Intravesical BCG-instillation for bladder cancer is considered safe but is not without risk. While most side-effects are localised and self-limiting, the development of secondary vascular pathology is a rare but significant complication.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 77-year-old male presented with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated aorto-enteric fistula 18 months after receiving intravesical BCG-instillations for early stage transitional cell carcinoma.
Response rates to intravesical BCG for early stage transitional cell carcinoma are high. The procedure produces a localised inflammatory response in the bladder but the exact mechanism of action is unclear. The treatment is generally well tolerated but BCG-sepsis and secondary vascular complications have been documented.
Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm with associated aorto-enteric fistula secondary to BCG is very rare. Few examples have been documented internationally and the extent of corresponding research and associated management proposals is limited.
Surgical options include in situ repair with prosthetic graft, debridement with extra-anatomical bypass and, occasionally, endovascular stent grafting. Recommended medical therapy for systemic BCG infection is Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol.
Current screening methods must be updated with clarification regarding duration of anti-tuberculous therapy and impact of concomitant anti-tuberculous medication on the therapeutic action of intravesical BCG. Long-term outcomes for patients post graft repair for mycotic aneurysm are unknown and more research is required regarding the susceptibility of vascular grafts to mycobacterial infection.
Recognition of the risks associated with BCG-instillations, even in immunocompetent subjects, is paramount and must be considered even several months or years after receiving the therapy.
BCG; Aortic aneurysm; Aorto-enteric fistula; Bladder carcinoma
Mycotic aneurysms constitute a small proportion of aortic aneurysms. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysms has been applied with good short-term and midterm results. However, the uncommon aortoenteric fistula formation remains a potentially fatal complication when repairing such infective aneurysms. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with thoracic and abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysms, which were successfully treated with endografting. However, the patient presented 3 months later with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to erosion of the thoracic graft into the oesophagus. The patient was treated conservatively due to the high risk of surgical repair. There is currently little exposure to the management of mycotic aortic aneurysms. If suspected, imaging of the entire vasculature will aid initial diagnosis and highlight the extent of the disease process, allowing for efficient management. Aortic endografting for mycotic thoracic aneurysms is a high-risk procedure yet is still an appropriate intervention. Aortoenteric fistulae pose a rare but severe complication of aortic endografting in this setting.
We report a rare case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with
Campylobacter fetus. A 72-year-old male admitted to the hospital
because of pain in the right lower quadrant with pyrexia. The enhanced abdominal computed
tomography (CT) examination showed abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) measuring 50 mm in
maximum diameter and a high-density area of soft tissue density from the right lateral
wall to the anterior wall of the aorta. However, since the patient showed no significant
signs of defervescence after antibiotics administration, so we performed emergency surgery
on the patient based on the diagnosis of impending rupture of mycotic AAA. The aneurysm
was resected in situ reconstruction using a bifurcated albumin-coated knitted Dacron graft
was performed. The cultures of blood and aneurysmal wall grew Campylobacter
fetus, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management in this
case, and the patient is making satisfactory progress. This is the fifth report of mycotic
AAA characterizing culture positive for Campylobacter fetus in blood and
tissue culture of the aortic aneurysm wall.
mycotic abdominal aneurysm; Campylobacter fetus; vascular surgery
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a widely used method, and its decreased invasiveness compared to traditional surgical repair has brought about reduced rates of morbidity and mortality. Several vascular complications related to the procedure have been reported, but non-vascular complications have rarely occurred. We report herein the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent EVAR for AAA and presented with active duodenal ulcer bleeding and acute acalculous cholecystitis as complications after the procedure. We must consider that a wide spectrum of complications may occur following EVAR, and therefore it is important to evaluate the risks of complication and to take the necessary measures to minimize them.
Complication; Endovascular aneurysm repair; Abdominal aortic aneurysm
We present the first case of a coccidioidomycosis mycotic anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm that was clipped under hypothermic cardiac standstill in a pregnant acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. A 24-year-old pregnant AIDS patient presented with intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. Angiography revealed an 8-mm basilar trunk aneurysm with the right AICA protruding from the side wall of the aneurysm. The patient underwent a retrosigmoid craniotomy and direct clipping of the aneurysm under hypothermic cardiac standstill. At presentation, the patient had a poor grade due to subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. Despite her large posterior circulation aneurysm in the setting of AIDS with extensive coccidioidomycosis meningitis, the lesion was clipped successfully. To do so required the full range of neurosurgical repertoire, including a skull base approach and hypothermic cardiac standstill.
Coccidioidomycosis meningitis; hypothermic cardiac standstill; mycotic aneurysm
One of the rarest complications of endocarditis, infected (mycotic) aneurysms result from haematogenous dissemination of septic emboli and occur more frequently in patients with cardiac valvular abnormalities or prosthetic valves, intravenous drug abuse, diabetes and immunosuppression conditions such as HIV infection. Although often clinically unsuspected, mycotic aneurysms are potentially life-threatening because of disseminated sepsis and propensity to rupture. Contrast-enhanced multidetector CT provides prompt detection, characterization and vascular mapping of these lesions, allowing correct planning of surgical or interventional therapies and reproducible follow-up. Because of their characteristically unpredictable behaviour, mycotic aneurysms may undergo spontaneous thrombosis, size reduction, rapid enlargement or rupture, therefore strict imaging surveillance with CT and/or color Doppler ultrasound is necessary.
Endocarditis; mesenteric artery; mycotic aneurysm; sepsis; visceral aneurysm
Patient: Female, 65
Final Diagnosis: Ruptured abdominal aorta aneursym
Clinical Procedure: After surgery the patient was discharged without sequelae
Unusual clinical course
Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is the most frightening and potentially life threatening complication of an abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). Patients present with atypical symptoms such as abdominal or flank pain, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, or shock.
A 65-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with gradually increasing left flank pain for 4–5 days. Her laboratory, radiologic, and physical examination revealed no significant pathology, so she was discharged, but 3 days later she was readmitted because her symptoms returned. Further research revealed a ruptured AAA and the patient was hospitalized for surgical intervention.
Emergency physicians should keep in mind that AAA and its rupture can present with a wide range of symptoms that appear to be simple.
flank pain; rupture; aneursym
A 46-year-old man was admitted for surgery on a ruptured mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Emergency repair was performed, during which certain anomalies were noted. First, the bifurcation of the aorta was posterior to the left common iliac vein. Second there were no internal iliac arteries. Also, there were prominent lumbar arteries compensating for the absent internal iliac arteries bilaterally. This, we consider, is the first reported case of congenitally absent bilateral internal iliac arteries.
Bilateral congenital absence of internal iliac arteries
We report a case of a sixty year old man with a mycotic infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a left psoas abscess. After treatment with parenteral antibiotics he underwent early aortic reconstruction with an in-situ prosthetic graft wrapped in an omental pedicle. Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms can be treated in this way despite the potential for graft infection from persisting retroperitoneal sepsis.
Aneurysm; Omentum; Psoas abscess
A case of a 78-year-old woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal pain, and who was subsequently found to have a ruptured aneurysm of the right gastroepiploic artery, is presented. She underwent open surgical resection of the aneurysm without any significant postoperative complication. A brief review of splanchnic artery aneurysms with regard to their incidence, presentation and approaches for repair is also presented.
Gastroepiploic artery; Splanchnic aneurysm
We report a case of ruptured mycotic aneurysm involving innominate artery requiring an urgent surgical treatment. A 62-yr-old woman presented with fever and dyspnea. Previously, she was diagnosed with colon cancer and received right hemicolectomy and one cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy. On echocardiogram, pericardial effusion was noted and emergency pericardiocentesis was performed. CT scan revealed aortic aneurysm involving ascending aorta and innominate artery, and thrombi surrounding those structures. Patch repair of the defect in the ascending aorta and ringed Goretex graft to bypass the innominate and ascending aorta were performed. We believe that this is the first case of ruptured mycotic aneurysm involving innominate artery.
Infected abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) can present insidiously with non-specific symptoms or they may present as ruptured AAA in the classical manner.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report two cases of mycotic AAA with Listeria monocytogenes. One patient presented with a ruptured aneurysm, while the other patient had a symptomatic non-ruptured presentation with computer tomography (CT) angiogram demonstrating peri-aortic inflammatory change of a rapidly expanding aneurysm. Both patients were treated with excision of the infected tissue and inlay prosthetic surgical repair as well as long term antibiotics.
Arterial aneurysms caused by L. monocytogenes are rare. Risk factors include immunosuppression, infective endocarditis, intravenous drug use and septicaemia. Listeria infections should be discussed with the Health Protection Agency and local microbiologists due to their ubiquity.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm due to L. monocytogenes is best managed via surgical resection in combination with long term antimicrobial therapy. The role of endovascular exclusion is unclear.
Mycotic; Aneurysm; Listeria; Monocytogenes; Aortic
Tuberculous aneurysm of the aorta is exceedingly rare. To date, the standard therapy for mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta has been surgery involving in-situ graft placement or extra-anatomic bypass surgery followed by effective anti-tuberculous medication. Only recently has the use of a stent graft in the treatment of tuberculous aortic aneurysm been described in the literature. We report two cases in which a tuberculous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta was successfully repaired using endovascular stent grafts. One case involved is a 42-year-old woman with a large suprarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a right psoas abscess, and the other, a 41-year-old man in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptured during surgical drainage of a psoas abscess.
Aorta, disease; Aorta, aneurysm; Aorta, grafts and prostheses
Introduction: Ruptured common iliac aneurysms present with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This case describes the successful outcome in a patient with complex vascular surgical history.
Case presentation: An elderly patient presented with abdominal pain confirmed by CT as leaking iliac aneurysm. He had previously undergone an aorto-bifemoral bypass graft for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. The iliac aneurysm was treated by simple ligation of the external iliac artery.
Discussion: Aorto-bifemoral bypass graft may be required for aortic aneurysm repair in severe iliac calicification. Iliac artery fed by retrograde blood flow from the aorto-bifemoral bypass graft contributed to aneurysm development here
aorto-bifemoral bypass graft; common iliac aneurysm; rupture
Aortic pathology progression and/or procedure related complications following endovascular repair should always be considered mostly in older patients. We herein describe a hybrid procedure for treatment of rapidly expanding thoracoabdominal aneurysm following endovascular treatment of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an older patient.
A 82-year-old man at 18 months after endovascular surgery for a contained rupture of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm revealed a type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm with significant increase of the aortic diameters at superior mesenteric and renal artery levels. A hybrid approach consisting of preventive visceral vessel revascularization and endovascular repair of entire abdominal aorta was performed. Under general anaesthesia and by xyphopubic laparotomy, the infrarenal aneurysmatic aorta and common iliac arteries were replaced by a bifurcated woven prosthetic graf. From each of the prosthetic branches two reverse 14x7 mm bifurcated PTFE prosthetic grafts were anastomized to both renal arteries and to the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, respectively. Vessel ischemia was restricted to the time required for anastomosis. Three 10 cm Gore endovascular stent-grafts for a total length of 15 cm, were used. The overlapping of the stent-grafts was carried out from the bottom upwards, starting from the aorto-iliac prosthetic body up to the healthy segment of thoracic aorta, 40 mm from the previous stent-grafts.
The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day.
This technique offers the advantage of a less invasive treatment, reducing the risk of paraplegia, visceral ischaemia and pulmonary complications, mostly in older patients.
Two cases of delayed non-mycotic false aneurysm arising from ascending aortic cannulation site, presenting one-and-a-hald years and seven years after cardiopulmonary bypass, are described. These two cases represent an incidence of 0.12% of this complication. Repair using profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest with femoral artery and femoral vein cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass is recommended. The advantages and complications of aortic cannulation are discussed and recommendations to minimise the complications of cannulation are made. The clinical presentation and diagnosis of non-mycotic false aneurysms arising from the aortic cannulation site are described. In addition one delayed and two early cases of non-mycotic cannulation site false aneurysms previously published are analysed. Surgeons should be alert to the possibility of this complication in all patients who have had aortic cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass even in the distant past. Unexpected symptoms such as constant anterior chest pain, dysphagia, hoarseness, and increasing widening of the superior mediastinum on the chest radiograph warrant prompt investigation.
Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography represents the standard of reference in the follow-up of patients after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), being effective in the detection of the full spectrum of possible complications on both axial and 3D images.
The purpose of this article is to review the normal CT angiography findings of the different types of stent-grafts and to describe the radiological findings of early and late complications after EVAR on axial and reconstructed images. A selection of cases of post-EVAR MDCT angiography is presented to learn the techniques most commonly used for endovascular treatment, the correct CT scanning technique to acquire the data, the full gamut of possible procedure-related complications and how these complications usually appear on CT images.
MDCT angiography is an effective and specific technique in both the pre- and postoperative settings of EVAR procedures. A better understanding of the procedure, the devices, the normal postoperative imaging features and the possible procedure-related complications ensures optimal planning and follow-up of patients undergoing an EVAR procedure.
Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR); CT imaging; Complications
Tuberculous false aneurysm of the aorta is rare and has an unpredictable complication of
aneurysm rupture. We report a case of a 32-year old woman who was referred to the
Department of Vascular Surgery, Avicenne Hospital for severe abdominal pain. Chest x-ray
revealed miliary tuberculosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showed a
false aortic aneurysm involving the juxtarenal aorta. Antituberculous treatment was
started because of high presumption of tuberculosis. Five days later, the patient
presented with symptoms of aneurysm rupture. She underwent an emergency a surgical
resection of the aneurysm with repair of the aortic wall defect by a Dacron Silver patch.
The histopathologic examination of the aortic wall showed features of tuberculosis.
aneurysm; aorta; tuberculosis
The potential complications of an abdominal aortic aneurysm include rupture, compression of surrounding structures, thrombo-embolic events and fistula. The most common site of arterio-venous fistula is the inferior vena cava. Fistula involving a renal vein is particularly uncommon.
This report describes a 54-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted to the emergency department with fatigue, severe dyspnea and bilateral lower limb edema. In the first instance this anamnesis suggested possible heart failure. In fact, our patient presented with multi-organ system failure due to a fistula between an infra-renal aortic aneurysm and an aberrant retro-aortic renal vein.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of a woman with a fistula between an infra-renal aortic aneurysm and an aberrant retro-aortic left renal vein. Aorto-venous fistulas may be asymptomatic or may present with symptoms characteristic of arterio-venous shunting and/or aneurysm rupture. This type of fistula is a rare cause of heart failure. Clinical examination and imaging are essential for detection.
The three-dimensional and clavulanate double-disk potentiation tests were compared as procedures for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production in 32 strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, 31 of which produced TEM-1, TEM-2, TEM-3, TEM-4, TEM-5, TEM-7, TEM-8, TEM-9, TEM-10, TEM-12, TEM-101, SHV-1, SHV-2, SHV-3, SHV-4, SHV-5, CAZ-2, MIR-1, or an unidentified extended-spectrum beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.95, with some strains producing multiple beta-lactamases. The three-dimensional test, which was performed in conjunction with a routine disk diffusion test, detected extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production in 26 of 28 (93%) of the strains that produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The clavulanate double-disk potentiation test detected extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in only 22 of the 28 strains (79%) when it was performed as currently recommended. The three-dimensional test, when performed in conjunction with the disk diffusion test, offered the advantages of providing simultaneous information about both antibiotic susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production, coupled with a greater sensitivity and earlier detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.
Endovascular treatment of complex thoracic pathologic conditions involving the aortic arch can often be appropriate and safe; however, minimally invasive procedures are not always feasible, especially in emergent cases. We report the case of a 78-year-old woman who emergently presented in hemorrhagic shock with a ruptured chronic dissecting aneurysm that involved the aortic arch. Eight years earlier, she had undergone aortic valve replacement and plication of the ascending aorta, which was complicated a day later by Stanford type B dissection, malperfusion, and ischemia that required an axillobifemoral bypass. At the current admission, we successfully treated her surgically through a left thoracotomy, using moderate hypothermic extracorporeal circulation and advanced organ-protection methods. We discuss the surgical indications and our operative strategy in relation to open surgical repair versus endovascular treatment in patients with complex conditions.
Aneurysm, dissecting/radiography/surgery; aortic aneurysm, thoracic/radiography/surgery; aortic diseases/surgery; aortic rupture/surgery; treatment outcome; vascular surgical procedures
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has well documented advantages over traditional open repair and has been widely adopted as the alternative treatment modality for abdominal aortic aneurysm. However, endoleaks specifically type II can be a significant problem with this technique leading to aortic sac expansion and potential rupture. A large number of type II endoleaks are caused by persistent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) retrograde bleeding. Various methods to try to manage this complication have been previously described. IMA embolization via the marginal artery of Drummond, however, has not been adequately popularized as an alternative less invasive approach to the treatment of type II endoleak.
Two men, ages 77 and 81, underwent uneventful EVAR for 5.5 and 5.0 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms, respectively, using Zenith Cook® bifurcated stent grafts. Computed tomography angiography at 1 and 6 months postoperatively demonstrated small type II endoleaks in both cases which were followed clinically. Subsequent follow-up tomography scan at 12 months revealed persistent type II endoleaks related to retrograde filling from the IMA with significant enlargement of the aneurysm sacs. Both patients underwent successful IMA coil embolization via the marginal artery of Drummond.
Percutaneous IMA embolization using standard endovascular techniques to access the marginal artery of Drummond is an alternative, and in our opinion, preferred technique for controlling type II endoleaks caused by a persistently patent IMA.
Endoleak; marginal artery; drummond; coil embolization
We report a clinical case of multiple mycotic aneurysms, in the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The patient underwent surgery to replace the ascending aorta and aortic arch by means of a highly modified “elephant trunk” technique and with the aid of arterial cannulation from the right subclavian artery, which provided antegrade cerebral perfusion. Samples of purulent material taken from the aneurysmal wall yielded cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was treated with antibiotics for 6 weeks and then underwent a 2nd procedure for the aneurysmal resection of the descending thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta, through a thoracic laparo-phrenicectomy. We comment on the clinical and surgical aspects of the case. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:225–8)
Aneurysm, infected/surgery; staphylococcal infections/complications; Staphylococcus aureus
Abnormal vascular remodeling mediated by inflammatory cells has been identified as a key pathologic component of various vascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, brain arteriovenous malformations and atherosclerosis. Based on findings from observational studies that analysed human intracranial aneurysms and experimental studies that utilized animal models, an emerging concept suggests that a key component of the pathophysiology of intracranial aneurysms is sustained abnormal vascular remodeling coupled with inflammation. This concept may provide a new treatment strategy to utilize agents to inhibit inflammation or cytokines produced by inflammatory cells such as matrix metalloproteinases. Such an approach would aim to stabilize these vascular lesions and prevent future expansion or rupture.
Intracranial aneurysms; inflammation; remodeling; pathophysiology
The aim of this study was to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of a two-stage treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms; partial embolization in acute stage followed by clipping in chronic stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Between April 1997 and August 1999, twenty ruptured cerebral aneurysms were initially treated endovasculary using Guglielmi detachable coils in our institution. Among them, complete embolization could not be achieved in 6 lesions. For these lesions, subsequent clipping was added. The radiological and operative findings, and outcomes of these cases were retrospectively reviewed.
In 1 case, rerupture occurred during the endovascular procedure. Rerupture was not observed in any cases in the postembolization period. In 2 cases, complications related to the clipping but not the endovascular procedure occurred. These complications included impaired visual acuity for unverified reasons, and memory disturbance due to sacrifice of a perforator arising from the anterior communicating artery. In 3 cases, coil extraction was needed during the clipping, because the loops of the coil extended into the residual neck. Complications related to coil extraction were not observed in these 3 cases.
Acute partial embolization of ruptured aneurysm appears to be effective for the prevention of subsequent rerupture during the subacute period, in which treatment for vasospasm should be performed, and the clipping procedure. However, in the case of relatively large aneurysms, small arteries or other normal structures behind the aneurysm cannot be observed directly during surgery, because of the immovability of the embolized aneurysm. Further; complete clip closure is impossible when loops of coil herniate into the neck. In such situations, coil extraction with or without resection of the aneurysm might be necessary, and care must be taken not to damage parent artery and surrounding vessels.
ruptured cerebral aneurysm, partial embolization, clipping, electrolytically detachable coil