Substances that alter the measurable concentration of the analyte or alter antibody binding can potentially result in immunoassay interference. Interfering, endogenous substances that are natural, polyreactive antibodies or autoantibodies (heterophiles), or human anti-animal antibodies together with other unsuspected binding proteins that are unique to the individual, can interfere with the reaction between analyte and reagent antibodies in immunoassay. Lipaemia, cross-reactivity, and exogenous interferences due to pre-analytical variation, matrix and equipment reaction also affect immunoassay. Interfering substances may lead to falsely elevated or falsely low analyte concentration in one or more assay systems depending on the site of the interference in the reaction and possibly result in discordant results for other analytes. The prevalence of interference is generally low in assays containing blocking agents that neutralise or inhibit the interference but is often higher in new, untested immunoassays. A wide range of analytes measured by immunoassay including hormones, tumour markers, drugs, cardiac troponin and microbial serology may be affected.
Interference in immunoassay may lead to the misinterpretation of a patient's results by the laboratory and the wrong course of treatment being given by the physician. Laboratories should put processes in place to detect, test and report suspected interferences. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of discordance between the clinical and the laboratory data to the laboratory. The detection of interference may require the use of an alternate assay or additional measurements, before and after treatment with additional blocking reagent, or following dilution of the sample in non-immune serum. It is imperative that laboratories inform physicians of the follow-up procedure and report on the presence of any interference. The establishment of on-going laboratory-physician contact is essential to the continuing awareness of wrong patient results due to interference.
The recent introduction of fluorescent bead-based technology, allowing the measurement of multiples analytes in a single 25–50 µl sample has revolutionized the study of cytokine responses. However, such multiplex approaches may compromise the ability of these assays to accurately measure actual cytokine levels. This study evaluates the performance of three commercially available multiplex cytokine fluorescent bead-based immunoassays (Bio-Rad's Cytokine 17-plex kit; LINCO Inc's 29-plex kit; and RnD System's Fluorokine-Multi Analyte Profiling (MAP) base kit A and B). The LINCO Inc kit was found to be the most sensitive assay for measuring concentrations of multiple recombinant cytokines in samples that had been spiked with serial dilutions of the standard provided by the manufacturer, followed respectively by the RnD Fluorokine-(MAP) and Bio-Rad 17-plex kits. A positive correlation was found in the levels of IFN-γ measured in antigen stimulated whole blood culture supernatants by the LINCO Inc 29-plex, RnD Fluorokine-(MAP) and RnD system IFN-γ Quantikine ELISA kits across a panel of controls and stimulated samples. Researchers should take the limitation of such multiplexed assays into account when planning experiments and the most appropriate use for these tests may currently be as screening tools for the selection of promising markers for analysis by more sensitive techniques.
A high affinity polyclonal antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of zeranol in bovine urine. On the basis of urine matrix studies, the optimized dilution factors producing insignificant matrix interference were selected as 1:5 in pretreatment. In the improved ELISA, the linear response range was between 0.02 and 1 μg/ml , and the detection limit was 0.02 μg/ml for the assay. The overall recoveries and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the range of 82%~127% and 3.5%~8.8%, respectively. Thirty-six bovine urine samples spiked with zeranol (ranging from 0.2 to 10 μg/ml) were detected by the ELISA and liquid chromatography (LC) method, and good correlations were obtained between the two methods (R
2=0.9643). We conclude that this improved ELISA is suitable tool for a mass zeranol screening and can be an alternative for the conventional LC method for zeranol in bovine urine.
Zeranol; Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Bovine urine
A high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was developed for the quantitative analysis of a new cephalosporin, BMY-28142, in plasma and urine. The plasma method involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile and trichloroacetic acid followed by extraction of the acetonitrile into dichloromethane. After centrifugation, the organic phase was discarded, the aqueous solution was injected into a reverse-phase column, and peaks were detected at 280 nm. The urine method involved dilution of a urine sample with sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.25) and direct injection into the high-pressure liquid chromatography system. The assay validation data indicate that the assays for BMY-28142 in plasma and urine were specific, accurate, and reproducible. The analytical methods were applied to the determination of protein binding in human serum and to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. The results of the protein-binding study indicated that BMY-28142 was 16.3% bound to human serum proteins. In the pharmacokinetic study in rats, the maximum level in plasma of 38.7 micrograms/ml was achieved at 2.33 h after administration of a subcutaneous dose of 100 mg/kg. The levels in the plasma then declined with an elimination half-life of about 0.56 h. The mean values for the steady-state volume of distribution and total body clearance were 0.46 liters/kg and 11.9 ml/min per kg, respectively. The 0- to 24-h excretion of intact BMY-28142 in urine accounted for 88.6% of the dose.
A semiquantitative PCR assay for the detection of BK virus in urine was developed using primers for BK virus that specifically amplified BK but not JC virus. DNA was extracted from urine through treatment with proteinase K followed by DNA precipitation with sodium acetate. Semiquantitation was achieved by amplifying serial dilutions (1:1, 1:10, 1:100, and 1:1,000) of the urine specimens. Each assay included both positive (stock BK virus and previously positive patient urine) and negative (no template) controls. A urine sample was interpreted as positive if any of the serial dilutions showed amplification of the DNA fragment of the expected size. For some patient-derived samples, amplification of the expected-size fragment was achieved with a dilute template whereas no amplification was achieved with a concentrated template. This was attributed to interfering substances in the urine. PCR results were compared with urine cytology and shown to be more sensitive. Validation studies were performed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, utilizing a separate qualitative PCR assay that detects both BK and JC virus and distinguishes between them by restriction enzyme digestion patterns. Of 46 urine samples analyzed using both methods, 22 were positive by both assays, 18 were negative by both assays, 5 were positive only by the Nebraska method, and 1 was positive only by our method. In comparison with the Nebraska PCR, our PCR assay had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 95%. For twenty-one (43%) of 49 immunocompromised patients, tests were postive when specimens were submitted because of clinical suspicion of BK virus infection.
A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) in plasma and urine using readily available reagents was developed. The GnRH assay showed good precision, recovery, and parallelism over a wide range of GnRH concentrations with a sensitivity of 15 pg/ml. The assay was compared with a commercially available kit (Buhlmann Laboratories). Although the Buhlmann kit showed acceptable precision, recovery, sensitivity, and correlation with the developed GnRH assay for plasma samples, lack of parallelism of serially diluted plasma and urine samples was consistently observed, together with a poor correlation with the developed GnRH assay for urine, suggesting a matrix effect with the Buhlmann kit. The developed assay is suitable for measuring GnRH in samples obtained from patients receiving pulsatile infusions of GnRH. In contrast, the commercially available Buhlmann kit was unsuitable for measuring plasma GnRH as the kit had a top standard of only 160 pg/ml, well below the peak plasma concentration. It would not be possible to dilute samples for analysis because of the lack of parallelism of diluted samples compared with standards obtained with the Buhlmann assay.
The measurement of multiple protein biomarkers may refine risk stratification in clinical settings. This concept has stimulated development of multiplexed immunoassay platforms that provide multiple, parallel protein measurements on the same specimen.
We provide an overview of antibody-based multiplexed immunoassay platforms and discuss technical and operational challenges. Multiplexed immunoassays use traditional immunoassay principles in which high-affinity capture ligands are immobilized in parallel arrays in either planar format or on microspheres in suspension. Development of multiplexed immunoassays requires rigorous validation of assay configuration and analytical performance to minimize assay imprecision and inaccuracy. Challenges associated with multiplex configuration include selection and immobilization of capture ligands, calibration, interference between antibodies and proteins and assay diluents, and compatibility of assay limits of quantification. We discuss potential solutions to these challenges. Criteria for assessing analytical multiplex assay performance include the range of linearity, analytical specificity, recovery, and comparison to a quality reference method. Quality control materials are not well developed for multiplexed protein immunoassays, and algorithms for interpreting multiplex quality control data are needed.
Technical and operational challenges have hindered implementation of multiplexed assays in clinical settings. Formal procedures that guide multiplex assay configuration, analytical validation, and quality control are needed before broad application of multiplexed arrays can occur in the in vitro diagnostic market.
There is a great need for quantitative assays in measuring proteins. Traditional sandwich immunoassays, largely considered the gold standard in quantitation, are associated with a high cost, long lead time, and are fraught with drawbacks (e.g. heterophilic antibodies, autoantibody interference, 'hook-effect').1 An alternative technique is affinity enrichment of peptides coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry, commonly referred to as SISCAPA (Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies).2 In this technique, affinity enrichment of peptides with stable isotope dilution and detection by selected/multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM/MRM-MS) provides quantitative measurement of peptides as surrogates for their respective proteins. SRM/MRM-MS is well established for accurate quantitation of small molecules 3, 4 and more recently has been adapted to measure the concentrations of proteins in plasma and cell lysates.5-7 To achieve quantitation of proteins, these larger molecules are digested to component peptides using an enzyme such as trypsin. One or more selected peptides whose sequence is unique to the target protein in that species (i.e. "proteotypic" peptides) are then enriched from the sample using anti-peptide antibodies and measured as quantitative stoichiometric surrogates for protein concentration in the sample. Hence, coupled to stable isotope dilution (SID) methods (i.e. a spiked-in stable isotope labeled peptide standard), SRM/MRM can be used to measure concentrations of proteotypic peptides as surrogates for quantification of proteins in complex biological matrices. The assays have several advantages compared to traditional immunoassays. The reagents are relatively less expensive to generate, the specificity for the analyte is excellent, the assays can be highly multiplexed, enrichment can be performed from neat plasma (no depletion required), and the technique is amenable to a wide array of proteins or modifications of interest.8-13 In this video we demonstrate the basic protocol as adapted to a magnetic bead platform.
A new competitive electrochemiluminescence-based immunoassay for the type-2 brevetoxins in oyster extracts was developed. The assay was verified by spiking known amounts of PbTx-3 into 80% methanol extracts of Gulf Coast oysters. We also provide preliminary data demonstrating that 100% acetone extracts, aqueous homogenates, and the clinical matrixes urine and serum can also be analyzed without significant matrix interferences. The assay offers the advantages of speed (≃2h analysis time); simplicity (only 2 additions, one incubation period, and no wash steps before analysis); low limit of quantitation (conservatively, 50 pg/mL = 1 ng/g tissue equivalents); and a stable, nonradioactive label. Due to the variety of brevetoxin metabolites present and the lack of certified reference standards for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry confirmation, a true validation of brevetoxins in shellfish extracts is not possible at this time. However, our assay correlated well with another brevetoxin immunoassay currently in use in the United States. We believe this assay could be useful as a regulatory screening tool and could support pharmacokinetic studies in animals and clinical evaluation of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning victims.
Multiplex arrays are increasingly used for measuring protein biomarkers. Advantages of this approach include specimen conservation, limited sample handling, and decreased time and cost, but the challenges of optimizing assay format for each protein, selecting common dilution factors, and establishing robust quality control algorithms are substantial. Here, we use measurements of 15 protein biomarkers from a large study to illustrate processing, analytic, and quality control issues with multiplexed immunoassays.
We contracted with ThermoScientific for duplicate measurements of 15 proteins in 2322 participants from a community-based cohort, a plasma control, and recombinant protein controls using 2 custom planar microarrays with 6 (panel A) or 9 (panel B) capture antibodies printed in each well. We selected constituent analytes in each panel based on endogenous concentrations and assay availability. Protocols were standardized for sample processing, storage, and freeze-thaw exposures. We analyzed data for effects of deviations from processing protocols, precision, and bias.
Measurements were within reportable ranges for each of the assays; however, concentrations for 7 of the 15 proteins were not centered on the dose–response curves. An additional freeze-thaw cycle and erroneous sample dilution for a subset of samples produced significantly different results. Measurements with large differences between duplicates were seen to cluster by analyte, plate, and participant. Conventional univariate quality control algorithms rejected many plates. Plate-specific medians of cohort and plasma control data significantly covaried, an observation important for development of alternative quality control algorithms.
Multiplex measurements present difficult challenges that require further analytical and statistical developments.
The Bio-Plex® system utilizes xMAP technology to permit the multiplexing of up to 100 different analytes. Multiplex analysis gives researchers the ability to look at analytes simultaneously providing more information from less sample volume in less time than traditional immunoassay methods. Similar to ELISA, xMAP utilizes an antibody sandwich for detection but differs from ELISA in capture substrate and detection method. Rather than a flat surface, Bio-Plex®assays make use of differentially detectable bead sets as a substrate capturing analytes in solution and employs fluorescent methods for detection. These bead sets identify the analytes and detection antibodies are used to measure the quantity of analyte. The use of differentially detectable beads enables the simultaneous identification and quantification of many analytes in the same sample.
Immunoassay; multiplex detection; ELISA; Bio-Plex®; xMAP; Luminex
The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within cells causes damage to biomolecules, including membrane lipids, DNA, proteins and sugars. An important type of oxidative damage is DNA base hydroxylation which leads to the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-HMUra). Measurement of these biomarkers in urine is challenging, due to the low levels of the analytes and the matrix complexity. In order to simultaneously quantify 8-oxodG and 5-HMUra in human urine, a new, reliable and powerful strategy was optimised and validated. It is based on a semi-automatic microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) technique, using a new digitally controlled syringe (eVol®), to enhance the extraction efficiency of the target metabolites, followed by a fast and sensitive ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The optimal methodological conditions involve loading of 250 µL urine sample (1∶10 dilution) through a C8 sorbent in a MEPS syringe placed in the semi-automatic eVol® syringe followed by elution using 90 µL of 20% methanol in 0.01% formic acid solution. The obtained extract is directly analysed in the UHPLC system using a binary mobile phase composed of aqueous 0.1% formic acid and methanol in the isocratic elution mode (3.5 min total analysis time). The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), extraction yield, accuracy, precision and matrix effect. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.991) within the established concentration range. The LOD varied from 0.00005 to 0.04 µg mL−1 and the LOQ from 0.00023 to 0.13 µg mL−1. The extraction yields were between 80.1 and 82.2 %, while inter-day precision (n = 3 days) varied between 4.9 and 7.7 % and intra-day precision between 1.0 and 8.3 %. This approach presents as main advantages the ability to easily collect and store urine samples for further processing and the high sensitivity, reproducibility, and robustness of eVol®MEPS combined with UHPLC analysis, thus retrieving a fast and reliable assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA.
We report validation of the first high-pressure liquid chromatography isotope-dilution mass spectrometry method to measure sulforaphane (SFN) and its glutathione-derived conjugates in human urine. As epidemiological evidence continues to mount that the consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of certain cancers, the development of analytical methodologies to accurately measure isothiocyanates (ITCs) and their subsequent metabolic products becomes paramount. SFN, the principal ITC produced by broccoli, is an effective chemopreventive agent with multiple modes of action. SFN and SFN conjugates have often been measured collectively utilizing a cyclocondensation assay with 1,2-benzenedithiol. More recently, some of the major SFN conjugates have been determined using mass spectrometry. Here, triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry has been coupled with the use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards of D8-SFN and all four D8-SFN mercapturic acid pathway conjugates to provide an accurate, precise, sensitive, and specific method for analysis of these compounds. Using urine samples collected during an earlier intervention with broccoli sprouts, the concentrations of SFN, SFN-cysteine, and the mercapturic acid SFN-N-acetylcysteine were sufficiently high such that as little as 50 nL of urine was required for analysis. Although each study participant received an equivalent dose of broccoli sprout preparation, the interindividual conversion of the precursor glucosinolate to SFN varied over 100-fold. These 98 urines provided an ideal sample set for examining the robustness of the assay. The mean urinary concentrations ± standard deviations in overnight voids following ingestion of the first dose were 4.7 ± 5.1, 0.03 ± 0.05, 0.06 ± 0.06, 18 ± 15, and 42 ± 23 nmol/mg creatinine for SFN, SFN-glutathione, SFN-cysteine-glycine, SFN-cysteine, and SFN-N-acetylcysteine, respectively. This method determines SFN and all four SFN glutathione-derived metabolites with minimal sample preparation and will be extremely useful in understanding the role of SFN-rich foods in preventing cancer and other chronic diseases.
The clinical sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification tests may be determined by analytical sensitivity and inhibitors in patient samples. We established endpoints for detection of propagated Chlamydia trachomatis L2 434, diluted according to swab and urine protocols for APTIMA Combo 2 (AC2), ProbeTec ET (PT), and Amplicor (AMP) assays. AC2 was 1,000-fold more sensitive than PT and 10-fold more sensitive than AMP on mock swab specimens. For urine, AC2 analytical sensitivity was 100-fold greater than those of the other assays. Spiking an aliquot of each clinical-trial sample from 298 women demonstrated inhibition rates in first-void urine (FVU), cervical swabs (CS), and vaginal swabs (VS) of 12.1%, 12.8%, and 10.4% for AMP; 27.2%, 2%, and 2%, for PT; and 0.3%, 1.7%, and 1.3% for AC2. Inhibition of our C. trachomatis spike and the PT or AMP amplification controls from the manufacturers showed less than 50% correlation. Using an infected-patient reference standard (a specimen positive in at least two tests or a single test positive in two of three samples) in AC2, the VS identified 68/69 (98.6%) infected women compared to CS (89.9%) or FVU (81.2%). Significantly fewer women were identified by PT (65.2%, 63.8%, and 66.7%) or AMP (65.2%, 59.4%, and 56.5%) with the three specimens. By individual specimen type, AC2 confirmed virtually all PT- and AMP-positive specimens, but rates of AC2 confirmation by AMP or PT ranged from 62.9 to 80.3%. The AC2 test identified significantly more women infected with C. trachomatis (P = 0.001). Vaginal swabs appear to be the specimen of choice for screening.
Urinary proteomic profiling has potential to identify candidate biomarkers of renal injury in infants provided an adequate urine sample can be obtained. Although diapers are used to obtain urine for clinical evaluation, their use for proteomic analysis has not been investigated. We therefore performed feasibility studies on the use of diaper-extracted urine for 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Pediatric waste urine (2–20 mL) was applied to gel-containing, non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers and then mechanically expressed. Urine volume and total protein were measured pre- and post-extraction. Proteins were separated via 2D-PAGE following application of urine (20–40 mL) to each matrix. 2D-PAGE was also performed on clinical specimens collected using each diaper type. Differences in the adsorption and retention of urine volume and protein were noted between matrices. Non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers provided the best protein/volume recovery and the lowest interference with the Bradford assay. 2D-PAGE was also successfully completed using urine samples from both cotton fiber matrices. Conversely, samples from low-gel diapers demonstrated poor protein separation and reproducibility. Diapers containing cotton-fiber matrices appear adequate for 2D-PAGE. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of resolved proteins using replicate, high resolution gels will be required, however, before diaper-extracted urine can be applied in proteomic profiling.
diaper; pediatric; proteomics; urine
Stable bacterial counts in urine specimens before culture are necessary to assure the accurate diagnosis of urinary tract infections. Preservative-containing tubes are commercially available for urine transport. As these tube containers are not always filled to the manufacturer's specifications, we studied the effects of stabilizer formation with low urine volumes. The Sage Urine Culture Tube and the Becton-Dickinson Urine Culture Kit were evaluated by using 30 cultures diluted in urine to 10(5) colony-forming units per ml. Both tube types were injected with 1, 2, 3, and 4 to 5 ml (tube capacity) of urine containing each culture. Specimens were held at 22 degrees C and cultured at 0, 4, and 24 h. Colony counts were corrected for the dilution due to the preservative. The Becton-Dickinson Urine Culture Kits were toxic to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in specimens containing up to 2 ml of urine, and the minimum usable amount of urine for reliable results was 3 ml. The Sage Urine Culture Tube maintained the number of bacteria in 1 to 4.5 ml of urine in 83% of the specimens. However, the Sage tube was toxic to E. coli when held for 24 h. Quantitative counts of enterococci tended to significantly increase in specimens that contained 2 ml or more of urine with either system. The limitation of preservative-containing tubes for urine transport need to be recognized in order to avoid false-positive and false-negative results.
Menthol cigarettes are smoked by 27% of U.S. smokers, and there are concerns that menthol might enhance toxicity of cigarette smoking by increasing systemic absorption of smoke toxins. We measured urine menthol concentrations in relation to biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens.
Concentrations of menthol glucuronide (using a novel analytical method), nicotine plus metabolites (nicotine equivalents, NE), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were measured in the urine of 60 menthol and 67 regular cigarette smokers.
Urine menthol was measurable in 82% of menthol and 54% in regular cigarette smokers. Among menthol smokers urine menthol was highly correlated with NE, NNAL and PAHs. In a multiple regression model NE but not menthol was significantly associated with NNAL and PAHs.
Urine menthol concentration is a novel biomarker of exposure in menthol cigarette smokers, and is highly correlated with exposure to nicotine and carcinogens. Menthol is not independently associated with carcinogen exposure when nicotine intake is considered.
A new analytical method suitable for high throughput measurements of LTE4 in human urine is described. The methodology utilizes on-line enrichment and liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The novel LC/MS/MS method is rapid, linear from 5 to 500 pg/mL in spiked urine samples of both healthy and asthmatic subjects and more accurate and precise than enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and previous LC/MS/MS methods. Results from sample integrity experiments and preliminary values of urinary LTE4 from healthy adults and children are reported.
LTE4; leukotriene; asthma; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry
Protein biomarker candidates from discovery proteomics must be quantitatively verified in patient samples before they can progress to clinical validation. Here we demonstrate that peptide immunoaffinity enrichment coupled with stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SISCAPA-MRM) can be used to configure assays with performance suitable for candidate biomarker verification. As proof of principle, we configured SISCAPA assays for troponin I (cTnI), an established biomarker of cardiac injury, and interleukin 33 (IL-33), an emerging immunological and cardiovascular marker for which robust immunoassays are currently not available.
We configured individual and multiplexed assays in which peptides were enriched from digested human plasma using antipeptide antibodies. Assay performance was established using response curves for peptides and proteins spiked into normal plasma. We quantified proteins using labeled peptides as internal standards, and we measured levels of cTnI in patients who underwent a planned myocardial infarction for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.
Measurement of cTnI and IL-33 proteins from trypsin-digested plasma was linear from 1.5 to 5000 μg/L, with imprecision <13% for both proteins, processed individually or multiplexed. Results correlated well (R=0.89) with a commercial immunoassay.
We used an established biomarker of cardiac injury and an emerging biomarker to demonstrate how SISCAPA can detect and quantify changes in concentration of proteins present at 1–10 μg/L in plasma. Our results demonstrate that these assays can be multiplexed and retain the necessary precision, reproducibility, and sensitivity to be applied to new and uncharacterized candidate biomarkers for verification of low-abundance proteins in blood.
In this work we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n=50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA®) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was < 9% both within-run and between-day at and above the cutoff limit of 300 ng ml−1. This study validates the analytical screening capability of label-free PSi opiate immunosensors in authentic patient samples and is the first semi-quantitative demonstration of the technology’s successful clinical use. These results motivate future development of PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting.
Porous Silicon; Label-Free Sensor; Opiates; Drugs of abuse; immunoassay
Background and aim:
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) leads to skeletal dysplasia through excessive storage of chondroitin-6-sulfate and keratan sulfate (KS). KS is synthesized mainly in cartilage and released into circulation, making it a critical biomarker for MPS IVA to evaluate clinical course and effectiveness of therapies. Therefore, an accurate and sensitive method is required to measure KS levels.
Material and methods:
Using sandwich ELISA and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assays, we measured KS levels in blood and urine from MPS IVA patients and healthy controls to evaluate comparability of results. Blood (patients, n = 110; controls, n = 364) and urine (patients, n = 103; controls, n = 326) specimens were obtained.
Plasma and urine KS measurements in patients were age-dependent and higher than age-matched controls. We observed a moderate correlation (r = 0.666; P < 0.001) between urine KS measurements and a weak correlation (r = 0.333; P = 0.002) between plasma KS measurements by ELISA and LC/MS/MS methods in patients. No correlation was found between plasma KS measurements in controls. The difference between KS measurements assayed by LC/MS/MS and ELISA was greater in controls than in patients. A moderate correlation between blood and urine KS measurements in the same individual was observed.
These findings indicate that both methods to measure blood and urine KS are suitable for diagnosis, monitoring therapies, and longitudinal assessment of the disease course in MPS IVA, but the LC/MS/MS method measures over 10 times more KS present in body fluids.
biomarker; clinical severity; correlation; monitor therapy; MPS IVA; Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA
A chip-based capillary electrophoresis system has been designed for assessing the concentrations of four hormones in whole human blood, saliva, and urine. The desired analytes were isolated by immunoextraction using a panel of four analyte-specific antibodies immobilized onto a glass fiber insert within the injection port of the chip. Following extraction, the captured analytes were labeled prior to electro-elution into the chip separation channel, where they were resolved into four individual peaks in circa 2 min. Quantification of each peak was achieved by on-line LIF detection and integration of the area under each peak. Comparison to commercial high-sensitivity immunoassays demonstrated that the chip-based assay provided fast, accurate, and precise measurements for the analytes under investigation. As the availability of commercially available antibodies rapidly expands, the application of this system will greatly increase. Chip-based CE separations of multiple analytes from a single sample also provide a significant advantage in the analysis of small samples.
Body fluids; Chip-based immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis; Hormones; Miniaturization
A human papillomavirus (HPV) multiplexed competitive Luminex immunoassay first described by Opalka et al. (D. Opalka, C. E. Lachman, S. A. MacMullen, K. U. Jansen, J. F. Smith, N. Chirmule, and M. T. Esser, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:108-115, 2003) was optimized and validated for use in epidemiology studies and vaccine clinical trials. Optimization increased both the analytical sensitivity and the clinical specificity of the assay to more effectively discriminate the low-titer antibody response of HPV-infected persons from noninfected individuals. The characteristics of the assay that were optimized included monoclonal antibody (MAb) specificity, scaling up the conjugation of virus-like particles (VLPs) to microspheres, VLP concentration, MAb concentration, sample matrix, sample dilution, incubation time, heat inactivation of sample sera, and detergent effects on assay buffer. The assay was automated by use of a TECAN Genesis Workstation, thus improving assay throughput, reproducibility, and operator safety. Following optimization, the assay was validated using several distinct serum panels from individuals determined to be at low and high risk for HPV infection. The validated assay was then used to determine the clinical serostatus cutoff. This high-throughput assay has proven useful for performing epidemiology studies and evaluating the efficacy of prophylactic HPV vaccines.
A chromogenic Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay was evaluated as a rapid screening test for the detection of clinically significant gram-negative bacteriuria. The development of a distinctive yellow color after the addition of chromogenic substrate to the Limulus amoebocyte lysate-urine reaction mixture was used to measure greater than or equal to 10(5) gram-negative bacteria per ml. A total of 324 urine specimens were assayed, with 68 gram-negative urinary tract infections identified as defined by quantitative urine colony counts of greater than or equal to 10(5) bacteria per ml. Of these, 68 and 67 of 68 were detected by the chromogenic Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay at urine dilutions of 1:10 and 1:20, respectively. Nine false-positive chromogenic Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay results were observed at both urine dilutions and in the same specimens. At a urine dilution of 1:10, sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 96.6%, respectively, with predictive values of 100% for a negative test and 88.3% for a positive test. At a urine dilution of 1:20, sensitivity and specificity were 98.6 and 96.6%, respectively; predictive values were 99.6% for a negative test and 88.3% for a positive test. These data suggest that chromogenic Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay of urine has potential usefulness as a rapid, reliable, and easily performed and interpreted screening test for the diagnosis of clinically significant gram-negative bacteriuria.
The urinary proteome is a potential easily accessible source of biomarkers for inflammatory bladder diseases including interstitial cystitis. In the present study, we subjected rat urine to multiplex cytokine analysis in an attempt to identify an inflammatory signature of the temporal course of cyclophosphamide (CYP) - induced cystitis.
Rat urine was collected for 12h following CYP injection (150mg/kg) for multiplex analysis of 14 cytokines by a multiple antigen bead assay (Luminex™ 100 IS). Urine from each void was collected and voiding frequency was determined. Bladder tissue was analyzed for cytokines levels and histological evidence of inflammation.
Significant fold changes were noticed in urine levels of all cytokines with respect to baseline at 2, 4, 6 and 10h after CYP injection. Elevation was noticed at all times for most cytokines except for MCP-1 that showed a five fold decrease at 2h time point. Urine and tissue levels of IL-1β, IL-4 and GRO/KC were significantly correlated, with a positive spearman correlation also noticed for GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-18 and IFN-γ. Tissue levels for most cytokines except IL-2 and urinary frequency were significantly elevated in CYP treated rats over control vehicle treated rats. The hints of severe inflammation in bladder indicated by urinary cytokines were confirmed by bladder histology and tissue cytokine levels on animal sacrifice.
The progression of CYP-induced cystitis is clearly reflected in the urine matrix by temporal and quantitative changes in cytokine levels. Further delineation of urine and bladder tissue cytokine expression may yield biomarkers for cystitis.
cystitis; multiplex analysis; rat; cyclophosphamide; cytokine; interstitial cystitis