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1.  Experimental evidence for real-time song frequency shift in response to urban noise in a passerine bird 
Biology Letters  2010;7(1):36-38.
Research has shown that bird songs are modified in different ways to deal with urban noise and promote signal transmission through noisy environments. Urban noise is composed of low frequencies, thus the observation that songs have a higher minimum frequency in noisy places suggests this is a way of avoiding noise masking. Most studies are correlative and there is as yet little experimental evidence that this is a short-term mechanism owing to individual plasticity. Here we experimentally test if house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) can modulate the minimum frequency of their songs in response to different noise levels. We exposed singing males to three continuous treatments: low–high–low noise levels. We found a significant increase in minimum frequency from low to high and a decrement from high to low treatments. We also found that this was mostly achieved by modifying the frequency of the same low-frequency syllable types used in the different treatments. When different low-frequency syllables were used, those sung during the noisy condition were longer than the ones sang during the quiet condition. We conclude that house finches modify their songs in several ways in response to urban noise, thus providing evidence of a short-term acoustic adaptation.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0437
PMCID: PMC3030866  PMID: 20610421
house finch; Carpodacus mexicanus; birdsong; urban noise; acoustic adaptation
2.  Urban noise and the cultural evolution of bird songs 
In urban environments, anthropogenic noise can interfere with animal communication. Here we study the influence of urban noise on the cultural evolution of bird songs. We studied three adjacent dialects of white-crowned sparrow songs over a 30-year time span. Urban noise, which is louder at low frequencies, increased during our study period and therefore should have created a selection pressure for songs with higher frequencies. We found that the minimum frequency of songs increased both within and between dialects during the 30-year time span. For example, the dialect with the highest minimum frequency is in the process of replacing another dialect that has lower frequency songs. Songs with the highest minimum frequency were favoured in this environment and should have the most effective transmission properties. We suggest that one mechanism that influences how dialects, and cultural traits in general, are selected and transmitted from one generation to the next is the dialect's ability to be effectively communicated in the local environment.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1571
PMCID: PMC2842653  PMID: 19846451
cultural evolution; bird song; dialect; urban noise
3.  Effects of urban noise on song and response behaviour in great tits 
Acoustic communication is fundamental in avian territory defence and mate attraction. In urban environments where sound transmissions are more likely to be masked by low-frequency anthropogenic noise, acoustic adaptations may be advantageous. However, minor modifications to a signal could affect its efficacy. While recent research has shown that there is divergence between songs from noisy and quiet areas, it is unknown whether these differences affect the response to the signal by its receivers. Here, we show that there is a difference in spectral aspects of rural and urban song in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major, at 20 sites across the UK. We also provide, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that such environmentally induced differences in song influence the response of male territory holders. Males from quiet territories exhibited a significantly stronger response when hearing song from another territory holder with low background noise than from those with high background noise. The opposite distinction in response intensity to homotypic versus heterotypic song was observed in males from noisy territories. This behavioural difference may intensify further signal divergence between urban and rural populations and raises important questions concerning signal evolution.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0586
PMCID: PMC2817215  PMID: 19493902
song; great tit; urban noise; playback response; adaptation; signal divergence
4.  Bird song and anthropogenic noise: vocal constraints may explain why birds sing higher-frequency songs in cities 
When animals live in cities, they have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to novel environments. Noise pollution puts a severe constraint on vocal communication by interfering with the detection of acoustic signals. Recent studies show that city birds sing higher-frequency songs than their conspecifics in non-urban habitats. This has been interpreted as an adaptation to counteract masking by traffic noise. However, this notion is debated, for the observed frequency shifts seem to be less efficient at mitigating noise than singing louder, and it has been suggested that city birds might use particularly high-frequency song elements because they can be produced at higher amplitudes. Here, we present the first phonetogram for a songbird, which shows that frequency and amplitude are strongly positively correlated in the common blackbird (Turdus merula), a successful urban colonizer. Moreover, city blackbirds preferentially sang higher-frequency elements that can be produced at higher intensities and, at the same time, happen to be less masked in low-frequency traffic noise.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.2798
PMCID: PMC3574330  PMID: 23303546
anthropogenic noise; bird song; phonetogram; urbanization; blackbird; acoustic communication
5.  Degradation of Rural and Urban Great Tit Song: Testing Transmission Efficiency 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e28242.
Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song, suggesting changes in other song characteristics, such as temporal adjustments, are needed to further increase transmission of an avian signal in the city. We suggest that the structure of the acoustic environment, in addition to the background noise, plays an important role in signal adaptation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028242
PMCID: PMC3236192  PMID: 22174781
6.  Vocal frequency change reflects different responses to anthropogenic noise in two suboscine tyrant flycatchers 
Anthropogenic noise is prevalent across the globe and can exclude birds from otherwise suitable habitat and negatively influence fitness; however, the mechanisms responsible for species' responses to noise are not always clear. One effect of noise is a reduction in effective acoustic communication through acoustic masking, yet some urban songbirds may compensate for masking by noise through altering their songs. Whether this vocal flexibility accounts for species persistence in noisy areas is unknown. Here, we investigated the influence of noise on habitat use and vocal frequency in two suboscine flycatchers using a natural experiment that isolated effects of noise from confounding stimuli common to urban habitats. With increased noise exposure, grey flycatcher (Empidonax wrightii) occupancy declined, but vocal frequency did not change. By contrast, ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens) occupancy was uninfluenced by noise, but individuals in areas with greater noise amplitudes vocalized at a higher frequency, although the increase (≈200 kHz) may only marginally improve communication and may represent a secondary effect from increased vocal amplitude. Even so, the different flycatcher behavioural responses suggest that signal change may help some species persist in noisy areas and prompt important questions regarding which species will cope with an increasingly noisy world.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1847
PMCID: PMC3107642  PMID: 21123268
acoustic communication; acoustic masking; anthropogenic noise; habitat use; signal change; suboscine
7.  How Noisy Does a Noisy Miner Have to Be? Amplitude Adjustments of Alarm Calls in an Avian Urban ‘Adapter’ 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e29960.
Background
Urban environments generate constant loud noise, which creates a formidable challenge for many animals relying on acoustic communication. Some birds make vocal adjustments that reduce auditory masking by altering, for example, the frequency (kHz) or timing of vocalizations. Another adjustment, well documented for birds under laboratory and natural field conditions, is a noise level-dependent change in sound signal amplitude (the ‘Lombard effect’). To date, however, field research on amplitude adjustments in urban environments has focused exclusively on bird song.
Methods
We investigated amplitude regulation of alarm calls using, as our model, a successful urban ‘adapter’ species, the Noisy miner, Manorina melanocephala. We compared several different alarm calls under contrasting noise conditions.
Results
Individuals at noisier locations (arterial roads) alarm called significantly more loudly than those at quieter locations (residential streets). Other mechanisms known to improve sound signal transmission in ‘noise’, namely use of higher perches and in-flight calling, did not differ between site types. Intriguingly, the observed preferential use of different alarm calls by Noisy miners inhabiting arterial roads and residential streets was unlikely to have constituted a vocal modification made in response to sound-masking in the urban environment because the calls involved fell within the main frequency range of background anthropogenic noise.
Conclusions
The results of our study suggest that a species, which has the ability to adjust the amplitude of its signals, might have a ‘natural’ advantage in noisy urban environments.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029960
PMCID: PMC3251594  PMID: 22238684
8.  Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) 
Ecology and Evolution  2012;2(8):1977-1984.
Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, “urban-typical” calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise.
doi:10.1002/ece3.320
PMCID: PMC3434000  PMID: 22957198
Acoustic adaptation; cultural evolution; silvereyes; song dialects; urban noise; Zosterops lateralis
9.  Phylogenetic and ecological determinants of the neotropical dawn chorus 
The concentration of avian song at first light (i.e. the dawn chorus) is widely appreciated, but has an enigmatic functional significance. One widely accepted explanation is that birds are active at dawn, but light levels are not yet adequate for foraging. In forest communities, the onset to singing should thus be predictable from the species' foraging strata, which is ultimately related to ambient light level. To test this, we collected data from a tropical forest of Ecuador involving 57 species from 27 families of birds. Time of first song was a repeatable, species-specific trait, and the majority of resident birds, including non-passerines, sang in the dawn chorus. For passerine birds, foraging height was the best predictor of time of first song, with canopy birds singing earlier than birds foraging closer to the forest floor. A weak and opposite result was observed for non-passerines. For passerine birds, eye size also predicted time of first song, with larger eyed birds singing earlier, after controlling for body mass, taxonomic group and foraging height. This is the first comparative study of the dawn chorus in the Neotropics, and it provides the first evidence for foraging strata as the primary determinant of scheduling participation in the dawn chorus of birds.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3410
PMCID: PMC1560234  PMID: 16627286
song; dawn chorus; foraging strata; tropical forest
10.  A latitudinal gradient in rates of evolution of avian syllable diversity and song length 
We ask whether rates of evolution in traits important for reproductive isolation vary across a latitudinal gradient, by quantifying evolutionary rates of two traits important for pre-mating isolation—avian syllable diversity and song length. We analyse over 2500 songs from 116 pairs of closely related New World passerine bird taxa to show that evolutionary rates for the two main groups of passerines—oscines and suboscines—doubled with latitude in both groups for song length. For syllable diversity, oscines (who transmit song culturally) evolved more than 20 times faster at high latitudes than in low latitudes, whereas suboscines (whose songs are innate in most species and who possess very simple song with few syllable types) show no clear latitudinal gradient in rate. Evolutionary rates in oscines and suboscines were similar at tropical latitudes for syllable complexity as well as for song length. These results suggest that evolutionary rates in traits important to reproductive isolation and speciation are influenced by latitude and have been fastest, not in the tropics where species diversity is highest, but towards the poles.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2037
PMCID: PMC3081773  PMID: 21068034
syllable diversity; song length; cultural evolution; selection; latitudinal diversity gradient; reproductive isolation
11.  Social learning in birds and its role in shaping a foraging niche 
We briefly review the literature on social learning in birds, concluding that strong evidence exists mainly for predator recognition, song, mate choice and foraging. The mechanism of local enhancement may be more important than imitation for birds learning to forage, but the former mechanism may be sufficient for faithful transmission depending on the ecological circumstances. To date, most insights have been gained from birds in captivity. We present a study of social learning of foraging in two passerine birds in the wild, where we cross-fostered eggs between nests of blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus and great tits, Parus major. Early learning causes a shift in the foraging sites used by the tits in the direction of the foster species. The shift in foraging niches was consistent across seasons, as showed by an analysis of prey items, and the effect lasted for life. The fact that young birds learn from their foster parents, and use this experience later when subsequently feeding their own offspring, suggests that foraging behaviour can be culturally transmitted over generations in the wild. It may therefore have both ecological and evolutionary consequences, some of which are discussed.
doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0343
PMCID: PMC3049099  PMID: 21357219
cultural transmission; ecological niche; foraging conservatism; habitat preferences; speciation
12.  The Causes and Evolutionary Consequences of Mixed Singing in Two Hybridizing Songbird Species (Luscinia spp.) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60172.
Bird song plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of prezygotic reproductive barriers. When two closely related species come into secondary contact, song convergence caused by acquisition of heterospecific songs into the birds’ repertoires is often observed. The proximate mechanisms responsible for such mixed singing, and its effect on the speciation process, are poorly understood. We used a combination of genetic and bioacoustic analyses to test whether mixed singing observed in the secondary contact zone of two passerine birds, the Thrush Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) and the Common Nightingale (L. megarhynchos), is caused by introgressive hybridization. We analysed song recordings of both species from allopatric and sympatric populations together with genotype data from one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci. Semi-automated comparisons of our recordings with an extensive catalogue of Common Nightingale song types confirmed that most of the analysed sympatric Thrush Nightingale males were ‘mixed singers’ that use heterospecific song types in their repertoires. None of these ‘mixed singers’ possessed any alleles introgressed from the Common Nightingale, suggesting that they were not backcross hybrids. We also analysed songs of five individuals with intermediate phenotype, which were identified as F1 hybrids between the Thrush Nightingale female and the Common Nightingale male by genetic analysis. Songs of three of these hybrids corresponded to the paternal species (Common Nightingale) but the remaining two sung a mixed song. Our results suggest that although hybridization might increase the tendency for learning songs from both parental species, interspecific cultural transmission is the major proximate mechanism explaining the occurrence of mixed singers among the sympatric Thrush Nightingales. We also provide evidence that mixed singing does not substantially increase the rate of interspecific hybridization and discuss the possible adaptive value of this phenomenon in nightingales.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060172
PMCID: PMC3618175  PMID: 23577089
13.  Metabolic and Respiratory Costs of Increasing Song Amplitude in Zebra Finches 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e23198.
Bird song is a widely used model in the study of animal communication and sexual selection, and several song features have been shown to reflect the quality of the singer. Recent studies have demonstrated that song amplitude may be an honest signal of current condition in males and that females prefer high amplitude songs. In addition, birds raise the amplitude of their songs to communicate in noisy environments. Although it is generally assumed that louder song should be more costly to produce, there has been little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We tested the assumption by measuring oxygen consumption and respiratory patterns in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) singing at different amplitudes in different background noise conditions. As background noise levels increased, birds significantly increased the sound pressure level of their songs. We found that louder songs required significantly greater subsyringeal air sac pressure than quieter songs. Though increased pressure is probably achieved by increasing respiratory muscle activity, these increases did not correlate with measurable increases in oxygen consumption. In addition, we found that oxygen consumption increased in higher background noise, independent of singing behaviour. This observation supports previous research in mammals showing that high levels of environmental noise can induce physiological stress responses. While our study did not find that increasing vocal amplitude increased metabolic costs, further research is needed to determine whether there are other non-metabolic costs of singing louder or costs associated with chronic noise exposure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023198
PMCID: PMC3168434  PMID: 21915258
14.  Flexibility in Animal Signals Facilitates Adaptation to Rapidly Changing Environments 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e25413.
Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025413
PMCID: PMC3182216  PMID: 21980449
15.  Perch exposure and predation risk: a comparative study in passerines 
Acta Ethologica  2009;12(2):93-98.
Singing birds optimize signal transmission by perching in exposed locations. However, conspicuous singing may be risky, and previous research has found that individuals trade off singing performance with song perch exposure. We studied the relationship between predation risk (degree of concealment, height in tree or shrub, and distance to the forest edge) and time allocated to singing and vigilance in a group of 13 passerine species living in an East African savanna. Concealed birds sang more and were less vigilant. Vigilance increased as distance to the forested edge increased, but distance had no effect on time allocated to singing. Body size was significantly correlated with vigilance but not singing; larger passerines were more sensitive to both relative concealment and the distance to the forest edge, while song was influenced by neither of these factors. Perch height had no effect on either behavior. Our results suggest that birds modify vigilance and, to some extent, singing behavior to minimize their exposure to predators.
doi:10.1007/s10211-009-0061-x
PMCID: PMC3150802  PMID: 21874089
Birdsong; Perch exposure; Predation risk; Singing behavior
16.  Vocal performance influences male receiver response in the banded wren 
In a variety of songbirds the production of trilled song elements is constrained by a performance tradeoff between how fast a bird can repeat trill units (trill rate) and the range of frequencies each unit can span (frequency bandwidth). High-performance trills serve as an assessment signal for females, but little is known about the signal value of vocal performance for male receivers. We investigated the relationship between trill rate and frequency bandwidth in banded wren (Thryothorus pleurostictus) songs. Trilled song elements showed the same performance tradeoff found in other passerines and individuals differed in performance of some trill types. We tested the hypothesis that males of this species assess each other based on trill performance with a two-speaker experiment, in which territory owners were presented with alternating renditions of the same song type manipulated to differ in trill rate. Subjects were significantly more likely to approach the faster trill stimulus first. However, subjects that received trill types closer to the performance limit spent less time close to the fast speaker. Our results show that male banded wrens discriminate and respond differently to songs based on their vocal performance. Thus, performance of physically challenging songs may be important in intra- as well as inter-sexual assessment.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3535
PMCID: PMC1634778  PMID: 16822751
bird song; sexual selection; trill rate; Thryothorus pleurostictus; performance limit; acoustic playback
17.  Vocal performance influences male receiver response in the banded wren 
In a variety of songbirds the production of trilled song elements is constrained by a performance tradeoff between how fast a bird can repeat trill units (trill rate) and the range of frequencies each unit can span (frequency bandwidth). High-performance trills serve as an assessment signal for females, but little is known about the signal value of vocal performance for male receivers. We investigated the relationship between trill rate and frequency bandwidth in banded wren (Thryothorus pleurostictus) songs. Trilled song elements showed the same performance tradeoff found in other passerines and individuals differed in performance of some trill types. We tested the hypothesis that males of this species assess each other based on trill performance with a two-speaker experiment, in which territory owners were presented with alternating renditions of the same song type manipulated to differ in trill rate. Subjects were significantly more likely to approach the faster trill stimulus first. However, subjects that received trill types closer to the performance limit spent less time close to the fast speaker. Our results show that male banded wrens discriminate and respond differently to songs based on their vocal performance. Thus, performance of physically challenging songs may thus be important in intra- as well as intersexual assessment.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3535
PMCID: PMC1634778  PMID: 16822751
bird song; sexual selection; trill rate; Thryothorus pleurostictus; performance limit; acoustic playback
18.  Different behavioural responses to anthropogenic noise by two closely related passerine birds 
Biology Letters  2011;7(6):850-852.
Anthropogenic noise, now common to many landscapes, can impair acoustic communication for many species, yet some birds compensate for masking by noise by altering their songs. The phylogenetic distribution of these noise-dependent signal adjustments is uncertain, and it is not known whether closely related species respond similarly to noise. Here, we investigated the influence of noise on habitat occupancy rates and vocal frequency in two congeneric vireos with similar song features. Noise exposure did not influence occupancy rates for either species, yet song features of both changed, albeit in different ways. With increases in noise levels, plumbeous vireos (Vireo plumbeus) sang shorter songs with higher minimum frequencies. By contrast, grey vireos (Vireo vicinior) sang longer songs with higher maximum frequencies. These findings support the notion that vocal plasticity may help some species occupy noisy areas, but because there were no commonalities among the signal changes exhibited by these closely related birds, it may be difficult to predict how diverse species may modify their signals in an increasingly noisy world.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0359
PMCID: PMC3210660  PMID: 21613284
acoustic communication; anthropogenic noise; masking; occupancy rate; signal change; vireo
19.  Persistence of song types in Darwin's finches, Geospiza fortis, over four decades 
Biology Letters  2010;6(5):589-592.
Learned bird songs evolve via cultural evolution, with song patterns transmitted across generations by imitative learning. In Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Islands, males learn songs from their fathers, and song types can be maintained across multiple generations. However, little is known about the time frame over which specific song types are preserved, in the face of copy errors and corresponding modifications to song structure. Here we investigate cultural evolution in songs of male Geospiza fortis, at Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island, comparing songs recorded in 1961 by R. Bowman (20 individuals) to those recorded in 1999 by J. Podos (16 individuals). For each individual, we characterized four timing and six frequency parameters, and assessed inter-individual variation in song structure using multivariate analysis. Several 1961 song types persisted into 1999, some with remarkable fidelity. Variation among song types was extensive during both years, and we detected no changes in 10 vocal parameters across the sampling period. These results illustrate temporal continuity in a culturally acquired trait, and raise questions about mechanisms that promote stability in song structure.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0165
PMCID: PMC2936152  PMID: 20392717
bird song; cultural evolution; Darwin's finches; Galápagos Islands; Geospiza fortis
20.  Early nutritional stress impairs development of a song-control brain region in both male and female juvenile song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at the onset of song learning 
Birdsong is a sexually selected trait and is often viewed as an indicator of male quality. The developmental stress hypothesis proposes a model by which song could be an indicator; the time during early development, when birds learn complex songs and/or local variants of song, is of rapid development and nutritional stress. Birds that cope best with this stress may better learn to produce the most effective songs. The developmental stress hypothesis predicts that early food restriction should impair development of song-control brain regions at the onset of song learning. We examined the effect of food restriction on song-control brain regions in fledgling (both sexes, 23–26 days old) song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Food restriction selectively reduced HVC volume in both sexes. In addition, sex differences were evident in all three song-control regions. This study lends further support to a growing body of literature documenting a variety of behavioural, physiological and neural detriments in several songbird species resulting from early developmental stress.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3547
PMCID: PMC1634898  PMID: 16959649
nutritional stress; neural development; HVC; sex differences; birdsong
21.  Independent evolution of song structure and note structure in American wood warblers 
This study addresses the issue of how evolutionary convergence within shared environments shapes some features of bird song while leaving others unaffected, using as an example the songs of 51 North American wood warblers (Parulinae). I combined published information on breeding habitats and evolutionary relationships to show that the structure of warbler songs is correlated with habitat, whereas the structure of the notes that comprise the songs is relatively unaffected by habitat and more closely related to phylogenetic history. The results confirm known relationships between bird song and habitat, including correlations between song frequency and the type and density of canopy foliage, and between the number and arrangement of notes in the song and foliage density and moisture. More importantly, the results suggest that individual notes and whole songs are to some extent functionally independent, because the configuration of notes shows more evidence of evolutionary constraint than does the way notes are assembled into songs.
doi:10.1098/rspb.1997.0107
PMCID: PMC1688419
Bird Song Comparative Method Evolution Of Song Parulinae Phenotypic Integration Phylogenetic Analysis
22.  Sleepless in Town – Drivers of the Temporal Shift in Dawn Song in Urban European Blackbirds 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71476.
Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071476
PMCID: PMC3737108  PMID: 23940759
23.  Eye size in birds and the timing of song at dawn. 
Why do different species of birds start their dawn choruses at different times? We test the hypothesis that the times at which different species start singing at dawn are related to their visual capability at low light intensities. Birds with large eyes can achieve greater pupil diameters and hence, all other things being equal, greater visual sensitivity and resolution than birds with small eyes. We estimated the maximum pupil diameter of passerine birds by measuring the diameter of the exposed eye surface, and measured the times of the first songs at dawn of songbirds present in different bird communities, and the light intensities at these times. Using phylogenetic comparative analyses, we found that songbirds with large eyes started to sing at lower light intensities (and therefore earlier) than species with smaller eyes. These relationships were stronger when differences in body size were controlled for statistically, and were consistent between two phylogenies and when species were treated as independent data points. Our results therefore provide robust support for the hypothesis that visual capability at low light levels influences the times at which birds start to sing at dawn.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1941
PMCID: PMC1690967  PMID: 11958715
24.  Passerine Birds Breeding under Chronic Noise Experience Reduced Fitness 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e39200.
Background
Fitness in birds has been shown to be negatively associated with anthropogenic noise, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. It is however crucial to understand the mechanisms of how urban noise impinges on fitness to obtain a better understanding of the role of chronic noise in urban ecology. Here, we examine three hypotheses on how noise might reduce reproductive output in passerine birds: (H1) by impairing mate choice, (H2) by reducing territory quality and (H3) by impeding chick development.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We used long-term data from an island population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus, in which we can precisely estimate fitness. We found that nests in an area affected by the noise from large generators produced fewer young, of lower body mass, and fewer recruits, even when we corrected statistically for parental genetic quality using a cross-fostering set-up, supporting H3. Also, individual females provided their young with food less often when they bred in the noisy area compared to breeding attempts by the same females elsewhere. Furthermore, we show that females reacted flexibly to increased noise levels by adjusting their provisioning rate in the short term, which suggests that noise may be a causal factor that reduces reproductive output. We rejected H1 and H2 because nestbox occupancy, parental body mass, age and reproductive investment did not differ significantly between noisy and quiet areas.
Conclusions/Significance
Our results suggest a previously undescribed mechanism to explain how environmental noise can reduce fitness in passerine birds: by acoustically masking parent–offspring communication. More importantly, using a cross-fostering set-up, our results demonstrate that birds breeding in a noisy environment experience significant fitness costs. Chronic noise is omnipresent around human habitation and may produces similar fitness consequences in a wide range of urban bird species.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039200
PMCID: PMC3394753  PMID: 22808028
25.  Vocal exploration is locally regulated during song learning 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2012;32(10):3422-3432.
Exploratory variability is essential for sensory-motor learning, but it is not known how and at what time scales it is regulated. We manipulated song learning in zebra finches to experimentally control the requirements for vocal exploration in different parts of their song. We first trained birds to perform a one-syllable song, and once they mastered it we added a new syllable to the song model. Remarkably, when practicing the modified song, birds rapidly alternated between high and low acoustic variability to confine vocal exploration to the newly added syllable. Further, even within syllables, acoustic variability changed independently across song elements that were only milliseconds apart. Analysis of the entire vocal output during learning revealed that the variability of each song element decreased as it approached the target, correlating with momentary local distance from the target and less so with the overall distance. We conclude that vocal error is computed locally in sub-syllabic time scales and that song elements can be learned and crystalized independently. Songbirds have dedicated brain circuitry for vocal babbling in the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), which generates exploratory song patterns that drive premotor neurons at the song nucleus RA (robust nucleus of the arcopallium). We hypothesize that either AFP adjusts the gain of vocal exploration in fine time scales, or that the sensitivity of RA premotor neurons to AFP/HVC inputs varies across song elements.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3740-11.2012
PMCID: PMC3312320  PMID: 22399765

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