The immobilization of enzymes and other proteins into ordered thin materials has attracted considerable attention over the past few years. This research has demonstrated that biomolecules immobilized in different [Langmuir-Blodgett (LB)/Langmuir-Schaefer (LS)] matrixes retain their functional characteristics to a large extent. These new materials are of interest for applications as biosensors and biocatalysts. We review the growing field of oxidases immobilized onto ordered Langmiur-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer films. Strategies for the preparation of solid supports and the essential properties of the resulting materials with respect to the envisaged applications are presented. Basic effects of the nature of the adsorption and various aspects of the application of these materials as biosensors, biocatalysts are discussed. Outlook of potential applications and further challenges are also provided.
biosensors; enzyme immobilization; Langmuir-Blodgett technique; enzyme activity; AFM
The benzothiadiazole – arylene alternating conjugated oligomers have been designed and synthesized via Suzuki coupling reaction. The structures and properties of the conjugated oligomers were characterized by 1HNMR, 13CNMR, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The luminescent measurements demonstrate that polybenzothiadiazoles are good chromophores able to form thin films by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, making them suitable for further applications. Also the electrical properties of obtained films confirm the good potential of these novel aryl-based π-conjugated polymers for the development of various electrical and electrochemical solid-state devices.
Benzothiadiazole; Copolymers; Suzuki coupling; Electroconductivity; Luminescence; Atomic force microscopy
Recently, the hydrogen gas sensing properties of semiconductor oxide (SMO) nanostructures have been widely investigated. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the research progress in the last five years concerning hydrogen gas sensors based on SMO thin film and one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. The hydrogen sensing mechanism of SMO nanostructures and some critical issues are discussed. Doping, noble metal-decoration, heterojunctions and size reduction have been investigated and proved to be effective methods for improving the sensing performance of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures. The effect on the hydrogen response of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures of grain boundary and crystal orientation, as well as the sensor architecture, including electrode size and nanojunctions have also been studied. Finally, we also discuss some challenges for the future applications of SMO nanostructured hydrogen sensors.
hydrogen gas sensor; semiconductor oxides; nanostructure; thin films; one-dimensional nanostructures
One of the top design priorities for semiconductor chemical sensors is developing simple, low-cost, sensitive and reliable sensors to be built in handheld devices. However, the need to implement heating elements in sensor devices, and the resulting high power consumption, remains a major obstacle for the realization of miniaturized and integrated chemoresistive thin film sensors based on metal oxides. Here we demonstrate structurally simple but extremely efficient all oxide chemoresistive sensors with ~90% transmittance at visible wavelengths. Highly effective self-activation in anisotropically self-assembled nanocolumnar tungsten oxide thin films on glass substrate with indium-tin oxide electrodes enables ultrahigh response to nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds with detection limits down to parts per trillion levels and power consumption less than 0.2 microwatts. Beyond the sensing performance, high transparency at visible wavelengths creates opportunities for their use in transparent electronic circuitry and optoelectronic devices with avenues for further functional convergence.
Controlled patterning and formation of nanostructures on surfaces based on self-assembly is a promising area in the field of “bottom-up” nanomaterial engineering. We report formation of net-like structures of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in a matrix of liquid crystalline amphiphile 4′-n-octyl-4-cyanobiphenyl at the air–water interface. After initial compression to at least 18 mN m−1, decompression of a Langmuir film of a mixture containing both components results in formation of net-like structures. The average size of a unit cell of the net is easily adjustable by changing the surface pressure during the decompression of the film. The net-like patterns of different, desired average unit cell areas were transferred onto solid substrates (Langmuir–Blodgett method) and investigated with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray reflectivity (XRR). Uniform coverage over large areas was proved. XRR data revealed lifting of the Au NPs from the surface during the formation of the film. A molecular mechanism of formation of the net-like structures is discussed.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0826-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Gold nanoparticles; Langmuir films; Langmuir–Blodgett films; Nanostructures; Net; Nanoporosity
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film was deposited on the surface of the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) to modify the sensor surface for the non-labeled detection of DNA molecules. To evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) treatment on the silanization level of TiO2 thin film by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was used to label the amine group on the end of APTS immobilized onto the TiO2 thin film. We found that, with UV irradiation, the silanization level of the irradiated area of the TiO2 film was improved compared with the non-irradiated area under well-controlled conditions. This result indicates that TiO2 can act as a coating material on the biosensor surface to improve the effect and efficiency of the covalent immobilization of biomolecules on the sensor surface. The artificially synthesized probe DNA molecules were covalently linked onto the surface of TiO2 film. The hybridization of probe DNA and target DNA was monitored by the recording of I-V curves that shift along the voltage axis during the process of reaction. A significant LAPS signal can be detected at 10 μmol/L of target DNA sample.
DNA biosensor; Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film; Light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS); Silanization; Fluorescein label; Gene chip
We report the application of palladium nanoparticles and thin films for hydrogen sensor. Electrochemically grown palladium particles with spherical shapes deposited on Si substrate and sputter deposited Pd thin films were used to detect hydrogen at room temperature. Grain size dependence of H2 sensing behavior has been discussed for both types of Pd films. The electrochemically grown Pd nanoparticles were observed to show better hydrogen sensing response than the sputtered palladium thin films. The demonstration of size dependent room temperature H2 sensing paves the ways to fabricate the room temperature metallic and metal–metal oxide semiconductor sensor by tuning the size of metal catalyst in mixed systems. H2 sensing by the Pd nanostructures is attributed to the chemical and electronic sensitization mechanisms.
Palladium; Hydrogen sensors
We report the application of palladium nanoparticles and thin films for hydrogen sensor. Electrochemically grown palladium particles with spherical shapes deposited on Si substrate and sputter deposited Pd thin films were used to detect hydrogen at room temperature. Grain size dependence of H2sensing behavior has been discussed for both types of Pd films. The electrochemically grown Pd nanoparticles were observed to show better hydrogen sensing response than the sputtered palladium thin films. The demonstration of size dependent room temperature H2sensing paves the ways to fabricate the room temperature metallic and metal–metal oxide semiconductor sensor by tuning the size of metal catalyst in mixed systems. H2sensing by the Pd nanostructures is attributed to the chemical and electronic sensitization mechanisms.
Palladium; Hydrogen sensors
In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was a very good candidate for improving the sensitivity of gas sensor technology. The preparation of an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on a 433 MHz Rayleigh wave based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor and the investigation of the acoustoelectric effect on the responses of the SAW sensor are reported. We prepared an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on the SAW devices by using an electrospray technique. To investigate the dependency of the sensor response on the structure and the number of the ZnO nanoparticles, SAW sensors were prepared with different coating loads. The coating frequency shifts were adjusted to fall between 100 kHz and 2.4 MHz. The sensor measurements were performed against VOCs such as acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethanol, n-propanol and methanol vapor. The sensor responses of n-propanol have opposite characteristics to the other VOCs, and we attributed these characteristics to the elastic effect/acoustoelectric effect.
surface acoustic waves; zinc oxide; nanostructures; electrospun; acoustoelectric effect
The antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin 01 (DS 01), from the skin secretion of Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis frogs, was immobilized in nanostructured layered films in conjunction with nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (NiTsPc), widely used in electronic devices, using layer-by-layer technique. The films were used as a biosensor to detect the presence of dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, with detection limits in the order of 10−6 mol L−1. The use of DS 01 in LbL film generated selectivity in the detection of DA despite the presence of ascorbic acid found in biological fluids. This work is the first to report that the antimicrobial peptide and NiTsPc LbL film exhibits electroanalytical activity to DA oxidation. The selectivity in the detection of DA is a fundamental aspect for the development of electrochemical sensors with potential applications in the biomedical and pharmaceutical industries.
Due to increasing environmental concerns the need for inexpensive selective gas sensors is increasing. This work deals with transferring a novel zeolite-based impedimetric hydrocarbon gas sensor principle, which has been originally manufactured in a costly combination of photolithography, thin-film processes, and thick-film processes to a low-cost technology comprising only thick-film processes and one electroplating step. The sensing effect is based on a thin chromium oxide layer between the interdigital electrodes and a Pt-loaded ZSM-5 zeolite film. When hydrocarbons are present in the sensor ambient, the electrical sensor impedance increases strongly and selectively. In the present work, the chromium oxide film is electroplated on Au screen-printed interdigital electrodes and then oxidized to Cr2O3. The electrode area is covered with the screen-printed zeolite. The sensor device is self-heated utilizing a planar platinum heater on the backside. The best sensor performance is obtained at a frequency of 3 Hz at around 350 °C. The good selectivity of the original sensor setup could be confirmed, but a strong cross-sensitivity to ammonia occurs, which might prohibit its original intention for use in automotive exhausts.
OBD (On-Board-Diagnosis); electroplating; HC; VOC
Originally developed as gas sensors, the benefits of metallic and semiconducting oxide materials are now being realized in other areas of sensing, such as chemical, environmental, and biomedical monitoring and detection. Metallic and semiconducting oxides have continuously expanded their roles to date, and have also established their significance in biosensing by utilizing a variety of modes for signal generation and detection mechanism. These sensors are typically based either on their optical, electrochemical, electrical, gravimetric, acoustic, and magnetic properties for signal transduction. This article reviews such biosensors that employ metallic and semiconducting oxides as active sensing elements to detect nucleic acids, proteins, cells, and a variety of important biomarkers, both in thin film and one-dimensional forms. Specific oxide materials (Mx Oy ) examined comprehensively in this article include M = Fe, Cu, Si, Zn, Sn, In. The derivatives of these oxide materials resulting from incorporation of dopants are examined as well. The crystalline structures and unique properties that may be exploited for various biosensing applications are discussed, and recent efforts investigating the feasibility of using these oxide materials in biosensor technology are described. Key biosensor characteristics resulting from reduced dimensionality are overviewed under the motif of planar and one-dimensional sensors. This article also provides insight into current challenges facing biosensor applications for metallic and semiconducting oxides. In addition, future outlook in this particular field as well as different impacts on biology and medicine are addressed.
Semiconducting Oxides; Metallic Oxides; Biosensors; Solid-State Biodetection; Nanobiosensors; Nanomaterials; Biomedical Detection
The unexpected nuclear accidents have provided a challenge for scientists and engineers to develop sensitive detectors, especially for alpha radiation. Due to the high linear energy transfer value, sensors designed to detect such radiation require placement in close proximity to the radiation source. Here we report the morphological changes and optical responses of artificially designed DNA thin films in response to exposure to alpha radiation as observed by an atomic force microscope, a Raman and a reflectance spectroscopes. In addition, we discuss the feasibility of a DNA thin film as a radiation sensing material. The effect of alpha radiation exposure on the DNA thin film was evaluated as a function of distance from an 241Am source and exposure time. Significant reflected intensity changes of the exposed DNA thin film suggest that a thin film made of biomolecules can be one of promising candidates for the development of online radiation sensors.
Different classes of polymeric materials such as nanomaterials, sol-gel materials, conducting polymers, functional polymers and biomaterials have been used in the design of sensors and biosensors. Various methods have been used, for example from direct adsorption, covalent bonding, crossing-linking with glutaraldehyde on composites to mixing the enzymes or use of functionalized beads for the design of sensors and biosensors using these polymeric materials in recent years. It is widely acknowledged that analytical sensing at electrodes modified with polymeric materials results in low detection limits, high sensitivities, lower applied potential, good stability, efficient electron transfer and easier immobilization of enzymes on electrodes such that sensing and biosensing of environmental pollutants is made easier. However, there are a number of challenges to be addressed in order to fulfill the applications of polymeric based polymers such as cost and shortening the long laboratory synthetic pathways involved in sensor preparation. Furthermore, the toxicological effects on flora and fauna of some of these polymeric materials have not been well studied. Given these disadvantages, efforts are now geared towards introducing low cost biomaterials that can serve as alternatives for the development of novel electrochemical sensors and biosensors. This review highlights recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on different polymeric material. The synergistic action of some of these polymeric materials and nanocomposites imposed when combined on electrode during sensing is discussed.
polymeric material; mediator; electrochemical sensor; biosensor; enzyme electrode
This work presents the use of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide [AAO] for reflective interferometric sensing of volatile sulphur compounds and hydrogen sulphide [H2S] gas. Detection is based on changes of the interference signal from AAO porous layer as a result of specific adsorption of gas molecules with sulphur functional groups on a gold-coated surface. A nanoporous AAO sensing platform with optimised pore diameters (30 nm) and length (4 µm) was fabricated using a two-step anodization process in 0.3 M oxalic, followed by coating with a thin gold film (8 nm). The AAO is assembled in a specially designed microfluidic chip supported with a miniature fibre optic system that is able to measure changes of reflective interference signal (Fabry-Perrot fringes). When the sensor is exposed to a small concentration of H2S gas, the interference signal showed a concentration-dependent wavelength shifting of the Fabry-Perot interference fringe spectrum, as a result of the adsorption of H2S molecules on the Au surface and changes in the refractive index of the AAO. A practical biomedical application of reflectometric interference spectroscopy [RIfS] Au-AAO sensor for malodour measurement was successfully shown. The RIfS method based on a nanoporous AAO platform is simple, easy to miniaturise, inexpensive and has great potential for development of gas sensing devices for a range of medical and environmental applications.
nanoporous alumina; reflectometric interference spectroscopy; volatile sulphur compounds; hydrogen sulphide sensor; oral malodour
Protein imprinting leading to enhanced rebinding of ferritin to ternary lipid monolayers is demonstrated using a quartz crystal microbalance. Monolayers consisting of cationic dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide, non-ionic methyl stearate, and poly(ethylene glycol) bearing phospholipids were imprinted with ferritin at the air/water interface of a Langmuir-Blodgett trough and transferred hydrated to hydrophobic substrates for study. This immobilization was shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to significantly hinder any further diffusion of lipids, while rebinding studies demonstrated up to a six-fold increase in ferritin adsorption to imprinted versus control monolayers. A diminished rebinding of ferritin to its imprint was observed through pH reduction to below the protein isoelectric point, demonstrating the electrostatic nature of the interaction. Rebinding to films where imprint pockets remained occupied by the template protein was also minimal. Studies with a smaller acidic protein revealed the importance of the steric influence of poly(ethylene glycol) in forming the protein binding pockets, as albumin-imprinted monolayers showed low binding of ferritin, while ferritin-imprinted monolayers readily accommodated albumin. The controllable structure-function relationship and limitations of this system are discussed with respect to the application of protein imprinting in sensor development as well as fundamental studies of proteins at dynamic interfaces.
Protein adsorption; Molecular imprinting; Langmuir monolayer; Mixed monolayer; Quartz crystal microbalance; QCM; Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; FCS; Poly(ethylene glycol); PEG; Ferritin
We investigate thin films of “smart” polymer hydrogels used to convert miniature pressure sensors into novel chemomechanical sensors. In this versatile sensing approach, a smart hydrogel is confined between a porous membrane and the diaphragm of a piezoresistive pressure transducer. An increase in the environmental analyte concentration, as sensed through the pores of the membrane, is detected by measuring the change in pressure exerted by the hydrogel on the pressure transducer diaphragm. We compare the response of such a sensor with the response of a free-swelling hydrogel identical to the one used within the sensor. The sensor and the free hydrogel are observed to have comparable mean response times. However, the time-dependent response curve of the sensor, unlike that of the free hydrogel, is highly asymmetric between swelling and deswelling, with a smaller time constant for deswelling. We also investigate novel methods for increasing sensor sensitivity, such as use of a two-layer membrane with a nanoporous polymer inner layer, and pre-loading of the hydrogel under pressure. In ionic strength response tests, use of an inner membrane increases sensor sensitivity without increasing mean response time, an effect that varies with membrane water fraction.
Chemical sensor; Hydrogel; Piezoresistive sensor; Smart material
A 4-amino-naphthalimide derived fluorophore with a triazacryptand moiety ligand was synthesized as a potassium ion (K+) sensor (KS1). This sensor is a monomer possessing a polymerizable vinyl group. By taking advantage of the polymerizable characteristics of the vinyl group, KS1 was polymerized with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AM) to form K+-sensing films for extracellular sensing. The sensitivity of the films to potassium ions can be further tuned through the adjustment of the HEMA and AM weight ratios as well as introduction of positive or negative charge-containing segments. KS1 and its poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-poly(acrylamide) (PHEMA-co-PAM) thin films show high selectivity for K+ over competing sodium ions (Na+) at physiological concentrations. Extracellular sensing was demonstrated using a KS1-conjugated PHEMA-co-PAM thin film to measure the K+ efflux of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) stimulated by lysozyme. Meanwhile, KS1 itself permeates human glioblastoma U87MG and human esophagus premalignant CP-A cell lines. KS1 was used to monitor K+ efflux stimulated by adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), amphotericin, and a mixture of nigericin, bumetanide and ouabain, demonstrating application of this material as an intracellular potassium ion sensor.
Potassium ion sensor; Amino-naphthalimide; Intracellular sensing; Extracellular sensing; Fluorescent probe
This report presents biotin-functionalized semiconducting polymers that are based on fluorene and bithiophene co-polymers (F8T2). Also presented is the application of these polymers to an organic thin film transistor used as a biosensor. The side chains of fluorene were partially biotinylated after the esterification of the biotin with corresponding alcohol-groups at the side chain in F8T2. Their properties as an organic semiconductor were tested using an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) and were found to show typical p-type semiconductor curves. The functionality of this biosensor in the sensing of biologically active molecules such as avidin in comparison with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was established through a selective decrease in the conductivity of the transistor, as measured with a device that was developed by the authors. Changes to the optical properties of this polymer were also measured through the change in the color of the UV-fluorescence before and after a reaction with avidin or BSA.
biosensor; F8T2; organic semiconductor; fluorescence; OTFT; biotin; avidin
We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor chip onto a ceramic pin grid array is tested using syringe pump driven feed and multi-channel I–V measurement system. It is successfully demonstrated that glucose is detected in many different sensing sites within a chip, leading to concentration dependent currents. The sensitivity has been found to be dependent on the channel length of the resistor, 4–12 nA/mM for channel lengths of 5–20 μm, while the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 20 mM. By using sensor array, analytical data could be obtained with a single step of sample solution feeding. This work sheds light on the applicability of the developed nanoparticle microsensor array to multi-analyte sensors, novel bioassay platforms, and sensing components in a lab-on-a-chip.
biosensor array; nanoparticle; conductometric sensor; microsensor array; glucose sensor
The chemiresistive thin film gas sensors with fast response, high sensitivity, low power consumption and mass-produced potency, have been expected for practical application. It requires both sensitive materials, especially exquisite nanomaterials, and efficient substrate chip for heating and electrical addressing. However, it is challenging to achieve repeatable microstructures across the films and low power consumption of substrate chip. Here we presented a new sensor structure via the fusion of metal-oxide nanoporous films and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based sensing chip. An interdigital-electrodes (IDEs) and microheater integrated MEMS structure is designed and employed as substrate chip to in-situ fabricate colloidal monolayer template-induced metal-oxide (egg. SnO2) nanoporous sensing films. This fused sensor demonstrates mW-level low power, ultrafast response (~1 s), and parts-per-billion lever detection for ethanol gas. Due to the controllable template strategy and mass-production potential, such micro/nano fused high-performance gas sensors will be next-generation key miniaturized/integrated devices for advanced practical applications.
In this work we have fabricated hydrogen gas sensors based on undoped and 1 wt% multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-doped tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films by means of the powder mixing and electron beam (E-beam) evaporation technique. Hydrogen sensing properties of the thin films have been investigated at different operating temperatures and gas concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 50,000 ppm. The results indicate that the MWCNT-doped WO3 thin film exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen. Thus, MWCNT doping based on E-beam co-evaporation was shown to be an effective means of preparing hydrogen gas sensors with enhanced sensing and reduced operating temperatures. Creation of nanochannels and formation of p-n heterojunctions were proposed as the sensing mechanism underlying the enhanced hydrogen sensitivity of this hybridized gas sensor. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on a MWCNT-doped WO3 hydrogen sensor prepared by the E-beam method.
WO3; hydrogen sensor; nanochannels; E-beam evaporation; carbon nanotube
Some fluoro-substituted liquid crystals mixed with arachidic acid in monolayers formed at air-liquid (Langmuir films) and air-solid substrate (Langmuir-Blodgett films) interfaces were investigated. Molecular organization in Langmuir films was determined on the basis of the analysis of the shape of the surface pressure-mean molecular area isotherm and observations made by means of a Brewster angle microscope. It was found that in the compression process the liquid crystal molecules are pushed out towards the top of the first monolayer being in direct contact with the subphase. Langmuir films were transferred onto the quartz substrates at various surface pressures and mono- and multilayered Langmuir-Blodgett films were obtained. The films were characterized using electronic absorption measurements. The conditions for obtaining the homeotropic orientation of the liquid crystal molecules were determined.
fluoro-substituted liquid crystal; Langmuir film; Langmuir-Blodgett film; Brewster angle microscopy; electronic absorption
Adsorption of the clinical lung surfactants (LS) Curosurf or Survanta from aqueous suspension to the air-water interface progresses from multi-bilayer aggregates through multilayer films to a coexistence between multilayer and monolayer domains. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) alters this progression as shown by Langmuir isotherms, fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After 12 hours of LS exposure to ETS, AFM images of Langmuir-Blodgett deposited films show that ETS reduces the amount of material near the interface and alters how surfactant is removed from the interface during compression. For Curosurf, ETS prevents refining of the film composition during cycling; this leads to higher minimum surface tensions. ETS also changes the morphology of the Curosurf film by reducing the size of condensed phase domains from 8–12 μm to ~ 2μm, suggesting a decrease in the line tension between the domains. The minimum surface tension and morphology of the Survanta film are less impacted by ETS exposure, although the amount of material associated with the film is reduced in a similar way to Curosurf. Fluorescence and mass spectra of Survanta dispersions containing native bovine SP-B treated with ETS indicate the oxidative degradation of protein aromatic amino acid residue side chains. Native bovine SP-C isolated from ETS exposed Survanta had changes in molecular mass consistent with deacylation of the lipoprotein. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) characterization of the hydrophobic proteins from ETS treated Survanta dispersions show significant changes in the conformation of SP-B and SP-C that correlate with the altered surface activity and morphology of the lipid-protein film.
pulmonary surfactant; inhibition; inactivation; second-hand smoke; adsorption; phospholipids
An Acaligense sp.-immobilized biosensor was fabricated based on QD-MWNT composites as an electron transfer mediator and a microbe immobilization support by a one-step radiation reaction and used for sensing phenolic compounds in commercial red wines. First, a quantum dot-modified multi-wall carbon nanotube (QD-MWNT) composite was prepared in the presence of MWNT by a one-step radiation reaction in an aqueous solution at room temperature. The successful preparation of the QD-MWNT composite was confirmed by XPS, TEM, and elemental analysis. Second, the microbial biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of Acaligense sp. on the surface of the composite thin film of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode, which was prepared by a hand casting method with a mixture of the previously obtained composite and Nafion solution. The sensing ranges of the microbial biosensor based on CdS-MWNT and Cu2S-MWNT supports were 0.5–5.0 mM and 0.7–10 mM for phenol in a phosphate buffer solution, respectively. Total concentration of phenolic compounds contained in commercial red wines was also determined using the prepared microbial immobilized biosensor.
microbial biosensor; quantum dots; one-step radiation reaction; electron transfer supports; phenolic compounds; red wines