AA in the control group, 18.4% for GG and 68.6% for GA/AA in the entire group with gastric lesions and 17.9% for GG and 82.1% for GA/AA in the group with gastric adenocarcinoma. No statistically significant associations were found between EGF +61 variants and risk for developing gastric cancer [odds ratios (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.90-2.21, P = 0.116]. However, the stratification of individuals by gender revealed that males carrying A alleles (EGF +61A/G or AA) had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer as compared to GG homozygous males (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05-2.28, P = 0.021).
CONCLUSION: In summary, we found that males who were A carriers for EGF +61 had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer. This result may be explained by the suggestion that women secrete less gastric acid than men.
Epidermal growth factor polymorphism; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Gastric cancer
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reported several genetic variants to be reproducibly associated with type 2 diabetes. Additional variants have also been detected from a metaanalysis of three GWASs, performed in populations of European ancestry. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of 17 genetic variants from 15 candidate loci, identified in type 2 diabetes GWASs and the metaanalysis, in a Han Chinese cohort.
Selected type 2 diabetes–associated genetic variants were genotyped in 1,165 type 2 diabetic patients and 1,136 normoglycemic control individuals of Southern Han Chinese ancestry. The OR for risk of developing type 2 diabetes was calculated using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and BMI. Genotype-phenotype associations were tested using a multivariate linear regression model. Genetic variants in CDKN2A/B, CDKAL1, TCF7L2, TCF2, MC4R, and PPARG showed a nominal association with type 2 diabetes (P≤0.05), of whom the three first would stand correction for multiple testing: CDKN2A/B rs10811661, OR: 1.26 (1.12–1.43) P = 1.8*10−4; CDKAL1 rs10946398, OR: 1.23 (1.09–1.39); P = 7.1*10−4, and TCF7L2 rs7903146, OR: 1.61 (1.19–2.18) P = 2.3 * 10−3. Only nominal phenotype associations were observed, notably for rs8050136 in FTO and fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.002), postprandial plasma glucose (P = 0.002), and fasting C-peptide levels (P = 0.006) in the diabetic patients, and with BMI in controls (P = 0.033).
We have identified significant association between variants in CDKN2A/B, CDKAL1 and TCF7L2, and type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese cohort, indicating these genes as strong candidates conferring susceptibility to type 2 diabetes across different ethnicities.
Hypovolemic shock (Dengue shock syndrome (DSS)), is the commonest life-threatening complication of dengue. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 2,008 pediatric cases treated for DSS and 2,018 controls from Vietnam. Replication of the most significantly associated markers was carried out in an independent Vietnamese follow-up sample of 1,737 cases and 2,934 controls. Polymorphisms within two genes showed genome-wide significant association with DSS (Pmeta = 4.41 × 10−11, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.34 for MICB rs3132468 located within the broad MHC region and Pmeta = 3.08 × 10−10, per-allele OR = 0.80 for PLCE1 rs3765524). Our data implicates MICB is an important determinant in early immune control of dengue virus infection and PLCE1 a factor in vascular endothelial dysfunction and circulatory hypovolemia.
The nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein, xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC), participates in recognizing DNA lesions and initiating DNA repair in response to DNA damage. Because mutations in XPC cause a high risk of cancer in XP patients, we hypothesized that inherited sequence variations in XPC may alter DNA repair and thus susceptibility to cancer.
In this hospital-based case-control study, we investigated five XPC tagging, common single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagging SNPs) in 1,010 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 1,011 matched cancer free controls in a Chinese population.
In individual tagging SNP analysis, we found that rs3731055AG+AA variant genotypes were associated with a significantly decreased risk of lung adenocarcinoma [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56–0.90] but an increased risk of small cell carcinomas [adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.07]. Furthermore, we found that haplotype ACCCA was associated with a decreased risk of lung adenocarcinoma [OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62–0.97] but an increased risk of small cell carcinomas [OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.04–2.71], which reflected the presence of rs3731055A allele in this haplotype. Further stratified analysis revealed that the protective effect of rs3731055AG+AA on risk of lung adenocarcinoma was more evident among young subjects (age ≤ 60) and never smokers.
These results suggest that inherited sequence variations in XPC may modulate risk of lung cancer, especially lung adenocarcinoma, in Chinese populations. However, these findings need to be verified in larger confirmatory studies with more comprehensively selected tagging SNPs.
Published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified few variants in the known biological pathways involved in lung cancer etiology. To mine the possibly hidden causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we explored all SNPs in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway from our published GWAS dataset for 1154 lung cancer cases and 1137 cancer-free controls. In an initial association analysis of 611 tagSNPs in 41 apoptosis-related genes, we identified only 10 tagSNPs associated with lung cancer risk with a P value <10−2, including four tagSNPs in DAPK1 and three tagSNPs in TNFSF8. Unlike DAPK1 SNPs, TNFSF8 rs2181033 tagged other four predicted functional but untyped SNPs (rs776576, rs776577, rs31813148 and rs2075533) in the promoter region. Therefore, we further tested binding affinity of these four SNPs by performing the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We found that only rs2075533T allele modified levels of nuclear proteins bound to DNA, leading to significantly decreased expression of luciferase reporter constructs by 5- to –10-fold in H1299, HeLa and HCT116 cell lines compared with the C allele. We also performed a replication study of the untyped rs2075533 in an independent Texas population but did not confirm the protective effect. We further performed a mini meta-analysis for SNPs of TNFSF8 obtained from other four published lung cancer GWASs with 12 214 cases and 47 721 controls, and we found that only rs3181366 (r2 = 0.69 with the untyped rs2075533) was associated to lung cancer risk (P = 0.008). Our findings suggest a possible role of novel TNFSF8 variants in susceptibility to lung cancer.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with underlying genetic and environmental factors. Although the contribution of alleles within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are known to exert strong effects on MS risk, much remains to be learned about the contributions of loci with more modest effects identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), as well as loci that remain undiscovered. We use a recently developed method to estimate the proportion of variance in disease liability explained by 475,806 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 1,854 MS cases and 5,164 controls. We reveal that ~30% of MS genetic liability is explained by SNPs in this dataset, the majority of which is accounted for by common variants. These results suggest that the unaccounted for proportion could be explained by variants that are in imperfect linkage disequilibrium with common GWAS SNPs, highlighting the potential importance of rare variants in the susceptibility to MS.