Loss of chromosome arms 1p and 19q is a molecular feature of oligodendroglial tumors characterized by responsiveness to chemotherapy and a favorable prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of polysomy of chromosomes 1 and 19 in the setting of 1p/19q co-deletion.
We analyzed 64 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q loss or maintenance diagnosed at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham & Women's Hospital from 1996 to 2005; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for 1p/19q and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry was performed. Polysomy was defined as >2 1q and 19p signals in >30% of the cells with concurrent 1p/19q deletion. Tumors were divided into groups based on their 1p/19q status and compared for progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and 5-year survival probabilities.
Forty-six tumors (72%) in our cohort had 1p/19q loss and eighteen (28%) had 1p/19q maintenance. Of those with loss, 19 (41%) had concurrent polysomy and 27 (59%) lacked polysomy. In agreement with prior studies, the group of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q loss had significantly better PFS and OS than anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q maintenance (p=0.0009 and p<0.0003, respectively). Among anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q loss, those with polysomy showed shorter PFS than those with 1p/19q loss without polysomy (p=0.0048). Overall survival was similar in tumors with and without polysomy. The Ki-67 labeling index was not associated with polysomy and did not have prognostic significance.
The presence of polysomy in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with deletion of 1p/19q is a marker of earlier recurrence.
anaplastic oligodendroglioma; polysomy; 1p/19q
The increased chemosensitivity of oligodendroglial tumors has been associated with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomes 1p and 19q. Other clinical and molecular factors have also been identified as being prognostic and predictive for treatment outcome. Seventy-seven patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA), treated in Beijing Tiantan Hospital from 2006 through 2008, were reviewed. LOH 1p, LOH 19q, IDH1 mutation, O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, and protein expression level of MGMT, P53, EGFR, and Ki-67 were evaluated. Age at diagnosis, LOH 1p and 19q, IDH1 mutation, P53 expression level, reoperation when progression, and adjuvant chemotherapy were statistically significant factors for overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis. Further multivariate analysis showed that age at diagnosis (P = .010), LOH 1p and 19q (P = .016), IDH1 mutation (P = .011), and reoperation after progression (P = .048) were independent predictors for longer survival in these patients. Nonrandom associations were found between LOH 1p and LOH 19q, MGMT promoter methylation and LOH 1p or 19q, IDH1 mutation and LOH 1p and 19q, IDH1 mutation and MGMT promoter methylation, whereas mutual exclusion was found between MGMT promoter methylation and MGMT expression level. The present study confirmed that age at diagnosis, LOH 1p and 19q, IDH1 mutation, and reoperation after progression were independent significant prognostic factors for patients with anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. Inter-relationship between LOH 1p, LOH 19q, IDH1 mutation, MGMT promoter methylation, and MGMT expression level were also revealed. Future clinical trials for AO and AOA should consider the molecular alterations of patients.
anaplastic oligodendroglial tumor; IDH1 mutation; LOH 1p and 19q; MGMT; prognostic factor
The favorable prognosis of high-grade oligodendroglial tumor such as glioblastoma (GBM) with oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) has been suggested; however, the studies which examine the prognostic significance of oligodendroglial tumor were limited. In this study, we performed a histopathology-based reevaluation of 111 cases of high grade gliomas according to the latest World Health Organization (WHO), and compared the clinical outcomes between oligodendroglial tumors and pure astrocytic tumors. The survival analysis revealed that the patients with high grade oligodendroglial tumor including GBMO significantly indicated better prognosis compared to the patients with high grade pure astrocytic tumors (GBM and AA, anaplastic astrocytoma) as expected, and the obtained survival curves were almost identical to those from the patients with conventional Grade III or Grade IV tumors, respectively. Moreover, if the cases of oligodendroglial tumor were histopathologically excluded, the patients with AA exhibited extremely poor prognosis which was similar to that of GBM, suggesting that the histological identification of oligodendroglial tumor component, even partially, prescribe the prognosis of high grade glioma patients. This is the prominent report of retrospective clinicopathological analysis for high-grade gliomas throughout Grade III and IV, especially referring to the prognostic value of histological oligodendroglial tumor component; in addition, our results might offer an alternative aspect for the grading of high-grade astrocytic/oligodendroglial tumors.
The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene in prostate tumors has recently been associated with an aggressive phenotype, as well as recurrence and death from prostate cancer. These associations suggest the hypothesis that the gene fusion may be used as a prognostic indicator for prostate cancer.
In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were used to assess TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status in a group of 214 prostate cancer cases from two population-based studies. The FISH assays were designed to detect both fusion type (deletion vs. translocation) and the number of fusion copies (single vs. multiple). Genotyping of four ERG and one TMPRSS2 SNPs using germline DNA was also performed in a sample of the cases (n = 127).
Of the 214 tumors scored for the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, 64.5% were negative and 35.5% were positive for the fusion. Cases with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion did not exhibit reduced prostate cancer survival (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.22–3.93), nor was there a significant difference in cause-specific survival when stratifying by translocation or deletion (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.23–3.12) or by the number of retained fusion copies (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.45–3.34). However, evidence for reduced prostate cancer-specific survival was apparent in those cases whose tumor had multiple copies of the fusion. The variant T allele of the TMPRSS2 SNP, rs12329760, was positively associated with TMPRSS2-ERG fusion by translocation (p = 0.05) and with multiple copies of the gene fusion (p = 0.03).
If replicated, the results presented here may provide insight into the mechanism by which the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion arises and also contribute to diagnostic evaluations for determining the subset of men who will go on to develop metastatic prostate cancer.
Gliomas account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors. The worst prognosis is associated with gliomas of astrocytic origin, whereas gliomas with an oligodendroglial origin offer higher sensitivity to chemotherapy, especially when oligodendroglioma cells display 1p19q deletions. Temozolomide (TMZ) provides therapeutic benefits and is commonly used with radiotherapy in highly malignant astrocytic tumors, including glioblastomas. The actual benefits of TMZ during long-term treatment in oligodendroglioma patients have not yet been clearly defined. In this study, we have investigated the effects of such a long-term TMZ treatment in the unique Hs683 oligodendroglioma model. We have observed increased TMZ sensitivity of Hs683 orthotopic tumors that were previously treated in vitro with months of progressive exposure to increasing TMZ concentrations before being xenografted into the brains of immunocompromised mice. Whole-genome and proteomic analyses have revealed that this increased TMZ sensitivity of Hs683 oligodendroglioma cells previously treated for long periods with TMZ can be explained, at least partly, by a TMZ-induced p38-dependant dormancy state, which in turn resulted in changes in amino acid metabolism balance, in growth delay, and in a decrease in Hs683 oligodendroglioma cell-invasive properties. Thus, long-term TMZ treatment seems beneficial in this Hs683 oligodendroglioma model, which revealed itself unable to develop resistance against TMZ.
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome 18q frequently occurs late during colon cancer development and is inversely associated with microsatellite instability (MSI). 18q LOH has been reported to predict shorter survival in patients with colorectal cancer, whereas MSI-high status has been associated with superior prognosis. However, it is unclear whether 18q LOH in colorectal cancer has any prognostic implication independent of MSI status and other potential predictors of clinical outcome.
Patients and Methods
Among 555 non–MSI-high colorectal cancers (stage I to IV) in two independent prospective cohort studies, we examined 18q LOH in relation to other molecular events and patient survival. Cox proportional hazard models computed hazard ratio of death, adjusted for clinical and tumoral characteristics, including KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, β-catenin, p53, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation, and John Cunningham (JC) virus T antigen.
In multivariate logistic regression, 18q LOH was independently associated with JC virus T antigen (odds ratio [OR] = 1.93; P = .0077), body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 (obesity; OR = 2.01; P = .014), high tumor grade (OR = 0.40; P = .018), KRAS mutation (OR = 0.66; P = .40), and LINE-1 hypomethylation (for a 30% decrease; OR = 1.92; P = .045). Five-year colorectal cancer–specific survival was 75% among patients with 18q LOH-positive tumors and 74% among those with 18q LOH-negative tumors (log-rank P = .80). Five-year overall survival was 70% among patients with 18q LOH-positive tumors and 68% among those with 18q LOH-negative tumors (log-rank P = .54). Multivariate analysis did not show prognostic significance of 18q LOH.
In our large prospective study of patients with non–MSI-high colorectal cancer, 18q LOH or allelic imbalance was not associated with patient survival.
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies were undertaken to investigate the consistently deleted loci/? tumor suppressor gene loci (TSG) on 3p in conventional renal cell carcinoma (cRCC).
Materials and Methods:
LOH studies were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 15 micro satellite markers mapped in region 3p12-p26 on 40 paired cRCC tumors and normal kidney at Stages I-IV. Simultaneously, fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) studies were performed to investigate the allelic deletion of fragile histidine triad (FHIT).
Our studies revealed three affected regions; 3p12.2-p14.1, 3p14.2-p21.1, and 3p24.2-p26.1 with differential frequencies in Group I (Stage I and II) and Group II (Stage III and IV). Incidence for D3S1234 (FHIT locus) and D3S2454 (3p13) was 75% and 83% in Group I and II, respectively. Comparative allelotyping in epithelial malignancies like lung, bladder, and breast tumors revealed LOH (frequency 14–20%) only in breast tumors for D3S2406, D3S1766 (distal to FHIT), and D3S1560 (distal to VHL, Von-Hippal Lindau). FISH using FHIT gene probe revealed deletions in cRCC (88%), breast (30%), and lung tumors (10%) with no deletions in bladder tumors and leukemias, signifying the importance of FHIT in the pathogenesis of tumors of epithelial origin.
Our findings suggested FHIT deletion as an early and VHL deletion as an early and/or late event in cRCC. Additionally, studies also disclosed the recurrent deletions of flanking loci to FHIT and VHL in cRCC. The dilemma of interstitial or continuous deletion on 3p needs to be resolved by implementation of latest sensitive molecular techniques that would further help to narrow down search for TSG loci specific to cRCC, other than VHL and FHIT.
3p; Conventional renal cell carcinoma; comparative allelotyping; fragile histidine triad; interstitial deletion; von hippal lindau
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), loss of heterozygosity (LOH)-testing and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have been used to detect NF2 gene alterations in both sporadic and NF2-associated CNS tumors. In this study, we performed chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and immunohistochemistry to evaluate for NF2 gene deletion in a group of sporadic meningiomas, schwannomas, and ependymomas. Twenty-two sporadic tumors, including 9 ependymomas, 10 meningiomas, and 3 schwannomas were studied. CISH and immunohistochemistry were performed utilizing the NF2 gene deletion probe and NF2 polyclonal antibody. Deletion of the NF2 gene was identified in 11 (50%) tumors, including 60% (6/10) of meningiomas, 33% (3/9) of ependymomas, and 67% (2/3) of schwannomas. The remaining 11 (50%) cases were diploid. Overall, immunoexpression of NF2 protein was observed in 50% (11/22) tumors and concordance between CISH and immunohistochemistry was observed in 73% of cases. Our results support previous observations that schwannomas and meningiomas, and to a lesser degree, ependymomas express a high incidence of NF2 gene deletion, which supports the hypothesis that NF2 gene plays an important role in their tumorigenesis. In addition, we have validated CISH as an efficient, economic and reliable method for routinely assessing NF2 gene deletion in these tumors.
CISH; Ependymomas; Meningiomas; NF2; Schwannomas
The purpose of this study was to determine whether chromosome 10q loss is a predictor of tumor aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome in patients with oligodendroglial tumors alone or together with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomes 1p and 19q. A microsatellite analysis was performed on sections from 130 patients with grade II and grade III oligodendroglial tumors to assess the allelic status of chromosomes 1p, 19q, and 10q, plus detailed clinical and radiological information was taken prospectively. Median age at diagnosis was 45.5 years. Seventy-eight patients had disease progression after initial therapy; median progression-free survival (PFS) was 27.5 months. Age <47 years, postoperative Karnofsky performance score >65, no contrast enhancement on MRI, grade II, and complete removal on surgery were significantly correlated with a better PFS. Median overall survival (OS) was 40.5 months. Pure oligodendroglioma and temozolomide chemotherapy were correlated with better OS. 10q LOH was correlated with anaplastic grade and 1p19q LOH correlated with pure oligodendroglioma. There was a significant association between LOH status and the tumors' response to chemotherapy: 92.3% with 1p19q LOH, 83.3% without allelic losses, 50% with 1p19q10q LOH, and 14.5% with 10q LOH. Patients with 10q LOH alone had PFS of 6 months and a 3-year survival rate of 1%, when compared with 36 months and 85%, respectively, in patients with 1p19q LOH but without 10q LOH. 1p loss was correlated with better PFS (P < .005) and OS (P = .0007), whereas 10q loss was correlated with decreased PFS (P < .0001) and OS (P < .0001). 10q LOH predicted a survival disadvantage in patients with oligodendroglial tumors irrespective of 1p/19q LOH status.
chemosensitivity; gliomas; loss of heterozygosity; prognosis; prospective study.
1p/19q codeletion is a favorable prognostic marker of oligodendrogliomas. While fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microsatellite-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) are common methods to test for 1p/19q codeletion, it is unclear which test is better at prognostic stratification. This study analyzed outcomes of 111 oligodendrogliomas with both 1p/19q FISH and LOH done at the time of diagnosis. Overall concordance between the 2 assays was 81.1%. In grade III oligodendrogliomas, LOH was better than FISH at survival stratification (p < 0.0001 for LOH vs. p = 0.02 for FISH), although increasing the stringency of FISH interpretation criteria improved concordance and prognostic power. Oligodendrogliomas that were 1p/19q-codeleted by FISH but also had 10q LOH were negative for 1p/19q codeletion by PCR analysis in over 70% of cases, with very poor survival in the grade III subset. Thus, although PCR-based LOH is a better stratifier of 1p/19q status, FISH still has clinical and prognostic utility, especially if 10q data can be incorporated.
1p/19q; 10q; Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); Loss of heterozygosity (LOH); Microsatellite; Oligodendroglioma
We analyzed the relationships among clinical variables, histology, 1p/19q status, and outcome in 95 patients with oligodendroglial tumors.
The study enrolled adult patients who underwent first-time surgery for a supratentorial oligodendroglial tumor at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet. Tumors were: 27 oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade II; 32 oligoastrocytomas, WHO grade II; 16 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade III; 14 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, WHO grade III; and 6 glioblastomas with a major oligodendroglial component, WHO grade IV. The clinical files were reviewed. Three neuropathologists evaluated the histological slides independently. Loss-of-heterozygosity analysis for 1p and 19q was performed by PCR.
Favorable prognostic factors from univariate analyses included seizures as presenting symptom, female sex, location in the frontal lobe, low WHO grade, classic histology, absence of gemistocytic cells, and combined 1p/19q loss. Solitary 19q loss was a negative prognostic marker. 1p/19q status was of prognostic significance in both tumors with classic and nonclassic oligodendroglial histology. In the multivariate analysis, WHO grade II (P< .001), frontal tumor location (P= .002), and combined 1p/19q loss (P< .001) remained favorable prognostic variables.
Our results suggest that tumor location, WHO grade, and 1p/19q status are important independent variables associated with survival in oligodendroglial tumors. The study suggests that solitary 19q loss is a negative prognostic variable and that 1p/19q loss is associated with prolonged survival also in oligodendroglial tumors without classic histology.
oligodendroglioma; 1p; 19q; prognostic
It has been reported recently that oligodendroglial tumors arising in the insula rarely harbor co-deletions of chromosomes 1p and 19q, a molecular signature which is associated with a good prognosis and increased responsiveness to radiation and chemotherapy compared with tumors in which 1p and/or 19q is intact. In the context of this claim, we analyzed a series of insular oligodendroglial tumors in order to determine the frequency of 1p/19q co-deletion in tumors arising in this region. We identified 14 insular cases operated on after 2003 in which testing for losses of 1p and 19q was performed. Of these cases, co-deletion of 1p and 19q occurred in eight (57%). Four (50%) of eight oligodendrogliomas and four (67%) of six oligoastrocytomas demonstrated 1p/ 19q co-deletions. Seven of the eight tumors with co-deletion of 1p/19q were WHO grade II gliomas. There were no statistical differences between tumors with 1p/19q co-deletion compared to those with 1p and/or 19q intact in terms of age, preoperative KPS, presenting symptoms, left versus right lateralization, tumor location (purely insular versus extension into frontal or temporal lobe), preoperative tumor size. There was a preponderance of females in the co-deletion group, and a greater average extent of resection. In contradistinction to previous reports, loss of 1p/19q occurs commonly in insular oligodendroglial tumors. With respect to 1p/19q, insular gliomas do not appear to be distinct from gliomas arising elsewhere in the brain.
1p/19q co-deletion; Insula; Glioma; Oligodendroglioma
Fragile sites are regions of the genome sensitive to replication stress and to exposure to environmental carcinogens. The two most commonly expressed fragile sites FRA3B and FRA16D host the histidine triad (FHIT) and WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) genes respectively. There is growing evidence that both genes contribute to cancer development and they are frequently altered by allelic and homozygous deletions in a variety of tumors. Their status is linked to prognosis in several malignancies and they are thought to be involved in early tumorigenesis.
The loci for FHIT and WWOX both span over a megabase but the genes encode for small transcripts. Thus the screening of intragenic deletion can be difficult and has relied on loss of heterozygosity LOH assays, or genomic arrays.
Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification MLPA, allows for the detection of deletions/duplications and relative quantification of up to 40 specific probes in a single assay. A FHIT/WWOX MLPA assay was designed, applied and validated in five esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ESCC, cell lines established in South Africa where this cancer is of high prevalence. Sixteen probes covered all FHIT exons and 7 probes covered WWOX.
Both homozygous and hemizygous deletions were detected in FHIT, in four of the cell lines with a preferential deletion of exons 5 and 4. Chromosome 3 short arm was present in normal copy number indicating that deletions were site specific. In contrast WWOX was not altered in any cell lines. RT-PCR expression pattern paralleled the pattern of deletions. Ten primary ESCC tumor specimens were subsequently screened with this assay. FHIT exon deletions were found in four of them.
This method offers an alternative to loss of heterozygosity studies. Simultaneous scanning of FHIT and WWOX exons in the context of early tumorigenesis and tumor progression, may help clarify the mechanistic events related to cancer development which are not revealed by imuno histochemistry assays. The presence of site specific deletions of FHIT in these cell lines and primary tumors support its possible role in South African ESCC and justifies a wider screening.
We examined the stage specificity and heterogeneity of 18p11 alterations in a series of tumors representing 96 microdissected samples. Significant loss of heterozygosity (LOH) (63%) was found, with 56% occurring early in ductal carcinoma in situ. Although most cases indicated LOH was clonally inherited, heterogeneity for 18p LOH occurred in 27% of tumors. When compared with other LOH data, 18p LOH was found in conjunction with allelic deletion on 3p, 9p, 17p and 17q, while 13q, 16q, and 11p were less frequently associated. These analyses suggest chromosome 18p11 alteration is a common and early event in breast disease.
18p; breast cancer; heterogeneity; loss of heterozygosity; progression
The loss of chromosomes 1p–19q is the only prognostic molecular alteration identified in low-grade gliomas (LGGs) to date. Search for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomes 1p, 9p, 10q, and 19q was performed in a series of 231 LGGs. Loss of chromosomes 1p–19q was strongly correlated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in univariate and multivariate analyses. LOH on 9p and 10q were associated with shortened PFS (P = .01 and .03, respectively) on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, LOH on 9p remained significant for PFS (P = .05), whereas LOH on 10q had a significant effect on OS (P = .02). Search for LOH 9p and 10q appears to be a useful complement to analysis of chromosomes 1p–19q in LGGs.
chromosomes 9p and 10q; low-grade gliomas; prognosis
Astrocytic, oligodendroglial and mixed gliomas are the commonest gliomas in adults. They have distinct phenotypes and clinical courses, but as they exist as a continuous histological spectrum differentiating them can be difficult. Co-deletions of total 1p and 19q are found in the majority of oligodendrogliomas and considered as a diagnostic marker and a prognostic indicator. The 1p status of astrocytomas has not yet been thoroughly examined. Using a chromosome 1 tile path array, we investigated 108 adult astrocytic tumours for copy number alterations. Total 1p deletions were rare (2%), however partial deletions involving 1p36 were frequently identified in anaplastic astrocytomas (22%) and glioblastomas (34%). Multivariate analysis showed that patients with total 1p deletions had significantly longer survival (p=0.005). In 9 glioblastomas homozygous deletions at 1p36 were identified. No somatic mutations were found among the 5 genes located in the homozygously deleted region. However, the CpG island of TNFRSF9 was hypermethylated in 19% of astrocytic tumours and 87% of glioma cell lines. TNFRSF9 expression was upregulated after demethylation of glioma cell lines. Akt3 amplifications were found in four glioblastomas. Our results indicate that 1p deletions are common anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas but are distinct from the 1p abnormalities in oligodendrogliomas.
Microarray; Array-CGH; Methylation; Astrocytoma; Oligodendroglioma
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a childhood ocular malignancy associated with mutations in RB1, a tumor susceptibility gene. Inactivation of both copies of the RB1 gene in a retinal cell is followed by the sequential acquisition of additional genetic changes that define the course to tumor formation.
To identify the genetic events that cooperate with loss of the RB1 gene function, we performed a whole genome sampling assay (WGSA) based on SNP genotyping. We used DNA isolated from 25 sporadic, unilateral RB tumors and matched blood samples.
Genomic profiles were analyzed to identify regions of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and/or amplification. Two major subclasses of RB tumors were defined by the presence (n=18) or absence (n=7) of LOH of chromosome 13. LOH in most cases was due to copy neutral events caused by mitotic recombination and mitotic non-disjunction. Tumors harbored novel regions of amplification at 1q44, 3p25, 11q14, 11q25, 14q23, 15q21, 16p13, 17p11.2, 19q13, and 20q13 while regions of loss included 6q22, 7q21and 21q2.
WGSA-based analysis of unilateral RB tumors revealed novel regions as significant. These minimum critical regions that are lost or amplified are expected to harbor genes that aid the process of tumorigenesis.
Molecular Karyotype; Retinoblastoma; SNP-array; Whole Genome Sampling Assay
High frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was found at D7S486 in primary gastric cancer (GC). And we found a high frequency of LOH region on 7q31 in primary GC from China, and identified D7S486 to be the most frequent LOH locus. This study was aimed to determine what genes were affected by the LOH and served as tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in this region. Here, a high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) microarray fabricated in-house was used to analyze the LOH status around D7S486 on 7q31 in 75 patients with primary GC. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR were used to assess the protein and mRNA expression of TESTIN (TES) in 50 and 140 primary GC samples, respectively. MTS assay was used to investigate the effect of TES overexpression on the proliferation of GC cell lines. Mutation and methylation analysis were performed to explore possible mechanisms of TES inactivation in GC.
LOH analysis discovered five candidate genes (ST7, FOXP2, MDFIC, TES and CAV1) whose frequencies of LOH were higher than 30%. However, only TES showed the potential to be a TSG associated with GC. Among 140 pairs of GC samples, decreased TES mRNA level was found in 96 (68.6%) tumor tissues when compared with matched non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). Also, reduced TES protein level was detected in 36 (72.0%) of all 50 tumor tissues by Western blot (p = 0.001). In addition, immunohistochemical staining result was in agreement with that of RT-PCR and Western blot. Down regulation of TES was shown to be correlated with tumor differentiation (p = 0.035) and prognosis (p = 0.035, log-rank test). Its overexpression inhibited the growth of three GC cell lines. Hypermethylation of TES promoter was a frequent event in primary GC and GC cell lines. However, no specific gene mutation was observed in the coding region of the TES gene.
Collectively, all results support the role of TES as a TSG in gastric carcinogenesis and that TES is inactivated primarily by LOH and CpG island methylation.
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome arm 16q is frequently observed in human breast cancer, suggesting that one or more target tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are located there. However, detailed mapping of the smallest region of LOH has not yet resulted in the identification of a TSG at 16q. Therefore, the present study attempted to identify TSGs using an approach based on mRNA expression.
A cDNA microarray for the 16q region was constructed and analyzed using RNA samples from 39 breast tumors with known LOH status at 16q.
Five genes were identified to show lower expression in tumors with LOH at 16q compared to tumors without LOH. The genes for NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone (NQO1) and AT-binding transcription factor 1 (ATBF1) were further investigated given their functions as potential TSGs. NQO1 has been implicated in carcinogenesis due to its role in quinone detoxification and in stabilization of p53. One inactive polymorphic variant of NQO1 encodes a product showing reduced enzymatic activity. However, we did not find preferential targeting of the active NQO1 allele in tumors with LOH at 16q. Immunohistochemical analysis of 354 invasive breast tumors revealed that NQO1 protein expression in a subset of breast tumors is higher than in normal epithelium, which contradicts its proposed role as a tumor suppressor gene.
ATBF1 has been suggested as a target for LOH at 16q in prostate cancer. We analyzed the entire coding sequence in 48 breast tumors, but did not identify somatic sequence changes. We did find several in-frame insertions and deletions, two variants of which were reported to be somatic pathogenic mutations in prostate cancer. Here, we show that these variants are also present in the germline in 2.5% of 550 breast cancer patients and 2.9% of 175 healthy controls. This indicates that the frequency of these variants is not increased in breast cancer patients. Moreover, there is no preferential LOH of the wildtype allele in breast tumors.
Two likely candidate TSGs at 16q in breast cancer, NQO1 and ATBF1, were identified here as showing reduced expression in tumors with 16q LOH, but further analysis indicated that they are not target genes of LOH. Furthermore, our results call into question the validity of the previously reported pathogenic variants of the ATBF1 gene.
The aim of this study was to determine the genomic structure of the deletions on chromosome 17 in ovarian carcinomas from women with inherited BRCA1 mutations. Normal and tumor DNA from 14 ovarian tumors associated with inherited BRCA1 mutations were extracted and tested for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at microsatellite markers along chromosome 17. Finer mapping using more microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) helped further define the LOH margins. The genomic repeated elements within the LOH breakpoint regions were identified using the University of California Santa Cruz Genome Database and the frequencies were compared to regions of equal GC percentages across the genome. Of the 14 ovarian tumors, 12 showed LOH of the entire chromosome 17. The other two tumors lost the distal end of the 17q arm. The breakpoints of these two tumors occurred in regions with significantly high frequencies of SINE repeating elements, specifically Alu elements. Ovarian tumors of high grade and stage have large regions of LOH along chromosome 17, with most tumors showing loss of the entire chromosome. In those tumors with retention of part of chromosome 17, LOH margins suggest that a high Alu content may have a role in the deletions.
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomal regions bearing tumor suppressors is a key event in the evolution of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Identification of these regions usually relies on genotyping tumor and counterpart normal DNA and noting regions where heterozygous alleles in the normal DNA become homozygous in the tumor. However, paired normal samples for tumors and cell lines are often not available. With the advent of oligonucleotide arrays that simultaneously assay thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, genotyping can now be done at high enough resolution to allow identification of LOH events by the absence of heterozygous loci, without comparison to normal controls. Here we describe a hidden Markov model-based method to identify LOH from unpaired tumor samples, taking into account SNP intermarker distances, SNP-specific heterozygosity rates, and the haplotype structure of the human genome. When we applied the method to data genotyped on 100 K arrays, we correctly identified 99% of SNP markers as either retention or loss. We also correctly identified 81% of the regions of LOH, including 98% of regions greater than 3 megabases. By integrating copy number analysis into the method, we were able to distinguish LOH from allelic imbalance. Application of this method to data from a set of prostate samples without paired normals identified known regions of prevalent LOH. We have developed a method for analyzing high-density oligonucleotide SNP array data to accurately identify of regions of LOH and retention in tumors without the need for paired normal samples.
A key event in the generation of many cancers is loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomal regions containing tumor suppressor genes, whereby one parent's version of the tumor suppressor is lost. As we develop a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that generate different cancers, a description of the LOH events underlying these cancers is forming an important part of their classification. Generally, detection of LOH relies on comparison of the tumor's genome to the normal genome of the individual. Unfortunately, for many tumors, including most experimental models of cancer, the normal genome is not available. Therefore, the authors have developed a hidden Markov model-based method that evaluates the probability of LOH at all sites throughout the genome, based on high-resolution genotyping of only the tumor. They were able to achieve high levels of accuracy, specifically by taking into account the haplotype block structure of the genome. Application of this method to a set of 34 prostate cancer samples allowed the authors to identify the locations of the known and suspected tumor suppressor genes that are targeted by LOH.
High-grade gliomas have a dismal prognosis, and prognostic factors are needed to optimize treatment algorithms. In this study we identified clinical prognostic factors as well as the prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) status in a population-based group of patients with high-grade gliomas. Using the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Pathology Databank we identified 359 patients: 234 had WHO grade IV gliomas, 58 had WHO grade III gliomas, and 67 were diagnosed clinically. Mutated IDH1 was predominantly observed in oligodendroglial tumors (WHO grade III). Patients with mutated IDH1 had a significantly better outcome than patients with wildtype IDH1: 2-year OS 59% and 18%, respectively (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.21-0.68). However, when adjusting for other prognostic factors, IDH1 status was not a significant independent prognostic factor (HR=0.58, 95% CI 0.32-1.07). Young age, absence of neurological deficit, performance status 0–1, tumor not crossing the midline, and receiving post-surgical treatment were significant independent indicators of a good prognosis in multivariate analysis. In conclusion: This population-based study could not demonstrate IDH1 status to be an independent prognostic factor in high-grade gliomas when adjusting for the effect of classic prognostic factors.
Glioblastoma; high-grade gliomas; prognosis; population characteristics; isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1)
A common and histologically well defined subtype of glioma are the oligodendroglial brain tumors. Approximately 70% of all oligodendrogliomas have a combined loss of the entire 1p and 19q chromosomal arms. This remarkably high frequency suggests that the remaining arms harbor yet to be identified tumor suppressor genes. Identification of these causal genetic changes in oligodendrogliomas is important because they form direct targets for treatment. In this study we therefore performed targeted resequencing of all exons, microRNAs, splice sites and promoter regions residing on 1p and 19q on 7 oligodendrogliomas and 4 matched controls. Only one missense mutation was identified in a single sample in the ARHGEF16 gene. This mutation lies within- and disrupts the conserved PDZ binding domain. No similar ARHGEF16 mutations or deletions were found in a larger set of oligodendrogliomas. The absence of common somatic changes within genes located on 1p and 19q in three out of four samples indicates that no additional “second hit” is required to drive oncogenic transformation on either chromosomal arm.
In an attempt to investigate the X chromosome harboring putative tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in sporadic breast carcinoma, we performed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies on 23 breast carcinomas using 15 polymorphic markers covering the whole X chromosomes. Matched DNA extracted from tumor samples and corresponding normal tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using microsatellite markers. In 10 cases (43.5%), LOH was detected for at least 1 of the 15 polymorphic markers of the X chromosome tested. Four cases carried a LOH at Xp, and three cases LOH on Xp and Xq. Three cases carried a LOH Xq. Percentage of LOH was relatively high in DXS987 (26.7%), DXS999(30.0%), HPRT(21.4%), DXS1062(23.1%) loci. Common regions of deletions were found on Xp22.2-p22.13 (30% of LOH) measuring about 4.5Mb and Xq26.1-q27.1 (23.1% of LOH) measuring 10 Mb. The deleted allele was an active copy of the X chromosome. The results indicate the TSGs on the X chromosome are involved in breast cancer.
Analytically validated assays to interrogate biomarker status in clinical samples are crucial for personalized medicine. PTEN is a tumor suppressor commonly inactivated in prostate cancer that has been mechanistically linked to disease aggressiveness. Though deletion of PTEN, as detected by cumbersome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) spot counting assays, is associated with poor prognosis, few studies have validated immunohistochemical (IHC) assays to determine whether loss of PTEN protein is associated with unfavorable disease.
PTEN IHC was validated by employing formalin fixed and paraffin embedded isogenic human cell lines containing or lacking intact PTEN alleles. PTEN IHC was 100% sensitive and 97.8% specific for detecting genomic alterations in 58 additional cell lines. PTEN protein loss was then assessed on 376 prostate tumor samples, and PTEN FISH or high resolution SNP microarray analysis was performed on a subset of these cases.
PTEN protein loss, as assessed as a dichotomous IHC variable, was highly reproducible, correlated strongly with adverse pathologic features (e.g. Gleason score and pathological stage), detected between 75% and 86% of cases with PTEN genomic loss, and was found at times in the absence of apparent genomic loss. In a cohort of 217 high risk surgically treated patients, PTEN protein loss was associated with decreased time to metastasis.
These studies validate a simple method to interrogate PTEN status in clinical specimens and support the utility of this test in future multi-center studies, clinical trials and ultimately perhaps for routine clinical care.
Prostatic adenocarcinoma; PTEN; immunohistochemistry; FISH